Importance of Agricultural Education

In many schools around the world, STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) and entrepreneurship teaching methods have seen a nudge but should agricultural education be given more significance? There is no disputing the importance of basic education as it lays the model for the development of a child, but the agricultural education system can also provide real life skills for students that can help them both in their future professional and personal life.

What Are the Benefits of Agriculture and Farmers?

Impacts of climate change and its negative effects on food health and deterioration of the atmosphere are growing. Extreme changes in weather, such as droughts and water scarcity, affect crop production negatively. The United Nations (UN) has advised global hunger is propelled by climate change. The cases of extreme climatic disasters, including extreme heatwaves, droughts, floods, and storms, have more than doubled since the beginning of the 1990s, with a mean of 213 of these happening in a year during the 1990–2016 period. Such disasters are destroying the agricultural output of major crops including wheat , rice and maize, causing increases in food prices and losses in income that reduce people’s access to food, “the UN says.

Reports indicate that increased numbers of firms and investors are buying farmland worldwide as they become progressively valuable resources. Over time, continuing to grow raising livestock animals and aquaculture can become more challenging as drastic weather changes increase the susceptibility of animals to diseases, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) notes in a 2016 report among other things. At the same time, the World watch Institute has quoted FAO as saying that climate change will affect the availability and quality of the land, soil, and water resources. These are later reflected in crop output, which is leading to rising prices.

Although agricultural programs are commonly available at tertiary level, they are, depending on your country of residence, much less popular at elementary and secondary education level. Agricultural colleges are available in different countries like the United States, Australia, South Korea and the United Kingdom. They not only prepare students for agricultural careers, in spite of exposing students to field-related topics. Agricultural or farm schools have so much to teach out-of-class children, such as the importance of being responsible and persevering when caring for crops and animals. It can also help them build an affinity for nature and animals, exposing them to potential careers that they might never have considered otherwise.

It is remarkable that even the International Labour Organization (ILO) notes that the agriculture industry offers untapped employment opportunities; although the World Bank points out that farming is key to economic development. These hands-on teaching methods teach students where their food comes from and how it gets to the table. Children that grow up some of their own develop a greater connection to food, according to research; this can prompt them to lead healthier lives, as such children tend to stick to better diets.

The capability and knowledge to grow our own food (i.e. producing plant and caring for livestock) is essential for survival and yet, is an area of study that gains little significance in schools. Paired by the need to meet the growing population of the planet’s future food requirements, agriculture will play an ever more hugely important role in society. Logically, while not all students will harbour ambitions to undertake agricultural careers, foundation experience in the field can still prove to be a pragmatic area of study for their future.

Magnet Schools

A magnet school is a part of the local public education system, unlike charter schools or private schools. Students are usually camped into their schools at regular public schools based on their home location. Students go to the school nearest to where they live. It may not always be true nevertheless, as borders may seem vague and schools are not zoned at all in some smaller towns. Nonetheless, there are magnet schools outside zoned school boundaries. Whereas private schools are entirely independent from the boundaries of local public schools and charter schools are public schools with parental oversight, Magnetic schools remain a part of the public educational system and continue operating under the same board and management.

What are Magnet Schools – Magnet Schools of America

The special characteristic of a magnet school is that they usually have a particular curricular focus, according to the Magnet Schools of America. Popular subjects include STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), the arts, and career pathways. Nonetheless, there are many, lots of potential themes. The crucial fact is that magnet schools are choosing schools-children are enrolled on the basis of their interest in the theme of the school, not based on where they live. Although schools may have a general theme, the students are still studying a full range of subjects. Each subject content is correlated with local, state, or national learning standards (i.e., common core), but each topic is taught within the framework of the school. Magnet schools more often than not necessitate hands-on learning, which is based on independent investigation and performance.

An added distinctive feature of magnet schools is that they usually have an alternative, compelling, instructional modes. There’s a lot of Montessori magnet schools around the country, for example. A Montessori school is based on an educational model which considers children to be incredibly inquisitive and eager to learn.

Montessori schools are planning to build on that process to improve learning environments where children are active members of the process of education. It’s unique learning approaches, like those found at Montessori schools, often found in magnet schools. There are also many magnet schools that aim to improve representation within the public school system. But some magnet schools have taken on a more competitive role in education over the past 20 years, in that they can only admit 10-20 percent of the students applying to their school. Therefore, the initial request of magnet schools is to encourage academic opportunities and achievement beyond what is provided at their normal counterparts in public schools.

Magnet schools often entice gifted students who get good scores on tests and good grades. Almost one-third of all magnet schools use school achievement as selection criteria to determine who is invited to enrol for that year. Whilst magnet schools are more culturally balanced than their traditional counterparts, there may be other imbalances. Magnet schools are less likely to have the same combination of socioeconomic class (SES) as the standard public schools. For example, fewer students from the magnet school are eligible for free or whittled down lunch programs.

The magnet schools have both pros and cons. Some of these pros and cons deal with relevant magnet school experiences and others focus on magnet school conceptual or philosophical concepts. Trying to decide whether a magnet school is right for you dependent on a variety of factors for your child’s education, and on your own goals. The first step in deciding whether they make sense for your family is to comprehend what magnet schools are.

Why it’s okay to not be productive right now

Pandemic or not, your self worth is not proportional to your productivity

Like me, if social media has become your only out to boredom, you may have noticed conversations about the notions of ‘productivity’ rocketing. Whether it is your twitter mate updating you with their daily baking sessions or an Instagram friend showing off the pages and pages of work that they finished, or your family groups bombarding you with motivational posts about how to spend your free time, if you have any. There’s so much pressure right now to make the most of this ‘free’ time. It’s exhausting to even try to keep up. The rhetoric around productivity is so romanticised, glamorised and even glorified. However, every time I come across a reminder to be productive, I find myself thinking whether is it really a practical thing or can being productive everyday be a damaging to oneself?

As a university student doing her under graduation, the increase of workload, since the onset of Coronavirus in India, hasn’t gone unnoticed- being given a task after task, a deadline after deadline took a toll on all students. At the start of lockdown, I had internals, I was constantly pulling all nighters revising for the tests, completing assignments and keeping up with the daily workload of the online lessons. In this sense, it felt like nothing even while being locked up in our homes. There was always something that had to be submitted, something that needed to be revised or something that I needed to start working on. I was trying, as was everyone, but oftentimes, it felt like all the efforts amounted to nothing in the end. The workload didn’t end with the end of the semester, having to take-up internships in the middle of a pandemic caused immeasurable pressure and paranoia. My work plans are disrupted by distractions, I find myself unknowingly overextending and the balance between work & free time has become invisible. Not to mention the stress is unavoidable, and I constantly find myself waking up wishing for the day to end.

Is there anything that can be done?

Last year, if someone told us that we would be trapped inside our homes in a state of quarantine due to a deadly pandemic, we would have laughed it off. So, at the time our worst and unimaginable fears are coming true, being plunged into uncertainty does not mean that we have to function effectively alongside it. And therefore, being productive is no longer as important as it was before.

It is of utmost importance to acknowledge that not everyone is fortunate enough to be able to use this situation to hone their skills, try new hobbies, explore new passions or build something unforgettable. In the midst of rapid unemployment, losing your loved ones, anxiety caused by separation from friends and family, isolation and loneliness, bad mental health is inevitable- and that’s okay. It’s okay not to be okay, it’s okay needing to take time off. It’s okay to listen to your body. Don’t be mad at yourself for not being able to deal with the situation as efficiently as your friend or your parent or your Instagram mutual. Getting out of the bed at a reasonable time is a task enough. Not putting off taking care of yourself and your needs is a task enough. Keeping up with your friends and checking up on them is a task enough. Spending time with your family is a task enough. Doing these tasks is no where near the perfect productive day I imagined – and it won’t be for a long while. I was meant to be getting excited about interning opportunities and travelling more and capturing more. Now when everything has gone south, the task of prioritising yourself is a rebellious act.

How can we change this mindset?

If you’re anything like me, university and work mean that I can not entirely ignore all my responsibilities in favour of self-care. Prioritising what you have to do is a good start to make sure you can do what needs to be done. Practice different methods or working. For me, sitting at my desk for more than 7 hours, staring at the laptop screen is quite overwhelming, mentally exhausting and doesn’t leave me feeling fulfilled. Taking breaks to perhaps watch an episode from a show that I’m currently hooked to or to mindlessly scroll on twitter ensures that I feel the balance.

This unsettling environment can be taxing. Forgive yourself for making mistakes.

Want to be a entrepreneur? Business skills that you should master

Are you aspiring to be the next Steve Jobs of Mark Zuckerberg? That’s great. These are some of the greatest entrepreneurs known today. An entrepreneur is one who sets up a business or businesses, taking on financial risks in the hope of profit. Being an entrepreneur can be rest when it comes to a fixed schedule and the most important thing is that you enjoy what you work.

But in order to be a successful entrepreneur you need to have the right skillset which suits your business. Acquiring these skills can be very effective when it comes to success of your entrenpeurship!

Here are the essential soft skills that you will need to learn or import to help you to succeed in your business:

Delegate your work

Delegation involves assigning responsibility to other people for the completion of work. The ideal position that you want to obtain is one where your staff carries out all the routine activities of your business. Effective delegation involves achieving the correct balance between effective controls and allowing people to complete their job effectively.

Be a good communicator

Communication is an important part of a business but the sad part is that it is the taken for granted. Good communication skills can enable you to convey your idea effectively to your colleagues and employees. Communication does not include only verbal part, it also includes the non verbal part such as body posture, level of eye contact, your dressing sense, your gestures and actions. This things together present a picture of yours Infront of your colleagues.

Be a leader!!

Strong leaders can help an organisation to maximize productivity and achieve business goals, whereas weak leadership can hurt productivity and put the health of the business in jeopardy. Leadership is not one blanket characteristic that cures all ills, however, there are many different elements that must be present for an organization’s leadership to be considered adequate.

Learn to negotiate!!

Negotiation skills are qualities that allow two or more parties to reach a compromise. These are often soft skills and include abilities such as communication, persuasion, planning, strategizing and cooperating. Understanding these skills is the first step to becoming a stronger negotiator.

Develop a strategic plan…

A business plan is about setting short- or mid-term goals and defining the steps necessary to achieve them. A strategic plan is typically focused on a business’ mid- to long-term goals and explains the basic strategies for achieving them.


Analytical skills refer to the ability to collect and analyze information, problem-solve, and make decisions. Employees who possess these strengths can help solve a company’s problems and improve its overall productivity and success.

Learn to sell!!

Sales techniques are the methods that sales professionals use to create revenue.The techniques are refined through trial and error based on the sales associate’s experiences. Developing effective sales techniques is an ongoing process for an individual and his entire organisation.

Manage your finances

This skill comprises of analysing the companies balance sheet and identifying which of your products are profitable for your business. These are important to uphold the financial stability of the business ensuring that the cost is not exceeding the revenue generated.

