3 Things To Do When A Friend Opens Up About Their Mental Health Struggles

All of us want to be there for our friends when they need us. We want to help them and provide the support in the best way we know. Nonetheless, when a friend tells us about their current struggle with their mental health, it can be challenging to decide what to do or what to say. It is valid to be worried about not making the situation worse or upsetting them by saying the wrong thing at the wrong time. Here are 3 things that will help you support your friend in a way that’s healthy for the both of you.

Seamless pattern of a crowd of many different people profile heads. Vector background.

1. Listen to them

We are constantly hearing people talk which may lead us to think that listening is easy. However, the goal is to listen and not just hear, to be a good listener, you must be able to put all your thoughts and judgements to one side. Try not to interrupt them while they are taking or rush them into talking. It’s most ideal to have the conversation with them when you do not have something to do soon since this can add to the pressure which could make you want to rush the conversation and make them feel unheard or worse, abandoned. You should also try to stay calm, process the information as and when you receive it.

2. Ask them what they would like from you

Sometimes people just want to be seen, be heard, or just want to get something off their chest. Other times they simply want advice or maybe reassurance. Asking them what they would like from you will help you to support them in the better way and it will ensure they do not leave feeling unsatisfied or unheard. Try to be as honest, patient and kind as possible when responding to your them. In dealing with such situations, you can be most helpful by asking yourself these three questions: ‘What’s best for my friend?’. ‘What would I want the most from my friend if I was in this situation?’ and ‘How would I want to be treated had I been in the same situation?’

3. Check up on them

If you feel mentally stable enough and are able to, keep asking your friend how they are and how they feel, take the time out to candidly listen to what they have to say, keep repeating this cycle. Mental health problems don’t vanish after one conversation. These problems can also be incredibly isolating. Regualrly checking up on your friend is one step closer to making them feel a little less alone, visible and will also serve as a reminder that you care about them.

It is okay if you can’t always be there for the people you love and care about. We all have our own challenges and struggles. If you do not feel up to it, you should signpost them to others who they can talk to like some other close friend, a trusted family member or a mental health organisation that can professionally help.

Life doesn’t come with a set of rules!

Life is a race just like Virus used to say. Wait . Hold on a second. Which Virus am I talking about? Well, its the Virus from the movie ‘3 IDIOTS’. I am sure everyone remembers that ‘Virus’ and yes ofcourse the another virus we all are dealing with today.

Well, life is not a race. We live in such a system where we have to follow certain patterns of life that we forget what actually living life is like.

Right from the beginning, we have been told what has to be done. Attend school, college, get graduated, get a job, get settled, get married, have kids, get them settled following the same pattern, then get old and then you just have to wait for the day of your death.

So all these things we do in our life just to die one day. The question here arises is ‘What is the point?’ In all these patterns or set of rules that every people has to follow, when was the time we actually lived and created memories? When was the time we did all the things we wanted to do to make ourselves happy? Did we completed all the bucket list of our lives? Can we die peacefully with no regrets in our lives?

Well, the answer is ‘No’. We can’t change these patterns but yes we can change our lives by the way we think about it. Life doesn’t come with a set of rules.

I don’t say its incorrect. But yes who made these rules? These patterns? That we have to abide by them.

There are people who don’t want to study but want to do something different which is okay. There are people who don’t want to get married and that is okay too. There are people who want to live a life where they can be happy. Everyone has their own idea of living which is completely okay.

It is okay to not doing things that everyone is doing. It is okay to have a completely different life goals. It is okay to not have a job right after graduating. It is okay to not get married right away after getting settled. It is okay to not have kids after getting married. It is okay, my friend!

You live your life once. You should always do what your heart says and there is no necessity of doing things in order to follow certain patterns.

Its your life. Live the way you want to live and nobody should tell you what you should be doing. You have the right to do it your way and create the life you want for yourself.

Remember- You are answerable to no one. As far it makes you happy, the things you are doing or the things you want to do.

Do it for yourself.

Lastly, Let’s not judge people. Let’s not laugh at others and motivate them to just not live their life but to live happily.

Indian pharma sector gets affected by China factor:Heparin becomes dearer

Background

The NPPA( National Pharmaceutical Pricing authority) in 2018 had capped the price for Heparin. But in this pandemic period, NPPA has allowed the hike in prices of Heparin by 50 percent till December 31. This was done to mitigate the shortage of the drug in the Indian market. The shortage of the heparin drug in the market is a result of the problems faced by the drug manufacturers who are unable to cope up with the drastic hike in prices of the the APIs( Active pharmaceutical ingredients) which is majorly imported.

What is Heparin and why is it important at present?

Heparin is a blood thinner used as an anticoagulant. It is used to prevent blood clots after surgery, during dialysis, during blood transfusions, when collecting blood samples, or when a person is unable to move for a long time.

In the current pandemic situation too, heparin has an important role to play.The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare included the drug in its clinical management guidelines for the treatment of Covid-19 patients in the ICU.

Why NPPA has allowed the manufacturers to hike up the prices of heparin?

This step was taken to mitigate the shortage of the drug in the indian market.The Indian manufacturers were unwilling to continue the production of the drug simply because they could not cope up with the rising prices of the most important raw material to manufacture the drug i.e. API( Active pharmaceutical ingredients. APIs are the active ingredients contained in a drug which gives the drug it’s theraptic use.

The Sodium API of heparin is mostly imported from China. But due to the global outbreak of Corona virus China has also not able to manufacture enough APIs( because the country was under lockdown) the prices of these APIs has increased manifold. And so has the cost of manufacturing the drug in India is increased. That’s why some of the drug manufacturing companies were demanding hike in the prices of the drug. Some of the Indian companies marketing heparin products in India are Gland Pharma, Biological E, Samarth Lifesciences, Abbott Healthcare, Troikaa Pharmaceuticals and Celon Labs .

What role does China play here?

Chinese pharma companies were under lockdown restrictions for about 2 months which has led to the shortage of APIs in the global market

India heavily relies on China for various APIs used to manufacture drugs in India especially antibiotics and vitamins. But since the past three months most of the world countries including China have suffered a huge setback when it comes to their economy.

China was under lockdown for about 2 months in which all the industries were shut down. During this period China had not been producing anything in their factories. Though after the lockdown was lifted, China has taken up the momentum. But it will take time to get things back to normal.

Since Chinese drug manufacturers were not producing the APIs in the lockdown period there has been a shortage of APIs in the global market. But the demand of APIs is ever- increasing. The reducing supply and increasing demand has led to hike in the price of the Chinese APIs which is the distress of indian drug manufacturers. But the recent permit by the NPA to hike up the prices of heparin gave them a sigh of relief.

Some people might think that the hike in prices of Chinese APIs is due to the indo- China tensions along the LAC. But this is not true indeed. Industry associations have said that this has nothing to with indo- China tenisons along the border. The lockdown in China leading to the shut down of Chinese industries is the prime cause behind the hike of prices.

Will prices of other drugs also hike in future?

Yes, it is possible. If the demand is growing and if the supply is not met, oher drugs also may get expensive. And consequently the cost of treatment of Covid-19 patients. But it is too soon to say which drugs’s prices will hike and how much.

Theory of Mind

The basic principles involved in mind theory are beliefs, desires, and intentions that are used to comprehend why somebody is acting in some way or to predict how somebody is acting. In general, Mind Theory requires identifying the knowledge, beliefs, emotions and intentions of another person and using that understanding to navigate social situations. A commonly used task of measuring theory of mind is a task of false-belief, like this:

10 Picture Books for Practicing Theory of Mind Skills

Demonstrate the child a Band-Aid box and ask the child what’s inside the box he / she thinks. He or she will probably answer, “Band-Aids.” Open the box and display him / her that within is a toy pig, while saying that there’s really a pig inside and close the box after this.

Now, as you’re bringing into view a toy figurine boy who’s been hidden up to now, the adults say “Scott’s never seen anything inside this Band-Aid box. Now Scott comes here. So, what does Scott think the box contains? Band-Aids or a pig? Children who have established Mind Theory will understand that because he did not see in the box, Scott holds a different understanding than they.

Children who have formed Mind Theory will understand that because he did not see in the box, Scott continues to hold a different understanding than them.

They’ll respond that Scott thinks Band-Aids is in the box. Those who have yet to develop Mind Theory may respond that Scott thinks pigs are in the box, mistakenly thinking that Scott holds the same belief as they do.

Kids are improving on Mind Theory tasks around the age of 4 and are able to fully understand that somebody can act on the basis of a false belief about an object or event. In my own work with pre-schoolers, anecdotally, 3-year-olds tend to understand that Scott didn’t see inside the box, but still react that Scott thinks a pig is in the box.

For children with developmental disabilities, such as those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), it may take cognitive ability a little longer to develop, and some higher skills may not be attained at all. Youth (ages 5 to 13) with autism received lower scores on measures to understand the beliefs and emotions of others than those typically developed by young people, but there were no differences in understanding others’ intentions possibly since knowing intentions is a less nuanced ability that evolves faster than knowing feelings and beliefs. Mind Theory also predicted ASD diagnosis, so that those with the lowest level of these abilities had more serious diagnoses (i.e. autism with intellectual disability) than those with more advanced Mind Theory (Asperger’s syndrome) diagnoses. Mind theory evidently plays a role in the emergence of delays in development, with discrepancies between those with delays and normally developing adolescents persisting in middle and even adolescence.

By comprehending Mind Theory, we may not only be able to better diagnose those with complications, but also create more effective interventions to encourage and support cognitive development. It is believed that executive function is related to social social skills, so that those with higher levels of cognitive abilities also have greater social skills, with that relationship being partly related. The connection between perceived competence and executive function may be more nuanced and bidrectional, as indicated in some of the literature, but I think it is most important to establish how EF skills contribute to mental theory and social competence in this way. Understanding how the underlying EF(Executive Functioning) process affects one’s social development will help us build new approaches for children. These initiatives could focus on cognitive and EF components which could help develop social skills, making the intervention less anxious and more accessible.

Multicultural Education

Multicultural Education is known as an educational procedure / strategy which fuses the perspectives, writings, values, convictions, and viewpoints of people from distinct social foundations. The primary function of putting it into practice in classrooms is to allow educators to adjust or join exercises to highlight diversity and social pluralism. We will discuss various disadvantages and advantages of educational method. Multicultural education came into the limelight in the early 1970s, following the action plan for change in the education system by the civil rights struggle. The goal was and continues to be to assist, appreciate cultural diversity amongst teachers and students. Multicultural educated students are often best prepared to work in a variety of classroom or commercial establishments and have a strong social intelligence.   

How multiculturalism helps school education | Op-eds – Gulf News

Race, ethnic background, nationality, language, religion, class, sexual orientation, etc. are the critical elements involved in multicultural education. Students can be constantly reminded of history, cultures, and the importance of various groups by adapting it in schools and colleges. It also promotes the ideals of inclusion, democracy, diversity, critical thinking, and sense of unity, inquiry, outlook values and many more positive traits. This teaching strategy is seen as profitable in advancing educational achievements among students of foreigners (immigrants), and it is along these lines that it is given credit to be a contributor to the school reform movement.

