The term ‘depression’ is not just extreme sadness due to a situation. Its more than that. Depression is just like a cancer it kills you every day from inside till it takes your life completely.

People still do not get what is actual depression. They often misuse the depression word and relate it with some kind of temporary sadness or pain.

A lot of people need to understand the sensitivity of the situation that depression is much more than sadness. It is not a temporary pain that will go away instantly but also not a lifetime pain. Depression is different to each and every people dealing with it.

Depression is real. It cannot be compared with the sadness you feel for some time. I have seen many people who don’t understand the real meaning of depression and any small pain or small thing that hurts them they give it a name called ‘depression.’ If anything happens its depression. No, its not.

So what is Depression?

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. It affects your mental health, your daily activities, your relations with others, your work, and most important yourself. Depression makes you lose interest in everything and sometimes you may even feel as if life isn’t worth living.

Everyone talks about the symptoms, causes, treatments, for the depression but no one talks about the pain that depressed person actually feel or go through.

Its true that there is help and we can get help from our friends, our parents, psychiatrists, doing yoga,etc.

Depression makes you feel lost in the world where you just exist but start losing hopes and a way to live your life to the full extent. It lives inside you. You take your depression for several years with you. Its like we never heal from the depression and as soon as you receive a new pain , it adds to your lists of pains which you were trying to heal from.

The sadness, the pain, the void, its just there. The pain is real. It makes you feeling unwanted, unworthy all the time. Sometimes you can’t even explain to anyone or yourself about the pain you actually feel inside you. The day you let go of all the pain that day you will be a free soul.

But, honestly its very easy to say that or to make someone explain but the person going through with the depression only knows his or her pain. No one can understand their pain what they go through.

All I want to say is some people choose to get out of depression, they try but still maybe they are more comfortable now in that pain. They love that pain and no matter what it remains with them for a very long time. I do not say that its okay to be depressed. No, not at all. But, healing takes time.

We can’t heal in a one day. Talking to our loved ones will help us but some people choose to not let their hearts out.They feel that no one can understand what they feel. And yes, it is the truth. People really do not try to understand the feeling that the other person is going through. Some show them concern, some joke about it.

Depression is not a joke. It can happen to anyone at any time for any reason.

What should we do?

– Just try to understand the people who are depressed, support them as much as you can and sooner or later they would start living their life once again.

-Depression is real and it can be healed. Give some time.

-If you want to help depressed persons, first help your close ones who are actually dealing with it.

– Be there for them when they really need it.

– Listen more. Sometimes, they just need a shoulder to cry.

– Encourage them.

Some choose to seek help from psychiatrists. Some ain’t that comfortable to seek help from them. They find it more easier to share their pain with their closed ones. Some prefer to deal with it all alone.

Still depression or mental health for that matter is known as a taboo in our country. People do hesitate to talk about it openly. It is not a disorder or disease.

We can’t change everyone’s mindset but yes we can create a change for someone close to us who is depressed by offering help to them. Start by helping your near and dear ones or any person where you feel you can really help them.

“I alone cannot change the world, but I can cast a stone across the waters to create many ripples.” – Mother Teresa

Charter Schools

Typically called a “School of Choice,” such schools can be set up by anyone; a neighbourhood group, a parents’ association, or a teachers’ group. They must however pursue the terms of a charter constrained by local, regional, national or oversight groups.

Charter Schools - Still Controversial (and Misunderstood) After ...

Since charter schools continue operating outside of the regulations that must be followed by in-district schools, they have the capability to customize classrooms that meet the needs of their students. Each of the dozens and dozens of charter schools has infinite possibilities and is unique in its design and operation. Some have longer school days, some teach the entire curriculum in various languages and some allow students to wear a uniform. Many people think that charter schools offer opportunities for improving our educational system. Others disagree strongly. For a better picture, let’s take a quick peek at the benefits and disadvantages of Public schools.

Charter Schooling Pros:

Supporters think that charter schools expand learning opportunities and have better access to higher education. Let’s take a look at why.

1. Unique Educational approach:

Charter schools allow diverse educational approaches and styles. Most traditional public schools follow approximately the same teaching methods for the students. On the other hand, charter schools focus more on certain topics such as maths and science. They can use Montessori techniques or other forms of learning alternatives.

2. More Excitement:

Charter schools can help kids learn without harsh discipline. In Charter Schools, experience – based and imaginative learning is often seen because there is a sort of independence.

3. Competitive Environment:

Failure to perform could build laziness in the teaching and other policies.Even if they score badly, because they know they will still be operating, they don’t pay much attention to it. But public schools promote competitions creating accountability.

4. Private school atmosphere:

Though charter schools are funded by the public, they are more independent than public schools in the neighbourhood. This makes it more like private schools, with fees reduced. They will recruit qualified teachers and conduct state-commanded training. For under-performance they can be closed even.

5. Closely tied Communities

Most public schools prefer to be private campuses with lower class sizes, and have families similar to one another. Smaller group sizes have other benefits. They facilitate teachers to know the students at an interpersonal basis and have a greater understanding of their intellectual achievements and challenges which enables them to personalize their education more closely to what the student needs.

Disadvantages of Charter Schools:

Although going to study in a charter school has numerous benefits, there are also some negative aspects to it.

  1. Less outdoor activities:  Smaller charter schools often have fewer sporting and other co – curricular activities options. Extracurricular activities and sports are a tremendous part of the educational experience of children, and the comparatively limited possibilities that a charter school provides can be a major drawback.
  • More Secure: Charter schools aren’t as stable as traditional schools. They continue operating on contract and they can shut down at any time of the year even in the middle of the school year. That can have severe consequences.
  • Bribery: Up to $ 1 billion has been wasted on charter schools that never managed to open or managed to open and then closed because of corruption and incompetence and other reasons.


Ultimately, how good or poor charter schools are, depends significantly on the school in question. The idea that charter schools are tax funded but administered independently has led to a degree of public debate. As the number of charter schools continues to climb, the debate surrounding these schools is likewise an alternative choice to public education.

Importance of Soft Skills

Unlike practical skills such as maths, reading, science and social studies, soft skills take priority around communication, relationships with others, and self-discipline. These essential skills are generally learned from their families and peers outside the school environment. Often these skill sets are not taught at all. Ever ask a teenager a question, shooting their hands in their pockets, averting their eyes and mumbling some incoherent answer. It makes you irritated, perhaps even sceptical, but that teen may not have learned the soft skills necessary for child development before you rush to judgement.

Typically these collections of behavioural skills are not learned in classrooms, but studying them in childhood will avoid potential problems.

Soft skills: The importance of and the existing situation in VET ...

Have you ever noticed the self-confident class president learnt from his history teacher how to smooth out his path to victory? He learned more than likely from imitating a member of the family or through a mentor. Yet just what exactly are these soft skills?

Inter-Personal Skills

Interpersonal skills may include greeting older people and colleagues and interacting with individuals outside their immediate family, peers and adults.

Good Manners:

Okay, thank you, you’re welcome, yes ma’am, no sir. All interpersonal skills which are usually not addressed in the school curriculum are polite manners. Ever hold someone’s door open? Who showed you how to do it?


How to hold a conversation with someone. Clear and precise, with no stammering, no hands over the mouth, or averted eyes and reclined posture to get your point across.


Listening is just as critical as talking and for many this soft ability has fallen behind because of our dependence on electronics.

Rapport Building:

Producing mates and mergers. Also, due to our technologies, we rely more on messaging than face to face contact, which is important to establish good relations with others.

Being Empathetic:

To look at things from the shoes of another person. If you are facing a question from another person’s perspective, you are less likely to saunter over this situation without worrying about how the outcome might affect others.

How you can teach soft skills to your children

You showed your kids their ABC’s, how to recognize their address and telephone number, and how to ride a bike and now you have to show them social skills?! Kids learn a lot of interpersonal skills by example before you tear their hair out. Incorporating them into your daily life is easy – in fact you might already do most of them.

Learning Fine Manners:

You don’t need to send your children to the school to learn good manners. Inculcate the learning of fine manners in your kid’s life through the way you go about your life. Always say thank you and please. Hold the door open to people, and use phrases such as ‘excuse me’ and ‘welcome.’ And expect your kids to follow suit.

Communication and building good relations:

Have your children look directly at the person they’re communicating with. Ear buds coming out of ears. Cell phone was tucked away in the pocket. They should concentrate on the individual and listen properly and react properly.

