Artificial Intelligence & Driverless cars


Artificial Intelligence ( shortly abbreviated as AI) is the technique used to create machines or devices that work and behave like humans. AI is the science and intelligence of making intelligent machines. AI is a broad domain that encompasses many subdomains within it – computer vision, machine learning, neural networks, deep learning, natural language processing, image processing, etc.


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AI will provide human-like interactions with software and offer decision support for specific tasks. The simple memorizing of individual items/procedures is known as rote learning and is relatively easy to implement on a computer. More challenging is the problem of implementing what is called generalization. Generalization involves applying past experience to analogous new situations.
Machine learning is where a computer system is fed large amounts of data, which it then uses to learn how to carry out a specific task, such as understanding speech, etc. A subset of machine learning is deep learning. The brain kind of neuron network structure is simulated and created to solve deep and complex problems using neural networks.

Computer vision relies on pattern recognition and deep learning to recognize what’s in a picture or video. When machines can process, analyze, and understand images, they can capture images or videos in real-time and interpret their surroundings. Natural language processing (NLP) is the ability of computers to analyze, understand, and generate human language, including speech. Using these technologies, computers can be trained to accomplish specific tasks by processing large amounts of data and recognizing patterns in the data.

Types of AI Systems

Based on the intelligence simulated in the machines, they can be classified as Artificial Narrow Intelligence(ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGN), and Artificial Super Intelligence.
Narrow AI is what we see all around us in computers today: intelligent systems that have been taught how to carry out specific tasks without being explicitly programmed how to do so. Interactive voice recognition is the most-widely used AI technology in the business today. Voice Assistants like Microsoft Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, Google Assistant, Microsoft Cortona belong to the first category (weak AI or ANI system).
Apple’s Siri is one of the most well known personal assistants that comes with the iPhone and iPad. The friendly female voice assistant can interact daily with the user. She assists us to get the needed information from the Internet by searching, get directions to local destinations, send messages, make voice calls, and add events to the calendar.
Tesla is one of the best automobiles available until now. The car has several fascinating features like self-driving, predictive capabilities, updation of its knowledge based on past experiences, and make future decisions smarter by continuously applying them. The vision-recognition systems on self-driving cars come under Narrow AI. And, it is powered by its deep learning algorithm and they are fully autonomous vehicles. In general, the vehicle would be pre-programmed with a map of the area being driven. This map would include data on the approximations of street light and curb heights in order for the vehicle to be aware of its surroundings.

The Amazon go shop is another example of this kind. There are a lot of sensors around the shop and only self-service facility is available for the shoppers. There are no workers in the shop ( except for arranging the items and stock them). After the purchase, the bill amount is directly debited from the customer’s card instantly before they check out from the shop.
IBM’s Watson software is used to recommend customized treatment options for the patients according to their health conditions.
Strong AI aims to build machines that think. A flexible form of intelligence capable of learning how to carry out vastly different tasks is the feature of Artificial General Intelligence(AGI).
Superintelligence can be defined “as any intellect that greatly exceeds the cognitive performance of humans in virtually all domains of interest” is expected some 30 years after the achievement of AGI.
Summing up:
Though, technology is a boon to specially challenged people in some circumstances. It may reduce job opportunities in some sectors. Since it has the ability to constantly update its knowledge, there is a risk that it surpasses human capabilities.

For further detailed information on Artificial Intelligence, please check the following links.

https://www.britannica.com/technology/artificial-intelligence/Is-strong-AI-possible

https://www.sas.com/en_in/insights/analytics/what-is-artificial-intelligence.html

Question- what is the importance of birds?

The data of the recently released State of India Birds 2020 report is extremely shocking.

Wherever you live in the country, from dense forest to desert or any other city to streets. Possibilities are you wake up in the morning and the very first thing you hear is birds’ chirping. There are a number of countries around the world where there is a vast population of birds like ours. Bird watchers have recorded 867 species of sightings so far, which includes locals as well as expatriates.

The truth is that for decades our subcontinent has welcomed migratory birds from places that are miles away like Siberia. In the Lakkundi village near Hampi, relief carvings of migratory birds can be found on the walls of the Chalukya temple which is thousands of years old. It includes goose, cranes and flamingos.

If seen, birds are remarkably acknowledged in our culture. Coming to mythology, we do not even need to be reminded which birds are the vehicle mount of the Gods or Goddesses, or which birds had impressions in the emblems of our royalty. Whether it is music or art, we can find its presence symbolically.
Every child remembers stories of birds, must remember the story of a clever crow, birds are in every story of Indians. Even India, itself was known as ‘The Golden Bird.’

However, the data of the recently released State of India Birds 2020 report is extremely shocking.  This is the detailed (first of its kind) assessment of the conservation status of birds in abundance in the country. Tens of organizations like NCF, NCBS and A Tree have come together to collect bird data in India. They have reposed great faith in the 1 crore observations of 15,500 common people who have recorded their data on the easy-to-use ‘e Bird’ platform.

According to the data, out of 867 species, 101 are highly in need of preservation, 319 in general and 442 the least. Long-term trends were considered for 261 species, of which 52 per cent, more than half, have declined since 2000 while 22 per cent of these numbers have fallen significantly. Annual trends were read for 146 species and 80 per cent of them are declining and 50 per cent are at alarming levels. This situation requires immediate attention.

We did not know the objective of our birds’ lives until the arrival of this report. We knew about selected species, such as peacock. Its situation is quite better and the number is increasing well and about Gauraiya (Sparrow), which environmentalists thought was coming to an end.

Simply because their presence in urban areas was decreasing, while in reality, their numbers are stable. This report has now revealed that migratory birds such as the Golden Plover, prey birds such as vultures and Habitat specialists such as Forest Wagtail are in great danger.
But why should we worry about them? What is the importance of these birds?

Birds play an important role in our ecosystem.  They are pollinators for other species, seed dispersers, scavengers and also sustenance for other organisms. Birds can become part of the local economy, as several people like to watch them. A growing number of bird watchers in the country have promoted ecotourism.

The truth is that human health is closely related to the well being of birds and their number is threatening. There is an English metaphor, ‘Canary in the Coal Mine’ i.e. a canary bird in a coal mine. In the old days, while going to the mine, labourers used to carry the canary bird in the mines. If the levels of methane or carbon dioxide in the mine were high and the gas reached a dangerous level, the bird would die and workers used to come out of the mine safely.

The State of India Birds Report 2020 can alert us just like this canary bird. What can we do to save our birds? We need to observe, understand and protect them. Many of you would be a bird lover or chances are that birds give you immense pleasure.  In a way, to pay their debts, you should allow a part of your garden to remain untouched so that birds can reach there and make their nest. Many species of Munia (Lonchura), Bulbul and Sunbird are flourishing around us. Try to keep water for birds in different corners at different altitudes of the garden.

Many communities in India are doing a lot for the conservation of birds, sometimes even at the cost of their livelihood. There is a special connection between the villagers in Kokrebellur, Karnataka, and the two types of bird species, the spot build pelican and the painted stork. Villagers in Pangati, Nagaland, have vowed not to kill Amur Phalkan in the past. These birds pass through that area in large numbers.

Recently, the Supreme Court has taken the initiative to direct the Government of Rajasthan to save the endangered Sarang (Herons). It’s lesser-known fact that Sarang was in the race to become our national bird while picking peacocks. Such examples can be found everywhere. Birds fill our sights with grandeur, lends peace to our souls. As a nation, we should think about what we can do to preserve India’s incredible diversity of birds. For them as well as for us.

Indian spices have amazing healing powers

The spices we use everyday in our kitchen while cooking are the same spices which had impressed the Britishers with their flavour and unique aroma they gave to the food as well as the amazing healing properties they had. It is not an exaggeration to say that spices were one of the reasons that Britishers started to colonize parts of India.

Even today, spices contribute a very essential part of a healthy Indian meal. But spices do not just add flavour to your food. They have health benefits too capable of healing the body in and out. Sometimes it’s better to turn to natural remedies to cure minor ailments. Ayurveda has solely been using plants and herbs since ages to cure all kinds of ailments. But our generation isn’t as patient as our ancestors were and we prefer pills that give instant relief over natural remedies. It’s time to go back to our roots and make use of some magical spices that have amazing healing properties and that provide relief in a healthier way. 

Here, some of the spices that have amazing health benefits:

1. Cloves

Cloves are one of the most widely used whole spices in our day to day cooking. But we tend to underestimate them in terms of their medicinal properties.  Apart from adding a distinct aroma and flavor to our food, cloves are a rich source of manganese and also have strong anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. Clove oil is rich in Eugenol, a component that fights infections and also helps in suppressing pain. Simply dab some clove oil over an infected tooth and gums to help ease the pain and also cure infection. Including cloves in our daily diet can also boost immunity, improve digestion and help fight cold and cough.

2. Turmeric

The spice that is used in every Indian household- turmeric is not only renowned for its pungent flavor but also for its extremely useful medicinal properties. It has been used in Indian and Chinese medicine for many years. Turmeric is rich in curcumin – a compound that is a powerful anti-inflammatory and a very strong antioxidant. Turmeric may help relieve arthritis-related symptoms as curcumin present in turmeric blocks all the enzymes causing pain and inflammation in the body. Curcumin also plays a vital role in fighting against auto-immune induced diseases and helps delay the ageing of cells. 