Many genuinely think that Multigrade or cross-cultural education’s goals and objectives are to safeguard the culture of minority groups by encouraging young people to think broadly and get to know new thoughts and critical thinking. All this quite fundamentally helps students deduct, just as it urges them to have an increasingly open worldview. As a result, students are provided with the knowledge, beliefs, and skills required to engage in social improvements, resulting in equity for ethnic groups previously marginalized and excluded.

Just like every other Multicultural Education system, there are a few benefits and drawbacks to it. The pros and cons are as follows:

Disadvantages of Multicultural Education:

Since children from diverse ethnic, linguistic and social backgrounds study together from the same education system in a multicultural classroom, making it difficult for everyone to understand the subject. There’s a possibility teachers may be struggling to find out how well the students understand the content. As not all students come from the same backgrounds this causes a language barrier. People may be non-confrontational, submissive or otherwise indirect from other cultures.

Teachers in inclusive education must be equipped to manage conflicts and misunderstandings with different values , beliefs, cultures, assertions, patterns of behaviour, etc. that tend to arise among students from different cultures.

Advantages of Multicultural Education:

Multicultural Education exemplifies students to different culture and values, and creates good understanding and acceptance of people’s differences. It instils tolerance and personal acceptance. Since it encourages cultural relevance, anti-bias classroom, challenging students to reflect without jumping to stereotypes, shaping social skills and social action resulting in people engaged in civic engagement. The method encourages students to assimilate while maintaining intact their culture and values, making them feel inclusive. It can help children assimilate without compromising their cultural identity by being culturally conscious teachers, without biasing. It facilitates promoting a community of learning, which helps to preserve a sense of pride which trust in the learning.

Starting a small business

Starting a small business is the best way to gain freedom. Although this statement is disputable, it has sense.

Why do people decide to become entrepreneurs? They are longing for independence. Small business helps one manage his time in the way he wants. He can produce the goods and services he likes. Finally, he is able to try to be responsible and creative.

Small business is very important for the economy of every state. Small entrepreneurs contribute into the state budget a lot. It is possible to say that the complex of small and middle firms provides the country with the same profit as big business does. In simple words, a prosperous state cannot survive without small business. It is impossible to defeat poverty without small business. Thus, if you have any genuine and uncommon ideas concerning the production of useful goods and services, establish your own small firm.

Starting up is not easy

Starting a small business is not an easy thing. Whether you’re doing something as simple as business paper writing as a business or as grand as running a construction company building skyscrapers, you should be psychologically and financially prepared to numerous challenges. Moreover, it is vital to know something about business, management and marketing.

To begin with, you should study the market in order to learn about the goods and services that are required by consumers. This factor is the crucial one. When you discover that people demand an item but no one has produced it yet, you have the best chances to conquer the chosen sector of the market. Secondly, you ought to think about the price and quality of your product.

There are two options. The foremost one is the production of high-quality and expensive goods that will serve long. The second option is related to consumerism. You produce poor-quality cheap goods and attract clients with the help of the lowest prices.

Sad to say but it is difficult to choose the best option. Many people are ready to pay a lot to possess a quality item. Others avoid paying a lot and prefer cheap products.

Create a business plan

Then, you should create your own business plan that will contain the entire information about the functioning of your firm. Think about the target groups of customers, production, logistics, storage and retail.

Apparently, you should produce and store your goods somewhere. Then, you will meet with such issues as revenue and expense. You will need to hire a few employees to run your business rewardingly. Without doubt, you will have to be selective, demanding and attentive in order to recruit the right people into your firm. Finally, you will meet the problem of rent, taxation, etc. A firm resembles a household. You should pay attention to the slightest problem, question and misunderstanding if you want to increase your income and develop your small firm into something bigger.

The ups and downs

As might be expected, starting a small business has many advantages and disadvantages. The most solid strong side is independence. You do not have to work for someone else. You work for your own profit. You possess the freedom of choice and actions. If you are not respected and appreciated at work, you can embody your original and amusing ideas in your own business.

Ambitious people always try to start a small business if they receive such an opportunity. You do not need to listen to the instructions and threats of your boss when you are late. At long last, you will earn more money. You are the boss and the entire profit is yours.

Nevertheless, there are many factors that cause problems to a novice entrepreneur. You should remember that independence is also responsibility. You are responsible for your firm, its prosperity and the wellbeing of your employees. Furthermore, you are responsible for the health and life of your customers who consume your products.

You are expected to know how to develop and improve your small company beneficially. You should know how to behave in case of crisis and unpredictable situations. You should be ready to wake up at night and spend the whole day at your firm in order to settle down all urgent problems and conflicts between employees. You should be a teacher, psychologist and negotiator who is able to resolve conflicts and motivate his staff practically.

Takeaway

Starting a small business is a challenging but beneficial idea. You are able to establish you own store, café, restaurant or bakery and embody your offbeat and splendid ideas there. On the other hand, you should be ready to resist numerous challenges and work hard for the protection and development of your business.

Habits that Sharpen Your Brain.

You most likely spend at least a couple of hours each week training your body-doing cardio, weight training, or even just walking. You’re training your muscles to stay pliant and strong, your joints to stay fluid, and your body’s physical systems to run ideally. At the same time how much time do you spend training your brain? Brain training isn’t a fresh concept. It can help us remember information, recall facts more quickly, and hone our focus. Even a brief course of brain exercises can help older adults enhance reasoning skills and processing speed for ten years after the training ends, according to a recent federally sponsored research on cognitive training.

Here are seven simple daily habits you can work into your schedule to sharpen your intelligence:

1. Follow ideas through to various outcomes.

Entrepreneurs are often bedeviled with more ideas than time to deal with them in. Make it a habit to do idea exercises-come up with three potential outcomes for your next idea, even if there’s only one way you expect it to turn out. Visualize your idea in various ways. Make it a habit to take into account more alternatives.

2. Add 10-20 minutes of aerobic exercise to your day.

Aerobic activity axes your lifetime risk of Alzheimer’s in half and your risk of general dementia by sixty percent, according to John Medina, PhD, director of the Seattle Pacific University Brain Center for Applied Learning Research. Probably, you’re exercising already for the physical benefits, but if not, the fact it can keep you sharp and even enhance your creativity, should be great motivators!

3. Engage in stimulating conversation.

In reality-outside the computer or mobile phone screen. The art of tête-à-tête requires that we think on our feet, and conversing with someone smarter than you can be a fantastic exercise in quick thinking as well as a chance to learn something new. Seek out interesting people and engage them in conversation, however concise.

4. Take online courses.

You can learn anything online-even on a mobile device. Commit to learning something new everyday, whether it’s during your transit to work, on your lunch break, or in the five spare minutes you have between meetings. Better yet, make it something super useful, like learning a new language.

5. Give your brain a break.

You can’t be “on” all the time. Make productivity apps a part of your daily schedule, to automate redundant tasks that take up your time and brain space.

6. Practice a hobby.

Make sure you’re doing something that you love, every day. If your brain is continuously bogged down in work, it has no time or space to explore creative, fun ideas and concepts. In fact, some recreational activites-like playing video games or practicing a musical instrument-can help sharpen your intelligence as well!

7. Look, Listen, Learn.

Try working an array of media types into your day. Read reports, listen to podcasts, watch video clips whenever you can, and use gamified apps or sites when possible. Switch it up so you’re using more of your senses to take in information, and staying more engrossed to retain more of it. If you’re finding yourself bored to death with reading or bogged down in audio files, take a break and try a new media type.

HOW DOES TRAVELLING AFFECT ONES PERSONALITY AND LIFE?

Mark Manson said:

“Travel is a fantastic self-development tool, because it extricates you from the values of your culture and shows you that another society can live with entirely different values and still function and not hate themselves. This exposure to different cultural values and metrics then forces you to reexamine what seems obvious in your own life and to consider that perhaps it is not necessarily the best way to live.”

Different people travel for different reasons. A Saleman travels round the world for his professional necessity: to meet different dealers, distributors, individual to secure orders. A professional photographer travels to capture the nature in raw form clicking the nature’s beauty, the rural emotions of simple life leading people or shooting the modern urban lifestyle. The   travel addicts travel as tourist to view the different places and people created minutely by the greatest creative artist of this Universe: The Almighty!
Often a person who frequently travels realize themselves in unfamiliar positions and dilemmas which creates their own problem appears like nothing. 
Learning is a continuous process. We learn from books, internet, school, but can also learn from experience. For a Balance Education, Travel is a vital part. Moreover, Adventure is acquired from Travel.

Culture is another aspect of life that has been affected by travelling. Today, different languages are taught in colleges and universities. Students who enroll to study these languages have the desire to travel to those countries which are dominated by the respective languages. As suggested by Andrews (2013), it’s more interesting if you are able to communicate in their language when you are a visitor. Another cultural practice that has been affected with travelling is food and mode of dressing (Bremer Mathew, 2018). Moreover, when you travel to a certain country for reasons such as studying, you will definitely get used to the food of that country. For example, some foods are used due to certain environmental condition. It’s ironical to wear heavy clothes in Saharan desert. Similarly it’s difficult to put on light clothes in some regions of the Northern Hemisphere during winter.

In conclusion, travelling can make those who xenophobic towards some people to change their perspective. As viewed by different psychologists, many people who have travelled the world tend to behave differently compared to their prior behavior. According to research, some characteristics can be acquired through environmental factors.

How to make a better morning?

A lovely good afternoon to everyone soo, here i am a first user and this is my first post that would be my first choice as a topic to start a day. As i was looking after these quarantine days people are getting lethargic and working online these days. So here some points that you should kept in your mind:

While getting up have some stretching. Also most important is be happy.

Get a warm class of water with honey so that it will give a cure to your stomach and you’ll feel fresh.

While you sitting and taking an online classes so just rotate your legs so that no fat is stored in your thighs. Also rotate your wrist by this you’ll be fit and also your work been done.

Girls’ education been neglected in slums

Women and girls in slums mostly don’t get the privilege of education in India. Their families or communities don’t support them in this cause. When the family does not have enough finance to provide education to all of their children, there the preference is given to boys. This way most of the women are not educated and they are not able to provide it to their daughters as well. So, in this vicious cycle education of most of the girls gets neglected. The situation is so deteriorating that many girls even lack basic literacy and numeric skills.

“I want to study and become a teacher. But I don’t know how to read these books, says Lakshmi, a 9 years old girl in slums while sitting with a pile of books of her brothers.

Lakshmi lives in a family of six members – father, mother, and her three brothers. Being the youngest as well as a girl she gets the disadvantage over education. Where all her brothers go to school, she isn’t allowed.

While finance being one of the major issues, there are others too.

“In our community, girls get married at a very young age by 12-14, so what is the point of their education. Eventually, they will have to serve their in-laws. Even if we get pushy about continuing a girl’s education after marriage, she will be stopped,” says Shakuntala, Lakshmi’s mother.

“See our Lakshmi, she is already 9. We have started searching for a suitable groom for her.”

Her father cited other concerns. “ There is a fear of abuse, distance from school to home, known- availability of transports, and lack of toilets. Due to this reason, I don’t send my daughter to school even if I want to. Safety is a big concern for me. Who’s going to take the responsibility if anything happens to her.”

Slum girls brought up with this mindset make them believe they are not worth enough compared to their brothers.

“We want our sister to gain an education. But our parents say she will get married and go to a different family whereas we have to go to school too, later on, get jobs and be a breadwinner for the family,” says Kundan, Lakshmi’s elder brother.