This will help them build good relationships also with people. If they sit in sufficient conversations with adults – with their electronics confiscated – they become aware of the gift and engage in good conversations.

A lesson in the shoes of somebody Else:

Both children will be experiencing a touch of empathy. All too often teens scream ‘get a job’ at a homeless person on the street corner and request other children’s names, without really thinking that there might be a story behind their situation. The girl at the school who stinks can be homeless and without running water. The beggar may be a proud veteran on his luck at the door.

NoSQL Databases

In Relational database management systems, data is organized as tables (called relations)in rows and columns. A table contains data about only one entity ( real-world object – employee details, patient details, book details, etc). Each table should have a primary key and the tables are linked by primary and foreign keys. The tables are created using SQL. SQL constraints ensure the accuracy and reliability of the data within the database. Database normalization is the method by which data is efficiently organized in the database. Eliminating redundant information, as an instance, storing the same data in more than one table. This reduces storage and increases the complexity of the system.ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and durability property of RDBMS.
A NoSQL ( referring to “non-SQL” or “not only SQL” or “non-relational”) database store data in a non-tabular format compared to relational databases. They store the relationship information as well by allowing related data to be nested within a single data structure. Doesn’t use data normalization or complex features like query languages, integrity constraints, ACID property, etc.
BASE features of NoSQL Databases
( Basically Available, Soft state, Eventual consistency)
• Basically, available means the data is guaranteed to be available all the time. There is a response to any request ( can be a failure too).
• Soft state means even without an input; the system state may change over a period of time.
• Eventual consistency means that the system will become eventually consistent over time (maybe, once it stops receiving input).
The term “eventual consistency” means to have copies of data on multiple machines to get high availability and scalability. Data replication may not be instantaneous as some copies will be updated immediately while others in due course of time. These copies may be in due course of time, become consistent. Hence, the name eventual consistency.
Query Mechanism tools for NoSQL
The most common data retrieval mechanism is the REST-based retrieval of a value based on its key/ID to get the resource.
Shared-nothing architecture
In a shared-nothing design, Multiple NoSQL databases can be executed in a distributed fashion. Each server node in the cluster operates independently of every other node. The processes don’t share memory or disk among them. The system doesn’t have to get consensus from every single node to return the output data to a client. Queries are fast because they can be processed and the output is got by the node which received it. It typically involves sacrificing consistency across the cluster for performance.
Features of NoSQL
• Offers auto-scaling (both vertical and horizontal).
• Only provides eventual consistency.
• Shared Nothing Architecture. This enables less coordination and higher distribution.
Need for NoSQL Databases
NoSQL databases are especially useful for working with large sets of distributed data. NoSQL databases are widely used in many modern applications such as mobile, web, and gaming that require flexible, scalable, and high-performance.
Applications are moving to the cloud platform and big data is becoming bigger.
The concept of NoSQL databases became popular with Internet giants like Google, Facebook, Amazon, etc. who deal with huge volumes of data.
Tesco, Europe’s No.1 retailer, uses NoSQL for e-commerce services and other applications.
GE and Marriott are also deploying NoSQL Database systems on a large scale.


Types of NoSQL Databases
There are four major types of NoSQL databases. They are document databases, key-value databases, wide-column stores, and graph databases.
Document databases store data in documents similar to JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) objects. Each document contains pairs of fields and values. The values can typically of types including strings, numbers, booleans, arrays, or objects.
MongoDB is consistently ranked as the world’s most popular NoSQL database and is an example of a document database. Other examples are Couchbase, CouchDB, IBM Domino, etc.
Key-value databases are a simpler type of database where each item contains keys and values. Key-value databases are great for use cases where you need to store large amounts of data but you don’t need to perform complex queries to retrieve it. Common use cases include storing user preferences or caching. Redis and DynanoDB are popular key-value databases.
Wide-column stores store data in tables, rows, and dynamic columns. Wide-column stores provide a lot of flexibility over relational databases because each row is not required to have the same columns. Wide-column stores are commonly used for storing Internet of Things data and user profile data. Cassandra, Hypertable, and HBase are two of the most popular wide-column stores.
Graph databases store data in nodes and edges. Nodes typically store information about people, places, and things while edges store information about the relationships between the nodes. Graph databases are used in applications s where you need to traverse relationships to look for patterns such as social networks, public transport links, road maps, and recommendation engines. Neo4j and JanusGraph are examples of graph databases.
The final words….

Since the NoSql databases often sacrifice the ACID property for its scalability (and does not support constraints), it cannot be used in transaction management like SQL and Relational databases. NoSQL offers limited query capabilities. GUI mode tools to access the database are not flexibly available in the market ( as NoSQL is an open-source software). Some databases store data that are quite large (BigData) and having descriptive key names actually increases the document size and it is very difficult to handle.

To know further about NoSql Databases, use the below link :

COVID-19 pandemic may lead to rise in child trafficking

The nationwide lockdown which was imposed in the nation to stop the spread of novel coronavirus can lead to a spike in child trafficking cases because of pandemic induced economic crisis.

The increased insecurity, financial constraints, and marginalization induced by COVID-19 are key drivers for families grasping onto straws of survival for pushing children into trafficking.  From states: Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Maharashtra, Telangana, West Bengal, and Jharkhand cases have come up.

Since poignant reality has hit the migrant laborers, that poverty and hunger await them, many will be forced into a vicious debt cycle at predatory interest rates because of their dire financial situations, which will prove to be a fertile ground for child traffickers.

Children are trafficked first and then placed in labor, either forced or for a sub-minimal wage. However, the most unfortunate ones especially young girls are forced into sexual exploitation.

Ever since the lockdown has come into place, the traffickers have become active and have started approaching potential victims and families and even handling out advanced payments for their children. Not just this, once lockdown is lifted and normal manufacturing activity resumes. Factory owners will look to cover their losses by employing cheap labor and the easiest way of doing this is by employing child labor.

For this, policing alone would not be the solution and the problem of child trafficking persists because there is a ready market for child labor. The contractor who is engaged in supplying labor should be kept under strict vigilance in a bid to prevent child trafficking and child labor.

The apex court has contemplated setting up an expert committee to address this issue.

The business of commercial sexual exploitation which took a downturn due to lockdown restrictions would look for innovative ways to be back in the business and overcome the losses by engaging younger girls as they fetch more money. Underage girls will be sold into prostitution and the number of street children will be pushed into begging will also give up.

With the transportation be resumed, child laborers will be sent back home by their employers armed with fake id and documents. Children working in hazardous occupations are at a higher risk now since no employee will reveal their identities and numbers as employing them is a criminal offense.

There are reports that 136 minor girls have been married in Bengal as the agricultural class in the state had only lost the livelihood due to lockdown but was hit by Cyclone Amphan.

It has been found that in 115 districts of Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Assam, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, and Delhi where many families were rendered jobless, child trafficking and middlemen have become active. Middlemen have started making advance payments to poor families without livelihood for taking their children in the promise of providing employment or getting them married.

Over 39 crore – of unorganized and migrant workers on the fringes or outside the socio-economic security umbrella, are the most vulnerable. This makes them the easiest target for the organized crime network. Hundreds of thousands of children will be enslaved. A large number of these laborers will be children, forced out of school, bearing the burden of sustaining their families. Thousands of children will likely be trafficked across the country to work in manufacturing units where they will be paid meagre to no wages and will most likely face extreme physical, mental, and sexual violence.

Pornhub, the largest pornography platform in the world, has seen a 20-time jump in India, from 0.9% on February 24 to 18.1% as on March 16. A large segment of this ‘content’ includes trafficked children who are exploited to create pornographic material. Adults and children who consume this content are likely to ‘normalize and fetishize’ child rape and sexual violence, which may translate into offline sexual violence.

As the central and state governments struggle to contain the immediate health and economic challenges, a great amount of planning must go into dealing with the imminent impact of this crisis, especially in terms of the safety of the most vulnerable children.

The Perusal of Animus!

Racism is the belief that a specific race is superior or inferior to another, that an individual’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. It means prejudice and discrimination directed against other people because they are of a different race or ethnicity.