Learn the Art of Time management

Time Management is a set of related common-sense skills that help you use your time in the most effective and productive way. Time Management is a very important skill to master. Learning this skill will empower you to achieve more and to use your time wisely. The key is to know how to manage your time efficiently and to focus on the activities most likely to deliver value to your business.

How can you learn these skills and succeed in your business?

With developing technology, everything is available in the comfort of your home. Here, are some of the amazing ways that will definitely help you to enhance your skills…

  • Do a online course. Yes, you heard it right. Do a course in anything you love and wish to be a entrepreneur in it. It can be finance, marketing or anything. Sky is the limit!!
  • Do internships. There are some well known platforms like Internshala and let’s intern which provide the platform to connect the employers with interns like us. Doing a internship have countless benefits it gives you exposure into the corporate world even before you enter in it. Your overall personality gets developed eventually.
  • Next one and the perhaps the easiest one you can do is engage with as many people as you can. Learn the skill to express your ideas, work on your expression, gestures.

Acquiring these skills will take time definitely but once you have done achieved perfection in this , noone will be able to stop you from achieving your goals.

All the best!!!

Don’t let self-criticism curtail your self-esteem.

Humans keep looking at their own flaws and keep condemning them. We spend a large part of our energy on this. But, is it appropriate? Every human has its own limitations.

We totally agree with the insight that comparing ourselves to others is not a reasonable thing to do. We know that every human being and its excellence differs. Similarly, we know that we are unique and extraordinary in ourselves. Everything is known to us. But despite this, why do we evaluate and compare ourselves to others?
Why do we get submerged in the thoughts like -why I’m not like him/her?
Why do we think of ourselves as inadequate and start sinking in the blues?

Why do we start questioning our own validity?  Why do we feel that we are not capable of being loved?
Why do so many people get entangled in the cords of such thoughts?

The biggest struggle of a man is with himself.  Constantly struggling with the distress that arises within oneself becomes part of his lot. We discover new flaws within ourselves by making excuses. Like – ‘Why I’m alone? I earn very little.  Why my life isn’t jovial and sociable?
Why does it make a difference in my behaviour in front of others?’
As you go deeper into such thoughts, this list gets longer and longer. And this undue pressure leaves us completely bereft of life. We do not get time to look at our specialities.

Our attention gets stuck to a fixed notch. Self-critic within us outwears our self-esteem. We start to feel hostility towards ourselves.
Currently, for the whole day either we like to eat, binge-watch tv shows, scroll down to the posts on social media or sleep. But, is it a valid existence?  Self-analysis is effective and to improve it over time is even fairer. Self-criticism isn’t that bad either but to let it take precedence over oneself is completely unacceptable.

Accept the fact that at the end of the day you are a human being and you have some limitations. And it’s not irrational.
Yes, we must strive every day to increase our potentials. But, whenever your flaws begin to dominate your existence, this mere fact should be remembered.

We compare ourselves to others. But the problem begins when you look at someone with enviousness and judgmental impressions. The need is to be neutral. With this, you might be able to appreciate and end up getting to know the person better. You will notice that as you compare yourself to someone, they are doing the same. To say that the sense of imperfection is within everyone and everyone is struggling with it.

Everyone has good and bad characteristics. You are no exception, which has some flaws.
Founder of the Centre for Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Jon Kabat-Zinn says, “Look at other people and ask yourself if you are really seeing them or just your thoughts about them….Without knowing it, we are colouring everything, putting our spin on it all.”
He adds, “When people talk about my shortcomings, then I start feeling my strengths and affection. I realize how many things I love about myself. I like that I am alive and also trying to explore new dimensions of life.”
“Maybe the fear is that we are less than we think we are when the actuality of it is that we are much much more.”

At the moment when you are feeling weak, love yourself the most. You must have realized that when you are a sufferer of anger, anxiety or depression, the attitude of people towards you becomes different. Expecting warmth and compassion from someone at such times becomes a bit challenging. But, by changing your perspective, you can accept this change. You need to learn to cherish yourself. Learn to appreciate yourself. Sometimes this isolation gives you the opportunity for self-realization. At this time you need yourself the most.

Progress should be emphasized, not perfection

Nobody is perfect. You should focus on the quest for an evolved personality. It is more important to know how far you have come than to assess how far you have to go further. We are often worried about the journey ahead, but it is also necessary to stop and see how far we have come. And if our progress is not satisfactory, then we should reconsider our ways. It does not mean that we need to get stuck in the past, it means that we need to learn from our past experiences and prepare to enrich the journey ahead.

We know that the easier it is to say, the more difficult it is to do. But what on earth is easy to find or do? To keep making an effort is a part of the human tendency. Keep appreciating yourself and keep lifting yourself to move forward. Take a step ahead!

Why you should never buy Instagram likes?

After Facebook, Instagram has become one of the fastest-growing social media channels. It is considered a top platform for brands to showcase their product and services through images and videos. However, Instagram now has changed its algorithm. It no longer displays posts chronologically, rather it will showcase posts of those pages that you have interacted with, the most. This means, that for a new brand its will be hard to gain likes and followers on the platform.

This can lead to brands doing dirty tactics such as buying likes. They think this will make them look more established, whereas it’s not the case.

How to buy likes on Instagram

There are two most popular methods generally used to gain likes. One is to create multiple fake accounts and make them like your page. Some services sell likes for Instagram. Another way is to subscribe to a service that provides Instagram bots access which will follow or like posts on related accounts, then bots later unfollow those accounts to maintain an ideal follower/following ratio.

The first method to artificially increase the follower count is a tad bit tedious and doesn’t help in improving interactions. Another problem with this method is, it is easy to see that most are multiple fake account followers with no photos/ videos or interactions. This is a clear sign of suspicious activity.

The second method is to buy likes for Instagram. It works to grow followers based on reciprocity – like for like, follow for following. In most cases, the new followers have no idea that in no-time the bot will unfollow them. It is a bit of deception that some may consider being unethical. If anyone calls you out it can affect your brand image.

Some bot services will leave generic one-two word comments on photos like ‘’Nice’, ‘Great Job’, ‘Extraordinary’. It may seem a real person is interacting with the posts. But in the worst cases, the Instagram bot can result in a PR disaster as its fake positive comments might end up on some contradictory post.

Reasons why buying likes is not a good idea

-Buying likes can damage a reputation rather than helping it. If by any chance, someone calls you out, this will lead to a lot of people turning against you and your brand. This can hamper you in the long run.

-If Instagram finds out, there are high chances it will deactivate it or shut it down permanently. It will soon become a ‘goodbye-account’. Instagram encourages users to engage in real-time. Anything that is fake, or using some kind of automation, is not something Instagram takes in a positive light.

-The Instagram appearance will be bad: Although it’s a known fact, that engagement rates go down the more followers the page has. But if you come across a profile that has 1 million followers, but hardly gets 2000 likes. It won’t be difficult to tell that those followers are fake. This may give a bad impression to real followers which will make them unfollow the page.

-Engagement will below: There will be no genuine engagement from the purchased likes or followers. Most of those aren’t real people at all, merely bot fake accounts.  The best engagement can from these is generally an automated comment ‘nice post’. Some of the signs of a typical fake follower include a blank profile picture and a general lack of intelligent interaction.

-No money will be earned: Brands would not like to work with the ones who buy likes or followers as they are easy to spot. Brands do not select influencers based likes or followers, they see the engagement. Many tools are available to help brands figure out. They don’t want to be stuck with unworthy accounts.

-Not a sustainable marketing strategy: Buying likes will not lead to long term goals that go around creating deep, meaningful relationships with the audience. For brands, turning this audience into real-time customers and to ensure that customers become brand advocates is necessary. None of these will come out fruitful if the likes are from fake accounts.

All to say, buying likes may seem tempting, but it does more harm than good. Instead of increasing engagement, it can decrease the engagement, destroying all the efforts. So it is better to skip the easy way out to social media marketing and go for a more sustainable plan. After all, real people are the ones who can become potential customers. Don’t buy followers or likes to fool the audience. It’s a big NO! NO! Rather build a genuine relationship with them and engage well. Be yourself, don’t sell yourself short. Grow the followers organically. Also, follow Instagram’s guidelines to avoid the potential of your account been taken down.

Feeling Alone Vs. Feeling Lonely

Feeling lonely and feeling alone are two totally different things. Triggered by the absence of companionship, loneliness causes a level of isolation that can damage your mental health and well-being. As an introvert, I get my energy from being alone. I prefer to have a balance between solitude and social connectedness. I give my mind the space, it needs. Sometimes, introverts are cornered in a social gathering, and that feeling can lead one down an emotionally painful road followed by a trail of traumatic experiences. The effects of loneliness can make it harder for an introvert to establish connections and close relationships with others. In times when we (introverts) feel vulnerable, it may seem as if there’s no one we can reach out to, that no one is trustworthy. Growing up as the only child of my parents, I experienced loneliness from a very tender age. I didn’t have siblings to fight with. I kept my emotions confined to myself. Making friends was never an issue for me, but it took me years to master the art of communication and conflict resolution. Relationships are less likely to last when there’s a lack of these two things, and I learned this the hard way. Long-term loneliness is the danger zone you don’t want to reach, as it poses a much higher health risk. As humans, we are social by nature. We weren’t wired or created to live life alone. That’s why we crave for social interactions and connectivity when there’s lack of it in our personal lives.

How To Curb Loneliness Amid The Crisis Phase?

Stay Connected And Plugged In

As we endure this crisis, we must stay connected to others while we are striving hard to cope with the changing environment. Technology makes it easier to stay in touch with people without physically being present. Family, friends, and loved ones are always just a phone call away — unless you live with them already.

Attend virtual social gatherings

Since we can’t go out and meet new people offline, why not get crafty with the way you meet them online? Along with the internet comes the benefit of online community. There are tons of communities for pretty much every walk of life. Many are available to the public for free.

Talk It Out With A Mental Health Expert

There’s a lot that therapy can do for your mental health. For one, a professional therapist can equip you with the tools you need to cope more effectively with loneliness.

Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa is eating disorder and is characterized by irrational fear of weight gain. Individuals suffering from anorexia nervosa are obsessed with their weight. These individual tend to exercise and diet to such a point that their body weight is grossly below optimum. These individuals perceive themselves as over weight even if they are extremely under weight. They self starve to a point that it imposes serious threat to life and wellbeing.

Eating disorder is a mental disorder that is characterized by irregular eating and severe body image issues. Anorexia nervosa being a kind of eating disorder include all.

Anorexia nervosa is extremely common in women. Especially modern urban women are at high risk, though men are catching up fast. Women aged 15-24 commonly report eating disorders. Reports also show that people as young as 7 may also develop symptoms of eating disorders.

Sign and Symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa

There are a multitude of symptoms of Anorexia Nervosa, which ranges from physical to emotional and behavioural symptoms.