3. Black Pepper

Black pepper or kali mirch is also known as the “king of spices”.  But little do we know that our favorite seasoning black pepper also performs many other beneficial tasks in our body than just pleasing our taste buds. Black pepper is rich in micro-nutrients such as magnesium, vitamin K, iron and vitamin C. Due to its high vitamin C content, black pepper is a very effective antibiotic. Its antibiotic properties work wonders against tonsillitis.  Mix some lemon juice, salt and black pepper powder in a glass of warm water and drink it to get instant relief from throat pain. Black pepper is also high in piperine. Piperine helps in better bowel movements and also helps prevent digestive and excretory system infections.


5. Cinnamon

The distinct sweetness and warm taste aren’t the only things that cinnamon offers. The true magic lies in bark of the cinnamon tree which provides innumerable health benefits. According to various scientific studies, cinnamon has the highest antioxidant content amongst all other spices. Antioxidants help protect body against radical damage and prevents ageing. Cinnamon also helps lower blood sugar levels and bad cholesterol levels in the body. Cinnamaldehyde – the main ingredient in cinnamon has strong anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. Cinnamon oil has anti microbial properties also helps prevent tooth decay and reduces bad breath.

6. Ajwain
The bitter and pungent ajwain seeds used in every Indian household are a miraculous remedy for several common ailments. Ajwain seeds are an excellent source of vitamins, minerals and antioxidants Take a little ajwain mixed with some salt and swallow it with some warm water to get instant relief from a stomach ache. Ajwain is very effective in treating gas, flatulence and acidity when taken after meals with warm water and salt. One of the other amazing health benefits that this spice offers is treating common cold. Thymol, an ingredient present in Ajwain, gives it antimicrobial properties hence, making it effective against cold and congestion. To reap maximum benefits, inhale the steam of ajwain infused in hot water, it will ease congestion and provide relief.

7. Asafoetida

The pungent spice asafoetida, also known as hing in India, is actually native to Afghanistan. Hing is one of the chief ingredients used in tadka or tempering to flavor the Indian dishes, especially like dal. 
This strong spice provides numerous health benefits from improving digestion to preventing and treating acne and making your skin glow. Not only this, asafoetida has also proven to restrict the growth of harmful viruses in the body. Hing is also a very effective remedy for dry or whooping cough or even for bronchitis. Prepare a paste by grinding asafoetida in water. Apply this on your chest to get relief from any kind of cough.

SAY ‘NO’ TO PUBG ADDICTION

We all are aware about the incident where an Indian teenager spents his father’s 16 lakhs of money on the PUBG online game. This was not the first time something like this happened.

The PUBG online game which is very popular among the youths has been trending since two to three years. Player Unknown’s Battle Grounds (PUBG) is an online multiplayer battle royale game which is designed in such a way that it can be played as a lone wolf or with your teammates.

PUBG mobile game was released in the year 2017. Since then, more than 100 million users have downloaded it. Currenty, Its the 2nd top grossing royale mobile game.

Well, every thing has two sides of the story. Yes, PUBG is the leading game right now and due to the pandemic lockdown it also has increased more users and people now are spending more time than they usually used to do earlier as they have no work right now. They are completely free. Its an amazing game which has amazing features and also you can pass your time. So when someone gets bored, they do think of playing PUBG either with their friends or solo.

Online gaming has been a part of our lives right now since we all are addicted to our smartphones. So, we can’t deny the fact that we haven’t installed and played any online games on our smartphone.

But like I said above, everything around us has two sides of the story . The same way the online ‘PUBG’ game has its own cons and discons. Althought, its a good game for relaxing people making them stress free for a while, some play just to pass the time, some play everyday as a routine. Everyone has different reasons to play.

But, here I am talking about the ones who just not take this game as a game or as a way to pass the time. These people get so addicted towards this game that they forget that there is a life beyond this game. They take this game as a serious matter and take drastic steps which leads to mishappenings thus causing pain to them and their close ones.

Every now and then we hear cases related to PUBG. Be it suicide cases or stealing money and using them just to buy Royale Passes. We need to make understand these youths that the online game is just a part of your life and it cannot be your whole life.

The youth needs to understand that there is a life beyond PUBG. I am not saying that such people shouldn’t play online games but we have to stop them by getting obsessed over these game apps.

What we can do to stop this:

  • If you see your child or your friend is getting addicted towards this game, make him or her understand at the initial stage itself.
  • Parents should try to talk with their children in a way that they understand that what is correct and what is not. They should be spending more time with their child so that they feel loved and be responsible and not take any drastic steps.
  • If not parents, then someone elder or someone close to that person should talk to the child.
  • Make them understand that its just a game and don’t try spending your money on the game. Instead spend it for something worth.

Online games can be addictive but we need to stop our children before anything bad happens. Addiction is harmful. No addiction can give you happiness.

I know it can be difficult to make them understand but atleast people close to such addicts can try talking to them so that they do not get involved in such happenings.

Youth needs to understand this playing is different and getting addicted is different.

Nothing is impossible if we try. The word ‘Impossible’ itself says ‘ I AM POSSIBLE.’

The Joy of Baking

As a little girl, I always loved confectionery. I would eagerly wait for Sunday mornings for my mother to bake me a cake. As a working woman she never really had time for me but a bright sunny Sunday morning would make up for the entire week. Now, during this lockdown when I look back at my childhood, I realise that cooking or baking is not something you do just for the sake of it. Those actions kneading the dough and mixing the batter have a much deeper meaning. As my mother says, ‘it is the joy of baking which helps me live through the week’, and I second that. Just before writing this article I baked some muffins and as I write and enjoy eating, let me tell y’all why I love baking.
Well to begin with, it’s therapeutic. We all know how baking a loaf of bread helps us when we need a shoulder to cry on or how that piece of cake comforts us when nothing seems alright. The world of baking is the happiest.
Blending ingredients such as sugar, flour and eggs and turning them into an edible masterpiece never fails to awe and can make you feel proud of yourself. Ingredients can be mixed in so many different combinations to form different types of cakes, biscuits or pies. That’s the beauty of baking.

Baking not only removes your bad moods, it brings joy. Nothing compares to the wonderful aroma of freshly baked bread or cakes wafting out from your oven in the morning. It immediately conjures the images of holidays, and childhood memories of licking the spoon and the baking bowl clean of cake batter.
Instead of buying an impersonal present, turn up with your own beautifully decorated cakes and cookie creations at social gatherings. You’re telling them how much you care: ‘See I made this for you.’ The recipient will definitely be more touched by this type of gift. You are gifting them a piece of your heart.
All mothers treasure the smiles of their children. This is true especially when you bake them your extra special chocolate chip cookies. You put in extra sprinkles on a cake, a little more icing sugar on the biscuits – a silent but meaningful gesture to express your love. And of course, you can always bake them their favourite cakes for their birthday.
You’ve mastered the art. You want to share it with the whole world. You can always take this passion and make it a full-time career. Many notable bakers started small time and developed a thriving business from it, so keeping on baking!

If these reasons are not compelling enough for you to start rolling that dough, and heating up your oven, well, baking may not be considered your forte.

Secularism Vs Religion in politics

Secularism implies equal respect for all religions in the same measure as we have our own. In our country,the liberty of ” belief,faith and worship”, as enshrined in the Constitution, has been implemented by incorporating the fundamental Rights of all citizens to ” Freedom of Religion” in Articles 25-29.

India is a land of multi- religious,multi ethnic and multi lingual people with a plethora of castes and subcastes. All the major religions in the country, viz, Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism tech their followers to imbibe faith in God an dlove for human beings.Yet our people have developed peculiar attitude to their own religion. Today, religion,the opiate of the masses,disintegrates people through communal violence the behest of political parties and their unscrupulous leaders।Religion is an ally of politics is fraught with danger.

The constitutuon of India uphold the unity of all religions ,based on their moral precepts of building unity in diversity. This shows that India as a secular state is neither religious nor anti religious ; it is completely detached from all religious dogmas.

The british created a rift between Hindus and Muslims that led to the partition of the sub- continent in 1947. The rift has widened since then.Today, Ram Jamnabhoomi- Babri Kashif issue,1993 Mumbai riots, recent riots in UP are there to spark off communal violence.Such tendnecies are drifting away people from the idea of secularism.

There is growing feeling in the country that the functioning of secularism has suffered some setbacks. Recently,this has led many individuals from the film fraternity, literary field and other arts to return their Government awards, this show their dissent at the growing intolerance in thecountry.The unchecked growth of fundamentalism is posing a serious threat to the secular character of our polity. Our political parties aid and abet communalism.They do not allow secularism to take precedence over their political interests. There are several ways through which secularism is being diluted. Performance of religious rites and rituals at official functions ,misuse of media including official media for propagation of anti secular material are undermining the foundation of a secular polity.

Secularism is the need of the hour for uplifting the nation from the abyss of religious myths and beliefs , and waging a united war of all the people against the cancer of communalism and other social evils hindering our country’s progress. Even though the task appears daunting,the present generation must strive for moulding the mass opinion and evolving a truly secular and democratic India.