The idea of race was invented to magnify the differences between people of European origin and those of African descent whose ancestors had been involuntarily enslaved and transported to the Americans. By characterising Africans and their African American descendants as lesser human beings, the proponents of slavery tried to justify the system of exploitation while portraying the United States as the flag- of human freedom, with human rights, democratic institutions, unlimited opportunities and equality. Along with all these, they seemed to demand the dehumanisation of those enslaved. Source:(Britannica)

According to a “United Nation convention on racial discrimination” superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable and socially unjust. The Convention also declared that there’s no justification for racialism, anywhere, in theory, or in practice.
Yet racism has existed throughout human history. It is defined as the hatred of one person by another- or the belief that another person is less than human because of his/her skin colour, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the fundamental nature of that person. It has influenced wars and slavery, the formation of nations and legal codes. **Racism has long existed in the society, but the current sociopolitical scenario demands an analysis of one’s own position in being an apologist of this utterly discriminatory system. Examining the complexities of White racial belief proves essential in understanding how race is framed and disseminated within the dominant culture. Racism is so ingrained in the system and people’s lives that the subtle indicators of racist behavioural patterns are often ignored as humorous remarks.

Studies applying the colourblind racism approach examine the ways in which Whites use rhetoric to deny the impact of race on the everyday lives of individuals (Bonilla-Silva, 2006; Bonilla-Silva et al., 2004). This denial of privilege is one of the most problematic aspects because of which racism exists, even in the 21st century.
For dismantling this system white folks first need to acknowledge it’s existence. They need to understand that black people have their own culture, their own faith and their own being. Giving space to black people’s voices through literature, popular culture and various other platforms are the requirements. It’s been so long that white folks have been speculating about the lives of the black people, now is the time to listen and understand their experiences from their perspective.

Africa is not the dark continent which would quench the imperialist thirst of the Europeans. Its indigenous culture, customs, literature, language etc. is of as much importance as that of any other European country. Its homogenization needs to be stopped and it’s history to be recognized which was never taught and talked about in the larger social setup. The white folks need to educate themselves about the existence of Africa and it’s people in their totality and not in their distorted representation which has been there for centuries.


Insomnia is a sleep disorder that regularly affects billions of people around the world. In a nutshell, people with insomnia find it difficult to fall asleep or stay asleep. The effects can be harmful. Insomnia often leads to daytime sleepiness, lethargy, and a general feeling of being unwell, both mentally and physically. Mood swings, irritability, and anxiety are common related symptoms. Insomnia has also been concerned with a higher risk of developing chronic diseases.


Insomnia can be due to physical and psychological factors. There is seldom an underlying medical condition that causes chronic insomnia, while transient insomnia may be caused by a recent event or occurrence. Insomnia is caused by:

  • Disruptions in circadian rhythm –jet lag, job shift changes, high altitudes, environmental disturbance, extreme weather condition.
  • Psychological issues –depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, or psychotic disorders.
  • Medical conditions – chronic pain, chronic fatigue syndrome, congestive heart failure, angina, acid-reflux disease (GERD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, sleep apnea, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, hyperthyroidism, arthritis, brain lesions, tumors, stroke.
  • Hormones – estrogen, hormone shifts during menstruation.
  • Other factors – sleeping next to a snoring partner, parasites, genetic conditions, overactive mind, pregnancy.

Media technology in the bedroom

Several researches in adults and children have suggested that subjection to light from televisions and smartphones prior to going to sleep can affect natural melatonin levels and lead to increased time to sleep.

Moreover, a study conducted by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that back-lit tablet computers can affect sleep patterns. These studies imply that technology in the bedroom can worsen insomnia, leading to more complications.


Insomnia itself may be a sign of an underlying medical condition. Even so, there are many signs and symptoms that are associated with insomnia:

  • Difficulty in falling asleep at night.
  • Waking during the night.
  • Waking earlier than desired.
  • Still feeling tired after a night’s sleep.
  • Daytime fatigue or sleepiness.
  • Irritability, depression, or anxiety.
  • Poor concentration and focus.
  • Difficulty socializing.
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms.
  • Worrying about sleeping.

Sleep deprivation can lead to other symptoms. The affected person may wake up not feeling fully awake and refreshed, and may have a feeling of tiredness and sleepiness throughout the day. Having trouble concentrating and focusing on tasks is common for people with insomnia.


Insomnia includes a vast range of sleeping disorders, from lack of sleep quality to lack of sleep quantity. Insomnia is generally categorized into three categories:

  • Transient insomnia – occurs when symptoms last up to three nights.
  • Acute insomnia – also called short-term insomnia. Symptoms continue for several weeks.
  • Chronic insomnia – this one lasts for months, and sometimes years.


Few types of insomnia resolve when the underlying cause is treated or wears off. In general, insomnia treatment focuses on determining the cause. Once identified, this underlying cause can be correctly treated . Besides treating the underlying cause of insomnia, both medical and non-pharmacological (behavioral) treatments may be used as therapies. Non-pharmacological approaches are inclusive of cognitive behavioral (CBT) therapy in one-on-one counseling sessions or group therapy:

Medical treatments for insomnia include:

  • prescription sleeping pills
  • antidepressants
  • sleep aids available online or over-the-counter
  • antihistamines
  • melatonin, which can be purchased online
  • ramelteon


Home remedies for insomnia are:

  • Improving “sleep hygiene”: Not sleeping too much or too little, exercising daily, not forcing sleep, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, avoiding caffeine containing products at night, avoiding smoking, avoiding going to bed on an empty stomach, and ensuring a comfortable sleeping environment.
  • Using relaxation techniques: Such as meditation and muscle relaxation.
  • Stimulus control therapy – only go to bed when sleepy. Avoid watching TV, reading, eating, or worrying in bed. Set an alarm for the same time every morning (even weekends) and avoid long daytime naps.
  • Sleep restriction: Decreasing the time spent in bed and partially depriving the body of sleep can increase tiredness, ready for the next night.


Insomnia can afflict an individual of any age; it is more prevalent in adult females than adult males. It can erode school and work performance, as well as contributing to obesity, anxiety, depression, irritability, concentration problems, memory problems, poor immune system function, and reduced reaction time. Few people are more likely to experience insomnia. These include:

  • travelers, particularly through multiple time zones
  • shift workers with frequent changes in shifts (day vs. night)
  • the elderly
  • users of illegal drugs
  • adolescent or young adult students
  • pregnant women
  • menopausal women
  • those with mental health disorders


What do you call a person who loves darkness? The answer is ‘Nyctophile.’ Nyctophile refers to a person who loves darkness and nights.

Nyctophile word is derived from the Ancient Greek word (nukt) which is a variation of ‘núx,’ meaning ‘night,’ plus (phile) meaning “loving.”

Nyctophiles find relaxation and comfort in the darkness. It feels like a peace in the darkness. A sense of warmth in the nights where they are just with themselves and nobody else.

Nyctophiles are mesmerized by the darkness full of silence with no one in between where they don’t feel like talking to anybody. Where they feel safe and can enjoy the dark peacefully with no chaos and no people surrounded near them.

Nyctophile people feel they own this darkness. They wait for the whole day to end just to enjoy the night. Mornings are good but the peace that the darkness gives them it’s a completely different feeling which only nyctophile people experience.

Nyctophile is not kind of a disorder or a disease. It is really not. Some people love mornings, some love evenings, and some love the dark i.e the nights.

They can be their own self without having any fear of being judged. They don’t sleep at nights even if they feel drowsy, they just do not want to miss the darkness. How can they miss it? They would have to wait for an another day to end to just enjoy the darkness again.

Nyctophile doesn’t mean you have to go out to enjoy the darkness or your nights. You can enjoy it at the comfort of your home as well. Some poeple discover themselves in the dark. Everyone has a different idea of experiencing their love for the darkness.

Nyctophiles prefer to work more and dilligently in the dark instead of working in the day. They feel a comfort in the nights and tend to work woth full dedication and enjoy it. They feel that their minds are more powerful in the dark compared to the day light.

Would like to add some few words in hindi. “Raat me jo sukoon hain vo sukoon or kahan.”

Well, once you find your peace in the dark then there is no way of going back. You would love to spend more n more time every single night. You would stay up late nights just to feel that peace. After all peace is the most important thing that we all need in our life.

When lights leave, darkness gives them shelter. The person who walked so much through the dark eventually ends up loving the darkness and that is really not a problem. They just start loving the darkness so much that it makes them happy and alive. They start to feel free in the nights more than in the days.

So, being a nyctophile is an amazing feeling and you would always love it without any regrets.