Physical symptoms
• Extreme weight loss
• Insomnia
• Fatigue
• Dizziness and fainting
• Extremely thin appearance
• Hair loss
• Constipation and abdominal pain
• Reduced blood count
• Irregular heartbeat
• Intolerance to cold
• Dry pale skin
• Irregular menstruation
• Dehydration
• Swelling arms and legs

Emotional and behavioural symptoms
• Severely limiting food intake by dieting or fasting
• Excessive exercising
• Self induced vomiting
• Frequently skipping meal or refusing to eat
• Denial of hunger
• Refusing to eat in public
• Following a specific diet, even if it does not include necessary nutrition
• Irrational fear of gaining weight
• Reduced sexual desires
• Social withdrawal
• Irritability
• Insomnia
• Lack of interest in social activities
• Frequent mood swings
• Complaining about being fat, even when they are excessively thin
• Frequently checking in the mirror for perceiving flaws

Treating Anorexia Nervosa

Dealing with Anorexia Nervosa, or any other eating disorder for that matter is extremely difficult. It is not a one day thing. Dealing with Anorexia Nervosa is a long process.
Below mentioned are some ways to treat eating disorders, including Anorexia Nervosa.

• Medical care and monitoring: Anyone suffering from eating disorder usually has some inbuilt causes for it. Dealing with the health issues caused due to eating disorder is of primary importance. Thus medical care and monitoring is of utmost importance.
• Nutritional intake: It involves restoring normal weight and stabilizing the same. Proper and balanced diet is of prime importance in this stage.
• Therapy: Therapeutic help can help the individual to know about the underlying cause of eating disorder. It not only help individual to overcome the disorder, by also help develop self confidence and self esteem.
• Medication: Medication is helpful in dealing with anxiety and mood disorder that is usually associated with eating disorder. However medication should only be consumed when prescribed by a health professional.

Though there is no hard and fast rule on which in the most effective way to deal with eating disorder. Every one differs and so does the proportion of effectiveness of each treatment on each individual. Most medical health professionals however suggest the different combination of all the four treatments depending on the physical, mental and emotional state of the individual. Consulting a mental health professionals is the key.

7 Types of People you should surround yourself with

Photos - Group of friends enjoying on their holiday - YouWorkForThem

The people that we are close to – the ones that we confide in about almost everything and care about, play a vital role in our lives. Friends are our chosen family. We may not realise but they shape our personality and have the ability to change our whole outlook on life. We become similar to them as time passes by and they influence us in ways no one else can. They literally grow on us. It is also well-known that bad company can destroy a person so picking our friends wisely becomes even more critical. 

Here’s a list of 7 types of people you should be with regardless of whether you are at school, university or work:

  1. Dreamers

People who are ambitious and passionate and want to reach at some place or accomplish something in life. These people don’t see any limits to what they can achieve and their goals motivate them so much that whatever they do in life, they always have the big picture in the back of their head. Their dreams and goals might seem unreal but to them nothing is impossible.

  1. Doers

Not only do these people have goals and things to accomplish but they have deliberately calculated each step that they need to take in order to reach the high ground. They will do whatever it takes while also keeping a track of their progress. The milestones that they make for themselves, mean a lot to them and when they surely celebrate the small victories.

  1. Realists

The people are practical and grounded to reality. They openly criticize and argue if something or some idea seems to deviate from what is possible. They are very analytical and try to determine the pros and cons of the idea that is presented to them. They keep the people around them grounded as well and keep giving them reality checks.

  1. Hard workers

People who are persistent with their efforts and don’t feel overworked too quickly. When you look at them, you see an energetic and self-driven individual who could even be working restlessly to complete the task at hand. Just watching them makes you introspect and question what you are doing with life and makes you want to be like them.

  1. Listeners

People who are capable of listening to stories and rants and even empathise with the one who tells them. Not everyone is a good listener because most people listen to respond. A good listener listens to understand the other person and they do it with interest and not by forcing themselves to hear the other person out. 

  1. Optimists

Positivity radiates from this type of people and they make the people around them look at the positive side of every situation. They create a feeling of hopefulness even in situations that have the potential to break a person down. Going to an optimistic friend in difficult times will definitely help in raising your spirit.

  1. Problem solvers

Some people are born to solve problems and overcome obstacles that come in their way. Their thinking power is higher and when they hear about the problem, their mind generates ways in which the problem can be solved. Being a problem solver is very advantageous as you always have your way around and nothing can stop you.

Water Resources

Diseases which can come from polluted drinking water

Diseases in Indigenous communities caused by germs from polluted water

Bacterial diseases

  • salmonellosis
  • shigellosis
  • acute diarrhoea (caused by E. coli)

Viral diseases

  • gastroenteritis
  • hepatitis A


  • giardiasis
  • hookworm infection (there is some evidence that hookworm larvae can live in drinking water)
Fig.  6.12: Stomach upsets can be caused by contaminated drinking water.

Stomach upsets can be caused by contaminated drinking water.

In most parts of Australia and many other countries, proper water treatment methods have almost eliminated the germs that cause many of these diseases from water supplies. However, water treatment and hygiene standards in Indigenous communities, especially small communities or camps, are often inadequate and this is why many of these diseases still occur in Indigenous communities.

The germs may get into the water:

Directly by:

  • a lagoon overflow effluent pipe discharging into a river or stream supplying drinking water
  • the presence of dead animals in the water
  • people or other animals swimming, washing or going to the toilet in a drinking water supply

Indirectly by:

  • contamination from an effluent system, such as a leach drain too close to a bore or the overflow from a lagoon flowing into a water supply
  • People washing themselves or going to the toilet in or near a water source

Water contamination and how it can be prevented

Anything which contaminates water is called a contaminant or pollutant. Water can be contaminated or polluted by:

  • Organic materials such as:
    • animal carcasses
    • animal and human faeces and sewage
    • food waste
    • plant matter (grass, leaves, wood)
    • oil, petrol and grease.
  • Inorganic materials such as:
    • scrap metal and junk
    • sand
    • chemicals

Many of these materials can carry disease-causing germs into water supplies. Chemicals in the water supply can poison people and other animals.
Water can be contaminated at:

  • the source, such as the river or bore
  • in storage, such as in elevated tanks
  • in the pipe system which delivers water to the user
Fig.  6.13: Drinking or swimming in contaminated water can be dangerous to health.

Drinking or swimming in contaminated water can be dangerous to health.

Different types of water supplies can become contaminated in a number of ways. Some of these, and their methods of prevention are described below.

Domestic rainwater tanks


The rain which fails onto the roof of a house is usually clean, and should not normally contain germs. However, there may be a lot of dirt and rubbish on the roof, especially if it has not rained for a long time.

This dirt might include the faeces from birds and small animals. Also, the wind can carry germs in dust blown onto the roof. When it rains the dirt and rubbish will be washed into the storage tank, along with the germs. Some of these germs may cause disease.

Dirt, animals and bird faeces can get into a storage tank if it does not have a lid. All these things can carry disease-causing germs. Often animals are trapped in water tanks and drown. As dead bodies rot, germs will grow and contaminate the water.

The inside of the tank walls and floor may also become dirty after a period of time. This dirt can contaminate the water.


If a house has a rainwater tank as its water supply, these are the things which should be done to keep the water clean:

  1. Install a first flush diverter. This prevents the first flush of water, which may have contaminants from the roof, from entering the tank.
  2. Keep the roof and gutters clean.
  3. Keep a lid on the water tank.
  4. Check for and repair any leaks.
  5. Regularly look into the tank. If the water or walls or floor are dirty the tank will need to be cleaned.

Rivers and billabongs


There are several ways in which rivers and billabongs can become contaminated with germs or chemicals:

  • Rubbish may fall into or be washed into the river or billabong, for example, from a nearby dump
  • Sewage may seep into the river or billabong from nearby septic tanks and leach drains
  • Faeces may be deposited directly into the river by people or other animals
  • Faeces deposited near the river may be washed into it by rain
  • Chemicals or poisons sprayed onto land near the river or billabong may be washed into the water
  • People or animals may wash themselves in the river or billabong

There is a risk that the water supply will be contaminated if the community pumps its water from a place:

  • near where a contaminant enters the water such as an effluent discharge point
  • where contamination is occurring, such as a swimming area
Fig.  6.14: Faeces contaminate drinking water.

Faeces contaminate drinking water.

Fig.  6.15: People washing or swimming in a water source can pollute it.

People washing or swimming in a water source can pollute it.

Fig.  6.16: Water supply contaminated by effluent discharge.

Water supply contaminated by effluent discharge.


It is important to try and stop the river or billabong from being contaminated, particularly in the area from which the community takes its water supply. Discharging effluent into rivers and streams should always be avoided.

Sometimes it is not possible to stop the contamination of a river or billabong. This is because the contamination source is not known, or cannot be controlled, like if the contamination is occurring upstream or is because of not being able to keep cattle out of a billabong.

The following prevention methods can be adopted:

  1. If the community water supply comes from a river make sure:
    • it is obtained upstream from any possible contamination sources, for example, swimming holes or effluent runoff points
    • it is taken from the deepest possible point in the body of water
  2. Make sure that there is little or no building development near the water supply source. There are laws which control where people can put septic tanks/leach drains, effluent ponds, and rubbish tips in relation to water supplies.
  3. Make sure people do not use the area around the water supply source for recreational purposes, such as playing sport and having picnics.
  4. In the case of a billabong, it may be possible to fence the water source to prevent contamination by people and other animals.
Fig.  6.17: Take drinking water upstream from effluent discharge.

Take drinking water upstream from effluent discharge.



Bores can become contaminated:

  • underground. (This can happen if a contaminant is able to get to the water body, for example, if a leach drain is built too close to the water source, or a faulty effluent disposal system allows disease-causing germs to soak down into the groundwater)
  • While bringing it to the surface
Fig.  6.18: Leach drain too close to water supply.

Leach drain too close to water supply.

This could occur in the bore itself or at the place where the bore pipe comes out of the ground. This is called the bore head.

If the bore head is unprotected then animals can spread disease causing germs and parasites to the water via the equipment. For example, if the equipment leaks and allows water to pool, animals will be attracted (especially stock and birds) and their faeces may enter the water at the bore head.


It is important that:

  1. covers be placed over bore heads
  2. there are fences around bore heads to keep animals away
  3. the bore head area is protected from flooding as this can carry disease-causing germs into the bore. The bore head is usually protected by raising it above ground level
  4. septic tanks/leach drains and effluent disposal sites are well away from the bore.
Fig.  6.19: Protective cover for bore

Protective cover for bore.

Laws control the distances these facilities must be away from a bore or water source.

Community water tanks


If a large community tank does not have a proper fitting lid, then people, especially children, birds or other animals may find their way into it and contaminate the water with disease-causing germs.

Occasionally, the inside of the community water tank will get dirty and can contaminate the water.


To make sure that the water in the community tank is always clean:

  • The tank should have a proper fitting lid
  • There should be a high fence, with a locked gate, around the tank
  • The tank should be regularly inspected to make sure that it is not leaking and that the water is clean and free of animals, such as frogs
  • If the inside of the tank is dirty it must be cleaned. The proper way to clean a tank is described in Section 6.2

Community water pipes and household plumbing


A water supply can become contaminated between the source and the community water tank or the user. The pipes that carry the water can be below or on the surface of the ground. They can be above the ground also, such as in the case of pipes carrying water from an elevated tank to the ground. An elevated tank is one that is raised above the user’s water outlets either on a stand or on a hill.

