Should Physical Education be made compulsory in Schools?

Physical education (PE) is often seen within the education system as a marginal subject. And many high schools are actively reducing PE time to make path for more “serious” or “important” topics.

Youth Sport Trust studies suggest that for 14- to 16-year-olds, 38 per cent of English secondary schools have cut scheduled PE. One of the main reasons for that is the enhanced pressure to produce results of the examination. Nevertheless, amid these changes, PE remains celebrated for its ability to improve wellness and encourage lifelong physical activity. This is an important issue provided that according to the latest government estimates, over 30 per cent of the year six pupils are listed as “overweight” or “obese.”

Sport should be compulsory in schools, writes Kylie Lang | Daily ...

PE is also celebrated for its commitment to improving psychological wellbeing, helping to foster social and moral growth, and promoting academic and cognitive success. The Physical Education Association emphasizes that high-quality PE fosters pupils’ physical, spiritual, financial, mental, economic, and intellectual development. But the many goals for PE – such as health education, developing skills, as well as focusing on moral and social issues – have created confusion about the topic and have done little in practice to further the educational opportunities. In fact, it was argued that PE offers more entertainment than education. A waste of time and some entertainment, or vital to a child’s education and development – what is it?

Part of the problem appears to be that PE is often seen as a possibility for pupils to be active and have fun. Or in some cases, as a way of relieving stress and serving as a break from traditional learning. These locations are clearly valuable for the overall well-being of pupils and there is a growing basis of evidence to suggest that physical activity has the potential to support learning more broadly. But PE’s role is not solely to support and promote the knowledge of pupils in other subject areas. It should instead be providing meaningful learning experiences within the subject itself.

Each offers a unique system for PE, sport and physical culture to explore a multitude of holistic learning opportunities. The moral or ethical controversies in sport, for example, can provide teachers with a range of educational stimuli for debate, rationale and critical reasoning. The Sports Monograph is a recent project that we have been working on, inviting learners to collaborate and share their views and experiences on sport, and what it means to them. The project included pupils from primary and secondary schools, as well as students from undergraduates and postgraduates who were all supported by their teachers and lecturers.

As part of the initiative, not only were the pupils acknowledged for their written achievements at school award evenings but, unlike in conventional PE, their work left a trail of proof of learning and academic involvement – appreciated and supported by the schools. As a valuable educational endeavour, PE successfully stood shoulder to shoulder with other subjects in the curriculum, with written evidence to support the claim. These pupils now have publications which are used at the University of Central Lancashire to teach undergraduates.

The role that PE can play as part of the broader academic curriculum appears to be completely forgotten, at best understated and, at worst. Activities such as those raised here could help to broaden PE’s educational potential, encourage more pupils to engage with the subject matter and reinforce PE’s place as a unique and valuable pursuit of knowledge. There are possibilities, but PE needs to be ready to grasp them and let the pupils write about their sporting enthusiasms to reflect what they’re being told to learn.

Should Students Study a Foreign Language at School?

The benefits of learning foreign languages are springing up as the world is becoming increasingly international and multilingualism is now perhaps the most valuable real-world ability ever to have emerged, rather than only being a cool parlour trick. If you are thinking about attempting to learn a foreign language instead of wanting the world to tolerate your monolingualism, you are indeed a special breed. Burgeoning into the impressive polyglot that you strive to achieve to be with the right approach and mind-set is 100 per cent feasible.

Reasons to Learn a Foreign Language

Studying foreign language is all about knowing how to interact and really connect with others an incredibly important life lesson that can only be cultivated through interacting with people. When you’re learning a foreign language, you can demonstrate your new supernatural power to understand what someone is saying, remember the right vocabulary and grammar, bring the vocabulary and grammar into the right sense, and respond back — all on the spot and in a reasonable time. You’ve signed in. And that’s what it’s all about. Learning a foreign language is compulsory in many other countries until the final year of schooling. In contrast, Australian students in primary or secondary school may study a language other than English but very few actually continue to study the language once they are able to customize their subject choices in their senior years.

Recently, the central government allocating $11.6 million in Australia to language training in primary years and working to improve the use of Asian languages.

Studying language will not only give your kids the ability to speak, write and read a different language, but will also typically give information about the history and culture of societies where the language is used. This will expand your child’s view of the world and open their eyes to other Australian cultures and communities.

It can provide worldwide travel opportunities: learning a second language can offer a number of opportunities for international study to students. This may imply embarking on a secondary school exchange programme (for example, taking the opportunity to study at a sister school) or completing a semester abroad or a tertiary-year student exchange programme. These programs can be intensely competitive, so speaking another language will not only increase the chances of your child being selected but also means that they are not limited to an English-speaking country or English-speaking courses.

It can boost their chances of tertiary admission: many universities recognize the benefits of language study and are willing to offer ‘bonus points’ to students during school to study a language. This can see your child put in a better position when applying for a tertiary course, especially in disciplines like humanities, communications and business. The Group of Eight (the prestigious research-intensive universities in Australia) also possesses its own language bonus point’s scheme.

It can boost work chances down the track: It is no secret that when it comes time to find a work, learning a foreign language can be advantageous. Employers in service industries such as tourism and hospitality will favorably use a second language extremely on those who understand it. The same can be said for business owners dealing regularly with overseas customers and partners, as well as job roles requiring travel to other countries. Having the capacity to interact in another language will place your child in the job market in demand — especially if they have chosen to study an Asian language like Mandarin.

Many research have been carried on the benefits of learning a second language, with research that links bilingualism to the development of literacy and improved cognitive skills such as memory, perception and multi-task capability. It has also been found that learning a foreign language can help to improve skills development in the first language of an individual  

What should you do if you’re struggling to sleep in quarantine?

For many of us, quarantine has disrupted our daily routines which have in turn affected our sleep patterns. Sleep is essential for the well being of our mental health, so if like me, you’re too struggling to sleep during this challenging time, I’ve picked out three things that have personally helped me to relax and fall asleep.

Avoid checking the news before sleeping

I’ve noticed that if I watch or read the news before I go to sleep, it leaves me with anxiety, feelings of uncertainty, and even stress which then keeps me awake thinking about what’s to come next. Getting your news updates in the morning is so much easier for me as it gives me the whole day to process what’s happening in the world around me instead of trying to process all the heavy information at night.