Nyctophiles believe that they belong in the darkness. They accept that they love this darkness or nights more than anything. Once a nyctophile, always an nyctophile.

The City of Nawabs

The culture of Lucknow is still very much alive and retains its old world charm even today. Popularly known as the City of Nawabs, Lucknow is famous for its traditional cuisine, fine arts and the most courteous people you will ever find in India. The cultural heritage of Lucknow was pretty much influenced by the Mughal era and you find that Mughal touch in almost everything that relates to the culture of Lucknow. Be it the lip-smacking cuisine, the delightful music and dance forms or the conversation language, everything has a touch of the royal splendor that Lucknow once flourished in. Read on our related sections on Lucknow culture that shall tell you about the royal colors of Lucknow.

Lucknow People
The people of Lucknow are among the warmest and the most courteous people in India. They are known to be very soft spoken and treat guests like Gods. The place has a rich cultural heritage and is known to be the city of Nawabs.

Lucknow Cuisine
The cuisine of Lucknow has its own distinct individuality and identity. The traditional food of Lucknow was highly patronized by the Mughals thus giving it a very royal touch. The royal chefs and cooks were trained to give that distinct royal touch and regal look to anything they cooked.

Lucknow Music and Dance
Music and dance in Lucknow has been much influenced by the Mughal rule India. The kings were known to lead a life of pleasure and their main source of entertainment was to indulge in music and dance.

Lucknow Languages
In Lucknow, languages differ from region to region. Among the most common languages of Lucknow is Hindi, which is spoken all over India. However, the most prominent language spoken in Lucknow is the Urdu language. Though it is an ancient language, it is very much prevalent in Lucknow. In fact, the language is synonymous with Lucknow and is often referred to as Lucknowi Urdu. It is this form of Urdu that is used by most literary figures like poets and novel writers.

Urdu is also the official language of Lucknow. Apart from Urdu and Hindi, many other languages are spoken in different parts of Lucknow. These include the two thousand year old language called Braj, Awadhi, Koshali, Bhojpuri and Koeli. Bhojpuri is a widely spoken language in not just Lucknow but also most of Uttar Pradesh and the neighboring state of Bihar. The younger generation of Lucknow is well versed in English as most schools and educational institutions impart education in English medium.

Covid and the economy

According to the International Monetary Fund, India will be the large economy worst hit by the Covid pandemic. The Fund now says that Indian GDP in the ongoing financial year, which began in March 2020, will contract by 4.5%. Just a few weeks ago, it had been predicting 2% growth for the year.

The IMF’s projection is by and large in line with estimates from investment banks and other international organizations. Indian officials have been reticent about their own estimates. This is not surprising: India’s economy has not contracted since 1979. For the government, this is uncharted territory.

A slowdown of this magnitude will have enormous human consequences. By some estimates, the loss of three months’ income would leave nearly half of the country’s population mired in poverty, reversing all the gains made since the economy was liberalized in the early 1990s.

Worse, the government’s finances are strained. Tax revenues are set to crash and India’s hitherto relatively stable debt-to-GDP ratio may spike up toward 90%. Controlling the spread of the pandemic will bleed state resources, leaving little for the welfare measures that will be essential in coming months.

Such economic pressures help explain why the government lifted India’s stringent lockdown even though the spread of Covid-19 clearly hadn’t been controlled. India now has the world’s fourth-largest number of Covid-19 cases. While the country may be partly protected from a tide of deaths by its favorable age distribution, there is every reason to suppose that more lockdowns to protect its inadequate health infrastructure will be required. If nothing else, this complicates predictions for the medium term and makes the task of reviving the economy that much harder.

But don’t let anyone tell you the pandemic is the main reason India’s growth has gone off a cliff. The economy had already been weakened by years of mismanagement before this crisis struck.

Figures released by national statisticians at the end of May explain what went wrong. Even before the pandemic properly hit India, in the financial year ending in March, GDP only grew at 4.2%. The sequence of quarterly GDP growth numbers leading up to that point tells a clear story: 7% growth shrunk to 6.2%, then to 5.6%, 5.7%, 4.4% and finally 3.1% in the quarter that ended with the lockdown.

What was behind this slowdown? The answer is a lack of investment. Investment shrank by almost 3% over the year. Until then, India hadn’t seen investment shrink for almost two decades, according to World Bank data. (It grew about 10% in 2018-19.) And this shrinkage began well before the pandemic — in April 2019. In India, the virus struck an economy with pre-existing conditions.

The investment crisis and India’s large debt pile have the same cause: a government that thinks its own spending is what will fuel economic growth. According to official statistics, government spending increased by 12% last year, more than twice the growth rate of private consumption. Government spending was similarly higher than the other components of GDP in the previous year as well.

As a consequence, the government last year — again, before the pandemic properly hit — had a fiscal deficit 4.6% higher than the one it inherited six years ago. This is pretty embarrassing, given the government has long claimed that its stewardship had provided macroeconomic stability following the turbulent last years of its predecessor.

This should all be enough to sober any government. Yet, policymakers in New Delhi seem to be oddly sanguine. On Tuesday, they posted a cheerful update praising their “prompt policy measures” and touting an “increase in economic activity.” It’s true that May looked like a better month than April, when the lockdown was at its height. But pretty much every indicator for May 2020 is in the red when compared to May 2019. And most analysts believe any recovery will now take two years or so, rather than a couple of months.

The government’s confidence is inexplicable. It has not done enough to reinvigorate the economy. Its big weapon — spending — has failed and there is little left in its armory. Recovery needs reform. India has postponed competitiveness-enhancing measures long enough. In a crisis of this magnitude, there are no excuses left.

How to Sleep Better

Tired of tossing and turning at night? These simple tips will help you sleep better and be more energetic and productive during the day.

Basset hound asleep on masters' bed, its head supported by a billowy comforter, an ear flopped outward in each direction

How can I get a better night’s sleep?

Sleeping well directly affects your mental and physical health. Fall short and it can take a serious toll on your daytime energy, productivity, emotional balance, and even your weight. Yet many of us regularly toss and turn at night, struggling to get the sleep we need. Getting a good night’s sleep may seem like an impossible goal when you’re wide awake at 3 a.m., but you have much more control over the quality of your sleep than you probably realize. Just as the way you feel during your waking hours often hinges on how well you sleep at night, so the cure for sleep difficulties can often be found in your daily routine.

Unhealthy daytime habits and lifestyle choices can leave you tossing and turning at night and adversely affect your mood, brain and heart health, immune system, creativity, vitality, and weight. But by experimenting with the following tips, you can enjoy better sleep at night, boost your health, and improve how you think and feel during the day.

Tip 1: Keep in sync with your body’s natural sleep-wake cycle

Getting in sync with your body’s natural sleep-wake cycle, or circadian rhythm, is one of the most important strategies for sleeping better. If you keep a regular sleep-wake schedule, you’ll feel much more refreshed and energized than if you sleep the same number of hours at different times, even if you only alter your sleep schedule by an hour or two.

Try to go to sleep and get up at the same time every day. This helps set your body’s internal clock and optimize the quality of your sleep. Choose a bed time when you normally feel tired, so that you don’t toss and turn. If you’re getting enough sleep, you should wake up naturally without an alarm. If you need an alarm clock, you may need an earlier bedtime.

Avoid sleeping in—even on weekends. The more your weekend/weekday sleep schedules differ, the worse the jetlag-like symptoms you’ll experience. If you need to make up for a late night, opt for a daytime nap rather than sleeping in. This allows you to pay off your sleep debt without disturbing your natural sleep-wake rhythm.

Be smart about napping. While napping is a good way to make up for lost sleep, if you have trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night, napping can make things worse. Limit naps to 15 to 20 minutes in the early afternoon.

Fight after-dinner drowsiness. If you get sleepy way before your bedtime, get off the couch and do something mildly stimulating, such as washing the dishes, calling a friend, or getting clothes ready for the next day. If you give in to the drowsiness, you may wake up later in the night and have trouble getting back to sleep.

Tip 2: Control your exposure to light

Melatonin is a naturally occurring hormone controlled by light exposure that helps regulate your sleep-wake cycle. Your brain secretes more melatonin when it’s dark—making you sleepy—and less when it’s light—making you more alert. However, many aspects of modern life can alter your body’s production of melatonin and shift your circadian rhythm.