These situations make women vulnerable and dependant on men in life. Men start to think about them as mere objects leading to crimes like domestic violence, killings.

Without education, women have less knowledge and less power to negotiate.

All these things indicate that there is a bleak future for girl children in slums. Thus, to address this emerging issue, girls should be linked to formal/informal schooling in slums and ensured that at least they will attain the primary level of education that enables them to read and write.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toxic Productivity

All of us at some point or the other have experienced exhaustion. We all at some point have set unrealistic and unachievable goals, and have been highly disappointed when they are not fulfilled. But the question to address is, Is that productivity actually productive ?

One of the most important thing to keep in mind while striving for productivity is not to over exhaust ourselves. It is worth remembering that we are human and not machines. Even machine wear and tear with time, and we are humans make up of flesh and blood, we are bound to experience exhaustion after a point.

Being productive 24×7 is not possible. Setting unrealistic goals will just disappoint you and nothing more. Toxic productivity does little for quality of work and life.

What is Toxic Productivity?

Toxic productivity is our unhealthy obsession with productivity. A toxic productive person thinks their work are never ending and never enough. It is the obsession with work where quantity matter more than quality.

Toxic productive person usually feel guilty for enjoying free time. They are mostly unsatisfied with their work. But more than focusing on constantly improving their work, they focus on the amount of work done.

Signs of toxic productivity

Toxic productivity is a serious issue. Below are some of the major signs of productivity turning toxic.

• Impacting personal life: Toxic productive person is so overloaded with work that it impacts your personal relationships. They usually are left with no time to maintain real human relationships. They therefore end up being lonely after a point of time.

• Unrealistic expectations: Toxic productive individuals end up having unrealistic expectations from their work. They set unattainable goals and become extremely disappointed when it is not achieved.

• Never satisfied: The individual experiencing toxic productivity are mostly restless and never satisfied with work. They want to achieve it all, but in no time. They think their work is never upto the mark and strive for unattainable perfection.

Deal with toxic productivity

Dealing with toxic productivity is very important for us, to be a satisfied and secured individuals. Some important key to deal with toxic productivity are as follows:

• Set realistic goals: The first step of being productive is setting goals. Not only long term goals, but focus on one day at a time. Productivity is a process. We don’t have to keep working all 24 hours. Productivity is the goal, over exhausting isn’t. Depending on your goal, set to do list for the day.

• Take breaks: Taking break is very important to increase your productivity. If we keep working without any breaks, then our brain becomes monotonous and we usually experience lack of ideas, thus our work quality ends up deteriorating.

• Meditate: Meditation calms your mind. It increases your focus. A calm and focus mind is much more productive.

• Connect with family and friends: If you have a good support network, your productivity will most definitely increase. Connecting to family and friends is very important to get out of the vicious cycle of toxic productivity. They help keeping you in proper sense and not lose your cool.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana

The Government of India launched a flagship scheme called Prime Minister Mudra Yojana (PMMY) on 8th April 2015 to extend affordable loans to the non-corporate, non-farm micro and small enterprises to cater to their funding needs. One of the major aims of MUDRA loans was to bring the target audience into the formal financial fold.

Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency Ltd. (MUDRA) is a new institution set up by Government of India to provide funding to the non-corporate, non-farm sector income generating activities of micro and small enterprises whose credit needs are below ₹10 Lakh.

Under the aegis of Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana (PMMY), MUDRA has created three products i.e. ‘Shishu’, ‘Kishore’ and ‘Tarun’ as per the stage of growth and funding needs of the beneficiary micro unit. These schemes cover loan amounts as below:

  1. Shishu: covering loans up to ₹50,000
  2. Kishore: covering loans above ₹50,000 and up to ₹5,00,000
  3. Tarun: covering loans above ₹5,00,000 and up to ₹10,00,000

All Non-Corporate Small Business Segment (NCSBS) comprising of proprietorship or partnership firms running as small manufacturing units, service sector units, shopkeepers, fruits/vegetable vendors, truck operators, food-service units, repair shops, machine operators, small industries, food processors and others in rural and urban areas, are eligible for assistance under Mudra.

Bank branches would facilitate loans under Mudra scheme as per customer requirements. Loans under this scheme are collateral free loans.

Eligibility for MUDRA Loan Application:

Enterprises and entities falling under the following categories comprise MUDRA loan eligibility.

  • All non-corporate non-farm enterprises.
  • Primarily engaged in income generation through manufacturing, trading and services.
  • Where the requirement of credit is for maximum Rs.10 lakhs or lower.
  • Engaged in allied agriculture services since 1st April 2016.

How to apply for MUDRA loan at a financial institution?

Individuals have to follow the steps mentioned below to apply for MUDRA loan:

  • Step 1.Keep the necessary documents ready
    Applicants need to have the necessary documents required to avail a MUDRA loan. These include identity proof (Aadhaar, Voter ID, PAN, Driving License, etc.), address proof (electricity bill, telephone bill, gas bill, water bill, etc.), proof of business (business registration certificate, etc.).
  • Step 2.Approach a financial institution
    Individuals can apply for a MUDRA loan with almost all leading financial institutions in India.
  • Step 3.Fill in the loan application form
    Applicants then have to fill the MUDRA loan application form and furnish their personal and business details. They also have to ascertain the amount they want to avail before knowing how to apply for MUDRA loan scheme.

Under the PMMY scheme, one can apply for 3 types of MUDRA loans:

  1. Sishu – Covers loans up to Rs.50,000 for starting a business or for businesses in its early stages.
  2. Kishor – Covers loans up to Rs.5 Lakh for already established businesses seeking additional funding.
  3. Tarun – Covers loans up to Rs. 10 Lakh for well-established businesses meeting certain eligibility.

Constructive feedback

Feedback is given as a response to any performance or work submitted which aims to improve the quality of output in future. Feedback basically involves evaluation, appreciation and coaching for improvement. The objective behind feedback is to highlight the positive and the negative aspects of the performance, encourage the workers to do a better work, while also providing a guide on how to reach the desired performance.

Feedback or constructive criticism can be very effective if given in the right way. it is supposed to provide suggestions to the person so that they can learn from their mistakes and identify the areas where they are lacking. The difficult par about giving feedback is making it not sound like down right criticism. some people may put out insults and pass it around as opinions which should be taken in a constructive manner. there is a way of presenting your opinion, specifically while dealing or giving negative feedback, otherwise it may put down the morale of the listener.

The feedback giver should make it a point to not make the conversation personal and stick to the performance of the person and not his/her personality. The listener should also try to not take the criticism personally and have trust on the feedback giver.

While giving feedback, the person should make sure to not use the “feedback sandwich”. It is basically providing criticism sandwiched between praises. It may appear to be an ideal technique but it does much more damage than good. This may soften up the criticism but in actual, it renders the criticism ineffective. The listener may also start believing that the praise isn’t true. Also, be clear about what needs to be improved. If you will give any vague suggestions, it won’t help anyone. Learn to be open to others’ perspective as well. it is best that the people concerned come together, discussion the problem and try to come up with a collaborative action plan.

Therefore, people should not hesitate to acknowledge their mistakes and should help each other with “feedbacks” that would help them to grow. A positive feedback system would also help to develop a community that is not shy of its mistakes and takes every challenge in life as a step to move forward in life.

Silent Pandemonium!

No more silence about violence

Just a slap, but he can’t hit me” -This sentence not only reveals a dialogue of a film but also exposes the stark reality of different societies. Domestic violence is existing in almost every community in the world. The term can be classified on various grounds including some instances of violence against spouses, children or elders and transgenders. The various types of activities adopted by the attacker against the victim include physical abuse, emotional abuse, psychological abuse or deprivation, economic exploitation, abusive, taunting, etc. Domestic violence is not only a problem in developing or less developed countries, but it is also very prevalent in developed countries. Domestic violence is a reflection of our pseudo-civilized society.

Violence has no place in a civilized society. But the number of domestic violence cases reported each year underlines a worrying situation. In our country, people are being tortured behind closed doors. This shameful act of violence is also being done in rural areas, towns, cities and metros. Domestic violence across all social classes, gender, race and age groups is becoming a legacy from generation to generation. In this article, efforts will be made to find the causes of domestic violence, the impact on the society and children, and solutions to the problem.

What is domestic violence?

Domestic violence means any act that causes health, safety, life-threatening, economic loss and damage to a woman and child (child and girl under 18 years of age) and such damage that is unbearable and which causes grief and humiliation to the woman and child. All these are included in the scope of domestic violence.

Under the Domestic Violence Act, an aggrieved woman can prosecute any adult male, i.e can file a case against him.

Various forms of domestic violence in India

According to the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 in India, any women as a victim of domestic violence and children and girls below 18 years of age are protected. The various forms of domestic violence in India are as follows:

Domestic violence against women – giving physical pain to a woman – such as assault, pushing, stumbling, hitting something or physically hurting the woman in any other way, forcing the woman to look at pornography or pornographic images, Raping, abusing, humiliating, hurting a woman’s family and social reputation, humiliating a woman or girl, blaming her character, against her marriage will, threatening suicide, verbal abuse, etc. According to the United Nations Population Fund report, nearly two-thirds of married Indian women are victims of domestic violence and 70% of married women aged 15–49 in India are beaten, raped, or forcibly sexually abused.

Domestic Violence Against Men – There is no question on the fact that domestic violence against women is a serious and major problem, but domestic violence against men is also increasing gradually in India. The supremacy of men in society gives confidence that they are not vulnerable to domestic violence. Recently hundreds of men gathered in Chandigarh and Shimla, who sought protection and safety from domestic violence against their wives and other family members.

Domestic Violence Against Children – In our society, children and adolescents also face domestic violence. In fact, this form of violence is the second in the number of reported cases after violence against women. There is a lot of variation in the case of urban and rural areas and in the upper class and lower class families in India. It is treated as more personal in urban areas and is hidden within the fences.

Domestic Violence Against Elderly – This form of domestic violence refers to the violence against the elderly in the house committed by their children with other family members. This category of domestic violence is becoming highly sensitive in India. This includes beating up elders, asking them to do excessive household chores, not giving food etc. and keeping them separate from the rest of the family members.

Reasons for domestic violence

The main reason for domestic violence towards women is the senseless mindset that women are physically and emotionally weaker than men.

Including dissatisfaction with the received dowry, arguing with partner, refusing to make an intimate relationship, neglecting children, going out of the house at odd times without telling partner resulting in the barrage, oddities in the regular behaviour.

Indulging in extramarital affairs, not caring for in-laws, in some cases, sterility in women also lead to attacks on them by family members.

Reasons for domestic violence towards men include not following wives’ instructions, ‘insufficient men’s earnings, extramarital affairs, not helping in domestic activities’, not taking proper care of children, abusing husband and family, Sterility etc. of men.

Reasons for domestic violence with children may include disregarding parental advice and orders, poor performance in education or not being on par with other neighbourhood children, arguing with parents and other family members, etc.

The reasons for domestic violence with children in rural areas can include child labour, physical abuse or harassment for not following family traditions, forcing them to stay at home and not allowing them to go to school, etc.

In order to get money in poor families, there have been reports of parents selling body parts of retarded children. This incident shows the high level of cruelty and violence against children.