Create a routine for yourself

For a person who has not believed in maintaining strict routines, I discovered that creating a routine for yourself can help you by providing a structure and offer feelings of normality, which for me now has taken away a lot of the stress. In the time that is so uncertain and unstable, having a routine can make you feel in control and calm about your surroundings. Try and stick to the same sleep schedule at night so that you can follow your daily routine without any trouble.

have a relaxing bath before sleeping

Taking time out of your schedule to have a relaxing bath or shower can help you fall asleep faster and also improves the overall quality of sleep. The cooling down of your body helps build a strong urge to sleep which can send you into a deeper sleep. This is something that has undoubtedly helped with my sleep struggles over the past month.

acknowledge and accept the change

At this time it is very difficult to not feel anxious about what the future holds and what’s to come. It’s human to feel worried about yourself and the ones you love and care about and it is also normal for there to be a change in the sleeping and eating patterns to feel more comfortable. But if you feel like you’re losing control of things around you, take a deep breath in and remember that this will not last forever.

4 Productive Things To Do During Quarantine



Here are 4 productive things to do during quarantine:

1. Learn to play an instrument

Playing an instrument is a great skill, you could start with an instrument that you have always thought of playing- a guitar, a ukulele, a tabla or an instrument that is fascinating to you. Though it will take some time to get used to the habit of following YouTube tutorials or online lessons, but once you get a hang of it, you’ll realise just how rewarding it is. With so much time on your hands you’ll not be under any pressure to reschedule your day and make time out of you busy schedule, instead you’ll be able to take it at your pace and pay more attention to details. 

Here’s a list of easy to learn instruments: Top 15 musical instruments you can easily learn & play

2. Read more books

There are hundreds of thousands of authors and an even bigger amount of books you could read. Books are an essential item for improving your language as well as your vocabulary. They develop your knowledge – and like instruments, they help sharpen your memory. If you don’t want to shell out money from your pocket and/or are sceptical to order paperbacks online from stores like Amazon or Flipkart, the easier way out is free e-book websites. 

You can try and give EPDF or PDF Drive a shot. 

3. Bake

Baking is incredible and extremely fulfilling: mix a few ingredients, put it in the oven – and bingo! You have a tasty treat for yourself. Baking can also be advantageous for mental health as it is very therapeutic and calming for the brain. Research show that it is a great stress reliever and can leave you feeling happier and more positive.  

Here are some YouTube channels that will make you want to run to you kitchen to get your supplies

  1. Bake With Shivesh
  2. The Terrace Kitchen
  3. Spice Bangla

4. Learn a new language

If you want to level up and attempt a more challenging activity, which will benefit you exceedingly- learn a new language. It is scientifically proven that learning a new language makes you smarter and helps in developing cognitive abilities. Learning a new language help strengthen your listening and multitasking skills. Research also suggests that it helps prevent the onset of Alzheimers. 

There are plenty apps and e-learning wesbites that can help you learn a language. These include: Affordable yet excellent language courses on Udemy and Coursera also offers such free and paid courses by prestigious universities from all over the globe. 

Oldest libraries across the globe

In today’s fast paced world everything is being replaced by technology.  The libraries once occupied with people are losing their charm in this world of eBooks and kindles. People often choose to go for movies over a quiet reading session in the library. But libraries have been in existence since ages. The earliest libraries  emerged not long after the first civilizations started keeping written records.  

Here’s a list of world’s oldest surviving libraries:

St. Catherine’s, Egypt

The ancient library that holds thousands of centuries-old religious and historical manuscripts at the famed St. Catherine Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage site, in South Sinai. Built between 548 and 565, the monastery is one of the oldest working Christian monasteries in the world. The monastery library preserves the second largest collection of early codices and manuscripts in the world.

The ancient library holds around 3,300 manuscripts of mainly Christian texts in Greek, Arabic, Syriac, Georgian and Slavonic, among other languages. It also contains thousands of books and scrolls dating to the 4th century.

Al-Qarawiyyin Library ( Morocco)

Founded in 860, Qarawiyyin is believed to be the oldest working library in the world. It is part of Qarawiyyin University which, according to the UN, is the oldest operating educational institute in the world. The library was established by Fatima al-Fihri, the daughter of a prosperous merchant from Tunisia. The library holds over 4,000 manuscripts by some of Islam’s greatest thinkers. Library’s most precious manuscript is a 9th century copy of the Qur’an.

Sorbonne Inter university Library , France (1289)

The ‘Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de la Sorbonne’ is one of the most famous and oldest libraries in the world. Containing more than two million documents in its collection, this library became a part of the University of Paris and is now operated and used by five universities.

 Wells Cathedral’s Library, England (1430)

It was the first Gothic style library to come up in England. This library is known for its unique architecture. This Library has a collection of three rooms namely Muniment Room (for early documents), the “Chained Library” (before 1800s), and the “Reading Room” (after 1800s).

Malatestiana Library , Italy (1452)

The library was built during  Renaissance period in Cesena, Italy. One of the most precious manuscripts  in this library is a 13th century illuminated Bible. The library is home to 400,000 books and is often cited as Europe’s first Civic library.

Sarasvathi Mahal Library (India’s oldest Library ,1535 AD)

This beautiful library situated in Tanjore , Tamil Nadu is known as one of the oldest libraries in Asia. The library was used as a Royal Library by the Nayak Kings of Thanjavur for their private use during their rule between 1535 and 1675 AD.

Advantages of Reading online news

After the introduction of online news, many news consumers are abandoning the traditional newspapers to access information online. Since most newspaper companies used to get revenues from printing news on print media, the changes have also made them follow the trend by uploading information online on their websites. 

People prefer reading news from online sources to print media since the former is easy to access. Here are some of the devices that one can use to read news and information online anywhere and anytime, they include mobile phones, PDAs, laptops, personal computers. Without an internet connection, you cannot get access to news regardless of the time, therefore, to ensure that you stay up-to-date, you need to connect your devices to the internet. Unlike newspapers whose circulation is limited, online news can be accessed on any day, thereby allowing readers to get the information while traveling.

With online news and information, you do not have to pay a cent to access them. Unlike traditional newspapers and print magazine and journals where one has to pay for them before accessing the information, online news are free and doesn’t cost a dollar to access them.

Most of the online news companies tend to update their sites with new information every time. The fact that the news websites are updated with new information every now and then, readers can sit back and relax knowing that they can get the latest information of events. When you rely on newspapers and print magazines, you will have to wait until the following day before you can access the latest news.

The other beauty of online newspapers is that you can access various newspapers from a single platform. Newspapers readers tend to incur costs when they purchase a number of newspapers from different companies when they want to get detailed information. Besides, nowadays, most online news companies rely on websites that specialise in posting news from several companies under one platform to make their information reach the audience.