What Makes A Great Leader

When we read the term, ‘great leader’, we immediately picture leaders like Nelson Mandela, Bill Clinton, and many more. We always get inspired by their life journeys and often follow their virtues of life. But very few of us wonder, what made them a ‘great leader’? We may find it a mystery. However, there are a few things which are common among them.

They are aware. They are aware of their capabilities. They are aware of their flaws and they are always willing to work on them. They do not blame their flaws for their failure. Instead, they work harder to convert these

Powerful leaders listen. When working in a team, they keep their ears and eyes open for novel ideas. For them, no idea is silly. They give importance to every ones’ opinion. They are always the last one to speak. By doing this, they make sure that every person gets the opportunity to speak.

Another identical feature is that they radiate positive energy. This means, their aura is so powerful that once they start speaking, no one ignores them.

They seem approachable. Even when Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart, opened its dozens of stores, he was so approachable that he used to talk to almost every employee in his office. Maybe, because of this quality, he became even more successful!

One more similarity is that a great leader can convert a hundred negatives, into one positive. One of the best examples is Adolf Hitler. He was, at one point covered by his enemies from all four sides. When his subordinate informed him about this ‘problem’, he said, “Excellent! Now we can attack in any direction.” This is the difference between a follower and a leader. Leaders, convert the ‘problems’ into ‘opportunities’.

They have the ability to take responsibility. Leaders not only have good decision-making skills, but they also take responsibility for these decisions’ consequences. They have the courage to accept their mistakes.

They don’t dwell in the past or daydream about their future. They work in the present. Their focal point is on problem-solving instead of worrying about not being efficient enough. The term ‘What if’ does not even surface their mind.

They may not wear branded clothes or accessories, but they are so self-confident that they naturally attract everyone.

When we mention a powerful leader’s name it is taken for granted that they are also an effective communicator. They have the expertise to communicate on all levels; starting from a one on one interview to mass public speaking.

They encourage originality and are fearless enough to take the risks. The excitement of learning something new conquers the fictional fear of failure.

Dwight Eisenhower truly said, “The supreme quality for leadership is unquestionably integrity. Without it, no real success is possible, no matter whether it is on a football field, in an army, or in an office.”

Quality of being honest, upright, and having strong moral principles is not something that is common these days. But people who did attain this quality, we, today, refer to them as great leaders.

 Our history remembers such powerful leaders not because of who they were or where they came from, but because of what they did for the common good of people.

Stand-Up India

Stand-Up India was launched by Government of India on 5 April 2016 to support entrepreneurship among women and SC & ST communities. It is similar to but distinct from Startup India.

The Stand up India scheme aims at promoting entrepreneurship among women and scheduled castes and tribes. The scheme is anchored by Department of Financial Services (DFS), Ministry of Finance, Government of India.

Stand-Up India Scheme facilitates bank loans between Rs 10 lakh and Rs 1 Crore to at least one Scheduled Caste (SC) or Scheduled Tribe (ST) borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch for setting up a greenfield enterprise. This enterprise may be in manufacturing, services or the trading sector. In case of non-individual enterprises at least 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either an SC/ST or woman entrepreneur.

Eligibility

  • SC/ST and/or woman entrepreneurs, above 18 years of age.
  • Loans under the scheme is available for only green field project. Green field signifies, in this context, the first time venture of the beneficiary in the manufacturing or services or trading sector.
  • In case of non-individual enterprises, 51% of the shareholding and controlling stake should be held by either SC/ST and/or Women Entrepreneur.
  • Borrower should not be in default to any bank/financial institution.

The scheme offers bank loans of between ₹10 lakh (US$14,000) and ₹1 crore (US$140,000) for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and women setting up new enterprises outside of the farm sector.

How to Apply

A person can apply the application for a loan under the Stand Up India scheme under three ways:

  • Directly at the Banks Branch
  • Stand Up India Portal
  • Lead District Manager (LDM) – List of LDM available on Stand Up India portal

Documents Required

  1. Proof of Identity: Voter’s ID Card / Passport / Driving License / PAN Card / Signature identification from present bankers of the proprietor, partner of the director ( if a company)
  2. Proof of residence: Recent telephone bills, electricity bill, property tax receipt /Passport/voter’s ID Card of Proprietor, partner of Director (if a company)
  3. Proof of Business Address
  4. Applicant should not be a defaulter in any Bank/F.I.
  5. Memorandum and articles of association of the Company / Partnership Deed of partners etc.
  6. Assets and liabilities statement of promoters and guarantors along with latest income tax returns.
  7. Rent Agreement (if business premises on rent) and clearance from pollution control board if applicable.
  8. SSI / MSME registration if applicable.
  9. Projected balance sheets for the next two years in case of working capital limits and for the period of the loan in case of term loan
  10. It offers photocopies of lease deeds/ title deeds of all the properties as primary and collateral securities.
  11. Documents to establish whether the applicant belongs to SC/ST Category, wherever applicable.
  12. Certificate of incorporation from ROC to establish whether the majority stakeholding in the company is in the hands of a person who belongs to SC/ST/Woman category.
  13. Profile of the unit (includes names of promoters, other directors in the company, the activity undertaken addresses of all offices and plants, shareholding pattern etc.
  14. Last three years balance sheets of the Associate / Group Companies (if any).
  15. Project report (for the proposed project if it requires term funding is required) containing details of the machinery to be acquired, from whom to be acquired, price, names of suppliers, financial details like capacity of machines, capacity of utilization assumed, production, sales, projected profit and loss and balance sheets for the tenor of the loan, the details of labour, staff to be hired, basis of assumption of such financial details etc.
  16. Manufacturing process if applicable, a major profile of executives in the company, any tie-ups, details about raw material used and their suppliers, details about the buyers, details about major-competitors and the company’s strength and weaknesses as compared to their competitors etc.

Depression: Mental disorder

Depression is one of the most common mental disorder. It is classified as a type of mood disorder. It can be characterized as the feeling of sadness, angry or loss which affects the day to day activities of a person.
Sadness and anger are basic human emotions. Every individual does experience these emotions from time to time. But if a person experiences these emotions on a day to day basis, there are high chances that the person might suffer from depression and consulting a mental health expert is highly recommended.

Depression is a serious mental health condition. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO) it is the main cause of disability worldwide. Depression can occur at any stage of a person’s life, be it childhood, adolescent or adulthood.
Depression involves persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest from daily activities. Major life events such as death of loved ones, bereavement, loss of job are few events that can cause depression. It is not a passing phase, but a persistent one . It is a serious medical condition and can worst if not treated properly.

Symptoms of Depression

The symptoms of depression are as follows :
• Persistent low mood
• Loss of interest even from activities once enjoyed
• Sudden change in weight
• Reduced sexual desire
• Change in appetite
• Unstable sleeping patterns
• Slow movement or speech
• Agitation and restlessness
• Feeling of worthlessness
• Fatigue or low energy level
• Difficulty in thinking, concentrating and making decisions
• Recurrent thoughts of death and suicidal tendencies

However, the symptoms of depression can vary depending on the age group and gender the persons belong. Usually woman are more likely to develop depressive disorder in comparison to their male counterparts. The symptoms must stay for a minimum of 2 weeks for a person to be diagnosed with depression. It can however stay for several weeks, months and years.

Causes of Depression

Though the medical community can not designated any specific cause of depression, however it can be an interplay of several causes which combined triggers the symptoms.
• Family History : An individual is at high risk of developing depression if they have a family history of the same. Genetics are a predominant factor of any mood disorder.
• Childhood trauma : A person who has had a traumatic childhood, such as experienced physical, emotional or sexual abuse during childhood are at higher risk of developing depressive disorders.
• Substance abuse : A person who has had a history of substance abuse be it drug or alcohol abuse has higher probability of developing depression.
• Brain structure : The vulnerability of depression increases if the frontal lobe of the brain is less active. Scientists however are unsure if this happens before or after the onset of depression symptoms.
• Medical condition : An individual’s mental condition also has an impact. Individual suffering from chronic illness, insomnia or chronic pain usually has higher chances of developing symptoms of depression.

Types of Depression

Depression can be categorised into several types depending on the severity of symptoms the individual experiences. Broadly there are two types of depression, major depressive disorder and persistent depressive disorder.

• Major depressive disorder: It is the more severe form of depression, characterized by persistent feeling of sadness, hopelessness and worthlessness. It is necessary to show minimum of 5 symptoms for at least 2 week period to be diagnosed of clinical depression.
• Persistent depressive disorder: It is the milder form of depression but a chronic one. PPD is usually called dysthymia. To be diagnosed of PPD it is necessary for the symptoms to last for at least 2 years.

Depression is not an ongoing phase , it a serious mental health disorder. Seeking help is nothing wrong rather it is a must.

Career Planning and Its Importance in HR

” A career is a job you love, right? That’s what a career should be. If you’re in a job that you hate, you should quit. That’s the way I look at it. I’m in a job that I love, so I’m going to make it my career.”