How to influence your exposure to light

During the day:

Expose yourself to bright sunlight in the morning. The closer to the time you get up, the better. Have your coffee outside, for example, or eat breakfast by a sunny window. The light on your face will help you wake up

Spend more time outside during daylight. Take your work breaks outside in sunlight, exercise outside, or walk your dog during the day instead of at night.

Let as much natural light into your home or workspace as possible. Keep curtains and blinds open during the day, and try to move your desk closer to the window.

If necessary, use a light therapy box. This simulates sunshine and can be especially useful during short winter days.

At night:

Avoid bright screens within 1-2 hours of your bedtime. The blue light emitted by your phone, tablet, computer, or TV is especially disruptive. You can minimize the impact by using devices with smaller screens, turning the brightness down, or using light-altering software such as f.lux.

Say no to late-night television. Not only does the light from a TV suppress melatonin, but many programs are stimulating rather than relaxing. Try listening to music or audio books instead.

Don’t read with backlit devices. Tablets that are backlit are more disruptive than e-readers that don’t have their own light source.

When it’s time to sleep, make sure the room is dark. Use heavy curtains or shades to block light from windows, or try a sleep mask. Also consider covering up electronics that emit light.

Keep the lights down if you get up during the night. If you need some light to move around safely, try installing a dim nightlight in the hall or bathroom or using a small flashlight. This will make it easier for you to fall back to sleep.

Tip 3: Exercise during the day

People who exercise regularly sleep better at night and feel less sleepy during the day. Regular exercise also improves the symptoms of insomnia and sleep apnea and increases the amount of time you spend in the deep, restorative stages of sleep.

  • The more vigorously you exercise, the more powerful the sleep benefits. But even light exercise—such as walking for just 10 minutes a day—improves sleep quality.
  • It can take several months of regular activity before you experience the full sleep-promoting effects. So be patient and focus on building an exercise habit that sticks.

For better sleep, time your exercise right

Exercise speeds up your metabolism, elevates body temperature, and stimulates hormones such as cortisol. This isn’t a problem if you’re exercising in the morning or afternoon, but too close to bed and it can interfere with sleep.

Try to finish moderate to vigorous workouts at least three hours before bedtime. If you’re still experiencing sleep difficulties, move your workouts even earlier. Relaxing, low-impact exercises such as yoga or gentle stretching in the evening can help promote sleep.

Tip 4: Be smart about what you eat and drink

Your daytime eating habits play a role in how well you sleep, especially in the hours before bedtime.

Limit caffeine and nicotine. You might be surprised to know that caffeine can cause sleep problems up to ten to twelve hours after drinking it! Similarly, smoking is another stimulant that can disrupt your sleep, especially if you smoke close to bedtime.

Avoid big meals at night. Try to make dinnertime earlier in the evening, and avoid heavy, rich foods within two hours of bed. Spicy or acidic foods can cause stomach trouble and heartburn.

Avoid alcohol before bed. While a nightcap may help you relax, it interferes with your sleep cycle once you’re out.

Avoid drinking too many liquids in the evening. Drinking lots of fluids may result in frequent bathroom trips throughout the night.

Cut back on sugary foods and refined carbs. Eating lots of sugar and refined carbs such as white bread, white rice, and pasta during the day can trigger wakefulness at night and pull you out of the deep, restorative stages of sleep.

Tip 5: Wind down and clear your head

Do you often find yourself unable to get to sleep or regularly waking up night after night? Residual stress, worry, and anger from your day can make it very difficult to sleep well. Taking steps to manage your overall stress levels and learning how to curb the worry habit can make it easier to unwind at night. You can also try developing a relaxing bedtime ritual to help you prepare your mind for sleep, such as practicing a relaxation technique, taking a warm bath, or dimming the lights and listening to soft music or an audiobook.

Problems clearing you head at night can also stem from your daytime habits. The more overstimulated your brain becomes during the day, the harder it can be slow down and unwind at night. Maybe, like many of us, you’re constantly interrupting tasks during the day to check your phone, email, or social media. Then when it comes to getting to sleep at night, your brain is so accustomed to seeking fresh stimulation, it becomes difficult to unwind. Help yourself by setting aside specific times during the day for checking your phone and social media and, as much as possible, try to focus on one task at a time. You’ll be better able to calm your mind at bedtime.Closeup of young bearded man lying on sheets of bed, hands folded behind bed, looking relaxed

A deep breathing exercise to help you sleep

Breathing from your belly rather than your chest can activate the relaxation response and lower your heart rate, blood pressure, and stress levels to help you drift off to sleep.

  • Lay down in bed and close your eyes.
  • Put one hand on your chest and the other on your stomach.
  • Breathe in through your nose. The hand on your stomach should rise. The hand on your chest should move very little.
  • Exhale through your mouth, pushing out as much air as you can while contracting your abdominal muscles. The hand on your stomach should move in as you exhale, but your other hand should move very little.
  • Continue to breathe in through your nose and out through your mouth. Try to inhale enough so that your lower abdomen rises and falls. Count slowly as you exhale.

To follow along with a guided deep breathing exercise, click here.

A body scan exercise to help you sleep

By focusing your attention on different parts of your body, you can identify where you’re holding any stress or tension, and release it.

  • Lie on your back, legs uncrossed, arms relaxed at your sides, eyes closed. Focus on your breathing for about two minutes until you start to feel relaxed.
  • Turn your focus to the toes of your right foot. Notice any tension while continuing to also focus on your breathing. Imagine each deep breath flowing to your toes. Remain focused on this area for at least three to five seconds.
  • Move your focus to the sole of your right foot. Tune in to any sensations you feel in that part of your body and imagine each breath flowing from the sole of your foot. Then move your focus to your right ankle and repeat. Move to your calf, knee, thigh, hip, and then repeat the sequence for your left leg. From there, move up your torso, through your lower back and abdomen, your upper back and chest, and your shoulders. Pay close attention to any area of the body that feels tense.
  • After completing the body scan, relax, noting how your body feels. You should feel so relaxed you can easily fall asleep.

For a guided body scan meditation to help you wind down and clear your head at bedtime, click here.

Tip 6: Improve your sleep environment

A peaceful bedtime routine sends a powerful signal to your brain that it’s time to wind down and let go of the day’s stresses. Sometimes even small changes to your environment can make a big difference to your quality of sleep.

Keep your room dark, cool, and quiet

Keep noise down. If you can’t avoid or eliminate noise from neighbors, traffic, or other people in your household, try masking it with a fan or sound machine. Earplugs may also help.

Keep your room cool. Most people sleep best in a slightly cool room (around 65° F or 18° C) with adequate ventilation. A bedroom that is too hot or too cold can interfere with quality sleep.

Make sure your bed is comfortable. Your bed covers should leave you enough room to stretch and turn comfortably without becoming tangled. If you often wake up with a sore back or an aching neck, you may need to experiment with different levels of mattress firmness, foam toppers, and pillows that provide more or less support.

Reserve your bed for sleeping and sex. By not working, watching TV, or using your phone, tablet, or computer in bed, your brain will associate the bedroom with just sleep and sex, which makes it easier to wind down at night.

Tip 7: Learn ways to get back to sleep

It’s normal to wake briefly during the night but if you’re having trouble falling back asleep, these tips may help:

Stay out of your head. Hard as it may be, try not to stress over your inability to fall asleep again, because that stress only encourages your body to stay awake. To stay out of your head, focus on the feelings in your body or practice breathing exercises. Take a breath in, then breathe out slowly while saying or thinking the word, “Ahhh.” Take another breath and repeat.

Make relaxation your goal, not sleep. If you find it hard to fall back asleep, try a relaxation technique such as visualization, progressive muscle relaxation, or meditation, which can be done without even getting out of bed. Even though it’s not a replacement for sleep, relaxation can still help rejuvenate your body.

Do a quiet, non-stimulating activity. If you’ve been awake for more than 15 minutes, get out of bed and do a quiet, non-stimulating activity, such as reading a book. Keep the lights dim and avoid screens so as not to cue your body that it’s time to wake up.

Postpone worrying and brainstorming. If you wake during the night feeling anxious about something, make a brief note of it on paper and postpone worrying about it until the next day when it will be easier to resolve. Similarly, if a great idea is keeping you awake, make a note of it on paper and fall back to sleep knowing you’ll be much more productive after a good night’s rest.