One of the features of online news that makes them better than print media is their ability to make articles more interactive. While reading news online, there are sections where you can view videos of the events being described. Adding videos to traditional newspapers are physically impossible.

People should read online news since they enable them to access many articles. When you buy a newspaper, you can only read the articles written in the paper.

In addition, with online news, readers can compare the news they receive from one online site with another one. The news company classify the information on their sites into different groups, these include politics, sports, education, fashion, among others. Based on the benefits discussed in this article, it is clear that online news are way too far better than traditional newspapers.

Agriculture in India

Agricultural productivity depends on several factors.  These include the availability and quality of agricultural inputs such as land, water, seeds and fertilizers, access to agricultural credit and crop insurance, assurance of remunerative prices for agricultural produce, and storage and marketing infrastructure, among others. 

As of 2009-10, more than half of the total workforce (53%) of the country, were employed in agriculture. The share of population dependent on agriculture for its livelihood consists of landowners, tenant farmers who cultivate a piece of land, and agricultural labourers who are employed on these farms.  Agricultural output has been volatile over the past 10 years, with annual growth ranging from 8.6% in 2010-11, to -0.2% in 2014-15 and 0.8% in 2015-16.

The country’s requirement for food grains in order to provide for its population is estimated to be 300 million tonnes by 2025.The estimate of food grains production in 2015-16 is 252 million.  This implies that the crop output needs to grow at an annual average of 2%, which is close to the current growth trend.

Despite high levels of production, agricultural yield in India is lower than other large producing countries.  Agricultural yield is the quantity of a crop produced on one unit of land.  Agricultural yield of food grains has increased by more than four times since 1950-51, and was 2,070 kg/hectare in 2014-15.

Besides providing for the livelihood of farmers and labourers, the agricultural sector also addresses food security for the nation.  The Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations defines food security as a situation where all people have, at all times, physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets the dietary needs and food preferences for a healthy and active life. Despite high levels of production in the country, 15% of the population continues to be under-nourished, as per 2014 estimates.

India enacted the National Food Security Act in 2013.  The 2013 Act aims to provide food and nutritional security to people by ensuring access to adequate amount of quality food at affordable prices. Under the 2013 Act, persons belonging to certain categories are provided with food grains (wheat, rice and coarse cereals) at subsidised prices.  As of 2015, 68% of the population, i.e. 81 crore persons (of which 77% are in rural areas and 23% in urban areas) are covered under the Act.

Over the past few decades, with increasing per capita income and access to a variety of food groups, the consumption pattern of food in the country has been changing.  Dependence on cereals for nutrition has decreased and the consumption of protein has increased. Sources of protein include pulses, meat, seafood, and eggs, among others.  According to report by the Finance Ministry, incentivising the production of pulses in the country, poor levels of nutrition suggest that increasing the consumption of proteins should be the policy priority for the government.  The report estimates that the cost of pulses as a source of protein is lower than other sources.  Under the current domestic scenario, India is facing a shortage of pulses which is being managed by increasing imports. Thus, the struggle to find a balance between economic growth and ensuring food security continues.


Headphones and earbuds are everywhere – but that doesn’t mean they’re safe for your ears. Using earbuds and headphones can cause damage to your hearing if you aren’t careful. Learn how to keep yourself safe.

Chances are you have a smartphone in your pocket, and a pair of headphones that connect it directly to your ears. Unfortunately, those same devices that make listening to music or talking on the phone so simple might also be damaging your ears.

According to a 2011 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, the use of headphones and earbuds has led to a major increase in the prevalence of hearing loss in adolescents and young adults. It’s reasonable to assume the same is true for adults using the same devices as well. So what can you do to keep yourself safe from hearing loss caused by headphones or other audio devices?


The key danger of headphones is volume – the fact that they can produce very loud levels of sound very close to your ear. This is dangerous for your hearing because loud noises, in general, are damaging to your ears.

When sound waves reach our ears, they cause the eardrum to vibrate. This vibration is transmitted to the inner ear through several small bones, where it reaches the cochlea. The cochlea is a fluid-filled chamber in your ear that contains many thousands of small “hairs.” When sound vibrations reach the cochlea, the fluid inside it vibrates and causes the hairs to move. Louder sounds cause stronger vibrations, which cause the hairs to move more.

When you listen to sounds that are too loud for too long, these hair cells lose their sensitivity to vibration. Many loud noises cause the cells to bend or fold over. This is what causes the sensation of “temporary hearing loss” after you are exposed to loud noises. The hair cells take time to recover from extreme vibrations caused by loud noise.

In some cases, however, the cells never recover. They may be too damaged to function normally any longer. This leads to lasting hearing loss. This type of noise-induced hearing damage is almost impossible to recover from. No cure exists for repairing a damaged inner ear.


Headphones cause damage to your ears the same way other loud noises do, resulting in what audiologists call “noise-induced hearing loss.” Over time the sounds from your headphones cause the hair cells in the cochlea to bend down too much or too severely. If they don’t get time to recover, the damage can be permanent.

However, headphones don’t have to be extremely loud to damage your ears. Even listening to headphones or earbuds at a moderate volume can damage your hearing over time. That’s because your ears are not just damaged by the loudness of a noise, but by the length of exposure as well. That’s the same reason going to a concert or using loud power tools can damage your ears as much as a much louder gunshot or explosion. The duration of the exposure matters just as much as the volume.

Data via

As you can see, louder noises cause hearing damage much faster than quieter ones, but quiet ones can still cause damage over time. For instance, a 90 decibel (dB) noise – about the same as a loud motorcycle approximately 30 feet away – causes hearing damage in under 3 hours. A sound of about 105 dB – similar to a gas lawnmower or other power tools – can damage your hearing in less than 5 minutes.

What about headphones? Unfortunately that question isn’t easy to answer because decibel ratings from headphones vary. The “loudness” of your headphones is based on the volume you’ve set your phone or device to as well as the type and make of headphone you use.

For instance, classic iPod earbuds at 100% volume on an iPhone can hit noise levels of 112dB for the wearer, leading to hearing damage in minutes. The same earbuds at 60% volume measure approximately 80 dB, which makes them safe to listen to for several hours.

You should note that decibels decrease with distance – the closer you are to the source of a sound, the louder it is. For this reason, many audiologists and hearing experts recommend over-the-ear headphones instead of in-ear models like earbuds. The extra distance between the speakers and the ear can significantly reduce the loudness of the audio and help prevent hearing damage.


Avoiding headphone-induced hearing damage isn’t too hard. It simply requires most people to break some habits with their headphone use.