Fig.  6.20: Community elevated water tank.

Community elevated water tank.

If a pipe is leaking around a joint or has been broken, disease-causing germs and parasites can get into the water and contaminate it. These germs and parasites can come from:

  • the surrounding soil
  • the wind
  • animals, including people, attracted to leak or the pools of water.


Contamination of water in pipes can be avoided by ensuring that:

  • all joints are maintained free of leaks
  • pipes are placed below ground whenever possible to protect them from damage
  • any above ground pipes are held secure and are protected from damage, especially from vehicles
  • any leaks or broken pipes are repaired as soon as possible
  • connections to tanks, pumps and bores are well maintained and kept free of leaks

    A little note about Water

     The importance of water

    Water is one of the most important substances on earth. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water there would be no life on earth.

    Fig.  6.1: Plants and animals need water.

    Plants and animals need water.

    Apart from drinking it to survive, people have many other uses for water. These include:

    • cooking
    • washing their bodies
    • washing clothes
    • washing cooking and eating utensils; such as billies, saucepans, crockery and cutlery
    • keeping houses and communities clean
    • recreation; such as swimming pools
    • keeping plants alive in gardens and parks

    Water is also essential for the healthy growth of farm crops and farm stock and is used in the manufacture of many products.

    Fig.  6.2: Some domestic uses of water.

    Some domestic uses of water.

    It is most important that the water which people drink and use for other purposes is clean water. This means that the water must be free of germs and chemicals and be clear (not cloudy).

    Water that is safe for drinking is called potable water.

    Disease-causing germs and chemicals can find their way into water supplies. When this happens the water becomes polluted or contaminated and when people drink it or come in contact with it in other ways they can become very sick.

    Water that is not safe to drink is said to be non-potable. Throughout history there have been many occasions when hundreds of thousands of people have died because disease-causing germs have been spread through a community by a polluted water supply.

    One of the reasons this happens less frequently now is that people in many countries make sure drinking water supplies are potable. Water supplies are routinely checked for germs and chemicals which can pollute water. If the water is not safe to drink it is treated. All the action taken to make sure that drinking water is potable is called water treatment.

    Sources of water

    There are many ways in which we can collect water. The main sources are discussed below.

    Surface water

    This is water which falls to the ground as rain or hail.

    This water is collected from a special area called a catchment. The catchment feeds water into a holding area via rivers, streams and creeks. The water is then stored in a natural or artificial (manmade) barrier called a dam or reservoir. Dams are usually placed at the lower end of a valley.

    Catchment areas are usually far away from towns or cities to lessen the chance of the water being polluted. There are laws which control human activities, such as farming and recreation in catchment areas and on dams to make sure that water supplies are kept potable.

    Fig.  6.3: A surface water dam.

    A surface water dam.

    Rivers or lakes

    Town or community water supplies are sometimes drawn directly from nearby rivers or lakes.

    Fig.  6.4: Rivers and lakes can supply water.

    Rivers and lakes can supply water.


    These are found where underground water flows out of the ground naturally without the use of bores, wells or pumps.
    Springs often occur towards the bottom of a hill or on sloping ground.

    Fig.  6.5: A spring

    A spring.

    Rock catchment areas and rockholes

    Sometimes large rocky outcrops contain low areas in which water is trapped. These low areas make good natural dams. Often a wall can be built to increase the amount of trapped water.

    Fig.  6.6: A rockhole

    A rockhole.

    Excavated dams

    Excavated dams are made by scooping out soil to make a large shallow hole. These dams are sometimes placed at the bottom of a slope to aid water collection. However, this can only be done in areas where the soil will not allow the water to drain away very easily through the ground. For example, in clay soils.

    Soils which do not allow water to drain away are called impervious.

    If a community wants a dam in an area where the soil is not impervious this can still be done by digging the hole and lining it with clay or an impervious liner, such as concrete or heavy plastic. Excavated dams are often used by farmers to supply water to stock.

    Fig.  6.7: An excavated dam.

    An excavated dam.

    There is often a layer of water lying beneath the ground surface, trapped by an impervious layer of rock which will not allow it to drain away. The water may be close to ground level or it may be deep in the ground. This layer of water is called the water table.

    When this water table is close to ground level the water may actually come to the surface and create a permanent wet area called a soak. This usually occurs in low lying areas or hollows.

    Soaks are affected by changes in the depth of the water table. That is, if the water table drops then soaks may dry up. Some causes of this can be drought or overuse of ground water by people.

    Fig.  6.8: A soak.

    A soak.

    Rainwater tanks

    The rainwater which falls on the roofs of houses is often collected using roof guttering leading through a pipe to a storage tank.

    Fig.  6.9: A rainwater tank.

    A rainwater tank.

    Note: EnHealth’s monograph ‘Guidance on use of Rainwater Tanks’ provides the most up-to-date information and advice on the range of potential hazards that can threaten rain water tank water quality. Environmental Health Practitioners are encouraged to use the guide when planning how to prevent these hazards from contaminating rainwater, straightforward monitoring and maintenance activities and, where necessary, corrective actions. The monograph can be found on the enHealth website or by using a search engine with the title of the monograph.

    Bores and wells

    These are holes drilled into the ground deep enough to find a permanent (long-lasting) body of water. A pipe runs down the hole into the water and a pump is used to get the water up to ground level. The water is then pumped to the community.

    Fig.  6.10: A bore.

    A bore.

    Artesian bores

    Sometimes when a bore is sunk into a low lying area the water gushes out of the hole under its own pressure. This water is under pressure because it is part of an underground body of water much of which is at a higher level than the bore opening. This kind of bore is called an artesian bore.

    Fig.  6.11: An artesian bore.

    An artesian bore.

    A water supply taken directly from a bore or well is often called groundwater.

    The water which comes from any of these sources may be salty, cloudy, smell unpleasant or have germs in it. Water of this kind would require special treatment to make it potable.

    COVID-19 and its effects on the environment

    Coronavirus and climate change-related conservation

    COVID-19 has heightened wildlife conservation awareness. As Scientific American has cited, wildlife trade secured additional notoriety when the CDC broke the news of a zoonotic pathogen jumping from animals to humans, causing the current pandemic. Secondly, when the American Veterinary Medical Association announced the positive presence of COVID-19 in domestic animals, zoos and BioTechniques Journal likewise saw captive animals test positive with the new coronavirus. This elevated concerns for sources such as UNESCOTimeNature and Smithsonian Magazine about the future safety of already threatened species, like the great apes who are similar to humans. Additionally, National Geographic raised alarms on poaching proliferation in conservation reserves as rangers and keepers self-isolated.

    Related:  Discarded face masks now threatening wildlife habitats

    a power plant emitting fumes into the air

    Should climate change run unabated, future zoonotic disease outbreaks may become the norm, asserts Conservation International and Harvard University’s School of Public Health. Given that healthy animals living in healthy ecosystems are robust enough to resist diseases, by minimizing climate change and protecting habitats, we may be able to avoid future pandemics.  

    Social distancing has improved air quality

    The COVID-19 crisis has forced activity freezes. Lockdowns and calls to shelter-in-place have closed schools and non-essential businesses. Minimal activity from industrial sites, factories and construction sectors has minimized the risks for toxins to escape, in turn improving air quality.

    Travel bans have similarly restricted international flights. Canceled conferences, festivals, concerts and other public events have diminished interest in tourism, reports the US Travel Association. Airline ridership has slumped, and airports are as near-empty as they were in the 2001 aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. As such, aviation emissions — which accounted for 2.4% of global CO2 emissions in 2018, according to the Environmental and Energy Study Institute (EESI) — have dropped significantly.

    Still, the EPA says vehicular activity contributes more to greenhouse gas emissions than airlines do. Presently, fewer people are commuting, not just in major cities, but all over the world. Traffic nowadays centers mainly around immediate household supply runs to nearby stores, trucking supply transports to retailers or wholesalers, plus commutes by those in essential industries.

    Both Traffic Technology Today and The Guardian have spotlighted the United Kingdom’s reduced traffic, which has plunged by 73% “to levels not seen since 1955.” And across the Atlantic Ocean, Canadian traffic has also declined, GEOTAB disclosed. As for the U.S., not only has road travel decreased, but congestion has all but disappeared, says VentureBeatNext City and USA Today. The decrease in congestion is critical, as idling vehicles emit more pollution

    With substantially less vehicular movement, air quality has improved by leaps and bounds. Numerous sources have covered how air quality indices of the globe’s largest metropolitan areas have improved extensively since strict coronavirus lockdowns were issued. Even NASA satellites from outer-space show the significant reductions in air pollutants, which supports EcoWatch‘s observation that the novel coronavirus pandemic has delivered the silver lining of decreased air pollution

    The Guardian added, “In China, the world’s biggest source of carbon, emissions were down about 18% between early February and mid-March – a cut of 250m tonnes, equivalent to more than half the UK’s annual output. Europe is forecast to see a reduction of around 390m tonnes. Significant falls can also be expected in the US, where passenger vehicle traffic – its major source of CO2 – has fallen by nearly 40%. Even assuming a bounceback once the lockdown is lifted, the planet is expected to see its first fall in global emissions since the 2008-9 financial crisis.”

    Reduced carbon emissions and global warming

    Just last week, Carbon Brief (CB) published that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted energy use worldwide, which could cut carbon emissions by an estimated 5% of 2019’s global total. That means the coronavirus crisis is so far “trigger[ing] the largest ever annual fall in CO2 emissions in 2020, more than during any previous economic crisis or period of war.” While this is encouraging news, experts say it still may not be adequate for meeting Paris Agreement goals to keep global warming from rising above 1.5 degrees Celsius.

    an oil field

    What’s happening with fossil fuels during the pandemic?

    When the pandemic called for lockdowns, paralyzing both air and ground travel, the demand for fuel was likewise decimated. An oil price war ensued with drastic shifts in global oil politics, thus destabilizing the fossil fuel sector, reported Business Insider. Even Fortune magazine highlighted the worry about where to store the surplus oil. According to Forbes, this pushed President Trump to broker a historic deal, whereby the planet’s top oil producers — namely Saudi Arabia and Russia — agreed to cut oil production.

    As Sandy Fielden, director of oil research firm Morningstar, said to the BBC, “This is an unprecedented agreement because it’s not just between Opec and Opec+…but also the largest supplier in the world which is the US as well as other G-20 countries which have agreed to support the agreement both in reducing production and also in using up some of the surface supply by putting it into storage.”

    Effects on the renewable energy sector

    CNBC showed the renewables industry suffering supply chain cuts and employee layoffs during the deepening COVID-19 recession. There are worries that clean energy investments appear less desirable. Construction and development projects have been delayed as lockdown periods extend. Renewables, therefore, seek slices of the stimulus package to waylay progress derailments, which even the International Energy Agency (IEA) has cautioned about.

    a protest sign with an earth painting and words saying "One World"

    What’s happening to climate change policy during the coronavirus pandemic?