Yoga is a group of physical, mental, emotional and spiritual practices or disciplines which was originated in ancient time in India. Yoga is one of the six Astika schools of hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools,practices and goals in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.

Yoga is a mind and body practice with a 5,000 year history in ancient indian philosophy. Various styles of yoga combine physical postures ,breathing techniques, and meditation or relaxation. In more recent years , it has become popular as a form of physical exercise based upon poses that promote improved control of the mind . And body and enhance well-being .

there are several different types of yoga and many disciplines within the practice. This article explores the history,philosophy , and various branch of yoga.

there is no written record of the inventor of yoga.

Male yoga practitioners are known as yogis.and female yoga practitioners are called yoginis.both practiced both taught yoga long before any written account of yoga come into existence.

Yoga is well known for its postures and poses ,but they were not a key part of original yoga traditions in india . Fitness was not a primary goal .practitioners and followers of yogic traditions focused instead on other practices , such as expending spritual energy using breathing method and focus method .the traditional began to gain popularity in the west at the end of the 19th explosion of interest in yoga postural occured in the 1920’s and 1930s.first in the india and later in the west .

Benefits of yoga

increase flexibility increased muscle strength and tone. Improved energy. Maintaining a balanced metabolism . Weight reduction. Cardio and circulatory health. Improved athletic performance protection from injury.

Disadvantages of yoga

injury risks osteoporosis hot yoga disadvantages overdoing yoga poses untrained instructors

However, as a general rule of thumb, a healthy practice for vinyasa yoga is usually around 3to 5times a week. This gives you adequate time for rest. Rest is crucial to recover, get stronger and maintain your health.

the negatives of yoga are.the most common yoga injury included ;neck ,back,knee,and and shoulder injuries. This includes torm injuries muscles .herniate disks and carpal tunnel. Poses like chaturanga ,an upward push up with bent elbows, can cause extensive damage to wrists , elbow and shoulders.

regularly yoga practice creates mental clarity and calmness ,increasing body awareness,relieves the mind.

Yoga poses streach your muscles and increases your range of motion……..and even through yoga is not aerobic , some research find it can be just as good as aerobic exercise for improving health.

Sleeping Pills

Which sleeping pill is right for me?

Woman awake in bed wondering which is the best sleeping pill to take
A person can take a sleeping pill as a short-term solution if lifestyle adjustments have not worked.

Many people may not need sleeping pills.

By practicing good sleep hygiene, exercising, and avoiding alcohol and nicotine, an individual can often improve their sleep cycle and prevent insomnia.

Insomnia involves having trouble falling or staying asleep. People with insomnia may wake up too early or not feel refreshed upon waking.

If lifestyle adjustments do not work, for example when insomnia is severe, a sleeping pill may be a good short-term solution.

Avoid the long-term use of sleeping pills, because it can make insomnia worse, especially if a person stops taking the pills.

The range of sleeping pills includes supplements and over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs. Anyone with ongoing insomnia should consult their doctor about the best approach.

The following are some of the most effective sleeping pills.


When it gets dark outside, the brain produces a hormone called melatonin. This regulates the sleep-wake cycle by telling the body that it is almost time for bed.

The brain makes less melatonin when it is light out and more when it is dark, such as during the winter. Age also plays a role — the older a person gets, the less melatonin they produce.

Many sleeping aids contain melatonin. They tend to be most effective for people with circadian rhythm sleep disorders, which are problems with the timing of sleeping or waking up.

Melatonin can be especially helpful for people:

  • experiencing jet lag
  • having trouble falling asleep at night
  • coping with shift work

In recent years, manufacturers have marketed snacks and drinks that contain melatonin as “relaxation” products. Doctors do not know, however, if they are effective.

Melatonin supplements are available without a prescription from drug stores, supermarkets, and online shops. The pills tend to come in doses of 1–5 milligrams (mg), and a person should take them at bedtime.

Limited evidence suggests that melatonin can treat insomnia. However, though some findings have been mixed, most research indicates that it can reduce the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, including a 2017 meta-analysis published in the journal Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Sedating antihistamines

Sedating antihistamines can help people who have trouble falling or staying asleep.

Some OTC antihistamines, which people usually use to treat allergies, can cause drowsiness.

Though not all antihistamines have this effect, people sometimes use first-generation antihistamines, or sedating antihistamines, to promote sleep or relieve tension and anxiety.

The following are sedating antihistamines:

  • diphenhydramine, the active ingredient in Benadryl
  • doxylamine, the active ingredient in Unisom
  • cyclizine, the active ingredient in Marezine

Second-generation antihistamines are less likely to cause drowsiness. People use them to treat long-term allergy symptoms, and they are not effective as sleeping aids.

The following are nonsedating antihistamines:

  • cetirizine, the active ingredient in Zyrtec
  • loratadine, the active ingredient in Claritin
  • fexofenadine, the active ingredient in Allegra

A doctor may recommend a sedating antihistamine, but only as a short-term solution. Though they are not addictive, the body gets used to them quickly, so they become less effective over time.

Valerian root

Valerian root is common in herbal supplements and can improve sleep quality.

Valerian is a plant. People have used the medicinal properties in the root since the times of ancient Greece and Rome.

Valerian root is a common ingredient in herbal supplements that people use to improve sleep, relieve anxiety, and support relaxation.

The supplements come in many forms, such as teas, liquids, and capsules.

Several clinical studies show that taking valerian can improve impressions of sleep quality in people with insomnia. However, not enough evidence is available to confirm whether valerian root is an effective sleep aid.

Valerian root-based sleep aids are available in drug stores, health food stores, and online shops.


Hypnotics are a group of sleeping medications only available by prescription.

A doctor may prescribe hypnotics to treat a number of sleep disorders, including insomnia. These medicines can also treat movement disorders that interrupt sleep, such as restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder.

The most common hypnotic sleeping pills are:

  • zolpidem
  • zaleplon
  • eszopiclone
  • ramelteon

Doctors tend only to prescribe hypnotics for insomnia that is long-lasting and bothersome because the drugs can have side effects.

Another class of sedative-hypnotics, called benzodiazepines, can also treat insomnia. These medications include:

  • alprazolam
  • diazepam
  • lorazepam

Before prescribing a benzodiazepine, the doctor will usually first recommend a hypnotic. This is due to concerns about benzodiazepine dependence and its more severe side effects.

When to use sleeping pills

Always follow the instructions for OTC sleeping aids, including valerian products and antihistamines containing diphenhydramine or doxylamine.

The best time to take melatonin will depend on the nature of the sleep problem.

Sleeping pills for insomnia

A person with insomnia should take a sleeping aid just before or at bedtime.

Sleeping pills for jet lag

If tackling jet lag, take melatonin several hours before the intended bedtime every day throughout the trip and for a few days afterward. Doses of 0.5–5 mg tend to be sufficient.

Sleeping pills for shift work

For people with shift work, taking 2–3 mg of melatonin at the end of a shift can help prepare the body for bed.

Prescription sleeping pills

The right dosage and frequency will depend very much on a person’s condition and the type of medication.

Always follow the doctor’s instructions carefully.

Side effects and risks

Woman drowsy at work due to taking sleeping pills
People can feel tired and drowsy the day after taking sleeping pills.

Sedating medications, including antihistamines and hypnotics, can leave people feeling tired, drowsy, or groggy during the following day.

In older adults, using these pills can cause memory problems.

Some sleeping aids, when a person takes them to relieve insomnia, can make it more difficult to fall asleep without them.

No evidence suggests that using melatonin comes with serious risks. Researchers have yet to explore the long-term effects.

Do not take any sleeping aid before driving or operating machinery.

For many people, the risks of using prescription hypnotics outweigh the benefits. These medications are only suitable for short-term use. Most are habit-forming, meaning that they can be addictive, and they can also cause side effects.

Some side effects of prescription sleeping pills include:

  • drowsiness or dizziness during the day
  • confusion
  • problems with memory
  • balance problems

In rare cases, they can cause people to perform actions, including driving, walking, eating, or making phone calls, while asleep.

Sleeping pills may also interfere with:

The safety profile of valerian root is still unclear. Possible side effects may include headaches, dizziness, itchiness, and stomach problems. Some people feel groggy or drowsy in the morning after taking valerian root.

Also, people who have taken valerian root for extended periods then stopped suddenly may experience withdrawal symptoms. People who stop taking benzodiazepines after long periods may experience similar symptoms.