The single biggest change you can make to protect your hearing is to turn down the volume on your devices. Noise-induced hearing loss is caused primarily by exposure to very loud noise. Limiting your exposure can protect your ears.


Most people listen to headphones at a high volume to “drown out” other sounds. One good way to lower the volume on your devices and protect your ears is to use noise-canceling headphones. These headphones block out external sound, letting you enjoy your music or videos at a lower volume without distraction.


As we mentioned above, audiologists and otologists frequently recommend using over-the-ear headphones instead of in-ear or earbud-style models. Over-the-ear headphones increase the distance between your eardrums and the speakers, lowering the chance for hearing loss.


Along with turning down the volume, you can also protect your ears by reducing your listening time. One good rule of thumb is the “60-60 rule”: Don’t listen at any louder than 60% of max volume for any longer than 60 minutes at a time.

Unfortunately your ears may never heal completely if they are already damaged from headphone-related noise. That doesn’t mean you’ll never hear well again, though. A hearing aid from a licensed audiologist can restore hearing ability and make it easy for you to hear again.

Feminism in Literature

Feminist literature is fiction, nonfiction, drama or poetry which supports the feminist goals of defining, establishing and defending equal civil, political, economic and social rights for women. It often identifies women’s roles as unequal to those of men – particularly as regards status, privilege and power – and generally portrays the consequences to women, men, families, communities and societies as undesirable. The feminist movement produced feminist fiction, feminist non-fiction, and feminist poetry, which created new interest in women’s writing. It also prompted a general reevaluation of women’s historical and academic contributions in response to the belief that women’s lives and contributions have been underrepresented as areas of scholarly interest. There has also been a close link between feminist literature and activism, with feminist writing typically voicing key concerns or ideas of feminism in a particular era.
Much of the early period of feminist literary scholarship was given over to the rediscovery and reclamation of texts written by women. In Western feminist literary scholarship, Studies like Dale Spender’s Mothers of the Novel (1986) and Jane Spencer’s The Rise of the Woman Novelist (1986) were ground-breaking in their insistence that women have always been writing.
Commensurate with this growth in scholarly interest, various presses began the task of reissuing long-out-of-print texts. Virago Press began to publish its large list of 19th and early-20th-century novels in 1975 and became one of the first commercial presses to join in the project of reclamation. In the 1980s Pandora Press, responsible for publishing Spender’s study, issued a companion line of 18th-century novels written by women. More recently, Broadview Press continues to issue 18th- and 19th-century novels, many hitherto out of print, and the University of Kentucky has a series of republications of early women’s novels.
Particular works of literature have come to be known as key feminist texts. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792) by Mary Wollstonecraft, is one of the earliest works of feminist philosophy. A Room of One’s Own (1929) by Virginia Woolf, is noted in its argument for both a literal and figural space for women writers within a literary tradition dominated by patriarchy. Germaine Greer’s The Female Eunuch (1970) questions the self-limiting role of the woman homemaker.
The widespread interest in women’s writing is related to a general reassessment and expansion of the literary canon. Interest in post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people’s writing, and the cultural productions of other historically marginalized groups has resulted in a whole scale expansion of what is considered “literature”, and genres hitherto not regarded as “literary”, such as children’s writing, journals, letters, travel writing, and many others are now the subjects of scholarly interest. Most genres and subgenres have undergone a similar analysis, so literary studies has entered new territories such as the “female gothic or women’s science fiction. In addition, many feminist movements have embraced poetry as a vehicle through which to communicate feminist ideas to public audiences through anthologies, poetry collections, and public readings.

Communication 101: How to convince someone?

How to be More Persuasive on the Phone: 7 Powerful Persuasion ...

Human beings are social animals. Not a day passes by without interacting with people in both personal and professional life. We do everything in our hands to make people like us, accept us and agree with us. Our communication skills play a major role in making the image that we want of ourselves in the eyes of the people we are trying to impress. It is not even only the effective conviction of the messages we are trying to send but the how we structure the message so that it appeals to people. To persuade someone is to make them believe in your ideas.

Persuasion is not that simple. It doesn’t matter if you are trying to sell a good or a service or just sending your idea across, you must know how psychology works and what makes people agree. Yes! Human psyche also plays a major role in making a person reject or accept another person’s offer, keeping aside a person’s perspective about the thing that has been offered. What I am saying is it is not always the attractiveness and the benefits that could be derived from the thing that is presented but also the way in which it is presented.

Dr Robert B Cialdini, a renowned psychologist and an academician, has defined six principles of persuasion in his book ‘Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion’ and each one of them are briefly explained in the following section:

  1. Reciprocity

When you do something nice for someone, they might do something nice for you in return as well or simply, a positive action leads to a positive action. Humans have a tendency to return favors so as to not feel indebted. This is the universal principle of reciprocity. It is demonstrated when you are offered something for free, maybe in a restaurant or a store, and it makes you wanna go back and/or make another purchase. Reciprocity is also at play when a colleague offers to do some of your work when your workload is high and you do the same for them in their time of need.

  1. Scarcity

Like the literal meaning of the word ‘scarcity’, when a particular thing is available in limited amounts, it makes you wanna lay your hand on it. We want to have things that are limited edition because of the uniqueness compared to things that are in abundance and it makes us feel special. Very general examples can be seen on online shopping sites when a particular article is about to get sold out and they inform it to you by displaying ‘only 3 left in stock’. In personal life, a person might value you more if you give to them, something that is scarce – your time.

  1. Authority

When you associate, whatever you are trying to convey, with a person who is an expert in the field or has relevant knowledge, the chances of your audience believing you become significantly higher. In everyday life, we see advertisements in which a dentist recommends a particular toothpaste brand or a doctor recommends a soap. The principle of authority is at play here. Even when you are making a point in a conversation with your friends or colleagues, people might get immediately convinced the moment you quote a credible source to support your argument. 

  1. Consistency

If someone was to get interviewed on news about their views on education of underprivileged children, there’s a good chance that they might agree to make a donation to an NGO who is working towards the very cause. People like to be consistent with their words and actions. Why would anyone want to be called a hypocrite and even if no one points it out, at least their perspective of themselves will change but it’s still inacceptable and leads to discontent. 

  1. Liking

This principle doesn’t need as much explanation. People who are likable find persuading people much easier than people who are not. It is important to make your intended audience like you for them to hear what you are offering or you would like to tell. Companies appoint celebrities for brand endorsements because they are influential and people like and follow them. With a complete stranger, you might wanna start with a personal conversation and see what you and them have in common to make you like them before you get down to business.