By Cameron Sinclair

A career can be described as a sequence of jobs that a person experiences overtime. A career is basically composed of the jobs held, work done and titled earned over a period of time. It comprises of a series of work related activities, that provides continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life. Career is something which don’t make you feel that life has become monotonous but it is something which gives you self satisfaction and it is the work which you really enjoy and while doing that you don’t feel burdensome. As it is rightly said by Confucius – “Choose a job you love and you will never have to work a day in your life.”

Career Planning may be defined as a process by which career goals and individual capabilities can be matched with the opportunities. It is a planning done by a person in order to have a strong career path. It is a continuous, lifelong and a systematic process by which one selects career goals and path to these goals. It is not an event but a process of developing human resource so that they can achieve desired goals. In simple terms, it is an individual’s choice of career and occupation which he or she loves to do. It is very important to know that individual and organisational goals are not different from each other rather they are interdependent on eachother. This we can understand from the following lines that when a person is not able to convert his career plan into action while staying in the particular organisation he or she may probably think of quitting the job and joining the other organisation if he has a choice. So, for avoiding this type of situation, organisation should help their employees in career planning so that they both can satisfy each other’s goals and by this way the organisation can retain its employees, the employee will become more loyal to the organisation, the organisation will able to reduce labour turnover. Apart from these, Career Planning also has many importance too and they are –

  • Career Planning helps an employee to know the career opportunities available in the organisation.
  • Once an individual is clear about his career path, he can be more focused and can make efforts for self development.
  • It helps in increasing productivity.
  • It provides needed direction which will help you further to achieve your goals.
  • Career Planning helps in assured availability of talent and it also helps in attracting and retaining talent.
  • Career Planning helps in promoting organisational image as employees are one of the best media to project the image.
  • Career Planning helps in development and growth in employees and it also helps in reducing labour turnover.
  • Through this the employee become more loyal to the organisation and it further increases their morale and motivates them to work hard.
  • Career Planning helps in satisfying employees needs and it shows employee’s potential.

Last But Not the Least

Even though career planning takes a lot of time, effort and work but there is nothing more rewarding than this as it is something which you enjoy.

EDUCATION

Education is the most important for everyone . I think now a days without education people are nothing

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, value, beliefs and habits.

Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators ,however learners can also educate themselves.

Education is a natural process carried out by the child and is not acquired by listening to word but by experience in environments.

We discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being.

I believe that education is all about being excited about something .

Seeing passion and enthusiasm help push an educational message.

Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world .

Education gives us knowledge of the world around us and changes in into something better.it develops in us a perspective of looking at life.it helps us build opinions and have points of view on things in life .people debate over the subject matter of whether education is the only thing that gives knowledge.

Education is about learning skills and knowledge . It also means helping people to learn how to do things and support them to think about what they learn……through education, the knowledge of society, country ,and of the world is passed on from generation to generation.

Main purpose of education is to educate individuals within society, to prepare and quantify them for work in economy as well as to integrate people into society and teach them value and morals of society.

Role of education us means of socializing individuals and to keep society smoothing and remain stable.

True education is simply the process of developing the ability to learn ,apply,unlearn,relearn,learning.

Training and practice are major components of developing expertise in whatever human beings do.

In early age people thought education only for boys not for girls .they send school only their Male child .

Because they thought girls do only home work education is not neccessary for girls .

but now time has changed now people give education their both child .they don’t do difference their child .no matter that’s a girl or that’s a boy.

Types of education. Education goes beyond what takes places within four walls of the classroom. A child get the education from his experiences outside the school as well as from those within on the basis of these factors.

There are 3 main types of education, namely,formal ,informal ,and non formal.

Education is a gradual process which brings positive changes in human life and behavior. We can also say education as “a process of acquiring knowledge through study or impating the knowledge by way of instructions or some other practical procedure”.

education is the main thing that encourages us to distinguish between right and wrong because in the absence of education, we can’t do what we need or can’t achieve our goal.

A little note about YOGA

What Is Yoga? | Serenity Yoga Retreats | Workshops | Classes

Philosophy

To convey its spiritual message and guide sessions, yoga often uses the imagery of a tree with roots, a trunk, branches, blossoms, and fruits. Each “branch” of yoga represents a different focus and set of characteristics.

The six branches are:

  • Hatha yoga: This is the physical and mental branch designed to prime the body and mind.
  • Raja yoga: This branch involves meditation and strict adherence to a series of disciplinary steps known as the “eight limbs” of yoga.
  • Karma yoga: This is a path of service that aims to create a future free from negativity and selfishness.
  • Bhakti yoga: This aims to establish the path of devotion, a positive way to channel emotions and cultivate acceptance and tolerance.
  • Jnana yoga: This branch of yoga is about wisdom, the path of the scholar, and developing the intellect through study.
  • Tantra yoga: This is the pathway of ritual, ceremony, or consummation of a relationship.

Approaching yoga with a specific goal in mind can help a person decide which branch to follow.

Chakras

The word “chakra” literally means spinning wheel.

Yoga maintains that chakras are center points of energy, thoughts, feelings, and the physical body. According to yogic teachers, chakras determine the way people experience reality through emotional reactions, desires or aversions, levels of confidence or fear, and even physical symptoms and effects.

When energy becomes blocked in a chakra, it is said to trigger physical, mental, or emotional imbalances that manifest in symptoms, such as anxiety, lethargy, or poor digestion.

Asanas are the many physical positions in Hatha yoga. People who practice yoga use asanas to free energy and stimulate an imbalanced chakra.

There are seven major chakras, each with their own focus:

  • Sahasrara: The “thousand-petaled” or “crown” chakra represents the state of pure consciousness. This chakra is located at the crown of the head, and the color white or violet represents it. Sahasrara involves matters of inner wisdom and physical death.
  • Ajna: The “command” or “third-eye chakra” is a meeting point between two important energetic streams in the body. Ajna corresponds to the colors violet, indigo, or deep blue, though traditional yoga practitioners describe it as white. The ajna chakra relates to the pituitary gland, which drives growth and development.
  • Vishuddha: The color red or blue represents the “especially pure” or “throat” chakra. Practitioners consider this chakra to be the home of speech, hearing, and metabolism.
  • Anahata: The “unstruck” or “heart” chakra relates to the colors green and pink. Key issues involving anahata include complex emotions, compassion, tenderness, unconditional love, equilibrium, rejection, and wellbeing.
  • Manipura: Yellow represents the “jewel city” or “navel” chakra. Practitioners connect this chakra with the digestive system, as well as personal power, fear, anxiety, developing opinions, and tendencies towards an introverted personality.
  • Svadhishthana: Practitioners claim that the “one’s own base” or “pelvic” chakra is the home of the reproductive organs, the genitourinary system, and the adrenal gland.
  • Muladhara: The “root support” or “root chakra” is at the base of the spine in the coccygeal region. It is said to contain our natural urges relating to food, sleep, sex, and survival, as well as the source of avoidance and fear.

Types

Modern yoga
Modern yoga has a range of styles to suit everyone, whatever the desired outcome.

Modern yoga has evolved with a focus on exercise, strength, flexibility, and breathing. It can help boost physical and mental well-being.

There are many styles of yoga, and no style is more authentic or superior to another. The key is to choose a class appropriate for your fitness level.

Types and styles of yoga may include:

Ashtanga yoga: This type of yoga uses ancient yoga teachings. However, it became popular during the 1970s. Ashtanga applies six established sequences of postures that rapidly link every movement to breath.

Bikram yoga: Also known as “hot” yoga, Bikram occurs in artificially heated rooms at temperatures of nearly 105 degrees and 40 percent humidity. It consists of 26 poses and a sequence of two breathing exercises.

Hatha yoga: This is a generic term for any type of yoga that teaches physical postures. “Hatha” classes usually serve as a gentle introduction to the basic yoga postures.

Iyengar yoga: This type focuses on finding the correct alignment in each pose using a range of props, such as blocks, blankets, straps, chairs, and bolsters.

Jivamukti yoga: Jivamukti means “liberation while living.” This type emerged in 1984 and incorporates spiritual teachings and practices that focus on the fast-paced flow between poses rather than the poses themselves.

This focus is called vinyasa. Each class has a theme, which is explored through yoga scripture, chanting, meditation, asana, pranayama, and music. Jivamukti yoga can be physically intense.

Kripalu yoga: This type teaches practitioners to know, accept, and learn from the body. A student of Kripalu learns to find their own level of practice by looking inward. The classes usually begin with breathing exercises and gentle stretches, followed by a series of individual poses and final relaxation.

Kundalini yoga: Kundalini means “coiled, like a snake.” Kundalini yoga is a system of meditation that aims to release pent-up energy.

A class typically begins with chanting and ends with singing. In between, it features asana, pranayama, and meditation customized to create a specific outcome.

Power yoga: In the late 1980s, practitioners developed this active and athletic type of yoga, based on the traditional ashtanga system.

Sivananda: This is a system based on a five-point philosophy. This philosophy maintains that proper breathing, relaxation, diet, exercise, and positive thinking work together to form a healthy yogic lifestyle. Typically uses the same 12 basic asanas, bookended by sun salutations and savasana poses.