Because the medical community is still unsure of the effects, women who are pregnant and children under 3 years of age should not use valerian.

Does EIA need revaluation?

This year, in March, a new draft of the EIA has been proposed by the Union Government. It constitutes some complicated and argumentative changes in the rules.

What was the need to bring out this notification in the midst of the pandemic?
How are people going to take part in public consultation during this lockdown?
How will they protest if they want changes in it?
Is the government trying to lay the blame on this pandemic for their decisions?

What is EIA?
On 27th January 1994, the Union Ministry of Environment and Forests (MEF), Government of India, under the Environmental Protection Act 1986, proclaimed an EIA notification making Environmental Clearance (EC) mandatory for expansion or modernization of any activity or for setting up new projects listed in Schedule 1 of the notification.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) has proposed a draft Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) notification to replace the current one, which dates back to 2006. The EIA process is extremely important because it is the only process which is supposed to prioritize Environment safety over Economic benefits. A prior, free and informed consent of people is welcomed in it; people can ask questions about the need of the process. In this process, the project can be rejected on precautionary grounds. The values that are fundamental to the EIA process are sustainability, equity, environmental justice, accountability, transparency; it is these values that make the EIA meaningful.

But the new draft of 2020 is considered to change some of these basic values of EIA and some of the provisions are:
 Projects can receive clearance post-facto; a project operating in violation of the EPA can now apply for clearance.
 The draft says that no information on such projects shall be placed in the public domain. This list also includes all inland waterways projects.
 Violations on any project can only be reported by any government representative or the project proponent, not citizens.
Now, the EIC members typically are bureaucrats, project proponents from previous projects who do not have any environmental credential.
 Priorly the EIA report does not go directly to the decision-maker, that report is to be shared with the public. A person who may be directly affected by the report or anyone interested in knowing about its impact can participate in the public hearing. But now the Public Consultation may be cancelled owing to the local situation, i.e; if the people are protesting against a project that itself can be used to cancel Public hearing. Isn’t it a violation of our rights?
 Once the EC is granted it will be included for the lifetime in the project without any review. EC cannot be revoked even in case it violates EIA.
 The time allotted for public hearings has been reduced to speed up clearance process, this makes it difficult for people living in rural and tribal areas who are most often directly influenced by these projects. Today we have 30days notice period which is itself insufficient, now it’s been said to be reduced to 20days. The only motive behind this is that people will not be able to participate.
 Earlier buildings of 20,000sq.m or above required an environment clearance after detailed scrutiny by the state-level expert committee. Now, in this draft, it has been proposed to make it 150,000 sq.m, more than 7times if you count.

The 2020 EIA draft seems to be leaning in favour of the industries and does not take care of the environment. This is important amidst the climate crisis and the pandemic. In the last 6 years, MoEFCC has given environment clearance to 2,256 of the 2,592 received proposals. At least 49 industrial projects have been approved since the lockdown began. Some of the projects which are in question are:
• Dibang Valley Hydropower Project, Arunachal Pradesh
A 3,097 MW project is being developed by Etalin Hydro Electric Power Company Limited which comprehends the felling of 2.7 lakhs trees in the subtropical rain forests.
• Coal Mining Project in Dehing Patkai Elephant Reserve, Assam
The government is discussing a proposal to divert 98.59 hectares of the reserve forest in Assam for a coal-mining project. This Reserve is home to a vibrant habitat including Asian elephants, Royal Bengal tigers, Leopard, and crab-eating mongoose.
• Oil Drilling in Baghjan, Assam
In 2016, Oil India Limited decided to extend its drilling and bypassed the public hearings clause. On May 27, 2020, an oil well in eastern Assam’s Tinsukia district experienced a blowout which led to a fire.
• Talabira coal mines, Odisha
The forest area has been cleared in Odisha for an opencast coal mining project. Parts of the forest have been protected over decades by the local community are now gone forever.
• Gas leakage in LG Polymers, Vishakhapatnam
In May, there was a gas leak in this company and this project didn’t have all the clearances as the company admitted this subsequently.
• A dyke at a Reliance power plant in Madhya Pradesh broke, spilling ashes over hundreds of acres of cropland, polluting the river and killing many people.

Recently the state government of Goa was caught for being engaged in fraudulence. It submitted a false report to obtain clearance for an airport near the ecologically sensitive Mopa plateau which will not only affect the vegetations or animals but also plunder the livelihood of hundreds of farmers. Even after this, no one was blamed for it. On the other hand, the EAC of MoEFCC revisited the project and issued a clearance.

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar Disorder is a mental illness characterized by extreme shifts in the mood from high to low, low to high. Symptoms can include an extremely elevated mood called mania. They can also include episodes of depression. Bipolar Disorder is also known as manic depression. People with Bipolar Disorder may have trouble managing everyday life tasks at school or work, or maintaining relationships.

There are three main symptoms that can occur with bipolar disorder : mania, hypomania, and depression. While experiencing mania, a person with bipolar disorder may feel an emotional high. They can feel excited, impulsive, euphoric, and full of energy. During manic episodes, they may also engage in behavior such as :
• Spending Sprees
• Unprotected Sex
• Drug Use

Hypomania is generally associated with bipolar II disorder. It’s similar to mania, but it’s not as severe. Unlike mania, hypomania may not result in any trouble at work, school, or in social relationships. However, people with hypomania still notice changes in their mood.
During an episode of depression you may experience:
• Deep sadness
• Hopelessness
• Loss of energy
• Lack of interest in activities they once enjoyed
• Suicidal thoughts
• Periods of too little or too much sleep

Although it’s not a rare condition, bipolar disorder can be hard to diagnose because of its varied symptoms.

Bipolar disorder and depression
Bipolar disorder can have two extremes: up and down. To be diagnosed with bipolar, you must experience a period of mania or hypomania. People generally feel “up” in this phase of the disorder. When you’re experiencing an “up” change in mood, you may feel highly energized and be easily excitable.
Some people with bipolar disorder will also experience a major depressive episode, or a “down” mood. When you’re experiencing a “down” change in mood, you may feel lethargic, unmotivated, and sad. However, not all people with bipolar disorder who have this symptom feel “down” enough to be labeled depressed. For instance, for some people, once their mania is treated, a normal mood may feel like depression because they enjoyed the “high” caused by the manic episode.
While bipolar disorder can cause you to feel depressed, it’s not the same as the condition called depression. Bipolar disorder can cause highs and lows, but depression causes moods and emotions that are always “down.”

Possible causes of bipolar disorder include

If your parent or sibling has bipolar disorder, you’re more likely than other people to develop the condition. However, it’s important to keep in mind that most people who have bipolar disorder in their family history don’t develop it.

Your brain
Your brain structure may impact your risk for the disease. Abnormalities in the structure or functions of your brain may increase your risk.

Environmental factors
It’s not just what’s in your body that can make you more likely to develop bipolar disorder. Outside factors may contribute, too. These factors can include:
• extreme stress
• traumatic experiences
• physical illness
Each of these factors may influence who develops bipolar disorder.

Bipolar Disorder Treatment

Recommended psychotherapy treatments may include:

Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy is a type of talk therapy. You and a therapist talk about ways to manage your bipolar disorder. They will help you understand your thinking patterns. They can also help you come up with positive coping strategies.

Psychoeducation is a kind of counseling that helps you and your loved ones understand the disorder. Knowing more about bipolar disorder will help you and others in your life manage it.

Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) focuses on regulating daily habits, such as sleeping, eating, and exercising. Balancing these everyday basics can help you manage your disorder.

Importance of Festivals

It is hard to imagine a world where society doesn’t celebrate any festivals. Just try to imagine a world without Christmas, Hanukkah, Diwali, Id, Holi. Their are so many festivals that are celebrated that it would be practically impossible to recall all of them.

Celebrating these festivals is not just important in order to remember our culture but also to gather around the entire community and talk, and eat, and laugh. In order for the Society to properly exist in the world, festivals act like those pillars that balance our it. Kids get an opportunity to experience their culture and history. Our grandparents and other older citizens get to remind the next generation about the significance of celebrating these festivals. The entire family gathers around and catches up on their lost time. They share all the successes, all the stories and reconnect with their family. Apart from that, other people, people who are not related to us by blood, become our friends and we end up forming our own little traditions.

For example, a young girl and her grandma may form a tradition of making sweets together. Or a parent taking help from their children to decorate the house. Yes, they become busier during festivals because of all the preparation. But the process of preparation of these festivals is in itself another festival. This way, people make memories that they become fond of.