  1. Social Proof

Not only do people follow celebrities, they also follow what is being done on a large scale. If something has become a trend and almost everyone in every section of the society is doing it, you will do it too. It doesn’t even have to be every section. If most of your colleagues are carpooling to commute to the office, you will want to carpool too. Even when you read reviews about a product or a movie, they influence your decision of whether you will buy it or watch it or not.

The Living Fossils.

These are those few animals who have defeated the tides of time by staying alive through chains of thick and thins millions and millions of years without accepting any evolutionary change in their basic body structure and habitat and every thing and features concerned with them.

Horseshoe crab

These are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura. Their popular name is a misnomer, as they are not true crabs, which are crustaceans.Horseshoe crabs live primarily in and around shallow coastal waters on soft sandy or muddy bottoms. They tend to spawn in the intertidal zone at spring high tides. They are commonly eaten in Asia, and used as fishing bait, in fertilizer and in science (especially Limulus amebocyte lysate). In recent years, population declines have occurred as a consequence of coastal habitat destruction and overharvesting. The entire body of the horseshoe crab is protected by a hard carapace. It has two compound lateral eyes, each composed of about 1,000 ommatidia, plus a pair of median eyes that are able to detect both visible light and ultraviolet light, a single endoparietal eye, and a pair of rudimentary lateral eyes on the top. The latter become functional just before the embryo hatches. Also, a pair of ventral eyes is located near the mouth, as well as a cluster of photoreceptors on the telson.


The coelacanths constitute a now-rare order of fish that includes two extant species in the genus Latimeria: the West Indian Ocean coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) primarily found near the Comoro Islands off the east coast of Africa and the Indonesian coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis). They follow the oldest-known living lineage of Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fish and tetrapods), which means they are more closely related to lungfish and tetrapods than to ray-finned fish. They are found along the coastline of Indonesia and in the Indian Ocean. The West Indian Ocean coelacanth is a critically endangered species.

Coelacanths belong to the subclass Actinistia, a group of lobed-finned fish related to lungfish and certain extinct Devonian fish such as osteolepiforms, porolepiforms, rhizodonts, and Panderichthys. Coelacanths were thought to have become extinct in the Late Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago, but were rediscovered in 1938 off the coast of South Africa.The coelacanth was long considered a “living fossil” because scientists thought it was the sole remaining member of a taxon otherwise known only from fossils, with no close relations alive, and that it evolved into roughly its current form approximately 400 million years ago.However, several recent studies have shown that coelacanth body shapes are much more diverse than previously thought.


The nautilus is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.It comprises six living species in two genera, the type of which is the genus Nautilus. Though it more specifically refers to species Nautilus pompilius, the name chambered nautilus is also used for any of the Nautilidae. All are protected under Nautilidae, both extant and extinct, are characterized by involute or more or less convolute shells that are generally smooth, with compressed or depressed whorl sections, straight to sinuous sutures, and a tubular, generally central siphuncle. Having survived relatively unchanged for hundreds of millions of years, nautiluses represent the only living members of the subclass nautiloidea, and are often considered “living fossils”.

The word nautilus is derived from the Greek ναυτίλος nautílos and originally referred to the paper nautiluses of the genus Argonauta, which are actually octopuses. The word nautílos literally means “sailor”, as paper nautiluses were thought to use two of their arms as sails.

Putin for life?

Russia may have command of Putin till 2036, know how it is possible.

In 1999, Indian politics was going through a period of instability. Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister at that time, but he had to leave the chair within 13 months. Two months after Atal Bihari Vajpayee became Prime Minister, Vladimir Putin knocked into power in Russia.  Since 1999, India has seen three Prime Ministers but Putin is still the President of Russia and this sequence can continue till 2036. The people of Russia have supported the necessary constitutional amendment for Putin to remain in power till 2036 in the referendum. According to Russia’s Central Election Commission, the ballot count is almost complete and 78 per cent of the people have supported the constitutional amendment so far. On the other hand, the opposition has accused the government of disturbing the voting. Let us know that Putin’s current six-year term is ending in 2024. Russia’s constitution prescribes a two-term term for the presidency, so after 2024, Putin would have to be out of power.
Putin has been the President of Russia from 1999 to 2008 and from 2012 till now. He was also the Prime Minister of Russia in 1999 and till 2008-12. If 67-year-old Putin remains in power in Russia until 2036, then his age will be 83 years.

The date of the referendum on constitution amendment was fixed earlier on 22 April but due to the Corona epidemic, it had to be postponed.  Apart from allowing Putin to serve two terms of the president, the referendum also includes about 200 other amendments. This includes issues like guarantee pension and bans on gay marriage.  This amendment will also increase Putin’s dominance over Ukraine.
In January, when the entire cabinet of Putin, including Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, resigned, there was speculation that Putin was going to make a big perversion. It is now clear that this was done to ease the process of the constitution amendment process.

Putin first became president in 1999 for the first time. He held this post after Boris Yeltsin resigned. Before joining politics, he used to work in the Soviet Union’s intelligence agency KGB.  The constitution of Russia allows the president only for two consecutive terms. Hence Putin became Prime Minister after his initial two terms.
When Putin crossed this deadline in 2008, he swapped positions with Medvedev very easily.  However, he remained in control of the government even during this.
Putin has been in power in Russia since 1999.  After Stalin, the record for the longest tenure in the name of Putin is recorded. Leader of the Opposition Alexei Navalny said in an interview that all the changes are simply giving the same message that Putin is not going to give up power in any case. After this new step, some editorial articles are also saying how stupid those people were who were talking of Putin’s farewell in 2024!

Blood Harvest.

So we all know about horse shoe crabs those infamous hideous looking gentle and harmless organism sometimes termed as the living fossil because of their presence on our planet since millions and millions of years. So blood harvest happens on the blood of a horse shoe crab which has a striking baby blue colored blood due to presence of copper rich haemocyanin agents(like we have iron rich haemoglobin).The marvelous thing about horseshoe crab blood, though, isn’t the color. It’s a chemical found only in the amoebocytes of its blood cells that can detect mere traces of bacterial presence and trap them in inescapable clots. To take advantage of this biological idiosyncrasy, pharmaceutical companies burst the cells that contain the chemical, called coagulogen. Then, they can use the coagulogen to detect contamination in any solution that might come into contact with blood. If there are dangerous bacterial endotoxins in the liquid—even at a concentration of one part per trillion—the horseshoe crab blood extract will go to work, turning the solution into what scientist Fred Bang, who co-discovered the substance, called a “gel.”