The main reasons for domestic violence against older people are the children hesitating to bear the expenses of the old parents. They torment their parents emotionally and beat them to get rid of them.

On various occasions, they are beaten up for acting against the wishes of family members. One of the most common reasons is the torture given to grab property.

Effects of domestic violence

If a person has faced domestic violence in his life, it is very difficult for him to come out of this fear. Negativity, gloom and apathy dominate the intuition of a person after he is perpetually a victim of domestic violence. It takes years for that person to return to the mainstream of a stable lifestyle.

The worst aspect of domestic violence is that the person suffering from it does not come back from the trauma. It is often seen in such cases that people either lose their mental balance or fall prey to depression.

This is the most dangerous and tragic situation of domestic violence that when the people whom we trust so much and live with -when they give us this kind of grief, the person loses faith in relationships and starts living solitarily. Many times people even commit suicide in this condition.

The most widespread effect of domestic violence is on children. CT scans show that children who have spent their lives in domestic violence shrink the corpus callosum and hippocampus part of their brain, affecting their learning, cognitive ability, and power of emotional regulation.

Children learn vicious and aggressive behaviour from their father. The effect of this can be seen in the violent acts of children towards other unstable and weak children and animals at times.

Girls learn cynical behaviour and often become submissive, silent or tend to run away from situations.

The quality of life of each person is adversely affected because the women who have been victims of violence take less part in various activities of social life.

Solution measures

According to the researchers, it is important to note that not all victims of domestic violence are aggressive. We can help them to get out of the mental turmoil of domestic violence by providing them with a better atmosphere.

India is still lagging behind in surveying, peering, understanding and trying to change the mindset of assailants. We are still largely ignoring the view propagated by experts that- “in order to end violence and discrimination against women and children in the true sense, we need to consider men not only as a reason for the problem but they’re also to be seen as an integral part of the solution to this.”

As a first step towards reform, it will be fundamental that men should be put in as a part of the scenario instead of putting it like “men against women”. It will be mandatory to promote the spirit of masculinity in a healthy way and get rid of old worn-out mould.

The Government has passed the Domestic Violence Act, 2005 from Parliament to protect women and children from domestic violence. To get the full benefit of all the provisions comprised in this law, it is important to understand who is the victim. If you are a woman and someone among relatives misbehaves with you, then you are suffering under this act.

India has become serious towards mental health by the Mental Health Act, 2017, but it needs to be made more effective. Policymakers need to develop mechanisms to provide benefits of professional mental health services to families recovering from domestic violence.

The government has launched schemes such as ‘One-Stop Centers’, which aim to facilitate and ensure their access to an integrated range of medical, legal and psychological services to help women who are victims of violence.

Vogue India launched a ‘Boys Don’t Cry’ campaign to spread awareness about violence against women, while the global human rights organization ‘Breakthrough’ launched a campaign against domestic violence. Both these campaigns were spectacular efforts made at the private level to deal with domestic violence against women.

The conclusion

If we really want to create an “India free from violence against women”, then the time has come that we, as a nation, should discuss this subject collectively. A good way could be to start a nationwide, sustained and prosperous social campaign.

‘Hallyu’

In the last decade, the attractiveness of South Korean everyday and pop culture has increased around the world. The popularity of this Korean cultural wave (hallyu) is largely the result of state cultural policy. Through globalization, new technologies and cooperation between the public and private sectors, mass culture has become an important driver of South Korea’s economic development. Hallyu also strengthens South Korean soft power, building a positive image of the state. The global popularity of hallyu will grow, and its elements will increasingly penetrate the pop culture of other countries.

Hallyu is a socio-cultural phenomenon associated with the growing popularity of South Korean culture, especially popular. It was initiated in the late 1990s in connection with the success of Korean television series (K-dramas) and movies in east and southeast Asia. At the beginning of the 21st century, popular music (K-pop) gained importance and remains to this day the largest vehicle of hallyu. Currently, the Korean wave also includes, among other things, online games, comics and animations, literature, cuisine, cosmetics and fashion.

In the last decade, hallyu has found audiences beyond Asia, becoming a global phenomenon. According to the estimates of the Korea Foundation, there are 1,799 Korean wave fan clubs (social media groups) in 94 countries, connecting approximately 99.32 million people (end of 2019). Most fans are in Asia and Oceania (71.81 million, 479 fan clubs), while in Europe there are the most fan clubs (624), connecting 15.5 million people. The Korean wave is becoming increasingly popular in the Americas (about 12.15 million people in 542 fan clubs). The fewest fan clubs and members (154 and 320,000, respectively) are in the Middle East and Africa. Recent successes on the U.S. market, including four Oscars for the movie “Parasite”, and multiple chart-toppers by the K-pop band BTS, confirm the strength of hallyu. Its success is due to the cultural policy of the Republic of Korea, initiated in the 1990s, which uses globalization and technological development.

Hallyu’s global popularity will grow due to the constant expansion of the offer, with new fields, mastery of the mechanisms of digital distribution and consumption of cultural content, greater orientation towards foreign recipients and the use of new technologies. Elements of hallyu will increasingly penetrate the pop culture of other countries, affecting their cultural industries (such as the film industry in the United States, following the success of “Parasite”).

South Korea has become one of the global pop culture centers also thanks to the involvement of fans around the world. They increase the reach of hallyu through social media activity, and translations of TV series and lyrics of songs. They can also act as a lobbying group. This was shown by the example of one of the Polish TV stations, which, for its negative opinions about a K-pop singer, was flooded with a wave of critical comments in social media and forced to apologize. Hallyu will also have a greater impact in Poland, where, according to the Korea Foundation, there are around 115,000 fans. The growing popularity of hallyu in Poland may prompt South Korea to increase the export of cultural content and related consumer goods and services to the Polish market. The South Korean example may encourage deeper cooperation between the public and private sectors for the development of creative industries in Poland.

Corona Virus

Coronavirus is a group of viruses that is zoonotic in

Nature, coronaviruses are transmitted between animals and peoples.In humans, the virus is known to cause respiratory infections that are typically mind. But

May become lethal as is happening in Wuhan.

Coronavirus disease (COVID19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

In December 2019,a novel coronavirus called SARS-COV-2 has resulted in the outbreak of a respiratory illness known as Covid 19

Coronaviruses (COV) are a large family of viruses that

Cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe disease such.as middle eat Respiratory  Syndrome (MERS-COV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome.(SARS-COV)a novel corona virus (Ncov) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

The new corona virus is part of a family of viruses that affect the respiratory system

It is common in animals , but a few affect humans.

The current virus originated from WUHAN PROVINCE in CHINA

COVID-19 SYMPTOMS

  • FEVER
  • COUGH
  • SHORTNESS OF BREATH
  • PERSISTENT PAIN OR CHEST PRESSURE
  • BLUISH LIPS OR FACE

PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT nCOV

  • Avoid touching your eyes ,nose ,and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who have possible symptoms
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue,then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
  • Avoid animals (alive or dead) animal markets,and products that come from animals (such as uncooked meet)

             TREATMENT

There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for 2019-COV infection. People infected with 2019-COV

Should receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms.

People who think they may have been exposed to 2019-cov should contact your healthcare provider immediately.

Coronavirus as a group of viruses that is zoonotic in

Nature, coronaviruses are transmitted between animals and peoples.In humans, the virus is known to cause respiratory infections that are typically mind. But

May become lethal as is happening in wuhan.

Coronavirus disease (COVID19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus.

In December 2019,a novel coronavirus called SARS-COV-2 has resulted in the outbreak of a respiratory illness known as Covid 19

Coronaviruses (COV) are a large family of viruses that

Cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe disease such.as middle eat Respiratory  Syndrome (MERS-COV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome.(SARS-COV)a novel corona virus (Ncov) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans.

The new corona virus is part of a family of viruses that affect the respiratory system

It is common in animals , but a few affect humans.

The current virus originated from WUHAN PROVINCE in CHINA

COVID-19 SYMPTOMS

  • FEVER
  • COUGH
  • SHORTNESS OF BREATH
  • PERSISTENT PAIN OR CHEST PRESSURE
  • BLUISH LIPS OR FACE

PRECAUTIONS TO PREVENT nCOV

  • Avoid touching your eyes ,nose ,and mouth with unwashed hands.
  • Avoid close contact with people who have possible symptoms
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue,then throw the tissue in the trash.
  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched objects and surfaces.
  • Avoid animals (alive or dead) animal markets,and products that come from animals (such as uncooked meet)

             TREATMENT

There is no specific antiviral treatment recommended for 2019-COV infection. People infected with 2019-COV

Should receive supportive care to help relieve symptoms.

People who think they may have been exposed to 2019-cov should contact your healthcare provider immediately.

Fighting Family Burnout During The Covid 19 Crisis

Burnout is a state of emotional, physical and mental exhaustion caused by excessive and prolonged stress. It occurs when a person feels overwhelmed, emotionally drained and unable to meet constant demands. After months of staying at home amid the Covid 19 Pandemic, family burnout is becoming an additional challenged in some households. Families across the nation are experiencing symptoms of family burnout these days. Now that schools are out for the summer and millions are currently unemployed, Partners, Parents and Children who are together 24/7 may soon feel even more desperate for a few moments alone and a return to their pre-Covid19 routines. But the current rise in cases and the delay of reopening plans in several states may signal that families will need to remain together at home even longer than they realized. However, households that are feeling togetherness fatigue can take steps to alleviate family burnout and ease the strain on their relationships.


The additional toll faced by single parents

For single parents still working, now depleted of their normal childcare assistance, the pandemic may mean more to do and fewer opportunities for self-care than ever before. “In a two-parent household, division of tasks allows each parent to have some relief, but single-parent households typically take on all of these tasks themselves, which can absolutely lead to burnout quicker.” For single parents in a pandemic, there’s no partner to help, share responsibilities and there are few, if any, opportunities to get away and breathe by oneself. The result can easily lead to family burnout.


Family burnout can affect romantic relationships too
Months together in quarantine can also be a strain on romantic relationships. “When one person in a relationship is experiencing burnout, the other can typically pick up the slack, but when both are, it can be a struggle to connect and feel your best.” The impact on marriages and romantic relationships is considered part of the collateral damage of COVID-19. In times of high stress, it may not always be the best thing to be locked at home together, incapable of getting the space and clear head that’s often needed to work through marital discord.


It’s not just parents and adults — kids can experience family burnout as well
“Burnout in children often presents as anxiety, being irritable, poor academic performance, or staying isolated from peers and not expressing interest in playing.” A recent survey in Italy found that children are experiencing psychological impacts as a result of lockdown. They’re more irritable, having trouble sleeping, and many are regressing developmentally. “Compared to younger children, teenagers may be more likely to experience burnout due to higher academic workload, greater need for peer interaction, and more frequent conflicts with parents.”


How to reduce the impact of burnout in your household?
But just because so many are experiencing burnout doesn’t mean it can’t be helped. Burnout can be prevented by having a better balance between family time versus me time. When dealing with kids who may be acting out as a result of lockdown stress, parents should try using encouragement and positive reinforcement over punishment techniques. “Having a routine for sleep, meals, and study time can help children feel prepared for the next activity and avoid some conflicts.”