Viniyoga: Viniyoga can adapt to any person, regardless of physical ability. Viniyoga teachers require in-depth training and tend to be experts on anatomy and yoga therapy.

Yin: This is a quiet, meditative yoga practice, also called taoist yoga. Yin yoga allows the release of tension in key joints, including:

  • the ankles
  • knees
  • · hips
  • the whole back
  • neck
  • shoulders

Yin poses are passive, meaning that gravity shoulders most of the force and effort.

Prenatal yoga: Prenatal yoga uses postures that practitioners have designed for people who are pregnant. It can support people in getting back into shape after pregnancy as well as supporting health iduring pregnancy.

Restorative yoga: This is a relaxing method of yoga. A person spends a restorative yoga class in four or five simple poses, using props like blankets and bolsters to sink into deep relaxation without exerting any effort in holding the pose.

Risks and side effects

Yoga is low-impact and safe for people when a well-trained instructor is guiding the practice.

Injury due to yoga is an infrequent barrier to continued practice, and severe injury due to yoga is rare. However, consider a few factors before starting.

Anyone who is pregnant or who has an on-going medical condition, such as high blood pressureglaucoma, or sciatica, should talk to their healthcare practitioner before practicing yoga. They may need to alter or avoid some yoga poses.

Beginners should avoid extreme poses and difficult techniques, such as headstand, lotus position, and forceful breathing.

When using yoga to manage a condition, do not replace conventional medical care with yoga or postpone seeing a healthcare provider about pain or any other medical problem.

Takeaway

Yoga is a five-millennia-old practice that has changed over time. Modern yoga focuses on stretches and poses designed to stimulate inner peace and physical energy.

Ancient yoga was less about fitness and more about mental focus and expanding spiritual energy. The Yoga Sutra, now considered to be the definitive guidebook to practicing yoga, came into the practice 2000 years ago.

There are many different types of yoga depending on what people want from it and a person’s current level of physical fitness. However, some people choose to replace conventional treatment for conditions with yoga and this can prevent a person from receiving the necessary care.

People with certain conditions, such as sciatica, should approach yoga slowly and with caution.

Yoga can help support a balanced, active lifestyle.

What Is Yoga?

Yoga is a mind and body practice with a 5,000-year history in ancient Indian philosophy. Various styles of yoga combine physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation or relaxation.

In more recent years, it has become popular as a form of physical exercise based upon poses that promote improved control of the mind and body and enhance well-being.

There are several different types of yoga and many disciplines within the practice. This article explores the history, philosophy, and various branches of yoga.

What is yoga?

In the modern world, the South Asian art of yoga has expanded to all corners of the globe. While it is now a popular form of exercise and meditation, this has not always been the case.

History

yoga history
Yoga has a long history of helping people achieve mental and physical balance.

There is no written record of the inventor of yoga.

Male yoga practitioners are known as yogis, and female yoga practitioners are called yoginis. Both practiced and taught yoga long before any written account of yoga came into existence.

Over the next five millennia, yogis passed the discipline down to their students, and many different schools of yoga developed as the practice expanded its global reach and popularity.

The “Yoga Sutra,” a 2,000-year-old treatise on yogic philosophy by the Indian sage Patanjali, is a guidebook on how to master the mind, control the emotions, and grow spiritually. The Yoga Sutra is the earliest written record of yoga and one of the oldest texts in existence and provides the framework for all modern yoga.

Yoga is well known for its postures and poses, but they were not a key part of original yoga traditions in India. Fitness was not a primary goal. Practitioners and followers of yogic tradition focused instead on other practices, such as expanding spiritual energy using breathing methods and mental focus.

The tradition began to gain popularity in the West at the end of the 19th century. An explosion of interest in postural yoga occurred in the 1920s and 1930s, first in India and later in the West.

A Tool to Reveal the Self

The Sanskrit root yuj means to “yoke,” “bind,” or “join together.” It also indicates “union” or “Oneness.” At the deepest spiritual level, yoga allows us to reveal the Self, the True Essence of our Being. Ultimately, it is the means by which we realize that there is no separation between anyone or anything. Everything is One. According to the Yoga Shikha Upanishad: “Verily, there is no virtue greater than Yoga, no good greater than Yoga, and no subtlety greater than Yoga. There is nothing that is greater than Yoga.”

Defining yoga in an all-encompassing way can be challenging. There are so many distinct and overlapping aspects, layers, branches, and nuances within the vastness of yoga that a single definition inherently creates a limitation.

And yet, the real essence of yoga is about transcending all limitations. Yoga is an empirical science and philosophy aimed at understanding life’s most important questions.

An Art, Science, and Philosophy

The modern yogi B.K.S. Iyengar describes yoga in this way:

Yoga is an art, a science and a philosophy. It touches the life of man at every level, physical, mental, and spiritual. It is a practical method for making one’s life purposeful, useful and noble.

As honey is sweet from any part of the honeycomb, so is yoga.

It enables every part of the human system to become attuned to its essence, the conscious seer within.

Yoga alone enables the practitioner to perceive and experi­ence the world within and around himself, to touch the divine joy of all creation, and then to share that nectar of divine wealth and happiness with his fellow beings.”

Four Categories of Yoga

Stephen Cope, the author of Yoga and the Quest for the True Self, divides yoga into four categories:

  1. Yoga as mystical union. From this perspective, yoga applies broadly to any tradition or person seeking to go beyond personal consciousness in order to unite with the Absolute. Thus, it is not limited to saints or yogis in India, but applies just as aptly to other contemplative traditions—be they Buddhist, Jain, Taoist, Sufi, Christian, or Jewish mystics—and anyone seeking to merge with the Divine. From this perspective, St. John of the Cross would be just as much a yogi as Swami Sivananda. Here, yoga is about the realization of mystical union, the Consciousness of Oneness.
  2. Yoga as a broad term for an Indian spiritual discipline. Here, yoga refers to a particular spiritual technology, with its origins in India as early as 1800 B.C. Recent archaeological excavations in the Indus River Valley have uncovered depictions of people in positions that can be recognized as yoga asanas (postures) even today. These practitioners approached yoga in a highly experiential and experimental way, often involving renunciation and strict discipline.
  3. Particular branches of yoga.
  4. Classical Yoga. When many practitioners talk about yoga, they are specifically referring to the comprehensive system of yoga laid out in Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.

Advantages & Disadvantages of Yoga

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Yoga? | Reference.com

Advantages of yoga
Yoga has many advantages over other methods of maintaining health, such as gymnastics, athletics, aerobics, games, and various other forms of exercise. It does not need any costly equipment and materials, or playgrounds, swimming pool, gyms, etc. Yoga can be practiced throughout the year. It can also be practiced inside the house or in the open, singly or in groups. The only requirement is a thick carpet spread on the floor and covered with a clean sheet of cloth.

Yoga should only be practiced on empty stomach. You can do it at any time during the day. It will benefit you irrespective of whether you are young or old, lean or heavily built, highly educated or unlettered, rich or poor, from higher or lower middle class, busy, over busy, or retired or worker in the factory or in the field. Yoga has something very valuable, and useful to offer to everyone. It is often described as the best form of health insurance for all from the age of 7 to 77 or more. Two main advantages of Yoga are prevention of disorders and ailments and maintenance of health and fitness in daily life. Other advantage include flexible muscles, supple joints, relaxed and tension–free mind and efficiently working vital organs such as the heart, lungs, endocrine glands, liver, pancreas and good balance between various functions, such as neuromuscular coordination, etc.

Can all the yoga techniques be practiced in all age groups?
Although yoga can be practiced in all age groups, some techniques are more suited and desirable for specific age groups. For example, some asanas that involve forward and backward bending are good for children aged 5 to 10 years. At about 10 years of age, the asanas that have an upside down position and deep breathing can be started. Shuddhikriyas should not be practiced everyday. They need to be performed as and when required for removal of impurities from the body. However, Kapalabhati Nauli can be done every day. They are generally most suited for people in age group of 20 to 60 years. Relaxation is necessary for all, irrespective of age. People in all age groups can therefore practice meditation regularly. It is desirable that older people avoid asanas that involve excessive stretching, such as the plough pose or halasana. Strenuous poses such as the scorpion or vrischikasana head–stand or shirshasana should also be avoided older people. When yoga is practiced for therapeutic purpose to overcome or cure ailments, other restrictions are necessary. This is why yoga should not be practiced unless you have learned the correct technique from an expert.

Disadvantages of Yoga
If you only have 20 minutes a day to spend on your body and your foremost goal is to burn lots of calories, yoga will disappoint you. Although yoga is a sound adjunct to any weight–loss program and has even been shown to promote gradual weight loss, it is not primarily a fat–burning enterprise.

Another potential pitfall is finding a qualified teacher. Before enrolling in a class, ask what type of training the instructor had. Currently, there is no national certification program for yoga instructors. Voluntary certification is available from various groups, but some organizations award teaching certificates to people who have completed only a weekend course. The Yoga Alliance – a voluntary national coalition of yoga organizations and individual yoga teachers – is seeking to establish voluntary national standards for yoga teachers, but not all yoga instructors agree with those standards or support the alliance’s philosophy. To reap the intangible benefits of yoga, it helps to be humble and to realize that yoga is meant to be practiced, not perfected. It’s a noncompetitive activity. According to Georg Feuerstein, Ph.D., founder–director of the U.S. based Yoga Research and Education Center, at the heart of yoga is “The assumption that you have not yet tapped into your full potential as a human being.”