    COVID-19 could portend future pandemics, particularly if global warming unleashes unknown diseases trapped in ice. Ensuring that global warming and climate change do not disrupt our planet’s health is still of paramount importance. Green Tech Media emphasized this, saying, “Climate change didn’t stop as the world turned its attention to combating the coronavirus.” Climate activism continues, despite cancellations to large climate change-related summits, negotiations and conference meetings.

    Not all climate advocacy during this time is lost. Optimism reframes these economic stimulus measures as helpful nudges for climate policy and the renewables sector to evolve for the better. Indeed, Clean Energy Wire upholds that these federally-backed stimulus packages can be leveraged to provide investment opportunities in both the infrastructure that can reduce emissions as well as in clean technologies. Science Alert, moreover, contends, “the coronavirus has forced new working-from-home habits that limit commuting, and a broader adoption of online meetings to reduce the need for long-haul business flights. This raises the prospect of long-term emissions reductions should these new work behaviours persist beyond the current global emergency.”

    Saving the artisans of India

    The Corona epidemic has broken our back,” said a usually cheerful Aarti Patra, part of a group of sabai-grass basket-makers in an Odisha village. Rajkumari Joshi, a craftswoman from SADHANA, a women’s cooperative we work with in Rajasthan, agrees. “All the women here are feeling completely helpless and in need. We do not have work,” she says. Other artisans tell Dastkar they wonder what will finish them first – the virus or hunger.

    It is an unparalleled and strange time. Not just fear of a possibly mortal disease, but a lockdown of all social, and economic activity. For craftspeople, dependent on daily production and sales, life has come to a halt — there are no melas, no sales, no raw material, no money to feed their families. We have worked with them for decades, now we share their pain.

    “All our orders have been cancelled,” Vimal Kumar, a young Rajasthani potter, explains. “Even if we try our best, we will not be able to clear this stock for two years at least. This will cause not only debt, but a decrease in production. Craftspeople will be out of jobs for a long time,” he adds.
    The videos of jobless migrant workers walking homewards, were incredibly moving. Craftspeople, equally affected, remain invisible and therefore ignored — by the Government, by the media, even by those who used to buy their products. Outside the safety net of regular salaries or social security, they are helpless.

    The global economy is predicted to contract 3%. Even as Italian fashion house Armani makes protective overalls, and Louis Vuitton turns out face masks instead of luxury luggage, craftspeople too will need to adapt to changing times. Craft is sadly not an essential; it is the first thing to be struck off consumer wish lists when purchasing power diminishes.

    Different crafts and communities need different solutions — disposing of existing stock, planning their re-entry into what will be a very changed market. Skills have to be targeted to differing markets; some making functional products of everyday use, others creating one-of-a-kind pieces for high-end buyers.
    As Dastkar responds to distress calls from across India, we know our aid is a temporary sop. Craftspeople, the second largest employment sector in India, need sustained investment and assistance. Housebound, it’s easy to feel helpless. But the courage and spirit of these artisans keeps us from despair.

    Government, crafts organisations and designers need to come together and work closely with the craftspeople, listen to their voices, build on their strengths, think out of the box. Anand Mahindra’s response to the plight of banana farmers — getting his factory canteens to substitute banana leaves for plates — is a brilliant example.

    To end with master craftsman, Prakash Joshi, “We are artists and the artist shapes the tomorrow with his art, dissipating the negative energy because after a thick dark night there is always a golden morning.”

    While we celebrate that spirit, we need also to help craftspeople rediscover that golden morning. Thinking inwards and buying local will help. Don’t go and shop at fast at fashion stores like Zara and H&M, go ahead and buy that beautiful Ikat kurta from a crafts mela.

    PS- My source has been The Hindu.

    Chinese apps

    59 Chinese Apps Banned In India, Removed From Google Play Store ...

    The Indian’s ministry government are 59 mobile applications are banned, because of the government said the application are engaged in activities “prejudicial to sovereignty and integrity of India, defence of India security of state and public order” . And first of all the there was the Tik-tok video sharing app which is very popularity since the beginning of pandemic corona virus. there are many apps also from Xiaome, Mi application, Share chat, mi video chat, etc and more popularity apps are the xender, shareit, cam scanner and most famous in game application is the clash of king. The incredibly popular in camera apps like Beauty Plus, You cam perfect. This all famous apps are banned in India . The india citing section 69A of the information technology act, the power of issue direction for blocking of public access information thought computer. tension between India and china have been escalating this month over border disputes which led to a major smart phone have cancelling its live online product launch and spurring consumers to voluntarily boycott Chinese made apps and product.

    Feedback system in schools

    Feedback is the response or the reaction to the work or performance of the workers but it can not only be limited to employees. Feedback plays a significant role in school systems as well . Students, if provided with teachers who can guide them well can help them navigate their own lives but students aren’t the only ones who are in need of it. The teachers as well as the management should also be receptive of the feedback so that a collective approach can be established.

    Appropriate feedback systems when employed in school provide a provision to measure the efficacy of the current educational system and methodology of teaching. It would also help to highlight the nature of the school leadership and whether it is being reciprocated by the students in a positive manner. An amicable working environment can also be judged with the help of feedback systems that are designed to test that; it also provides an opportunity to address the issues of sexual harassment which require continuous vigilance.

    • This should be made out into a cohort study with the help of psychologists and trained personnel to create a nurturing environment for the kids.
    • Also, a sensitization of various social issues is especially important at the school level and a prospective approach should be taken to analyse the effectiveness of these feedback forms. It should be monitored whether these feedback systems are in anyway helping students to self-reflect and improve upon themselves.
    • Teachers should also be trained and sensitized to become competent to help students. A teacher’s ability to teach should not only be assessed on the basis of their knowledge but also on their overall personality. Some people have a lot of knowledge but may not be equipped enough in social skills and find it hard to deal with children. It would be better if such people are trained or there are some training programs for teachers as well which helps them to take their students feedback in an impersonal manner.

    A feedback system designed to address all the issues that a student, teacher and the workers face, would also help to bring trust and faith in the working of the educational institutions. Such systems help to develop and build community trust that would allow individuals to openly discuss the issues that they might face with their self-image. Students should be able to trust their elders so that they can seek their help. A healthy working environment would also help the teachers and other workers to enjoy their work and be satisfied with it.

    This would also improve their productivity. Therefore, any new measure/system undertaken by the educational institute should also be subjected to feedback from both teachers and students as they are the ones directly affected by it.

    This is necessary to create an environment that would help both the teachers and students to grow.

    Hence, the positive implications of the feedback system are innumerable. However, these need to be properly studied and designed to be able to properly capture the intricacies of human nature and behavior.

    Pollution due to urbanisation

    Human beings have become an increasingly powerful environmental force over the last 10,000 years. With the advent of agriculture 8,000 years ago, we began to change the land. And with the industrial revolution, we began to affect our atmosphere. The recent increase in the world’s population has magnified the effects of our agricultural and economic activities. But the growth in world population has masked what may be an even more important human-environmental interaction: While the world’s population is doubling, the world’s urban population is tripling. Within the next few years, more than half the world’s population will be living in urban areas.

    The level and growth of urbanization differ considerably by region . Among developing countries, Latin American countries have the highest proportion of their population living in urban areas. But East and South Asia are likely to have the fastest growth rates in the next 30 years. Almost all of future world population growth will be in towns and cities. Both the increase in and the redistribution of the earth’s population are likely to affect the natural systems of the earth and the interactions between the urban environments and ural populations desire for the advantages that urban areas offer. Urban advantages include greater opportunities to receive education, health care, and services such as entertainment. The urban poor have less opportunity for education than the urban nonpoor, but still they have more chance than rural populations.

    Urban fertility rates, though lower than rural fertility rates in every region of the world, contribute to the growth of urban areas. Within urban areas, women who migrated from rural areas have more children than those born in urban areas. Of course, the rural migrants to urban areas are not a random selection of the rural population; they are more likely to have wanted fewer children even if they had stayed in the countryside. So the difference between the fertility of urban migrants and rural women probably exaggerates the impact of urban migration on fertility.


    Urban populations interact with their environment. Urban people change their environment through their consumption of food, energy, water, and land. And in turn, the polluted urban environment affects the health and quality of life of the urban population.

    People who live in urban areas have very different consumption patterns than residents in rural areas. For example, urban populations consume much more food, energy, and durable goods than rural populations. In China during the 1970s, the urban populations consumed more than twice as much pork as the rural populations who were raising the pigs.With economic development, the difference in consumption declined as the rural populations ate better diets. But even a decade later, urban populations had 60 percent more pork in their diets than rural populations. The increasing consumption of meat is a sign of growing affluence in Beijing; in India where many urban residents are vegetarians, greater prosperity is seen in higher consumption of milk.

    Urban populations not only consume more food, but they also consume more durable goods. In the early 1990s, Chinese households in urban areas were two times more likely to have a TV, eight times more likely to have a washing machine, and 25 times more likely to have a refrigerator than rural households. This increased consumption is a function of urban labor markets, wages, and household structure.


    The urban environment is an important factor in determining the quality of life in urban areas and the impact of the urban area on the broader environment. Some urban environmental problems include inadequate water and sanitation, lack of rubbish disposal, and industrial pollution.Unfortunately, reducing the problems and ameliorating their effects on the urban population are expensive.

    The health implications of these environmental problems include respiratory infections and other infectious and parasitic diseases. Capital costs for building improved environmental infrastructure — for example, investments in a cleaner public transportation system such as a subway — and for building more hospitals and clinics are higher in cities, where wages exceed those paid in rural areas. And urban land prices are much higher because of the competition for space. But not all urban areas have the same kinds of environmental conditions or health problems. Some research suggests that indicators of health problems, such as rates of infant mortality, are higher in cities that are growing rapidly than in those where growth is slower.

    Ghost Orchid: The rarest Orchid in the world.

    We all know orchids as exotic, classy and high-maintenance blooms. But I’m sure you haven’t heard of ghost orchids which sway to the breeze in night, trance and mesmerize you with its ethereal beauty.  Well, fret not, even faint-hearted can enjoy the beauty of these blooms too!

    ghost orchid flower

    It is the phantom of orchid family and looks nothing like its siblings. It doesn’t have chlorophyll and leaves.  It poses like a ghost whenever you try to click it. But what do these characteristics make it? A die-hard, born-to-survive miracle that makes its way through all odds and shines like a star!

    The florets don’t have chlorophyll and hence, are white in nature. When they move in night, they look like creepy ghosts floating in air and thus, the name ghost orchids. The plant is also leafless and depends on the other tree to make food.  The pond apple trees, palm trees, mild temperature, optimum shade and high humidity make South Florida the perfect habitat for them. The roots of plants do the photosynthesis and cling to the trunks trees like cypress, maples and pond apples.  The plants remain in a symbiotic relation with mycorrhizal fungus, without which they can’t survive. The fungus needs sugar from the plant and in exchange, it provides and gathers nutrients for it.  If the plants aren’t infected by the fungus in the wild, they won’t germinate and will be dead eventually.The blooming season for the plant is June to August.  One to ten flowers are bloomed, with only one flower opening at a time.  The scent of plant resembles apple’s fragrance. The lower petal gives the illusion of jumping frog and the bracts of the flowers are almost paper-like, and thin.  The roots of the orchid cling with such intensity that not only it is difficult to tell them apart but also it makes for a display of flower floating in the middle of nowhere, eventually lending the flowers a ghost illusion.