Self-reflection

I have always heard people telling me to self-reflect whenever I make a mistake. It always made me wonder how self-reflection can help me be better. It was later when I actually applied this in my life, I realized that I could not only identify my flaws but also manage my personal growth. If we ever delve deeper in self-reflection, we will realize its significance. It is very difficult to be one’s own critique. Sometimes, we tend to be too hard on ourselves while sometimes, we may find it hard to pick out our own flaws. Being objective about oneself is difficult since everyone tends to be a little bit bias but it can be developed like any other skill.

Personal reflection encourages us to do better in our lives. Its benefits can be reaped earlier if self-reflection is inculcated at an early age. For example: In school going students, self-reflection can be encouraged by making them keep a record of their improvement, helping them set their own goals and guiding them to work towards them. Writing diary entries can also be a good means to record one’s thoughts. The benefit of this will be that the children from a very young age will develop critical thinking and navigate through their own journey. They will be able to point their own lacking areas and work on them to grow.

This develops a deeper understanding of the world and people tend to generally become more self-aware and socially-aware. Reflection gives an opportunity to process the inside of one’s brain as well as outside. Practicing self-reflection takes self-discipline and a willingness to learn. When you will self-reflect, you will be able to recognize many of your weaknesses, not everyone can be easily accepting of them since all of us have some level of insecurities, so it is needed to throw that fear way and let yourself learn more about yourself.

Many people may think that it is useless and stick to doing what they have always been doing but living a life without self-reflection remains futile. Having a reflective thinking is essential to get through one’s difficult life situations. Emotions can cloud your judgments which may sway you away from looking at things from a different perspective. Self-reflection allows you to take a step-back and analyze the situation from a broader point of view and then create an appropriate response to it.

Meditation can help a lot in your journey of self-reflection. Creating a space for yourself so that you have time to self-reflect is the first step. It is basically an ability to live a well-balanced life.

Education vs knowledge

THINK ABUT IT ONCE 🤔

Difference between Knowledge and Truth | Knowledge vs Truth

Education is very important for everyone not just it call for the well educated well it become intellectual, skills, learning, abilities etc and well as it’s quite common for get degree these days to get a job. In this whole word we not understand the meaning of education, So think about it not for only in race but also enjoy it as well. and get knowledge. The education is not have any limitation to gain the bookish knowledge but also understand the rules and regulations as well know about behavior on our society. Knowledge as a process of performance based which is human brain assemble the information collected by person , actually data obtain through various sources as the education. Their are two aspects of their knowledge in which is the practical and theoretical.

The Constant Need Of Becoming Perfect

We all have our version of what a perfect person is. Psychologists often call it the ‘Ideal Self’. Sometimes this ideal self is someone who is the best at math. Sometimes it is someone who is their parents’ favorite child. Sometimes it is someone who knows everything about everything.

lonely-man-in-hat-admiring-picturesque-view-4555669

The point is that we all have a ‘perfect’ someone in our mind and we spend most of our life trying to stand up to those standards. Unfortunately, the most of us don’t succeed.

The thing is that from the very beginning of our life, we are influenced by our surroundings. Our family teaches us basic activities like walking, running and talking. As we grow, they teach us manners and social norms one must follow for the society to us as a part of it. Our school imparts basic education by teaching us how to read and write. Apart from that, educational institutes teach us how to form opinions and ideas about anything and everything. Even our peers and friends influence our lives in several ways. As a result, we continuously form ideas in our minds. We constantly contribute to the level of standards we ‘must’ follow. Even after doing a crazy amount of hard work we are unable to become that person. It is because we set unrealistic goals for ourselves and focus on all those things that we aren’t. We want to become someone else. Someone who is ‘perfect’ according to our ideals. So, where are we going wrong?

Why is it that the percentage of successful people is less? It is because they embrace their uniqueness. They accept themselves as they are. They know their strong points and put the same level of hard work into that and become successful in that area. They improve themselves not because the society expects them to. But because they want to. They don’t want to become perfect! They just want to become the best version of themselves. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if we all do the same thing? Yes, we won’t become perfect. But we will be happy and contempt with ourselves. It can take, weeks, months, even years! But when we do get there, it will be a thousand times better than that ‘perfect’!

Wanting to be someone else is a waste of the person you are.”

– Marilyn Monroe

6 yards of history

History of sari-like drapery is traced back to the Indus Valley Civilisation which flourished during 2800–1800 BCE around the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. Cotton was first cultivated and woven in Indian subcontinent around 5th millennium BCE. Dyes used during this period are still in use, particularly indigo, lac, red madder and tumeric. Silk was woven around 2450 BCE and 2000 BCE.

The word ‘sari’ evolved from ‘saatikaa’ (sanskrit: शाटिका) mentioned in earliest Hindu literature as women’s attire. The Sari or Sattika evolved from a three-piece ensemble comprising the Antriya, the lower garment; the Uttariya; a veil worn over the shoulder or the head; and the Stanapatta, a chestband. This ensemble is mentioned in Sanskrit lterature and Buddhist Pali literature during the 6th century BCE. This complete three-piece dress was known as Poshak, generic term for costume. Ancient Antriya closely resembled dothi wrap in the “fishtail” version which was passed through legs, covered the legs loosely and then flowed into a long, decorative pleats at front of the legs. It further evolved into Bhairnivasani skirt, today known as ghagri and lehenga. Uttariya was a shawl-like veil worn over the shoulder or head, it evolved into what is known today known as dupatta and ghoonghat. Likewise, Stanapatta evolved into choli by 1st century CE.

The ancient Sanskrit work, Kadambari by Banabhatta and ancient Tamil poetry, such as the Silapadhikaram describes women in drapes or sari. In ancient India, although women wore saris that bared the midriff, the Dharmashastra writers stated that women should be dressed such that the navel would never become visible. By which for some time the navel exposure became a taboo and the navel was concealed. In ancient Indian tradition and the Natya Shastra (an ancient Indian treatise describing ancient dance and costumes), the navel of the Supreme Being is considered to be the source of life and creativity, hence the midriff is to be left bare by the sari.

It is generally accepted that wrapped sari-like garments for lower body and sometimes shawls or scarf like garment called ‘uttariya’ for upper body, have been worn by Indian women for a long time, and that they have been worn in their current form for hundreds of years. In ancient couture the lower garment was called ‘nivi’ or ‘nivi bandha’, while the upper body was mostly left bare. The works of Kalidasa mentions ‘Kurpasika’ a form of tight fitting breast band that simply covered the breasts. It was also sometimes referred to as ‘Uttarasanga’ or ‘Stanapatta’.

Poetic references from works like Silapadhikaram indicate that during the Sangam period in ancient Tamil Nadu in southern India, a single piece of clothing served as both lower garment and head covering, leaving the midriff completely uncovered. Similar styles of the sari are recorded paintings by Raja Ravi Verma in Kerala. Numerous sources say that everyday costume in ancient India and till recent times in Kerala consisted of a pleated dhoti or  wrap, combined with a breast band called ‘Kurpasika’ or ‘Stanapatta’ and occasionally a wrap called ‘Uttariya’ that could at times be used to cover the upper body or head. The two-piece Kerala mundum neryathum (mundu, a dhoti or sarong, neryath, a shawl, in Malayalam) is a survival of ancient clothing styles. The one-piece sari in Kerala is derived from neighboring Tamil Nadu or Deccan during medieval period based on its appearance on various temple murals in medieval Kerala.

Early Sanskrit literature has a wide vocabulary of terms for the veiling used by women, such as Avagunthana (oguntheti/oguṇthikā), meaning cloak-veil, Uttariya meaning shoulder-veil, Mukha-pata meaning face-veil and Sirovas-tra meaning head-veil. In the Pratimānātaka, a play by Bhāsa describes in context of Avagunthana veil that “ladies may be seen without any blame (for the parties concerned) in a religious session, in marriage festivities, during a calamity and in a forest”. The same sentiment is more generically expressed in later Sanskrit lliterature. Sudraka the author of Mrichhakatika set in fifth century BCE says that the Avagaunthaha was not used by women everyday and at every time. He says that a married lady was expected to put on a veil while moving in the public.This may indicate that it was not necessary for unmarried females to put on a veil. This form of veiling by married women is still prevalent in Hindi-speaking areas, and is known as ghoongat where the loose end of a sari is pulled over the head to act as a facial veil.

Based on sculptures and paintings, tight bodices or cholis are believed have evolved between 2nd century BCE to 6th century CE in various regional styles. Early cholis were front covering tied at the back; this style was more common in parts of ancient northern India. This ancient form of bodice or choli are still common in the state of Rajasthan today. Varies styles of decorative traditional embroidery like gota patti, mochi, pakko, kharak, suf, kathi, phulkari and gamthi are done on cholis. In Southern parts of India, choli is known as ravikie which is tied at the front instead of back, kasuti is traditional form of embroidery used for cholis in this region. In Nepal, choli is known as cholo or chaubandi cholo and is traditionally tied at the front.

Red is most favored colour for weddingsaris and are traditional garment choice for brides in Indian culture. Women traditionally wore various types of regional handloomsaris made of silk, cotton, ikkat, block-print, embroidery and tie-dye textiles. Most sought after brocade silk saris are Banasari, Kanchipuram, Gadwal, Paithani, Mysore, Uppada, Bagalpuri, Balchuri, Maheshwari, Chanderi, Mekhela, Ghicha, Narayan pet and Eri etc. are traditionally worn for festive and formal occasions. Silk Ikat and cotton saris known as Patola, Pochampally, Bomkai, Khandua, Sambalpuri, Gadwal, Berhampuri, Bargarh, Jamdani, Tant, Mangalagiri, Guntur, Narayan pet, Chanderi, Maheshwari, Nuapatn, Tussar, Ilkal, Kotpad and Manipuri were worn for both festive and everyday attire. Tie-dyed and block-print saris known as Bandhani, Leheria/Leheriya, Bagru, Ajrakh, Sungudi, Kota Dabu/Dabu print, Bagh and Kalamkari were traditionally worn during monsoon season. GotaPattis popular form of traditional embroidery used on saris for formal occasions, various other types of traditional folk embroidery such mochi, pakko, kharak, suf, kathi, phulkari and gamthi are also commonly used for both informal and formal occasion.Today, modern fabrics like polyester, georgette and charmeuse are also commonly used.

Deteorating Mental Health due to the pandemic-induced lockdown

The outbreak of Covid-19 pandemic worldwide has affected every aspect of people’s life be it health(for those who are infected by the Corona virus) and employment and education for those who are under the lockdown restrictions. But apart from these, one that is least talked about is the detereoration of mental health of some people.

With social distancing being the new norm governing the people, those who are extrovert and loved to socialise with the people are forced to live in their houses away from their freinds and family members. When these people find no one to talk they are driven under depression and anxiety.

The prime reason as of why people are facing depression and anxiety in the pandemic outbreak is due to the financial crisis they are going through. For the elites, lockdown has provided them with leisure time to pursue a new hobby , spend time with family, cooking delicacies .But on the contrary, for the poor and middle class which contributes more than 50 percent of the Indian population, the pandemic led lockdown is a period of distress and hopelessness. These people face lack of resources to survive in this period which has rendered them unemployed.

The lockdown has excerbated the mental state of people who were already in depression in the pre- Corona time.Lockdown has provided them enough time at their disposal to think more and worry more .It is probable that these people see their future bleak in the post Covid world maybe because they are not able to perform well in their career. This is predominantly the problem of students and youth.