Even for the most open–minded beginner, yoga is not easy to learn. Although you don’t need to be flexible or in shape to do yoga, the practice is physically, emotionally and mentally challenging.

The ancient world

Control of fire by early humans - Wikipedia

The invention of the first tools in the 2 million year ago was the moment when human kind started to distinguish itself from all other species on the planet. It took they found other ingenious way to control fire, build shelter, and make items of clothing,but the idea kept coming, and the invention that followed by the resulted in full civilization. Lets see about some examples for this world invention.

  1. Stone Tools : –
Exciting stone tool find in Kenya - BBC News

The stone tool it is the first human invention consisted of sharp flint. found and used in their state by primitive people, who the went on to purposely sharpen tones the practice reaches back to the very dawn of humankind stone tools found in 1969 in Kenya are establish to be 2,600,000 year old. The principle types of tools which appeared in the paleolithic period and varied in size and appearance, are known as core, flake, and blade tools. the core tools. The core tools are the largest and most primitive, and were made by working on a first-size piece of rock or stone with similar rock and knocking large flake off one side to produce a sharp crest. This was general purpose implement used for hacking, pounding or cutting.Eventually thinner and sharper core tools were developed which were most useful.

2. Clothing :- Early human covers their nakedness.

Is Violence What Made Humans Smarter than Other Animals? – The ...

Around a 400.000 years ago homo sapiens devised a solution to protect the vulnerable naked human body from the environment – clothes. Anthropologist believe the earliest clothing was made from the fur of hunted animal or leave creativity wrapped around the body to keep out the cold ,wind and rain. Determining the date of this invention is difficult, although sewing needles made from animal bone dating from about 30,000 has been founded by archeologists. However, genetic analysis of human body lice reveals that they evolved at the same time as clothing. Scientists originally thought the lice evolved 107,000 years ago, but further investigation placed their evolution a few hundred thousand years earlier. Clothing has change dramatically over the centuries although its ancient role as an outward indication of the status, wealth and beliefs of the wears is as important as ever. During the industrial revolution the textile industry was the first to be mechanized, enabling increasingly elaborate designs to be made at faster rate.

3. Fishhook :- Early human discover how to retain caught fish.

The word are their no fish-hand account documenting their concept of use. The fish hook is one of the ingenious conception of early man and is one of the important success of human than most us of would suspect.

there is in one of the example so far found by archeologists date from around 35000 appearing well before the advent of metalworking, early fish hook from durable material of organic origin such as bone, shell, animal horn and wood. with addition of verity of baits on the hook, prehistoric man gained access. previously largely denied, to an easy source of energy loaded with a protein and fat. Over thousand of year the technology of fish hood has evolved to optimize prey attraction, retention and retrieval. the very earliest fish hooks of all though to have been made from wood.

THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA

Source :Google

“A man can be destroyed, but not defeated” ~~Ernest Hemingway

Author :Ernest Hemingway

Country :United States

Language :English

Published :1952

Pages:127

Awards:Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1953),Nobel Prize in Literature (1954)

ISBN- 0-684-80122-1

Dewaj Decimal – 813.52

LC class- PS3515. E37

‘The Old Man And The Sea’ is one of the most popular novel written by Ernest Hemingway. While, he is known as the master of brevity, his concise works also are much more complex than they would first appear, and ‘The Old Man And The Sea’ is no exception. The book was published on 1952.The story goes through the life of an old man named Santiago.

Santiago is a old fisherman who has gone for 84 days without catching a fish. His dream is to catch a big fish, so that he can prove his life is not a failure. On the 85th day old man sets out to the open sea. He goes a little farther out than he normally would in his desperation to catch a big fish. After sometimes he saw a big fish, but it is very difficult for him to handle. He expertly hooks the fish, but he cannot pull it in. Instead the fish begins to pull the boat. For two days they battle and Santiago wins that battle, but on the way back to his home scavenger sharks came and ate the flesh of the big fish. The skeleton was only there when he reach the shore. As soon as he reached, he fell asleep. undefined

The story is told with incredible economy of words and description, yet nothing is sacrificed which drives home the power and inner strength of this man, who just takes it as what he does, what it is to be a serious fisherman.

There is a side tale as well. This great individual the old man who stands alone, is not alone completely by choice. He has developed a friendship, a working relationship, a love with a young boy who began fishing with him, when the boy was only five. Now the boy has moved on to another boat, a more successful one,at his parents behest, but he pines to work with Santiago, and when the battle with the great fish has been engaged Santiago pleads over and over :”I wish the boy were here”.

The novel seems to be a simple story. It however has lots of hidden meanings which reflect on society and human’s personality. I got three lessons from this novel, which are patience, courage and friendship. Santiago’s patience is suggestive of satisfaction and happiness after the patience. We are faced with lots of hardships and suffering. We often give up and feel desperate from it. It is not easy to struggle with those. Santiago’s life and challenge encourage us not to be frustrated.

At last, I suggest that this novel is valuable to read. It is not only because this novel is famous or interesting but also there are morals and messages and even courage.

What does empowerment/bravery have to do with gender?

Not making women Commandant Officers in the army is simply prejudice and fear of the fraternity of male officers.

The argument made by the Solicitor General in the Supreme Court that women officers of the Indian Army cannot be made as Commandants because male soldiers will not obey their orders is in fact irrational. In 1992, women were first included in the Armed Forces through the Short Service Commission. This service is of 10 years which can be extended up to 14 years.

They train in OTA Chennai and work shoulder to shoulder with their male counterparts. Their posting takes place at risky, rough and tough areas, whether it borders Kashmir or as a UN Peacekeeper, Libya and Congo. In areas bordering Pakistan and in the North East, there are hardly 4-5 officers and even sometimes just a sole woman officer with her male soldiers.

The question is when the head of NCC battalion of over 800 girls can be a male commandant, then why can’t a woman be the commandant of that battalion? The argument that the physical difference in women makes them less capable of the military is ridiculous. Whether the fighter is at the junior level or senior position.

There is no need for more or less muscle power anywhere. At the senior level, job profile supervision, strategy making and decision making have to be done. An order issued by the Ministry of Defense on 25 February 2019 calls for giving a permanent commission to women in the army from the date of the order. But this leaves off the demand of women who have served the country for 24-25 years and most of them have crossed 40 years of their age.

It is necessary that the policies of the government should be proposed considering those who are currently the officers in the army and should not be made considering the future. Now that the time has come for these high-ranking women officers to be given their right to serve in high positions, the appellant suspects that selective 332 women officers, who are just 4% of their entire capacity, will purloin the vacant positions at a higher level in the military. This is nothing but prejudice and fear of the fraternity of male officers.

The Army considers women officers as an effective workforce for lower-level positions which extends up to 14 years of service and considers them incompetent and unfit for the Commandant level, which is a culmination of hypocrisy. People argue that this battle is parallel to fighting against the government. But they have to understand that Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made it clear that women should be taken for bureaucracy and all senior positions of government. The Prime Minister’s words are political volition.

It should be believed that a person’s rank or role in life should be according to integrity and merits. On the one hand, we send Captain Tanya Shergill in the Republic Day Parade to lead the contingent and on the other hand, we argue in the Supreme Court that she is not entitled to be a commandant in the army. This reflects the military’s dual policy towards its people. The fight is not against the government but against the misconception and mindset of bureaucracy.

Our women officers have suffered sentimental throbs during their 25-year job. To be sidelined despite having the ability, the lack of job security due to the ambiguous cadre status and working below the 6 batch Junior Officer affects the morale of giving 100 per cent for the service. The argument that can be made in favour of these women officers is that the mode of war in the world is changing. The world is evolving in a cyber age and even wars are not left rearwardly. Signal communication has to govern in ever-increasing adverse surroundings.

New technologies and methods of demolition are being prepared every day. And analytical skills are more than the physical ability to deal with them. Women are making missiles in DRDO and Chandrayaan in ISRO, then why can’t they command a battalion? We all know the answers to these questions. This idea needs to attain policies.

Men and women live in the same bunker in the army. Once a woman or a man joins the army, he/she is just a fighter, apart from gender. It is only the qualification that should decide their position in the service. Are women kept in the army only as fancy chunks? So that the army is not labelled as ‘men zone.’

And they only maintain a women-men ratio so that the data can be shown internationally.
How is heroism related to gender? When a woman can handle the election campaign of Srinagar, which is currently the most unstable area in the world, without being in the army, then why can’t women handle the commandant’s charge?

A woman can be second in command but not a commandant because women can perform in the army only as long as they do not hurt the ego and arrogance of men. However, when we look at the other side of the coin, there are some false feminists who have used the card of family and child care responsibility to deny the call of duty. There was a case when a female officer refused to go to Nagpur to court-martial because she had to take care of her newborn. Such excuses should be condemned.