    Though, the plant doesn’t have any chlorophyll, it is an abundant source of nectar.  The pollination of the flowers is done by sphinx moth in night that is lured by nectar. Sphinx has long tongue (proboscis) that lets it reach the nectar sap located deep within. The moth goes from one plant to another in the search of nectar, and transfers the pollen as a result. But due to human intervention in the natural habitat of ghost orchids, the pollination alone doesn’t remain as a reliable and viable option for this endangered flora species. Given their unique appearance, the over-collection of the flowers by flower enthusiasts are also to be blamed for the rapid decline in their population besides hydrological changes and habitat destruction by humans. In fact, its sightings became too rare that it was declared ‘lost and extinct’ in Britain in the year 2010.Scientists have found a new way to culture and process plants from seed to the lab. The plants, so far, have successfully acclimatized to the greenhouse environment.  The ghost orchids also showed high rates of survival when planted to wild as well.  Out of 80 plants, 70 orchids survived the natural habitat at Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge in Eastern Collier County, Florida. The biologists also found success with ghost orchids planted at the Naples Botanical Garden.

    Disappearing Shadows of a Rising Sun…

    Japan’s birthrate has dropped to a historic level, the lowest since data gathering began in 1899. For years, Japan has seen a decline in its population, leading experts and lawmakers to consider the economic and social repercussions. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan estimated that 921,000 babies will be born by the end of 2018 — 25,000 fewer than in the previous year. About 127 million people live in Japan. The population could drop below the 100 million mark by 2049, according to the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. Not only is Japan expected to enter a long period of population decline, but also its inhabitants are aging out of the workforce. By 2036, one in three people will be elderly, researchers project.”To help ensure Japan stays on a path of sustained economic growth, we know we must address the birthrate and aging population issues,” Communications and Cultural Affairs Ministry of Japan. Government launched a new economic policy package in 2017 to address the dilemma.

    The plan is designed to promote both supply system innovation,” such as robots, “and human resources development revolution,” a social security system for “not only the elderly and the youth, but also Japan’s working-age generation so they are provided with support for child-rearing and nursing care.Amid a shrinking workforce, Japan has already turned to robots for some of its daily needs. They are used in restaurants, stores and banks. The International Monetary Fund stated last year that because of the aging population, robots will be found in “schools, hospitals … and even temples.”

    Lawmakers also passed a measure in December that will allow more foreign workers to enter the country, for longer periods of time and, in some cases, with a path toward attaining Japanese citizenship.Birthrates aren’t just falling in Japan. South Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Around the globe, the fertility rate fell more than 50 percent, from 4.99 in 1960 to 2.44 by 2016, according to the World Bank.Japanese researchers found that among unmarried people between the ages of 18 and 34, nearly 70 percent of men and 60 percent of women were not in a relationship, reported The Japan Times.But that isn’t necessarily why the country is producing fewer babies.

    A major factor may be a dearth of stable jobs for young people. Since the 1990s, labor laws changed, leading to more part-time and contract work, according to The Atlantic. That could have affected people’s trajectory, building a class of men who don’t marry and have children because they — and their potential partners — know they can’t afford to.

    obesity disorder

    what is obesity??

    obesity starting of stress and depression

    Obesity is a complex disease involving an excessive amount of body fat. Obesity isn’t just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical problem that increases your risk of other diseases and health problems, such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and certain cancers.

    There are many reasons why some people have difficulty avoiding obesity. Usually, obesity results from a combination of inherited factors, combined with the environment and personal diet and exercise choices.

    The good news is that even modest weight loss can improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can help you lose weight.


    Although there are genetic, behavioral, metabolic and hormonal influences on body weight, obesity occurs when you take in more calories than you burn through exercise and normal daily activities. Your body stores these excess calories as fat.

    Most Americans’ diets are too high in calories — often from fast food and high-calorie beverages. People with obesity might eat more calories before feeling full, feel hungry sooner, or eat more due to stress or anxiety.

    Risk factors

    Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and contributing factors:

    Family inheritance and influences

    The genes you inherit from your parents may affect the amount of body fat you store, and where that fat is distributed. Genetics may also play a role in how efficiently your body converts food into energy, how your body regulates your appetite and how your body burns calories during exercise.

    Obesity tends to run in families. That’s not just because of the genes they share. Family members also tend to share similar eating and activity habits.

    Lifestyle choices

    • Unhealthy diet. A diet that’s high in calories, lacking in fruits and vegetables, full of fast food, and laden with high-calorie beverages and oversized portions contributes to weight gain.
    • Liquid calories. People can drink many calories without feeling full, especially calories from alcohol. Other high-calorie beverages, such as sugared soft drinks, can contribute to significant weight gain.
    • Inactivity. If you have a sedentary lifestyle, you can easily take in more calories every day than you burn through exercise and routine daily activities. Looking at computer, tablet and phone screens is a sedentary activity. The number of hours you spend in front of a screen is highly associated with weight gain.
    • stress.In most of the cases ,shows that when you starting to take lots of stress you might become feel heavy not only on your mind nut your body become heavier day by day.

    Other factors

    • Pregnancy. Weight gain is common during pregnancy. Some women find this weight difficult to lose after the baby is born. This weight gain may contribute to the development of obesity in women. Breast-feeding may be the best option to lose the weight gained during pregnancy.
    • Quitting smoking. Quitting smoking is often associated with weight gain. And for some, it can lead to enough weight gain to qualify as obesity. Often, this happens as people use food to cope with smoking withdrawal. In the long run, however, quitting smoking is still a greater benefit to your health than is continuing to smoke. Your doctor can help you prevent weight gain after quitting smoking.
    • Lack of sleep. Not getting enough sleep or getting too much sleep can cause changes in hormones that increase your appetite. You may also crave foods high in calories and carbohydrates, which can contribute to weight gain.
    • Previous attempts to lose weight. Previous attempts of weight loss followed by rapid weight regain may contribute to further weight gain. This phenomenon, sometimes called yo-yo dieting, can slow your metabolism.

    Even if you have one or more of these risk factors, it doesn’t mean that you’re destined to develop obesity. You can counteract most risk factors through diet, physical activity and exercise, and behavior changes.


    People with obesity are more likely to develop a number of potentially serious health problems, including:

    • Heart disease and strokes. Obesity makes you more likely to have high blood pressure and abnormal cholesterol levels, which are risk factors for heart disease and strokes.
    • Type 2 diabetes. Obesity can affect the way your body uses insulin to control blood sugar levels. This raises your risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.
    • Certain cancers. Obesity may increase your risk of cancer of the uterus, cervix, endometrium, ovary, breast, colon, rectum, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, kidney and prostate.
    • Digestive problems. Obesity increases the likelihood that you’ll develop heartburn, gallbladder disease and liver problems.


    • Exercise regularly. You need to get 150 to 300 minutes of moderate-intensity activity a week to prevent weight gain. Moderately intense physical activities include fast walking and swimming.
    • Follow a healthy-eating plan. Focus on low-calorie, nutrient-dense foods, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Avoid saturated fat and limit sweets and alcohol. Eat three regular meals a day with limited snacking. You can still enjoy small amounts of high-fat, high-calorie foods as an infrequent treat. Just be sure to choose foods that promote a healthy weight and good health most of the time.
    • Know and avoid the food traps that cause you to eat. Identify situations that trigger out-of-control eating. Try keeping a journal and write down what you eat, how much you eat, when you eat, how you’re feeling and how hungry you are. After a while, you should see patterns emerge. You can plan ahead and develop strategies for handling these types of situations and stay in control of your eating behaviors.
    • Monitor your weight regularly. People who weigh themselves at least once a week are more successful in keeping off excess pounds. Monitoring your weight can tell you whether your efforts are working and can help you detect small weight gains before they become big problems.
    • Be consistent. Sticking to your healthy-weight plan during the week, on the weekends, and amidst vacation and holidays as much as possible increases your chances of long-term success.



    Sport or sports is all forms of usually competitive physical. Activity which,through casual or organised participation,aim to use maintain or improve physical abilities and skills while providing entertainment to participants, and in some causes, spectators. The history of sports extends back to the ancient world.the physical activity that developed into sports had early links with ritual,warfare and entertainment.

    The history of sports can teach lessons about social changes and about the nature of sport itself, as sports seems involved in the development of basic human skills

    As far back as the beginnings of sports, it was related to military training for example,competitive was used as a mean to determine whether individuals were fit and useful for service.

    the documented history of sports goes back at least 3000 years. In the beginning sports often involved the preparation for war or training as a hunter .

    the first Olympic games in 776BC which included events such as foot and chariot races,wrestling, jumping, and discus and javelin throwing -the ancient Greek introduced formal sports to the world.

    And the benefit of sports are being active and exercising regularly is a secret to good health.

    While there are many ways to keep one active,it would be good if you understand the benefits associated with sports

    It has been proven by research and science that engaging in some sporting activity could help a lot in improving your over all physical and mental fitness.

    And these are the some important benefits of sports are.

    It improves mood ,improves concentrations ,helps reduce tension and stress quality of sleep improves. It helps in maintaining optimal health, improve self confidence levels. , and it helps children’s a lot.

    Mental health benefits reduced anxiety and depression stress reliever,makes you happy, promotes positive mood.

    Physical benefits increase strength and stamina ,better body shape ,improves your personality, reduces several health risks.

    Emotional benefits positive body image, self-esteem, relieves stress,reduces depression.

    Educational benefits develop discipline to set goals and work to achieve those goals strategic thinking,math skills,communication


    We live in the age of technology. We commute by automobiles and airplanes and communicate by emails and mobiles. The media and the Internet provide us the latest information from all over the world. Movies filled with hi-tech special effects entertain us. Air conditioners and room heaters keep our life comfortable despite climatic inconveniences. The list goes on. Technology has transformed almost every aspect of our lives. Of course, a few of us may have concerns about the pollution and environmental problems that technology has led to. But overall most people feel that technology has benefited us immensely.

    In the mid-20th century, people have gained control technology sufficient to leave the Earth’s atmosphere and space for the first time. The technology used to know the techniques or methods of organization to solve the problem by the method of right and serve the purpose. Technology affects the person and the possibility of other kinds of animals to adapt to the natural environment. Human species has begun using the technology that makes it simple natural tools. Discovery of prehistory, the ability to control fire increased food sources and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel and explore your surroundings. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes to develop weapons and destructive power has evolved over the centuries, from clubs to nuclear weapons. Technology also has an impact on society and the environment in many ways. In many societies, technology has helped bring a more developed economy and allow the entertainment show class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, harm the earth and its surroundings. Different use of technology influences the values of society and new technology often increases the new ethical questions.