HOW TO TACKLE DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY IN THIS PERIOD?

Minimise time spent online if you are suffering from depression. Everyday updates about the rising number of corona cases and the distress of red zones will make you hopeless thinking the condition will never improve. If you are away from your family and loved ones, do not use social media very frequently. This too has a reason. The posts by your friends and family members enjoying the lockdown period will aggravate your anxiety and you will feel as if left out. Instead, it is advisable to pursue your hobby, take up an online course which interests you, talk to your family and friends over phone or video calls etc. Do anything which makes you feel happy. This will surely help.

Students on the other hand should not see a bleak future for themselves rather they should hone their skills which will ultimately help them in their career. They should talk to their parents. Noone can understand a child better than his parents.

One of the most effective ways to tackle this is to call a therapist and ask for help. There is nothing wrong in that. Everyone has to go through ups and downs and the person you are talking to is trained to provide help in these circumstances. Talking to a therapist can be of great help if you are suffering from depression, anxiety or in the worst case having suicidal thoughts too.

Final word

Anxiety and depression are seen as a taboo in Indian society. Noone likes to talk about it. But everyone has gone through this in some or other time in their life. We need to understand that depression is just an illness- a mental illness! People do get ill and they get well too. There are tonnes of examples of people who were in depression at some stage of their life and came out of it and have done wonders. That is possible provided that the person gets utmost care and support. In certain cases, of course medical help is needed.

Consumer Buying behavior

Shopping is an action through which a purchaser looks through the accessible goods or services offered by one or more stores with the intention to buying a desirable, eye-catching and satisfactory product. It is the procedure of procuring objects in exchange for currency. Now days there are dual channels offered for shopping. These channels are online and offline. Online shopping has evolved and turned out to be the most widespread ways to buy products. It is an act of buying products or services over the various companies’ websites. An offline shopping is an old-style way of purchasing goods and services. The buyers decide which medium they would love to follow for shopping.  We live in an era of technology; therefore, buyers want to take the benefit of online shopping but still there are many who don’t show trust over online sites and they prefer offline shopping in comparison to online.

Online shopping has grown into a way of life for maximum of the Indians especially women. Main motives of growing liking for online shopping are the penetration of internet, growing number of online retailers, comfort level, suppleness in delivery and rise in purchasing power plus many more. Bestowing to many researches or reports online transaction of females has doubled over in past few years. This study is an effort to analyze the buying pattern of women in online vs offline platform in respect to beauty products. The study delivers in-depth analysis of numerous aspects impacting the purchase decision

Who is a consumer? A consumer is permanently termed as an end-user individual, who consumes any product matching to their choice and utilize any services based on their liking. They are identified as an end-user for the reason that he or she is the last stop and does not normally trade the items which they have bought to others. For example, a kid buying video games and using it for playing. On the other hand, a customer/consumer is not obligatory to be the purchaser, for example, in a household when a mother go to the mall and bring cornflakes for herself and her family, all members of the family is consuming the cornflakes brought by her”. Any individual, who purchases a product or any services, might not be inevitably a user or a consumer.

The question of buyer’s buying behavior is converged on person and the elements or dynamics that influence their choices to expend their capitals on consuming products. The notions and philosophies of purchaser’s behavior are strained upon various branch of learning such as psychology, sociology concepts, anthropology, and economic principles too. Talking about Phillip Kotler, he mentioned in his studies that consumer shopping behavior is the learning of, in what manner people and administrations or organizations decide, purchase, consume and dispose goods and services or beliefs and experiences to mollify their desire and requirements.

Consumer buying behavior is the total sum of a customer’s outlooks, liking, purposes and choices concerning the consumer’s behavior in the trading floor when they are buying a product or service.  Consumer shopping behavior is a manner by which buyers hunt, prefer or pay or utilize and dispose of goods and services to quench their requirements and needs. Many economists worldwide also observed shopping as an action that makes consumers utilize most of their utility function hidden inside them. It is overwhelmingly entrenched in psychological theories along with the traces of sociology attached to make things more appealing.

Coming to the question attached with Women, retail is the region for women and shopping is an act habitually seen as corresponding to female protagonist. Female go on shopping to buy both necessary and discretionary products, most of them prefer shopping as a stress reliever and they also think it is a best place to socialize. Many researchers believed female to be the most prospective consumers in the world as they deal with more or less 80 percent of the domestic overheads. It is also noted that the concept of traditional woman’s role has endured changes in arrears to the transformation in shopping fore-showed by the growth and expansion of the department store. Women are portrayed as proficient shoppers and the occurrence of their customary roles are meticulously com-modified or redefined in requisites of commodities. Women behave contrarily from men because of biological, neurological, and behavioral dissimilarities between the two. These disparities in turn make an impression on their buying behavior. On the other side, men make themselves aware with abundant knowledge of a product or service through internet, advertising, journals etc. Female endeavor to get advantage from others’ expertise by asking people around them. Women are more link with their hunches and emotional state and have the propensity to live better bonded with their family, groups, networks and even brands. Female set their judgements and precedence not only corresponding to their desires but also bestowing to persons in her personal circumnavigate. Henceforward, it is influential to position a product, brand or a departmental store in a way by keeping few things in mind- how they will help her and other people present in her life. Practically in every single society, women have crucial care-giving household responsibilities for both teenagers and the ageing people and every so often, everyone else in-between. In this crucial care-giving position, women discover themselves buying on behalf of every person part of their lives. What does it mean? If you are involved in a consumer business, it signifies that women are compound markets link up in one. What a beguiling pretext to study the imprint of gender in the sales and marketing process. Every time we supply great service to woman, their comes a multiplier impact on your business since women characterizes a broad range of other prospective customers, and will probably inform people about the significant service you proffer. By and large, men stereo-typically do not have the character of primary shopper for their homes and so they incline to scrutinize shopping in a more different approach. A better knowledge and identifying of “Women buying behavior to online shopping” would indisputably streamline better market penetration in the women subdivision, but there is a scarcity of knowledge in this segment of research.

Why Is Water Important?

16 Reasons Why Water Is Important to Human Health

What’s the big deal?

It’s common to hear that water is essential for your health. But why?

This substance makes up a majority of your body weight and is involved in many important functions, including:

  • flushing out waste from your body
  • regulating body temperature
  • helping your brain function

You get most of your water from drinking beverages, but food also contributes a small amount to your daily water intake.

Read on to learn more ways water can help improve your well-being.

1. It helps create saliva

Water is a main component of saliva. Saliva also includes small amounts of electrolytes, mucus, and enzymes. It’s essential for breaking down solid food and keeping your mouth healthy.

Your body generally produces enough saliva with regular fluid intake. However, your saliva production may decrease as a result of age or certain medications or therapies.

If your mouth is drier than usual and increasing your water intake isn’t helping, see your doctor.

2. It regulates your body temperature

Staying hydrated is crucial to maintaining your body temperature. Your body loses water through sweat during physical activity and in hot environments.

Your sweat keeps your body cool, but your body temperature will rise if you don’t replenish the water you lose. That’s because your body loses electrolytes and plasma when it’s dehydrated.

If you’re sweating more than usual, make sure you drink plenty of water to avoid dehydration.

3. It protects your tissues, spinal cord, and joints

Water consumption helps lubricate and cushion your joints, spinal cord, and tissues. This will help you enjoy physical activity and lessen discomfort caused by conditions like arthritis.

4. It helps excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation

Your body uses water to sweat, urinate, and have bowel movements.

Sweat regulates body temperature when you’re exercising or in warm temperatures. You need water to replenish the lost fluid from sweat.

You also need enough water in your system to have healthy stool and avoid constipation.

Your kidneys are also important for filtering out waste through urination. Adequate water intake helps your kidneys work more efficiently and helps to prevent kidney stones.

5. It helps maximize physical performance

Drinking plenty of water during physical activity is essential. Athletes may perspire up to 6 to 10 percentTrusted Source of body weight during physical activity.

Hydration also affects your strength, power, and endurance.

You may be more susceptible to the effects of dehydration if you’re participating in endurance training or high-intensity sports such as basketball.

Negative effects of exercise in the heat without enough water can include serious medical conditions, like decreased blood pressure and hyperthermia. Extreme dehydration can cause seizures and even death.

6. It helps prevent constipation

Eating fiber isn’t the only way to prevent constipation. It’s also important to maintain your water intake so your bowel movements contain enough water.

If you don’t consume enough water, magnesium, and fiber, you may be more likely to experience constipation.

If you’re already constipated, you may find that drinking carbonated waterTrusted Source as well as plain water can help ease your symptoms.

7. It aids in digestion

Contrary to what some believe, experts confirm drinking water before, during, and after a meal will help your body break down the food you eat more easily. This will help you digest food more effectively and get the most out of your meals.

Research showsTrusted Source the body adapts to changes in the consistency of food and stomach contents, whether more solid or more liquid.

8. It helps with nutrient absorption

In addition to helping with food breakdown, water also helps dissolve vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients from your food. It then delivers these vitamin components to the rest of your body for use.

9. It helps you lose weight

Studies have linked body fat and weight loss with drinking water in both overweight girlsTrusted Source and women. Drinking more water while dieting and exercising may just help you lose extra pounds.

10. It improves blood oxygen circulation

Water carries helpful nutrients and oxygen to your entire body. Reaching your daily water intake will improve your circulation and have a positive impact on your overall health.

11. It helps fight off illness

Drinking enough water can help prevent certain medical conditionsTrusted Source. These include:

Water also helps you absorb important vitamins, minerals, and nutrients from your food, which will increase your chances of staying healthy.

12. It helps boost energy

Drinking water may activate your metabolism. A boost in metabolism has been associated with a positive impact on energy level.

One study found that drinking 500 milliliters of water boosted the metabolic rate by 30 percent in both men and women. These effects appeared to last over an hour.

13. It aids in cognitive function

Proper hydration is key to staying in tip-top cognitive shape. ResearchTrusted Source indicates that not drinking enough water can negatively impact your focus, alertness, and short-term memory.

14. It helps improve mood

Not getting enough water can also affect your mood. Dehydration may result in fatigue and confusion as well as anxiety.

15. It helps keep skin bright

Adequate water intake will help keep your skin hydrated and may promote collagen production. However, water intake alone isn’t enough to reduce the effects of aging. This process is also connected to your genes and overall sun protection.

16. It prevents overall dehydration

Dehydration is the result of your body not having enough water. And because water is imperative to so many bodily functions, dehydration can be very dangerous.

Severe dehydration can result in a number of severe complications, including:

  • swelling in your brain
  • kidney failure
  • seizures

Make sure you drink enough water to make up for what’s lost through sweat, urination, and bowel movements to avoid dehydration.

How much should you drink?

Being attentive to the amount of water you drink each day is important for optimal health. Most people drink when they’re thirsty, which helps regulate daily water intake.

According to the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, general water intake (from all beverages and foods) that meet most people’s needs are:

  • about 15.5 cups of water (125 ounces) each day for men
  • about 11.5 cups (91 ounces) daily for women

People get about 20 percent of their daily water intake from food. The rest is dependent on drinking water and water-based beverages. So, ideally men would consume about 100 ounces (3.0 liters) of water from beverages, and women, about 73 ounces (2.12 liters) from beverages.