If the Supreme Court and the government feel that women are not competent for combat or defence service because they are women, then their entry into the service should be stopped altogether. But Punita Arora, Padmavati Bandopadhyay, Mitali Madhumita, Priya Jhingan and Tanya Shergill prove all those arguments wrong. High positions are being demanded as rights, not in charity.

Importance of Freedom of Speech in a Democracy

Democracy is a word we hear so frequently that often its meanings and contents are assumed and taken for granted. If we look at the etymology of the word, “democracy” is a combination of the Greek words ‘demos and ‘kratos’ meaning “the people” and “power” respectively. Together they mean “power of the people” or “power to the people”. It is from this that the idea of democracy as “for the people, by the people and of the people” emerges. Democracy is generally considered as the most efficient and viable form of governance in the modern world. The Greeks practiced a form of direct democracy which is the precursor to our current systems of governance. Representative democracy is the norm in most nations practicing democracy now as opposed to direct democracy. This involves the will of the people on the decision of who is most suited to represent them in the parliament. In the direct form of democracy, individuals participate directly in the process but many such as slaves and women were not considered as participants. Citizens in a democracy are guaranteed rights as well as duties. India is a parliamentary republic with the president as head of state and the prime minister as head of government. In the Indian Constitution, the fundamental rights of the citizen are listed in Articles 12-35, and they are the right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies. Subsumed under right to freedom is the right to freedom of speech and expression in Article 19. The citizen who is to “abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions” must ensure that those she has elected into power are executing their duties accordingly.

The term “freedom of speech” refers to the articulation of ideas by sound while the term “freedom of expression” also encapsulates expressions through art that might be non-verbal, freedom of the press and acts of communicating informal, regardless of the medium that is employed. Both of these terms are currently used interchangeably. Freedom of expression is recognized as a human right in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It promotes creativity, individuality, autonomy, self-realization of the individual, gives him an active role in deciding matters of policy and provides space for criticism of the government. Curbing of free speech and expression is one of the first signs of the disintegration of democracy. One of the reasons there has to be freedom of speech is that of engaging in the governing process. To participate in the way that their nation, their society and themselves are defined, a citizen should be able to articulate their ideas and opinions.

Freedom of speech thus functions as a way of keeping all selfish and tyrannical ambitions of the ruler which is not for the benefit or desire of the public in check. It is called into question when it infringes on other rights such as democratic equality, privacy, or another’s right to expression. It is the inherent ambiguity of free speech boundaries that is exploited and manipulated in many situations by those wielding power and bent on a certain agenda. The privileging of voices, and who gets to decide who speaks and who is heard as well as who is to be silenced are questions that need to be asked.

There has to be constant and critical conversations among the public that are maintained at all costs lest a state of affairs where democracy becomes meaningless as a system comes by. One should be able to speak fearlessly. It is essential that prejudices and opinions not remain unchallenged and unquestioned, and there is an active promotion of a spirit of critical thinking and enquiry thereby reforming the mind as well. The absence of such evaluation can easily lead to a deterioration of the ideals of democracy. It is more important than ever now to ensure that the citizens are aware of their duty beyond voting and that their voices are heard. There is a need to ask the right questions and be aware of the complications that are part of the discussions on free speech. It is not so much about the revolution that speech can make as it is about the very act of speaking fearlessly, exercising our right as well as our discernment, and holding those in power accountable.

Drop Shipping

Dropshipping is a retail fulfillment method where a store doesn’t keep the products it sells in stock. Instead, when a store sells a product using the dropshipping model, it purchases the item from a third party and has it shipped directly to the customer. As a result, the seller doesn’t have to handle the product directly.

The biggest difference between dropshipping and the standard retail model is that the selling merchant doesn’t stock or own inventory. Instead, the seller purchases inventory as needed from a third party—usually a wholesaler or manufacturer—to fulfill orders.

Benefits of dropshipping

Dropshipping is a great business model for aspiring entrepreneurs to start with because it’s accessible. With dropshipping, you can quickly test different business ideas with limited downside, which lets you learn a lot about how to choose and market in-demand products. Here are a few other reasons why dropshipping is such a popular model.

1. Less capital is required

Probably the biggest advantage to dropshipping is that it’s possible to launch an ecommerce store without having to invest thousands of dollars in inventory up front. Traditionally, retailers have had to tie up huge amounts of capital purchasing inventory.

With the dropshipping model, you don’t have to purchase a product unless you’ve already made the sale and have been paid by the customer. Without significant up-front inventory investments, it’s possible to start sourcing products and launch a successful dropshipping business with very little money. And because you’re not committed to selling-through any inventory purchased up front, like in a traditional retail business, there’s less risk involved in starting a dropshipping store.

2. Easy to get started

Running an ecommerce business is much easier when you don’t have to deal with physical products. With dropshipping, you don’t have to worry about:

  • Managing or paying for a warehouse
  • Packing and shipping your orders
  • Tracking inventory for accounting reasons
  • Handling returns and inbound shipments
  • Continually ordering products and managing stock level

3. Low overhead

Because you don’t have to deal with purchasing inventory or managing a warehouse, your overhead expenses are quite low. In fact, many successful dropshipping stores are run as home-based businesses, requiring little more than a laptop and a few recurring expenses to operate. As you grow, these costs will likely increase but will still be low compared to those of traditional brick-and-mortar businesses.

4. Flexible location

A dropshipping business can be run from just about anywhere with an internet connection. As long as you can communicate with suppliers and customers easily, you can run and manage your business.

How does dropshipping work?

The working process of drop shipping is quite simple. It includes 3 simple steps as follows:

  1. The store owner publishes products he wishes to sell on his online store. The customer sees the product and places an order on the website.
  2. The retailer receives details about the order and forwards the details of the customer and order manually or automatically to the dropship supplier.
  3. The supplier then packages and ships the required products directly to the customer with the store owner’s branding.

This is an attractive business model as it eliminates the warehousing cost of the store owner. Also, he need not have a physical business location.

The Powerful Working Environment

Let’s take a deeper dive into a powerful workplace environment- A feeling that connects people to place and explore how it strategically affect the physical plus mental health of an individual.

Before moving forward, think about your office setting, atmosphere, or environment- people in there, your colleagues, interiors, infrastructures in the organization, designing of cubicles, sitting places, etc. What do you see and feel? Does it evoke any feelings? Do you feel greeted or welcomed? Are you satisfied? Is your future secure? These are a few handfuls of questions which employee think before entering the premise. How the office environment has an unfathomable connection with their employees is what we will be seeing ahead.
The environment is collectively called our surroundings which covers every living and non-living beings that influence or impact us during our lifetime. As a working professional, we must agree, most of the difficulties faced by us are interrelated to the workplace environment. It plays a crucial role in our career growth and development. We must have detected numerous factors like the support of the supervisor in an organization, a bond of one employee with another, training and development, prevailing rules and regulations or striking environment and others has an optimistic impact on employee’s productivity level in the firm.
We can say, the employee’s productivity level can be improved by creating or evolving a conducive working setup.
Today, for every organization attracting and retaining valuable manpower totally depends on their activities and it is a massive problem for many. The challenges are increasing every day for them in the form of keeping their employees cool and contended. That is why many of the branded organization has taken an effort of implementing a concept called Ergonomics for manpower comfort. The inside surroundings are designed in a way that not only motivates personnel to put their greatest efforts in the duty specified to them but is also helpful in showcasing effectiveness and efficiency and generating essential competencies inside an individual. The organization’s productivity decreases if work-load increase from a certain threshold level and it increases if working conditions and working environment are upheld to a certain threshold level. There are two components of working environment Behavioral and physical components. The office-setup which supports creativity, transparency, transfer of transactional knowledge, and interaction is high, there the behavioral components succeed over physical components. Many researchers or thinkers have studied the workplace condition and environment and have come to a firm conclusion, they believe it is an important standard for measuring employee’s mental and physical efficiency and believe employees to focus on their work positively. Employees always desire or wish to work in a place that is less stressful and gives a vibe of satisfaction. As result, we can say job satisfaction can be measured equally from office design having features like healthy working conditions, better succession planning, reward and recognition, remuneration, and promotions altogether play an important role. Overall, the tag “Good culture” attached with the name of the organization inspire valuable human resources to become a part of it.

Are We Physically Strong???

In this day to day Scenario Deficiency in significant leads to Deterioration of Organs it leads to conventional method of Education a lot of health problems occurs.There is a huge gap Occur between the Physical Education due to Conceptual Theoretical mode of daily practice. Multimedia Technology Education and Physical Education both are unique and both are different from each other .Physical Education aim to develop the coming Generations Physical Competence, Knowledge and Safty and it also develop Skills,Creativity and Critical Thinking. This helps the people Positive Values and Positive Attitude, Physical Education is basically deals with the Nutrition .

“Physical Fitness is not onlyone of the most important keys to healthy body,but it is the basis of dynamic and creative Intellectual Activity”

The Research from The Youth Sport Trust shows that 38% of secondary schools have cut the Physical Education period from the timetable. The main reason for this is to increase the pressure and produce the Exam results. Over 30% under the age of 6 year children are classed as “Over weight”. Traditional Education helps to learn Physical Education, Values,Manners,Skills and Social Practices to the next generations where in the modern education teaches about the skills required for knowledge but not for health purpose that is skills of Science and Technology.