“This gel immobilized the bacteria but did not kill them,” Bang wrote in the 1956 paper announcing the substance. “The gel or clot was stable and tough and remained so for several weeks at room temperature.”If there is no bacterial contamination, then the coagulation does not occur, and the solution can be considered free of bacteria. It’s a simple, nearly instantaneous test that goes by the name of the LAL, or Limulus amebocyte lysate, test (after the species name of the crab, Limulus polyphemus).The LAL testreplaced the rather horrifying prospect of possibly contaminated substances being tested on “large colonies of rabbits.” Pharma companies didn’t like the rabbit process, either, because it was slow and expensive.

The only problem is that the companies need a large supply of the blood of live crabs. Horseshoe crabs live on the seafloor, near the shore. When they want to mate, they swim into very shallow water, and horseshoe crab collectors wade along, snatching the crabs out of their habitat. The biomedical collectors are not the first to make use of the crabs’ bodies. As far back as colonial times, “cancerine fertilizer” was used to enrich fields. In the 20th century, though, this became an organized industry around the Delaware Bay. The crabs were steamed and then ground into meal for the fields. Others were fed to hogs. Millions of crabs were harvested.

After the biomedical horseshoe crab collectors get them back to a lab, they pierce the tissue around the animals’ hearts and drain up to 30 percent of the animals’ blood. The LAL is extracted from the blood, and can go for $15,000 per quart. Only five companies bleed the crabs: Associates of Cape Cod, Lonza, Wako Chemicals, Charles River Endosafe, and Limuli Labs .The horseshoe crabs are returned to the ocean a great distance from where they were initially picked up to avoid rebleeding animals. The whole process takes between 24 and 72 hours.The industry says that not that many of the animals die. Between 10 and 30 percent of the bled animals, according to varying estimates, actually die. We can imagine that it’s like us giving blood. The crabs get some apple juice and animal crackers and are fine soon thereafter.But some people have noticed problems. In the regions where horseshoe crabs are harvested in large numbers for biomedical purposes

Horseshoe crabs are an ancient animal, more than half a billion years old. They have their own ways of doing things, a fact we’ve been exploiting for decades.Our own species evolved a thousand times more recently, coming into our current anatomical form a couple hundred thousand years ago. Let’s hope we don’t wipe horseshoe crabs out after we finish cloning their ancient chemical wisdom.

Be a Leader

Leaders help themselves and others to do the right things. They set direction, build an inspiring vision, and create something new. Leadership is about mapping out where you need to go to “win” as a team or an organization; and it is dynamic, exciting, and inspiring.

Yet, while leaders set the direction, they must also use management skills to guide their people to the right destination, in a smooth and efficient way.

The following are important factors of leadership:—

It is based upon knowledge of self, and of one’s occupation. No follower wishes to be dominated by a leader who lacks self- confidence and courage. No intelligent follower will be dominated by such a leader very long.

The man who cannot control himself, can never control others. Self-control sets a mighty example for one’s followers, which the more intelligent will emulate.

Without a sense of fairness and justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers.

The man who wavers in his decisions, shows that he is not sure of himself. He cannot lead others successfully.

The successful leader must plan his work, and work his plan. A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans, is comparable to a ship without a rudder. Sooner or later he will land on the rocks.

One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of willingness, upon the part of the leader, to do more than he requires of his followers.

No slovenly, careless person can become a successful leader. Leadership calls for respect. Followers will not respect a leader who does not grade high on all of the factors of a Pleasing Personality.

8.SYMPATHY AND UNDERSTANDING. The successful leader must be in sympathy with his followers. Moreover, he must understand them and their problems.

The successful leader must be willing to assume responsibility for the mistakes and the shortcomings of his followers. If he tries to shift this responsibility, he will not remain the leader. If one of his followers makes a mistake, and shows him incompetent, the leader must consider that it is he who failed.

The successful leader must understand, and apply the principle of cooperative effort and be able to induce his followers to do the same. Leadership calls for POWER, and power calls for COOPERATION.

Jal Shakti Abhiyan

Inspired by the Hon’ble Prime Minister’s impetus on Jal Sanchay, the Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA) is a time-bound, mission-mode water conservation campaign. The JSA aims at making water conservation a Jan Andolan through asset creation and extensive communication.

If 2014-19 was the phase to drive and upscale sanitation in the country, then 2019-24 will drop the spotlight on water. Reason: the rising water emergency that’s making India listen to alarm bells and consequentially a strong political commitment coming into place.

As promised by the Bharatiya Janata Party in its election manifesto, a unified Ministry of Jal Shakti was launched in May 2019 as an immediate response to the escalating water crisis in the country.

It also saw the reorganisation of existing ministries and departments like the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation as well as the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation coming under the umbrella of this new ministry.

Within a month of announcing the Ministry of Jal Shakti, the government launched Jal Shakti Abhiyan (JSA), an intensive water conservation campaign built on citizen participation to accelerate water conservation across the country.

In the short run, the campaign will focus on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level, including creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability using rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse.

For the long run, the government launched the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) with an aim to ensure piped water supply to all rural households by 2024.

While the government has put up broader plans to solve the ongoing water crisis, there is a critical need to spell out JSA’s outcomes and targets in a tangible and achievable manner. Rainwater harvesting is a critical intervention and should be undertaken intensively in the identified 256 water-stressed districts where groundwater availability has reached critical and over exploited levels.

However, in the absence of targets, the focus on objectives can be limited as one cannot ascertain the extent of work to be done, priority areas to be covered, and how to actually measure performance.

Under this campaign, targeted activities shall be undertaken under 5 areas of intervention namely:

(i) Water conservation and rainwater harvesting

(ii) Renovation of traditional water bodies/tanks

(iii) Reuse, borewell recharge structures

(iv) Watershed development, and

(v) Intensive afforestation.

Govt. to start Jal Shakti Abhiyan for 255 water-stressed districts from July 1. The Centre is set to initiate the Jal Shakti Abhiyan to ramp up rainwater harvesting and conservation efforts in 255 water-stressed districts from July 1, in line with the government’s promise to focus on water.


Physical fitness or wellness gets a lot of consideration, and all things considered. A sound body can forestall conditions, for example, coronary illness and diabetes, and assist you with keeping up freedom as you age.

Mental fitness or wellness is similarly as significant as physical wellness, and shouldn’t be disregarded. Counting mental skill practices into your day by day schedule can assist you with receiving the rewards of a more honed mind and a more beneficial body for a considerable length of time to come.