    The aim of the technology when it began is good. A lot of things we use it and can’t imagine our life without it. So, the technology helps us in our life to be more easily. When a technology has been used by communities to compete to develop themselves. Therefore, the technology has two faces are the face of good and the other face is evil. And with that despite the good start that was designed to facilitate people’s lives. For example, when he invented dynamite was to open the mines know, and iron and other minerals, but after then used in World War this is how the beginning but the end is bad. So he makes Nobel PRIZE to encourage people to make a good invite which help the world and people.

    Technology improves our goodness of life. By use the technology we have important discoveries. In our life we depend in technology in everything in our life. When you think about the technology you found yourself use it every minute. So, it is important in our life and the life will be different without it. The technology enters in all fields like pharmacy, medicine and engineering. It’s difficult to see field without technology.

    Technology is a measure of human development. Technology is part of the life of every human- We can live without a technology and technology can’t exist without us.

    So, of course- technology is blessing for us. Technology is a necessary to live and to prove conditions of our live. New technologies help in every field of our life. It is possible to invent a new medicines against dangerous diseases. It is possible travel by car of talking by phone. We can multiply a positive examples in different field of our life. Of course, technology has also a second, worst side. It can be used against people, for instance in act of terrorism. However, we shouldn’t scare about it.

    We see it everywhere, in cars, trucks, airplanes, ships, car interiors, toys and more. Life will never be the same without wheels. They range from wooden carts and carriages, a simple device, but it provides over time developed.

     If there is no technology, why don’t we just imagine our lives without?

    Technology. Waking up by the rays of sunlight, getting water to use from wells,

    Going to so -called schools/colleges /universities or other institutions by walking

    God know how long, no cure of diseases, no entertainment, and no nothing.

    Technology easier work of human beings. It can be both blessing and a curse, because our whole world now -a-days revolves around technology i.e.; How we communicate with each other? How we see the world? And How everything else etc.

    Basically, technology is a mean of communication between the individual s and the way by which information can be exchanged between them. It serves us as a source to share our ideas or thoughts with other people.

    Now the question is… When technology began? In 500 B.C; the Abacus, which is also called a counting -frame, was the first 1927, first Television was introduced and so on.

    In the past, people had limited resources for communication like they had to travel miles to give a simple message or convey information from one person to another. There was a decade when messages were in the form of pictures; than in the form of different fonts or alphabets. Messages were conveyed by birds like pigeons. Now -a-days, information technology has made this so easier to communicate, send or receive messages throughout the world.

    Technology is everywhere in today’s society, progressing faster and faster every day, but sometimes technology can be used irresponsibly, which could endanger others e.g.; Computer where knowledge is handy. On the other side, a study has found those who work for more than a decade at a computer terminal are twice as likely to develop Bowel Cancer. Another well –known technology Cell phones; the absolute means of communication. A research says that 78% of teens now have a cellphones. Everyone knows cellphones are one of the surprising gift of the technology that are able to perform a lot of works at once. Now -a-days, cellphone is not just a phone, but it is like our private secretary that keeps track of everything and provides us necessary information. A research shows that after ten years, ipsilateral tumors e.g.; the tumors in brain, eye, ear etc. will be started in human beings. Another well -known technology now -a-days are the Televisions. No doubt they are in everyone’s house, bonds the families.

    As all know technology helps in many way s but these are some key points which shows how technology helping us are:-

    • It saves time.

    • It improves efficiency.

    • It allows us to do more with less.

    • It gives us every -type of information.

    • It can be a mean of entertainment.

    • It allows us to experience new cultures.

    • It can be beneficial in online learning.

    • It makes easy to communicate with the people around the world.

    Now we can say this technology is a part of life even we can’t think about to live without it. Technology is the oxygen of twenty -first century, many people rely on the

    Technology too, the conclusion is a blessing, and   everything is better as the technology used to create everything for everyone. 

    Why corporate culture is soo important in business?

    Corporate world

    It’s a formal world where work counts more than anything else. Hence maintaining a professional attitude will help you cope. Learning to behave professionally can’t be learned in a day or two but it is a gradual process. Be a professional at all levels, and each minute.

    ” The corporate world has the resources to improve the world. It’s where people live and work”. – Douglas Conant

    The above quote is truly said that a corporate world can improve the world with its own talent, its own behaviour, with the proper discipline where people can learn and work carefully and with responsibility.

    Corporate culture

    Corporate culture refers to the shared values, attitudes, standards, and beliefs that characterize members of an organization and define its nature. Corporate culture is rooted in an organization’s goals, strategies, structure, and approaches to labor, customers, investors, and the greater community. As such, it is an essential component in any business’s ultimate success or failure. 

    Ever work at a company where you felt like your boss didn’t care about your development, didn’t care if you did well, and only saw you as a resource and didn’t value your contributions?  The truth is, most of us have.

    On the other hand, companies that promote leadership and productivity, and place emphasis on employee development is the type of environment we all strive to be a part of. These types of companies typically have a diverse and well-developed company culture.

    Businesses with a positive company culture are more likely to succeed and have a higher retention rate because they invest in their employees.

    This article will highlight three good reasons why having a strong company culture is important to the success of your business. 

    Builds Company Image

    When you develop and communicate a strong company culture, it’s a direct reflect on your company’s core values . When you can identify what is important for your company, you can help to foster those values and practices in your employees.

    It all starts with you. Lead by example and communicate your expectations to your employees. Good company culture starts at the top, if you don’t practice the values that you preach, your employees won’t practice them either.

    Developing a strong company culture helps build a positive image that will attract new employees.  People are attracted to companies that have individuals who share similar values.

    When you showcase the culture that you promote in the workplace, it allows others to see how you treat employees and how you relate with others apart from what you do. This should all be incorporated in your online presence since it will show others what you value as a company.

    why organizational culture is important

    1. It defines your company’s internal and external identity

    Here’s a thought exercise: write down on a piece of paper five attributes that best describe your organization’s culture. You might write something like “good work-life balance” or “lots of meetings” or maybe “team-oriented.”

    2. Organizational culture is about living your company’s core values

    Your culture can be a reflection (or a betrayal) of your company’s core values. The ways in which you conduct business, manage workflow, interact as a team, and treat your customers all add up to an experience that should represent who you are as an organization and how you believe a company should be run. In short, your culture is the sum of your company’s beliefs in action.

    But if your espoused values don’t match your culture, that’s a problem. It could mean that your “core values” are a list of meaningless buzzwords, and your people know it.

    A strong organisational culture keeps your company’s core values front and center in all aspects of its day-to-day operations and organizational structure. The value of doing so is incalculable.

    3. Your culture can transform employees into advocates (or critics)

    One of the greatest advantages of a strong organizational culture is that it has the power to turn employees into advocates.

    Your people want more than a steady paycheck and good benefits; they want to feel like what they do matters. And when your people feel like they matter, they’re more likely to become culture advocates—that is, people who not only contribute to your organization’s culture, but also promote it and live it internally and externally.


    These are just a smattering of reasons why organizational culture is important, but they’re a good starting point to get you thinking about what your own organization brings to the table. What’s important at your company might be totally different depending on the situation.

    Is Our Earth Sustainable?

    One of the most familiar word we hear in our day to day life and many within and beyond academia and in the more developed and developing parts of the world is “SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT”. It is another principle that emerged after the development of UNCLOS.The Sustainable Development resources refers to the mutual promotion of Economy, Ecology and Society to develop Sustainable Development. It is a development model that consider the Environment when achieving balanced growth with efficiency and fairness.

    What is Sustainable Development? The development that meets the needs of the present without Compromising the ability of Future Generations to meet their own needs. Achieving Sustainable Development in the 21th Century is not an option but am Imperative. The journey of four World Summits from “Stockholm to Johannesburg ” they have decided that Sustainable Development is an Imperative.

    Nature Provides a Free Lunch but only If We Control Our Appetites”

    During the year 1972 UN conference in Stockholm highlighted the “concerns for preserving and enhancing the environmentand its biodiversity to ensure Human Rights to a healthy and Productive world”,In 1982 the United Nations commission on Environment and Development was created .During the period 1972-1992 over 200 Regional and International Agreements and Conventions for Environment Protection were Adopted. Non Government Organizations from around the world also collaborates and Deliberated Strategies for Sustainable Development. In 2012 the United Nations conference met to discuss and develop a set of goals to work towards on Sustainable Development. This Sustainable Development came up with a list of 17 items. The 1st Sustainable Development Emphasizes the coordinate development between Resource Utilization and Economic growth and The 2nd Sustainable Development Emphasizes moderate development taking into account the Environment carrying Capacity while using Natural Resources,Finally the main Goal of the Sustainable Development theory is to improve the quality of Human life i.e In which people can live and work in Peace and Contentment and have a high quality of Life.

    Sustainable Development Characterised by three P’s People, Planet and Profit. At the core of Idea of Sustainable is the matter of meeting people needs for the home,job etc,.If we dont take care of Environment in which we live now,we wont have anything to leave behind us for Future Generations.


    It’s Okay To Be Sad

    This one is for all the people out there who are energetic and quirky all the time. Who brightens up every room the moment they walk in. The ‘life of the party’ people!

    Such kinds of people are generally thought of as happy-go-lucky. They make everyone laugh and keep them entertained. Now mind you, I am not saying that all of these people are sad and feel like they are responsible for entertaining the rest of us. But there are a bunch of people who feel like they have to make everyone laugh. Not all of them, but yes, there is definitely a section of homo-sapiens who think like that.

    As a result, whenever anything sad and unfortunate happens to them, they suppress their emotions. They don’t give themselves a chance to process their lives’ events. They are with the thought process that if they become all sad, who is going to keep their friends and family entertained?

    This one is also for those who think that they have to be strong for everyone else’s sake. Maybe the 18-year-old someone who has to work nonstop to feed the family. Someone who thinks that if they won’t take care of others, no one will. Someone who constantly feel the need to be happy. And there are many more. This one is for all of them.

    It is extremely important for them to process emotions like everyone else. What I am trying to say is, it’s okay to be sad. It’s okay to cry, yell, and scream when you are feeling sad or betrayed. Basically expressing negative emotions (to some extent) is equally important for these people.




    Now, we all have our ways of letting out this negative energy. Some of us, talk to their parents. Some of us call up a friend. Some of us listen to music. Some of us meditate. And some of us go in our shell to regain our energy. It is just as important how we express emotions as it is to deal with them. Because if we let it all inside of us, never giving these emotions a chance to let themselves out, then we are just burdening our minds with it. By showing emotions, we don’t become weak. By crying (it’s proven scientifically) we actually become a bit more emotionally strong.

    Now, what I must stress on is that expressing your feelings and dealing with them are two separate things. Although they both are a part of the same process. Without expressing your emotions you can’t deal with them. If you can’t deal with them and still keep pretending that everything in your life is perfect, it will ultimately take a bad toll on your entire mental health. Suppressing is one of the defense mechanisms. Suppressing negative memories or emotions to pretend like everything is fine, is a way to defend your psyche from these same things you are suppressing. This defense mechanism is a very sketchy one. We should know when to let our emotions out and when to get them in control.