You’ll have to increase your water intake if you’re exercising or living in a hotter region to avoid dehydration.

Other ways to assess hydration include your thirst and the color of your urine. Feeling thirsty indicates your body is not receiving adequate hydration. Urine that is dark or colored indicates dehydration. Pale or non-colored urine typically indicates proper hydration.

The bottom line

Water is important to nearly every part of your body. Not only will hitting your daily recommended intake help you maintain your current state of being, it may even improve your overall health.

Here are some ideas for how you can be sure you drink enough:

  • Carry a water bottle with you wherever you go. This way you can drink whenever the need strikes.
  • Keep track of your intake. Aim to take in optimum amounts every day, a minimum of half your body weight in ounces.
  • Pace yourself to approach half of your recommended consumption by midday. You can always finish about an hour before you plan to sleep.

THE JACKFRUIT PRIDE OF NATION

There have been strong motive to reduce the amount of meat in our daily dite.So that Jackfruits the perfect replacement of meat.So that every year on July 4th it is Observed as “Jackfruit Day”. On this day people will also celebrate as “Independence from Meat Day”.This Jackfruit day was created by the “Jackfruit.com”.The main aim of this Jackfruit.com is to raise awareness of this incredible fruit and how it serve to break our dependence on environmental damaging meat products. The Scientific name of this Jackfruit is “Artocarpus Hetrophyllus” and it belongs to the family called “Moraceae”. Its native place of South and Southeast parts of Asia and it grows upto 3 feet in length and weight up to 35 kilograms in total.All over the global there are over 100 different types of Jackfruits are available. Jackfruit is Bangladesh National fruit and Kerala’s State Fruit. In North India this fruit is known as “Kathal”.

Jackfruit is the best example of nothing is same from both outside and inside , It may look Ugly from Outside, but it is Sweet from inside

The growing stage of Jackfruit provides different Therapeutic uses and in additional to the sweet taste and smell every part like bark,flowers, leaves, roots,pulps and seeds of the tree is used for Medical Benefits. 140 grams of Jackfruit provides 133 Calories. It has 10% Magnesium, 7% Omega-3, 13% Potassium, 5% Vitamin A, 21%Vitamin C, 12%Vitamin B1, 6%Fiber, 3% Calcium, 4% Iron, 35% Vitamin BC, and it is rich in Antioxidants. It helps in regulating the Cancer,Fever,Diarrhea and it helps in mainly in control of Blood Pressure. The seeds of this Jackfruit tree taken as Medicine and it is taken by mouth for Diabetes. Its paste is applied to the skin for Poisonous Bites. Wood of the Jackfruit tree is used to make Musical instruments. Jackfruit is boiled and used in curries as a staple food ,The Young boiled Jackfruit is used in Salads or in spicy Curries and for filling for Chops and Cuttlets. Make sure that you prepare atleast one dish with this Jackfruit on this “Jackfruit Day” and share with your beloved ones. Once again happy “JACKFRUIT DAY”.

Lockdown Is Disrupting a Generation’s Education. What Can Be Done?

An interesting idea has been in the works in Uttar Pradesh which is planning to use Doordarshan, All India Radio and community radio to promote audio-based learning among students.

Lockdown Is Disrupting a Generation's Education. What Can Be Done?

The last few days have finally seen a flurry of activities by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (HRD) and various regulators including CBSE, NCERT etc. to find alternatives to ensure the continuation of education. While this may not be a good time to address the seriously low expenditure on education in India, the lack of seriousness towards the sector can be gauged from the fact that HRD was kept in Category C (the lowest category) for expenditure – i.e. the said department will have to restrict expenditure to within 15% of that budgeted for Q1, 2020-21.

Amidst this background, the department and regulators have started moving towards developing an online mode of education – as, hopefully, a stop-gap arrangement. NCERT has released an Alternative Academic Calendar for four weeks of home-based activities for different subjects. For example, activities like categorising objects including eraser, pencils, cloth, pulses etc. to teach the concepts of colours, shapes and sizes have been suggested for the students of Class I-IV.

For Class V students, teachers will be conducting classes through internet-based platforms, in the absence of which SMS and voice recordings can be sent. However, it has not been explained how voice recordings can be sent without the internet. Certain states including Uttar Pradesh are planning to launch high-quality ed-tech applications along with using e-resources suggested by the MHRD including e-pathshala etc.

However, amongst this whole discourse of moving education online, there has hardly been any discussion surrounding the practical issues of implementation, as well as various socio-economic factors which define the Indian education ecosystem.

Limited internet availability

The 75th report of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) for 2017-18 highlights some of the major issues that this new model would have to address. All India percentage of households having internet facilities stands at 23.8% with rural availability at 14.9% and urban at 42%.

The problem does not end there, as having a facility does not mean it would be used. The percentage of people who were able to use the internet (all-India) stood at 20.1% with rural at 13% and urban at 37.1%. Additionally, only 10.8% of people in India had used the internet in the last 30 days. It is important to note that these statistics vary vastly among different states across the country. For instance, Bihar stands at the lowest (9.1%) for individuals who have used the internet in 30 days, while Delhi has the highest number (49.1%) of such individuals with bigger states like Maharashtra (26%), Rajasthan (15.3%), Andhra Pradesh (14.8%) etc. being in the middle.

These statistics strike at the core rationale of using the internet as a mode to impart education, and highlight how a majority of the country would be left out of the quest to achieve basic education in the months to come.

Increased responsibility of parents to educate their wards

Another important pillar of the new model is the increased role that parents play in educating their wards. Take, for example, the NCERT guidelines which – surprisingly has progressive methods of teaching to improve the analytical, quantitative, and logical reasoning abilities of the students – all key factors which our regular model of teaching and learning does not have. However, the guidelines presume that the parents will have the academic intellect to impart education to their students. But statistics highlight otherwise.

The same NSSO survey, quoted above, highlights that 26.1% of the population above 15 years of age is ‘not literate’, while a further 18.9% have attended formal education up till primary school, 16.2% each have attended middle (Class V) and secondary (until Class VIII). This constitutes a whopping 77.4% of total India’s population – who may not have the adequate level of education needed to teach children in the house. The situation at the rural level is even more dire, with 69.6 % of the population being in the spectrum of ‘not-literate’ to ‘middle school’.

Loss of nutrition due to school closure 

While the above factors touched upon the modality of the education, there is an even more basic issue at stake. The closure of schools has serious implications on the daily nutrition of students as the mid-day meal schemes have temporarily been shut. As of March 31, 2019, close to 12 crore students across the country were provided with food under with mid-day meal schemes.

This is close to 60% of the total students enrolled throughout K-12 education (the actual percentage is likely to be more, as mid-day meal only caters to students till Class VIII). Various studies have pointed out that mid-day meals are an important contributing factor for increased enrolment (~30%) in the schools.

These factors highlight a very dangerous scenario for the K-12 education sector in our country. Our learning outcomes in K-12 education do not inspire much confidence, in the first place, as has been pointed out repeatedly in various ASER reports by Pratham.

The loss of possibly half a year – if not the full academic year of 2020-21 – is going to further deteriorate the situation, as students would have difficulty in resuming schooling again after a huge gap. Additionally, the loss of income for a considerable population in India is going to further exacerbate the situation – CMIE’s data suggests that 11.9 crore people have lost employment in the two weeks of the COVID-19 lockdown. Investment in education is not going to be a priority, amongst disadvantaged households, and we might see a dip in enrolment, when and if, schools are opened.

Possible solutions

While the damage to the sector is similar to the damage every sector across the world is facing, it is possible that with some careful planning, we might be able to limit the long-term consequences of this prolonged shutdown.

To begin with, the districts in the green zone should be allowed to open schools – after analysing them further over the next few days. So far, there are 318 districts such in the country – which will likely cover a majority of the school children. Eventually, 292 yellow zone districts – which may turn to the green zone in the next few days or weeks – should also allow schools to open.

Strict social distancing measures should be implemented, and to limit the number of students, classes may run in two four-hour shifts. While this strategy would not result in finishing the quarterly curriculum, this will at least reduce the gap in learning that students are likely to experience if schools continue to remain shut for long. This may also help in addressing the possible increase in drop-outs due to the long shutdown.

This leaves the government with 107 districts which are in red and orange zones. It might not be possible to open schools in these areas any time soon, thus, there is a need to deploy public funds to fix the internet gap and ensure that students continue to learn. Some state government have come up with ideas to address this concern.

The Delhi government had mooted an interesting idea to provide data packages to the students of Class X and XII. While this is likely to have certain implementation challenges – particularly the misuse of data for objectives other than learning – smart technology solutions can be found. Use of the internet can be restricted to specific applications prepared by the government. Similarly, another interesting idea has been in works in the state of Uttar Pradesh which is planning to use Doordarshan, All India Radio and community radio to promote audio-based learning among students who do not have access to the internet.

Additionally, there is a need to develop a financial stimulus for the education sector primarily targeting low cost private aided and unaided schools – which are likely to witness a reduction in fee collections, due to income losses. Various states, including Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh have already announced that schools should not pressurise parents to pay fees.

However, a move like this is going to have a spillover impact on the incomes of teachers at such low-cost private schools. As of 2016-17, close to 28 lakh teachers were employed in private unaided schools, and further 8.3 lakh in government-aided schools. A more rational system could be to allow a reduced percentage of the fee in schools which are partially working (red and orange zone), with full fees for schools which would be fully functional (green and yellow).

Wherever relevant, a grant-in-aid could be issued for specific schools on a case-to-case basis to bridge income and expenditure. The powers for the same can be devolved to the district authorities to ensure a more localised approach.

While understandably, India as a developing country does not have unlimited resources, certain core sectors including education cannot simply be left as the last priority. Similar to other sectors, which are witnessing a staggered opening, the education sector – particularly the K-12 education system – needs to be opened in a staggered way.

These 12 years of education are crucial for every student and are the base years that will support the upward social and economic mobility of disadvantaged classes. A long and unplanned hiatus is likely to shatter the dreams of many and further harm the country in the long-term with a less-educated workforce. We need more talented and skilled individuals to get us out of the possible recession that the world is going to face and dropping the ball on education, is not going to help the cause.

If you were a food item, what would you have been? Why?

I will go for “Panipuri” its an Indian street side snack, that has a crisp puffed Indian bread (puri), stuffed with mashed spiced potatoes/chana(gram)/ragda (a curry of white peas), dipped in sweet(tamarind and date) and spicy(Pudina, coriander and chilli, with pinch of lemon) flavored water.

Panipuri or Phuchka is a type of snack that originated in the Indian subcontinent. It consists of a round or ball-shaped, hollow puri, filled with a mixture of flavored water, tamarind chutney, chili, chaat masala, potato, onion or chickpeas.

Why? I am sweet at times and spicy(angry) at times, and thats what makes me and my life. If you are new to me, you will see a rock sheer cover on my mind, you will feel i am arrogant (Hitler like, the most common adjective awarded to me), but once you try and be friends with me, to crack that layer, there is much more you couldn’t even wonder about me.

I am unpredictable. I can be a sweetest heart soemtimes and an angry bird at times. If you are are new to me, you would think I am arrogant (Probably a Hitler) but as you befriend me, you shall wonder if you ever knew me.