As I conclude that now a days all are becoming over weight due to the fact that they do not participate in physical activities.Everyone should Enjoy Physical Activity and if done the right way you will be able to experience the benefits for years to come.

“BUT THINK ONCES ARE WE PHYSICALLY STRONG???”

Fat Shaming

Some believe that making overweight people feel ashamed of their weight or eating habits may motivate them to get healthier. However, the truth is, people who are overweight become more vulnerable to illnesses. Fat shaming makes them feel terrible about themselves, causing them to eat more and gain more weight.


What Is Fat Shaming?


Fat shaming involves criticizing and harassing overweight people about their weight or eating habits making them feel ashamed of themselves.

The belief is that this may motivate people to eat less, exercise more and lose weight. In the majority of the cases, the people who fat-shame are slim and never had to struggle with a weight problem. Research shows that much of the discussion on obesity on social media involves fat shaming, which often turns into harassment, and cyberbullying especially against women. In fact, there are entire online communities where people gather to troll overweight people. However, stigma and discrimination against overweight people cause major psychological harm and worsen the problem.


What Causes Overweight People To Eat More?


Discrimination causes stress and negatively affects people. In the case of overweight individuals, this stress can drive them to eat more and gain more weight. They have less or no control over their eating habits. Fat shaming causes overweight people to eat more, consume more calories and gain more weight.


Harmful Effects On Obese People


The harmful effects of fat shaming go beyond increased weight gain — which is serious enough.
Depression– People who are discriminated against due to weight are at a higher risk of depression and other mental issues.
Eating disorders– Fat shaming is linked to an increased risk of eating disorders, such as binge eating.
Reduced self-esteem– Fat shaming is linked to reduced self-esteem.
Others– By causing stress, weight gain, increased cortisol levels, and mental problems, weight discrimination may raise your risk of various chronic diseases.


The Bottom Line


Weight discrimination — including fat shaming — leads to stress and causes overweight and obese people to eat more. This form of bullying may not only cause additional weight gain but is also linked to depression, eating disorders, reduced self-esteem, and an increased risk of various other mental and physical problems.

Be proactive

The word proactive is often tossed around in the workplace with little context. If you’re reading this article, it’s safe to assume you’ve heard it. Perhaps you’ve even been instructed to “be more proactive.” But you may be wondering what it really means to be proactive at work. This is the critical question that never seems to get addressed—and it’s why so many professionals struggle with the concept.

The Proactive Approach

Put in the simplest of terms, being proactive means doing the things you need to do before you need to do them—like regularly changing the oil in your car instead of waiting for it to start sputtering and spewing smoke. When you’re proactive, you keep your car running smoothly and prevent costly repairs. As a result, you experience greater peace of mind and extend the overall lifespan of your vehicle. The minimal investment you make in regularly getting your oil changed pays huge dividends in the long run. That’s the essence of proactivity.

Being reactive means you allow circumstances to control you, rather than the other way around. Reactive people only take action when it’s absolutely required—when the consequences of inaction are pressing down upon them. It’s like waiting to put your seat belt on until you see an accident about to happen or waiting until the day you retire to start saving for retirement. It just doesn’t work.

Be Solution-Focused

One of the greatest traits of effective people is good problem-solving skills. We are all going to run into problems. It’s how you handle them that makes you effective. The most effective way to handle a problem is to focus on finding a solution. Focusing on things that are out of your control is a waste of time, so focus on what you can control with the final outcome. Your team will learn to approach problems and solutions effectively if you lead by example.

Make Your Own Luck

Being successful is not about having the right kind of luck or expecting the right break to come your way. It is not about the mere expectation that you will succeed. It is about taking steps every day to be better than you were the day before by moving in a positive, forward trajectory. Make a blueprint and set out milestones for yourself in specific timeframes, or you are not going to hit your goal. Things do not come to fruition just because you really, really want them to happen. You have to make them happen.

Be Consistent

Ultimately, success is not about getting everything right. It is about being consistent. Are you consistently and persistently taking steps every day to steadily move toward your goal? Do you stop making progress or do you continue on when you encounter a seemingly insurmountable problem? Be consistent in what you do. And even though the steps may seem small at the time, doing the right things day in and day out will move you further down the path to success.

Importance of Induction

Induction means introduction of a new employee to the job and the organisation. It is the process of welcoming an employee when he or she first joins the organisation and giving him or her the basic information that he or she should know. Induction process is important for employees as he holds an important and the most eminent role in building the image of the organisation. It is not only receiving and welcoming an employee in an organisation but also it is the process of making him or her familiar with its culture. Induction is a type of training given to new employees. As new employees need to understand the organisation’s mission, goals, values and philosophy, health and safety rules and the job they are required to do. The main aim of an induction session is to familiarise the employee to the organisation and its culture and to guarantee a successful integration of the employees and the management. If an organisation provides a well – planned induction program to its employees this will help in employee retention. Induction program is needed as it clearly indicates that what is expected from an employee in terms of standard and style of the work they are to perform, it also helps the employee to develop their aptitude and talents. The importance of Induction are –

  • Job Satisfaction and Positive Attitude – The Induction program can contribute towards the development of a positive attitude towards the employer and the organisation and job satisfaction on the part of new employee. Induction program ensures that the new employee knows all the policies of the organisation and other employment practices.
  • Contribute to Organisational Success more quickly – Induction program helps in assisting new employee to contribute to organisational success more quickly. At the induction program, an employee get to know about various important things which is essential for them to know. This will help the employee to fulfill both personal and organisational goals.
  • Reduces Employee Turnover – It is seen that employee turnover is particularly high during the employee’s initial period of service. So, this induction program helps in boosting the morale of new employee as through this program the employee feels motivated and also get a feeling that everyone is there to support him or her. And if the same session does not take place in any organisation the employee build up negative feelings towards the task during this time and then the employee leave the organisation. An effective induction session can make a positive contribution towards limiting employee turnover.
  • Sense of Belongingness – An induction program helps in bringing a sense of belongingness in the mind of a new employee as a day is spent on them for introduction with their new colleagues, superiors, etc. On this particular day itself new employees foster better social bonds with their fellow mates.
  • Saves a lot of Time and Money – As this is the first training program in which the employee participate after he joins the organisation. If an employee is trained nicely in the induction session, he or she can easily adapt the environment and the new role and can give his or her best. And in this way the organisation can save a lot of time and money.

Last But Not the Least

Recruitment process and induction programs work together during the hiring process of an employee into an organisation. Induction session is a great way to train your new employees on their new roles in the organisation and give them a great start at your organisation.

Performance Marketing

Hello Readers! Let’s understand the concept of “Performance Marketing” in this article in a simplified manner.

Think about how you used to get marks in your school time. The better you write in your exam sheets, the better you scored. The grades are based on your “performance”. From junior school to college to the corporate, people have been judged and have reaped the benefit according to their efforts. In the era of digitization, the concept of  “performance based marketing” follows the same pattern.

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The world is interconnected and though red market exist for most of the businesses as well as industries, it has become crucial to keep aside the competitiveness and mutually benefit each other. For instance, a website is no more about just themselves but contains various videos, links, advertisements and images for other businesses as well. One way to increase the traffic is about creating back-links and posting the content of another page/site to own page.

What Is Performance Marketing and How Does It Work?

Now, here comes the concept of “Performance Marketing” which can be defined as the comprehensive term that refers to online marketing and advertising programs in which advertisers (a.k.a., “retailers” or “merchants”) pay marketing companies (a.k.a, “affiliates” or “publishers”) when a specific action is completed; such as a sale, lead or click. (https://thepma.org/)

The business environment is a very dynamic one and to keep up with the pace, performance marketing helps retailers and affiliates to sustain and grow. It creates a win-win situation for both parties involved: retailers as well as affiliates. You might have come across a page with too many advertisements running along the page. And I am sure you know why it is important for websites to do so.

The performance in this case can be an array of executed desired results, such a completed lead, sale, booking or download. Some believe in “clicks” as the more number of prospects click on the advertisement, the more the affiliate are benefited. There are multiple strategies one follows while designing the affiliate program according to the  business.  In this data driven marketing world, performance marketing campaigns give one the ability to measure everything from brand reach to conversion rate down to a single ad.

Benefits of running this campaign:

  • Easy to track performance
  • ROI
  • Innovative
  • Increase brand visibility
  • Networking
  • Low Risk
  • Scalability

Limitation:

  • Some marketing tools need investments to run and analyse about any campaign
  • Goals setting must be very specific from the beginning
  • Catering to the masses

Performance marketing has evolved over time thanks to new technology and changing consumer behaviors. In today’s performance-driven world, digital marketing is all about “hitting the right people on the right device at the right time.” (utbrain) With performance marketing, only the successful transactions are considered and paid accordingly which reduces the chances of investing and paying for useless campaigns that have no or minimum ROI.

What Is Performance Marketing In The Singapore Context?

With a great vision, good team and marketing tools, a company can go ahead with launching various performance marketing campaigns and increase their web presence by collaborating with others in the market.