    This process is difficult. Very difficult. It takes a lot of time, practice, and dedication to master this process. What aids us while we are working through the process is usually talking to someone you trust about your feelings and emotions. Talking about it is probably the most recommended way to deal with it. We have to learn how to talk. Even if you are the most introverted person in the world. Maybe start by writing your thoughts somewhere and then progress slowly towards talking to someone. It can be literally anyone. A friend, a parent, a sibling, or even an acquaintance. And if you still are unable to succeed at finding any of them trustworthy, talk to an expert. A psychologist. They are trained and put in all their life’s time into studying humans and their behavior. Plus they are bound to keep your story to themselves. So they can be your safe haven.

    Someone wisely said, “Working through your problem is the only way to completely get rid of it.”

    Factors Affecting Employee Retention

    “Train people well enough so they can leave, Treat them well enough so they don’t want to.”

    By Richard Branson

    The above quote by Sir Richard Branson provide us so deep inspiration and knowledge that we generally don’t think. Earlier employees were regarded as machines or tools but now they are considered as an asset to the organisation. Really these employees are an asset to the organisation as employees are the major contributors to profit and worth of the organisation. The greatest investment we can make is in people. They are considered as the backbone of any organisation. Without employees no organisation can think of its success and even it’s not possible too. As said by Peter Drucker in 1999 – ” The most valuable assets of a 20th century company were its production equipment, The most valuable assets of a 21st century institution, whether business or non – business, will be its knowledge workers and their productivity.” These words by Peter Drucker can be clearly seen in the present scenario. But retaining these potential employees is also a big problem. So first we should know what is employee retention. In layman’s term employee retention means the ability of an organisation to retain its employees so that they don’t quit their jobs. It is very important for an organisation to retain its employees as an organisation has invested a lot of time, money and effort on these employees. And if they leave the organisation the company has to bear the losses and also has to recruit new employees and again they have to invest time, money and effort on these new employees to make them fit for the new job. So retaining the employee is a tough task for HR. There are many factors affecting employee retention they are –

    • Training- Employee Retention starts from day one itself. As from the starting day itself employees think whether he or she want to stay or leave. So training plays an important role in retention of employees. As training is a very essential part in any organisation as training is a learning process in which an employee get an opportunity to develop skills, knowledge and competency as per the job requirements. Through training an organisation invest in its employees in order to make them competent enough and help its employees to sustain in this dynamic environment. In the same way, through this training employees develop a greater sense of self – worth as now they became more valuable to the organisation and hence employees develop a sense of belongingness.
    • Compensation- Compensation is the most important factor. As this can only determine whether the employee will stay or leave. After we hire an employee, compensation and benefits is the only part which can help in retention and motivation. As, if the employee feels that he or she is receiving a good package from your organisation he or she will work hard or otherwise they will leave. So compensation and benefits have direct impact on retention.
    • Relationship between Manager and Employee- Employee- manager relationship is very crucial and important. As a poor relation between the two can lead to employee attrition. There are some employees for whom relations matter a lot than any other things like compensation and benefits, rewards and recognition. So, the relationship between the two should be nice.
    • Recognition and Rewards- Everybody in this world like to get rewards and recognised by someone. By employee recognition we mean highlighting the positive efforts and achievements in the workplace. This may include both personal traits and professional achievements. As through rewarding and recognising our employee we can foster a sense of engagement with the work. This will motivate them to work hard and stay in the organisation.
    • Work-life Balance- It is very important for an organisation to retain its top – performing employees. Not only salary, but work environment is also a factor which may distract your employees that whether they want to stay or leave. There are many types of work – life balance arrangements like Flextime, Job-sharing and Part-time work. An organisation should provide these facilities to retain them.

    Last But not the Least

    Retention and Turnover affects everyone in the organisation. It is not always possible that you can retain each and everyone. One or other will leave the organisation sooner or later. Handling employee retention is not an easy task. The only thing you can do is try to improvise your employee retention strategies from time to time according to your requirement and need. On this note, keep your team happy, healthy and safe.

    The Beautiful Monsoon

    Today, I woke up and it was raining heavily outside. Seeing the view outside made my heart filled with pleasure. I love the rainy season because it’s the season of festivals!

    Farmers also longed-for monsoon season with honest emotions, it gives them a purpose to rejoice numerous carnivals, cross fingers for high-quality harvests, and make élite monsoon dishes. Monsoon in actuality shows us one of its finest natural outlooks, as streams are bursting, flooding and swinging, foothills are wide-awake in pursuit of greeneries and downpour ornamented the entire hills with a lustrous look, glorious ponds, plush natural foliage, and stunning floras.

    The rainy season is one of the four main seasons of India. It ends every year after the summer season, especially in the month of July and ends in September. Clouds in the sky rain when the monsoon occurs. It gets very hot during the summer season and goes up in the sky as vapor from water resources like oceans, rivers, etc. Water is of the utmost importance in human life. That is why we should plant more and more trees for good rainfall so that our environment remains clean and green.

    We all the more so get unexpected appetites for pakoras, samosa, and corn cobs. Certainly, it’s the finest nosh for all periods but flavors extremely satisfactory the minute it showers outdoor. Avoid eating leafy vegetables like spinach, cabbage, cabbage, during the rainy season. Instead, use cucumber, orange, mango, and tomato more in food. Eat plenty of dry fruits during the rainy season. They help in increasing the immunity of the body. Aloo paratha prepared for breakfast or dinner during the rainy season. The whole family will be happy. If you mix onions and potatoes in the stuffing, the taste will be even better.


    Function 1 # Bank of Issue:

    Central bank now-a-days has the monopoly of note-issue in every country. The currency notes printed and issued by the central bank are declared unlimited legal tender throughout the country.

    Central bank has been given exclusive monopoly of note-issue in the interest of uniformity, better control, elasticity, supervision, and simplicity. It will also avoid the possibility of over-issue by individual banks.

    The central banks, thus, regulate the currency of country and the total money-supply in the economy. The central bank has to keep gold, silver or other securities against the notes issued. The system of note-issue differs from country to country.

    The main objects of the system of currency regulation in general are to see that:

    (i) People’s confidence in the currency is maintained,

    (ii) Its supply is adjusted to demand in the economy.

    Thus, keeping in view the aims of uniformity, elasticity, safety and security, the system of note-issue has been varying from time to time.

    Function 2 # Banker, Agent and Adviser to the Government:

    Central bank, everywhere, performs the functions of banker, agent and adviser to the government.

    As banker to the government, it makes and receives payments on behalf of the government. It advances short-term loans to the government to tide over difficulties.

    It floats public loans and manages the public debts on behalf of the government. It keeps the banking accounts and balances of the government after making disbursements and remittances. As an adviser to the government it advises the government on all monetary and economic matters. The central bank also acts as an agent to the government where general exchange control is in force.

    Function 3 # Custodian of Cash Reserves:

    All commercial banks in a country keep a part of their cash balances as deposits with the central bank, may be on account of convention or legal compulsion. They draw during busy seasons and pay back during slack seasons. Part of these balances is used for clearing purposes. Other member banks look to it for guidance, help and direction in time of need.

    It affects centralisation of cash reserves of the member banks. “The centralisation of cash reserves in the central bank is a source of great strength to the banking system of any country. Centralised cash reserves can at least serve as the basis of a large and more elastic credit structure than if the same amount were scattered amongst the individual banks.

    It is obvious, when bank reserves are pooled in one institution which is, moreover, charged with the responsibility of safeguarding the national economic interest, such reserves can be employed to the fullest extent possible and in the most effective manner during periods of seasonal strain and in financial crises or general emergencies…the centralisation of cash reserves is conducive to economy in their use and to increased elasticity and liquidity of the banking system and of the credit structure as a whole.”

    Function 4 # Custodian of Foreign Balances:

    Under the gold standard or when the country is on the gold standard, the management of that standard, with a view to securing stability of exchange rate, is left to the central bank.

    After World War I, central banks have been keeping gold and foreign currencies as reserve note-issue and also to meet adverse balance of payment, if any, with other countries. It is the function of the central bank to maintain the exchange rate fixed by the government and manage exchange control and other restrictions imposed by the state. Thus, it becomes a custodian of nation’s reserves of international currency or foreign balances.

    Function 5 # Lender of Last Resort:

    Central bank is the lender of last resort, for it can give cash to the member banks to strengthen their cash reserves position by rediscounting first class bills in case there is a crisis or panic which develops into ‘run’ on banks or when there is a seasonal strain. Member banks can also take advances on approved short-term securities from the central bank to add to their cash resources at the shortest time.

    This facility of turning their assets into cash at short notice is of great use to them and promotes in the banking and credit system economy, elasticity and liquidity.

    Thus, the central bank by acting as the lender of the last resort assumes the responsibility of meeting all reasonable demands for accommodation by commercial banks in times of difficulties and strains.

    De Kock expresses the opinion that the lending of last resort function of the central bank imparts greater liquidity and elasticity to the entire credit structure of the country. According to Hawtrey, the essential duty of the central bank as the lender of last resort is to make good a shortage of cash among the competitive banks.

    Function 6 # Clearing House:

    Central bank also acts as a clearing house for the settlement of accounts of commercial banks. A clearing house is an organisation where mutual claims of banks on one another are offset, and a settlement is made by the payment of the difference. Central bank being a bankers’ bank keeps the cash balances of commercial banks and as such it becomes easier for the member banks to adjust or settle their claims against one another through the central bank.

    Suppose there are two banks, they draw cheques on each other. Suppose bank A has due to it Rs. 3,000 from bank B and has to pay Rs. 4,000 to B. At the clearing house, mutual claims are offset and bank A pays the balance of Rs. 1,000 to B and the account is settled. Clearing house function of the central bank leads to a good deal of economy in the use of cash and much of labour and inconvenience are avoided.

    Function 7 # Controller of Credit:

    The control or adjustment of credit of commercial banks by the central bank is accepted as its most important function. Commercial banks create lot of credit which sometimes results in inflation.

    The expansion or contraction of currency and credit may be said to be the most important causes of business fluctuations. The need for credit control is obvious. It mainly arises from the fact that money and credit play an important role in determining the level of incomes, output and employment.

    According to Dr. De Kock, “the control and adjustment of credit is accepted by most economists and bankers as the main function of a central bank. It is the function which embraces the most important questions of central banking policy and the one through which practically all other functions are united and made to serve a common purpose.”

    Thus, the control which the central bank exercises over commercial banks as regards their deposits, is called controller of credit.

    Function 8 # Protection of Depositors Interests:

    The central bank has to supervise the functioning of commercial banks so as to protect the interest of the depositors and ensure development of banking on sound lines.

    The business of banking has, therefore, been recognized as a public service necessitating legislative safeguards to prevent bank failures.

    Legislation is enacted to enable the central bank to inspect commercial banks in order to maintain a sound banking system, comprising strong individual units with adequate financial resources operating under proper management in conformity with the banking laws and regulations and public and national interests.