There is something comfortingly familiar about eating a humble pani puri – a crispy hollow ball made of semolina or wheat, filled with spicy potatoes and topped with tangy, spicy tamarind water made fragrant by mint leaves and black salt.

It may sound like culinary chaos, but that this spicy, crunchy wonder is absolutely delicious is something almost Indians will agree on.

Served by vendors from a setup that gives the word ‘utilitarian’ a run for its money, pani puri (also called golgappa, phuchka and a multitude of other monikers) is, in every sense, a material manifestation of the elusive emotion called “simple joy.” This innocuous street snack is also a great leveller – at a pani puri stall, you will see besuited businessmen step out of sleek cars to join the queue alongside the city’s poorest residents.

So how and where did this culinary gem really originate? Many believe that the answer lies in the history of the kingdom of Magadh.

One of the 16 Mahajanapadas (great kingdoms in Sanskrit) of ancient India, the Magadhan empire was situated on the banks of River Ganga in what is now west-central Bihar. Lively accounts of Magadh and its capital, Pataliputra, are available in the travel diaries of the Greek historian Megasthenes and the Chinese Buddhist pilgrims Faxian and Xuanzang.

It is believed that phulkis (the precursor to pani puri) first originated in Magadh at a time when several traditional specialities of the region, like chitba, pitthow, tilba and chewda of Katarni rice, were evolving. The culinary genius who invented them is lost in the pages of history, but if Indians had known who invented pani puri (or whatever you call this yummy snack), they would have thanked that person for generations!

There is another legend associated with the origin of pani puris. This is how it goes:

In the epic Mahabharata, a newly-wedded Draupadi returns home to be given a task by her mother-in-law Kunti. The Pandavas were on exile and Kunti wanted to test if her new daughter-in-law would be able to manage with the scarce resources.

So she gave Draupadi some leftover potato sabzi and just enough wheat dough to make one puri, instructing her to make food that would satisfy the hunger of all five of her sons. It is believed that this was when the new bride invented pani puri. Impressed with her daughter-in-law’s ingenuity, Kunti blessed the dish with immortality.

While the origins of this delicious snack is yet to be pinpointed with historical accuracy, the one thing that is clear is that pani puri travelled across India and made the country fall head over heels in love with it. Over the years, the combinations underwent many changes as each region developed its own version according to its preferences.

As a result, pani puri today has almost a dozen different names that changes from region to region. In most parts of central and southern India, it is called pani puri but the recipes have subtle variations. While in Maharashtra, hot ragda (white peas curry) is added to the potato mash, in Gujarat, it is boiled moong and in Karnataka, it is chopped onions.

While the origins of this delicious snack is yet to be pinpointed with historical accuracy, the one thing that is clear is that pani puri travelled across India and made the country fall head over heels in love with it. Over the years, the combinations underwent many changes as each region developed its own version according to its preferences.

As a result, pani puri today has almost a dozen different names that changes from region to region. In most parts of central and southern India, it is called pani puri but the recipes have subtle variations. While in Maharashtra, hot ragda (white peas curry) is added to the potato mash, in Gujarat, it is boiled moong and in Karnataka, it is chopped onions.

In West Bengal, pani puri is called phuchka, probably due to the ‘phuch’ sound it makes when you take a bite. The unique feature of the phuchka lies in the fact that it’s made of wholewheat, unlike the other that are usually made of flour or semolina. The phuchka water is also a little spicier and tangier than that used in the rest of the country.

SMALL LOOK AT HACKING!

An exceptionally clear point on programmer’s proposition is PC and PC hacking. PCs are mind boggling and appear to be hard to learn, however on the off chance that you have time, your PC will be extremely advantageous and intriguing. Have you heard every one of those abnormal PC terms? For instance, Javascript. Javascript is fundamentally a coding languages utilized when composing Internet pages. Have you at any point been to the web and have you seen writings or recordings on the screen? It is totally done in the Java language.

We as a whole asked that Web locales and organizations were hacked. However, what does “hacking” mean? In the first form, programmers basically implied finding better approaches to get things done with PCs and programming. This can be something to be thankful for (improving the exhibition of something) or a terrible thing (finding a PC you can not get to). Today, programmers are utilized as a conventional expression for a wide range of vindictive action, for example, information break, website page fouling, bank misrepresentation. Normally, even the assailant’s modifying expertise isn’t included. It is additionally blamed for criticism. Okay prefer to post a few words that you lament saying to web-based social networking? “Apologies, my record has been hacked”

Today, new issues are spreading to programmers. Since the stage exchanges an enormous measure of cash, programmers are prepared to split these individuals’ records. Online networking promoting gives interfaces to clients and ensures client data and assets. Also, we use it as a disseminated approach. Online life showcasing likewise gives specialists to shield client accounts from hacking exercises. Accordingly, we built up a security framework as a couple of steps to give high security to the proprietor. Online life promoting has built up a basic correspondence framework since normal individuals and corporate associations cooperate. In this way, drawing in individuals’ fascination through this stage is simple. Individuals can impart insights and recommendations via web-based networking media advertising stages, for example, visit, instant messages, video calls, videoconferencing, and phone calls. This open door will take individuals to business associations and advance individuals’ desire activities.

However, as of now, hacking has an increasingly negative ramifications as is the term programmer. Hacking which is done on demand and includes an agreement of terms and conditions permits approved access to the objective and henceforth alluded to as moral hacking.

PC and system security go under the invasion when the data about potential assaults is attempted to be assessed to decide the shortcomings and provisos in the framework. Helpless web-setups, old or freely tie programming, dormant or impaired security controls and frail or low-quality passwords are a few instances of territories that make PC systems and frameworks powerless against assaults. Moral hacking includes recognizable proof of all or any such potential regions dependent on the recommended terms in the agreement and the degree of access given.

Eric Raymond has a superior definition to hacking in his aggregation ‘The New Hacker’s Dictionary’ as: A “great hack” is a shrewd answer for a programming arrangement and “hacking” is the demonstration of doing it. Moral hacking enables the association to all the more likely ensure its framework and data and is viewed as a feature of an association’s general security endeavors.

Programmers could plan to take organization’s significant data and furthermore render hurt the protected innovation and other touchy data. Organizations may likewise run into the difficulty of confronting possible claims if programmers take client data by getting into their frameworks.

MACHINE LEARNING-The Future?

Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.

The process of learning begins with observations or data, such as examples, direct experience, or instruction, in order to look for patterns in data and make better decisions in the future based on the examples that we provide. The primary aim is to allow the computers learn automatically without human intervention or assistance and adjust actions accordingly.

But, using the classic algorithms of machine learning, text is considered as a sequence of keywords; instead, an approach based on semantic analysis mimics the human ability to understand the meaning of a text.

Some machine learning methods

Machine learning algorithms are often categorized as supervised or unsupervised.

Supervised machine learning algorithms can apply what has been learned in the past to new data using labeled examples to predict future events. Starting from the analysis of a known training dataset, the learning algorithm produces an inferred function to make predictions about the output values. The system is able to provide targets for any new input after sufficient training. The learning algorithm can also compare its output with the correct, intended output and find errors in order to modify the model accordingly.

In contrast, unsupervised machine learning algorithms are used when the information used to train is neither classified nor labeled. Unsupervised learning studies how systems can infer a function to describe a hidden structure from unlabeled data. The system doesn’t figure out the right output, but it explores the data and can draw inferences from datasets to describe hidden structures from unlabeled data.

Semi-supervised machine learning algorithms fall somewhere in between supervised and unsupervised learning, since they use both labeled and unlabeled data for training – typically a small amount of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. The systems that use this method are able to considerably improve learning accuracy. Usually, semi-supervised learning is chosen when the acquired labeled data requires skilled and relevant resources in order to train it / learn from it. Otherwise, acquiring unlabeled data generally doesn’t require additional resources.

Reinforcement machine learning algorithms is a learning method that interacts with its environment by producing actions and discovers errors or rewards. Trial and error search and delayed reward are the most relevant characteristics of reinforcement learning. This method allows machines and software agents to automatically determine the ideal behavior within a specific context in order to maximize its performance. Simple reward feedback is required for the agent to learn which action is best; this is known as the reinforcement signal.

Machine learning enables analysis of massive quantities of data. While it generally delivers faster, more accurate results in order to identify profitable opportunities or dangerous risks, it may also require additional time and resources to train it properly. Combining machine learning with AI and cognitive technologies can make it even more effective in processing large volumes of information.

DO YOU KNOW ABOUT DIGITAL CRIME? : One of the dangerous crime in the world

Everybody feels that solitary taking somebody’s private information is Cyber Crime. Be that as it may, in characterizing terms we can say that ‘Digital Crime alludes to the utilization of an electronic gadget (PC, PC, and so on.) for taking somebody’s information or attempting to hurt them utilizing a PC

Furthermore, it is a criminal behavior that includes a progression of issues extending from robbery to utilizing your framework or IP address as a device for perpetrating a wrongdoing.

Digital Crime Essay

Kinds of Cyber Crime

Talking in a broadway we can say that Cyber Crime are classified into four significant sorts. These are Financial, Privacy, Hacking, and Cyber Terrorism.

The monetary wrongdoing they take the cash of client or record holders. Similarly, they additionally took information of organizations which can prompt monetary violations. Additionally, exchanges are intensely gambled as a result of them. Consistently programmers took lakhs and crores of rupees of specialists and government.

Protection wrongdoing incorporates taking your private information which you would prefer not to impart to the world. Additionally, because of it, the individuals endure a great deal and some even end it all due to their information’s abuse.

In, hacking they deliberate mutilate a site to make harm or misfortune the general population or proprietor. Aside from that, they devastate or make changes in the current sites to reduce its worth.

Advanced psychological oppression has developed path past what it was 10-20 years back. Be that as it may, digital psychological oppression isn’t simply identified with fear based oppressors or psychological militant associations. Yet, to danger some individual or property to the degree of making dread is likewise Cyber Terrorism.

Digital Crime in India

Web world or the internet is an enormous network of millions and billions of clients and sites. Likewise, individuals get to it for various utilizations like shopping, motion pictures, music, computer games, exchanges, and web based business, and so on.

In this Age of Technology and simple access to the web, anybody can without much of a stretch arrive at it. In light of this relentless development from the earlier decade. Moreover, the web has opened a universe of data on which anybody can associate.

Because of, this the pace of wrongdoing particularly the pace of Cyber Crime has expanded a lot of overlap. In addition, the pace of dissemination of information is likewise expanded a lot of overlay because of the higher speed of web. Most importantly, because of every one of these issues, the Cybersecurity has become a significant worry for society.

Laws identified with Cyber Crimes

To stop the spread of Cyber Crime and to protect the enthusiasm of individuals the administration has made a few laws identified with Cyber Crimes. Likewise, these laws fill in as security against Cyber Crime. Aside from that, the administration has additionally presented digital cells in police headquarters to counter the issue of Cyber Crime as quick as possible.

Methods of halting Cyber Crime

Digital Crime isn’t something which we can’t manage our self. In like manner, with little utilization of our sound judgment and rationale, we can prevent Cyber Crimes from occurring.

To finish up, we can say that Cyber Crime is a hazardous offense to somebody’s protection or any material. Additionally, we can stay away from Cyber Crime by following some essential coherent things and utilizing our presence of mind. Most importantly, Cyber Crime is an infringement of law as well as of human rights as well.