Mental wellness implies keeping your cerebrum and passionate wellbeing fit as a fiddle. It doesn’t mean preparing for “cerebrum Olympics” or acing an IQ test. It alludes to a progression of activities that help you:

slow down


support a hailing memory

It’s nothing unexpected that the more you help your body, the more you help your mind. Physical action expands the progression of oxygen to your mind. It likewise builds the measure of endorphins, the “vibe great” synthetic concoctions, in your cerebrum. Therefore, it’s not astonishing that individuals who are fit as a fiddle likewise will in general appreciate a more elevated level of mental dexterity.

Taking part in a vivacious physical exercise can assist you with doing combating sadness and increase an increasingly inspirational point of view. It’s additionally an extraordinary method to beat pressure, which can hurt you intellectually and truly.

Mental exercise is similarly as gainful. As per an investigation in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, certain memory preparing activities can build “liquid insight,” the capacity to reason and take care of new issues.

While practice is useful for the cerebrum and the body, so is reflection. Reflection, related to different strategies, is an elective method to treat gloom. Quieting the psyche permits you to issue illuminate in a progressively loosened up way.

Advantages of mental wellness

At the point when you hit the sack in the wake of a monotonous day, your body starts to unwind. Be that as it may, the brain doesn’t generally follow.

Perception can help. You can frequently accomplish a feeling of serenity through symbolism, the way toward imagining a peaceful scene or area. This training can lessen pressure in both your body and your psyche by testing neurons in the less-prevailing region of your mind.

The less-predominant side of your mind is simply the region that controls emotions certainty and confidence. At the point when you consider some different option from your every day stresses, you increment action in the neural structures of that region of your mind.

At last, representation can help your passionate prosperity and quiet you down intellectually.

Become intellectually fit

Keeping your psyche intellectually fit isn’t as troublesome as preparing for a long distance race, however it’s a decent similarity. You can add mental activities to the numerous exercises you as of now perform, for example,


wandering off in fantasy land

discovering humor throughout everyday life

You may attempt the accompanying ways to deal with increment your psychological wellness.

Quit performing various tasks

You may imagine that performing multiple tasks empowers you to complete more things on the double, yet it really makes a bigger number of issues than it unravels. Concentrating on each assignment in turn will improve your focus and help you to be progressively gainful.

Insistence, or conversing with yourself in a positive way, includes fortifying neural pathways to bring your self-assurance, prosperity, and fulfillment to a more significant level.

Be sure with yourself
Positive certification is one road to expanded mental capability.

To begin, make a rundown of your great characteristics. Advise yourself that you don’t need to be great. Set objectives for what you need to improve and begin little to abstain from turning out to be overpowered.

Take a stab at something else

New encounters can likewise show you the way to mental wellness. You can fit new methodologies into your every day life in an assortment of ways:

Attempt new nourishments.

Attempt better approaches to achieve routine assignments.

Travel to new places.

Take another approach to work or the market.

As indicated by the Alzheimer’s Association, research shows that keeping your cerebrum dynamic expands its essentialness. Doing new things in new manners seems to help hold synapses and associations. It might even create new synapses. Generally, breaking out of your routine can help keep your mind remain solid.

The takeaway

Mental wellness is critical to keeping up your mind and your body sound, particularly as you age. There are numerous kinds of mental smoothness activities, and you don’t have to go to the rec center to do them. They incorporate dynamic ones, for example, learning another tune or playing a game, just as soothing ones, for example, unwinding and perception works out. Timetable a psychological wellness break into your schedule directly close to your exercise plan. Your psyche and your wellbeing are justified, despite all the trouble.

Types of Abusive Relationship

Everyone has difference in opinions which leads to disagreement and argument with partner, family member and over close to them. At times, we all do things that cause unhappiness to people who care for us. Our actions and words might hurt our loved ones, and we do regret it. However if it becomes a constant and consistent phenomenon, then chances are you are in an abusive relationship.
It is difficult for the victims to get out of an abusive relationships. In most of the cases the victim might start thinking it is their fault and they deserve it, but the fact is no more deserves it. Do not blame yourself for someone else’s behaviour.
Most of us characterise abusive relationships only with domestic abuse, however this might not always be the case.
Here are the types of abusive relationships.

Physical Abuse
Physical abuse is intentional and unwanted contact to you or something close to your body. It might not always leave a bruise, but it is still unhealthy. It includes :
• Scratching, punching, pushing, pulling, biting, or kicking
• Throwing objects at you, like phone, book, plates
• Using weapons like gun, knife
• Forcing you for sexual acts
• Grabbing your face, clothes or you violently
• Pulling your hair

Emotional or Verbal Abuse
Emotional abuse are non physical behaviour, such as threats, humiliation, insults, constant monitoring, excessive texting, stalking. It includes:
• Calling you names and putting you down
• Yelling or screaming at you
• Intentionally embarrassing you when in public
• Not letting you speak to family and friends
• Dictating you what to do and wear
• Accusing you of cheating or flirting
• Stalking you and threating you to spill out your secrets
• Threating you of self harm or harming you or things related to you
• Using gaslighting techniques to manipulate you

Sexual Abuse
Sexual abuse is forcing someone to do something sexual that they do not want to and consent to. It is important to understand that “not saying no” is not a “yes”. Unless there is a loud and clear yes, it is a no. In such circumstances, physically resisting can cause even more violence. It is a myth that if the individual did not physically resist, it is not a abuse. In reality it is not the case, the person might be intoxicated or felt pressurised. Sexual abuse includes:
• Unwanted kissing or touching
• Unwanted rough and violent sexual activity
• Rape or attempt to rape
• Using sexual insults
• Not letting someone to use contraception
• Sexual contact when the person is drunk, unconscious or intoxicated
• Pressuring someone to perform sexual acts

Financial Abuse
Financial abuse can be quite subtle. It might include resisting you to buying something or require you to share your bank account details. It may not look like a big of a problem in first place, but no one you are dating has the right to tell you how to spend your own money and restrict you from getting things you desire. Financial abuse includes:
• Looking closely what you buy and how much you spend
• Not letting you to see the joint bank account records
• Forbidding you to work or limiting work hour
• Harassing you, your co-worker or employer so as to get you fired
• Refusing to give you money for food, clothing, rent and medication
• Maxing your credit card for their need
• Using your financial aid for their own benefit
• Using their money to hold power over you
• Giving you gifts and paying your gift and expecting you to return the favour somehow

Digital Abuse
Digital abuse means using digital platforms such as texting or social networks to bully, harass, stalk or intimidate your partner. It is becoming extremely common in recent times. Digital abuse includes:
• Pressurises you to send sexually explicit video or sexts.
• Send you unwanted sexually explicit content and demands you to send the same in return
• Makes decisions with whom you can or cannot be friends on social networking sites
• Steals or forces you to give your passwords
• Using technology, such as GPS to monitor you
• Looks through your phone frequently
• Messaging you constantly and lashing out on you when you reply late
• Sending you negative messages or threats on social networking sites

Stalking means you are constantly watched, followed or harassed to the point you feel afraid and unsafe. A stalker can be some you know like an ex partner or any stranger. Stalking includes:
• Showing up at your house or work place unannounced or uninvited
• Sending you unwanted gifts, messages and letters
• Using social media sites to track on you
• Constantly calling you
• Spreading rumours about you
• Use other people as resource to investigate about you
• Damage your property, such as your car, or other property

Experiencing even one or two of these warnings are a major red flag and probably abuse is present in your relationship. Each type of abuse is serious and no one deserves abuse in any form.

Beti Bachao Beti Padhao…

Prime Minister Narendra Modi has inaugurated a scheme for girls called Beti Bachao Beti Padhao. It is to save the girl child and educate the girl child all over India. The program was started on the 22nd of January, 2015 at Panipat. This scheme was initiated first especially in Haryana because this state has a very low female sex ratio (775/1000) all over the country. It has been effectively applied in a hundred districts across the country. It is to improve the status of girls in the country.

Aim of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme

The aim of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme is to stop the drop in girl child sex ratio. Therefore, it will encourage women’s empowerment in order to improve women status in the country. It is a tri-ministerial initiative of the following ministries:

Women and Child Development
Health and Family Welfare
Human Resource Development
Reasons for Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Initiative
Two main reasons for Beti Bachao Beti Padhao initiative are:

Low child-sex ratio called for the launch of the scheme

The Child Sex Ratio (CSR) census data for 0-6 years was 933 girls per 1,000 boys in 2001, which declined to 918 girls for every 1,000 boys in 2011. UNICEF in 2012 Reported that India ranked 41st among 195 countries. A 2011 Population Census revealed that the population ratio of India in 2011 was 943 females per 1000 of males. The Sex Ratio 2011, however, indications an upward trend from the census 2001 data.

Crime against Women on the rise

Aborting of female foeticide by post ultrasonic testing. Thus this type of discrimination against girl infants resulted in a huge drop in the female population. Also, crimes and sex abuse, so on, have been on a constant high.

Back in the year 2014, Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi spoke on the event of International Day of the Girl Child. He highlighted on the abolition of female foeticide and asked suggestions from the Indian citizens on portal.

Primary Objective of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ is a collaborative initiative of the government of India. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development and Ministry of Health and Family Welfare started this scheme. It covers all Indian states and union territories.

The scheme has three primary objectives

Prevent female infanticide.
Develop new schemes and work collaboratively to ensure that every girl child is secured and protected.
Ensure every girl child gets a quality education.
Difficulties in Implementing Beti Bachao Beti Padhao
Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme having difficulty to gain momentum. This is due to the following facts.

Social abuses and orthodox rituals like female foeticide, Sati, child marriage and domestic abuse obstruct the due execution of this scheme.
The government machinery and the police are, however, to get the magnitude of women atrocities seriously. This also weakens the effective implementation of the Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme.
The mindset of people remains conservative besides the numerous campaigns spreading awareness among people.
The scheme needs civic body support to achieve the objectives of the scheme.
The Dowry system is the main obstacles in the successful implementation and impact of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme
Impact of Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Scheme
It is important to look for the benefit that ‘Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao’, is India’s most high profile campaign. It is to empower the girl child in the country. Some major impacts are-

Balancing sex ratios
Bringing girl child rights into focus
Achieving girl-child access to education
The Beti Bachao Beti Padhao scheme is an initiative by the Government of India to address the issues revolving around girl children in India. This initiative under the scheme have started giving fruit as the level of awareness among the people is increasing.

Therefore, people now have a serious impact to work for girl child upliftment in society. The success of this scheme will add tremendously to the economic growth of the country. This is due to the fact that India cannot afford to have a large part of its population remain neglected.

Importance of financial literacy

An Introduction to Financial Literacy
We go to schools, colleges, universities to complete our educated and start earning our livelihood. We take up jobs, practise professions or start our own businesses so that we can earn money to make our living. But which of these institutions make us capable of managing our own hard-earned money? Probably a very few of them.

Our ability to effectively manage our money by drawing systematic budgets, paying off our debts, making buying and selling decisions and ultimately becoming financially self-sustainable is known as financial literacy.

Financial literacy is knowing the basic financial management principles and applying them in our day-to-day life.

Financial Literacy – What does it Involve?
From simple practices like keeping a track of our expenses and understanding the need to spend money if we like a product to striking a balance between the value of time saved and money lost, paying our taxes and filing of tax returns, finalizing the property deals, etc – everything becomes a part of financial literacy.

As human beings, we are not expected to know the nitty-gritty of financial management. But managing our own money in a way that it does not affect us and our family in a negative way is important. We certainly do not want to end up having a day with no money at hand and hunger in our stomach.

Why is Financial Literacy so Important?

Financial literacy can enable an individual to build up a budgetary guide to distinguish what he buys, what he spends, and what he owes. This subject additionally influences entrepreneurs, who incredibly add to financial development and strength of our economy.

Financial literacy helps people in becoming independent and self-sufficient. It empowers you with basic knowledge of investment options, financial markets, capital budgeting

: Understanding your money mitigates the danger of facing a fraud-like situation. A few strategies are anything but difficult to accept, particularly when they’re originating from somebody who is by all accounts learned and planned. Basic knowledge of financial literacy will help people with foreseeing the risks and argue/justify with anyone learned and well-informed.

What should you read on / get informed about in Financial Literacy?

Budgeting and techniques of budgeting
Direct and indirect taxation system
Direct tax slabs
Income and expense tracking
Loans and debt – EMI management
Interest rate systems: fixed versus floating
Business and organisational transaction studies
Elementary Book-keeping and Accountancy
Cash in-flow and out-flow Statements
Investment & personal finance management
Asset management:
Business negotiation skills and techniques
Make or buy decision-making
Financial markets
Capital structure – owner’s funds and borrowed funds
Fundamentals of Risk Management
Microeconomics and Macroeconomics fundamentals
While there are various media to learn about financial literacy, we recommend that you join a short-term, weekend programme which helps you get financially literate.