I for one cannot imagine a world without festivals. They are an expressive way to celebrate our glorious heritage, culture and traditions. They bring joy to children. The thing is that we are dependent on social heritage, which is a mixture of customs, traditions, moral values, beliefs and ideals. It not only 8makes us who we are but binds us to pass it on from one generation to another.

Festivals promote diversity, they bring neighbors into dialogue, they increase creativity, and they offer opportunities for civic pride.

The world is chaotic. Everyone is rushing to get to places. Everyone is pushing their own limits in order to feed their family. Children are stressed out because of pressure from school and the fear of disappointing their well wishers. Employees over work themselves into a cardiac arrest and other health hazards and overall, we don’t get time to enjoy the natural beauty and small things that actually matter in our lives.

By celebrating festivals, we not only get to catch up with everything other than work and studies, but we also get to enjoy the company of our loved ones. In my opinion, each day SHOULD BE celebrated as a festival. It will not only make our live non-monotonous but it will also bring the people around us a little bit closer.

Reading is the biggest joy in world

If you are a reader then you can undoubtedly tell what I am talking about.

Reading is blissful. It’s divine to get wrapped up with a fascinating charism, stirring circumstances, and gorgeous venues. Reading for liking is immensely imperative for every human. It not only shapes your personality, provides you the knowledge, gives you happiness and understanding but also gives an insight into certain living compassion. There are voluminous books available, people should make the habit of reading. A book story can support readers in identifying unfavorable circumstances, it benefits in problem resolving and advances in be subjected to an enchanted scenario.

“What knocks me out is a book that, when you’re all done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. That doesn’t happen much, though.”

J.D. Salinger

These days Boosting individuals to read books have to turn into a prominent subject. Countless lecturers in academies, schools, institutes repeatedly argue that adolescents have plugged up from reading. Even though there is no weighty deterioration in literateness nonetheless there is a regression in preference readings. 

Rima is sixteen years old; she has a liking of reading books. She has got a collection of JK Rowling, Stephen King, Arundhati Roy, and many more. Her mother revealed, Rima can’t live without them. Whenever she goes on vacation or anyplace, it has developed a practice of her to stock a few books in a suitcase. Books are her dualistic life. She relishes reading them and surrounded by them.

In the new-fanged digital generation, abundant betting sites, social media, or other fun-loving gaming sites have possessed human beings because of which people are unable to summon up the joy rests in books. To weakened the blockades, people need to start amending their addiction. 

Always keep in mind-

“Books are your true friend. They never erase and they never forget, they keep you tagged till your death.”

Tech Mahindra campus sealed after 7 COVID-19 cases in a week as Odisha tally crosses 10,000

The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation (BMC) on Tuesday sealed the Tech Mahindra campus in the city after the detection of multiple COVID-19 cases. The campus has been sealed for 72 hours till Thursday for sanitisation.
BMC North zonal deputy commissioner Pramod Kumar Prusty said the campus was sealed after seven cases were detected in the last one week.
“The first case from the campus was reported on June 29 and the individual had a travel history outside Odisha,” he said.
The ZDC said that 65 employees of the IT firm have been home quarantined and will undergo COVID-19 tests if they develop any symptoms.He said contact tracing is also in progress to isolate others who have come in contact with these seven persons.
Of the 37 cases reported in Khurda in the last 24 hours, around 26 are from Bhubaneswar, sources said.
Meanwhile, the COVID-19 tally in Odisha crossed the 10,000 mark on Tuesday after the state reported its biggest single day spike of 572 cases along with six deaths.
The cases were reported from 21 districts with Ganjam remaining at the top with 273 cases. Gajapati and Sundargarh districts also reported 56 and 51 cases respectively.
Health and Family Welfare department officials said three men in the age group of 48 to 70 years from Ganjam and a 48-year-old man from Cuttack, infected with the virus, died while undergoing treatment at different hospitals.
They, however, said that the other two persons, an 80-year-old man from Cuttack and 45-year-old man from Mayurbhanj, who were infected with virus, died due to cancer.
The state so far has reported 10,097 COVID-19 cases and 42 deaths. Health officials, however, claim that at least 12 COVID-19 patients have died due to other diseases.

Trade Union

Trade Union is an organisation that employees, workers and labour can join in order to protect and promote their interest. Trade Union is an organisation which helps the workers and employees to achieve their goals in areas such as pay, benefits, working condition, hours of work, etc. Trade Union acts as a link or bridge between management and workers. As all the communication that takes place between employer or management and workers is generally through union. Trade Union acts as a medium between workers and management as they help in settlement of grievances and raising the voice of workers in front of management on behalf of workers. The key function of trade unions are regulation of relations, settlement of grievances, collective bargaining and negotiation and raising new demand on behalf of workers. Trade Union is basically a voluntary association of employees and therefore individuals agree on their own to join and act together. Since we know that it is a voluntary association, so the leaders are elected by the members. Trade Union acts as an intermediary between employer and employee. It eliminates the employers’ need to consult each and every employee before taking decision affecting him. Instead the employer talk directly to trade union who represent the employees. The Trade Union, in turn, pass on the information to the employee and the decision is taken at last. It is the most important question that, Why trade union looks so attractive to employees? So for this we should know the factors that makes it so attractive to employees and they are –

  • Minimise Discrimination- As there are chances that a personal relationship may exist between the supervisor and his subordinate and due to this there are chances of favouritism and discrimination. So, in order to minimise favouritism and discrimination trade union compels management to frame policies that press for equality of treatment to workers.
  • Sense of Security- After joining a union the employee experiences a sense of security as he believes that it is an effective way to secure adequate protection from various hazards and income insecurity.
  • Sense of Participation- Employee experiences sense of participation only if they join trade union. After joining the Trade Union employees can participate in matters of management which affects their interest.
  • Sense of Belongingness- It is always seen that people follow eachother. Same goes here, many employees join a union because there co-workers are the members of the union. The members of a union feel that they are gaining respect and can also discuss their problems with the Trade Union.
  • Platform for Self Expression- Everybody loves expressing themselves. They want to share their feelings, ideas and opinions with others and this platform is provided by trade union to its members. Trade Union helps in providing a support to collective voice of the workers so that the management can hear this and can give due consideration while making policy decision by the management. Trade Union also helps in betterment of employee relations among management and workers by solving the problem peacefully.

Last But Not the Least

Trade Union plays an important role in workers, employees and labour’s life as it provides a sense of security, participation and belongingness which motivates them to work hard.

History of Maharashtra

The Shivaji Bhosle the founder of Maratha empire, did a lifelong struggle against the mughals. by the years of shivaji death nearly the whole of Deccan belonged to this empire. shivaji was worried and one of the finest rules of india, so he holds the highest place in Maratha history. Sambhaji succeeded shivaji, but he is not great his father shivaji. 1680 to 1707 is known as the period of instability in the history of maharashtra. Balaji Vishwanath, Bajirao peshwa, Nanasaheb peshwa, Thorale Madhaorao peshwa, Naraynrao peshwa were the other important rulers of maharashtra.

The fall of Ahemednagar fort in 1803 marked the end of Indian rules and supremacy of British in Deccan. In 1804, general Wellesly proclaimed the in a state of chaos, established military rules and the Peshwa remainder rulers for namesake. The present of state was formed in 1960 with Bombay as the capital, when the Marathi and Gujarati linguistic areas of former Bombay sate were separated. Maharashtra became the channel of cultural exchange between southern to northern India.

The maharashtra is quite rich some of the great rules and King of this is region, eaving behind the mentioned in the account of a contempporary chinese traveler, Hunan Tasang. as per historian, Dravidians were the inhabitants of Maharashtra and the forest region was called Maharashtra or Dandakarayana. After the declined if the chalukyas came to power.

about the maharashtra there were the Mumbai is the capital of maharashtra of the entire country. Nagpur is known as the Wealthiest state, Maharashtra contributes around 15% of the industrial output of the country and around 14% of it us gross domestic or product. The sate has a varied landscape and is bounded by the Western ghat. It boasts of several wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, and also patronizes project tiger, which is attempt to preserve the endangered of the country. Maharashtra has a tropical monsoon climate and of the country. maharashtra has a tropical monsoon climate and annual rainfall is between 400 to 6000 mm annually, with the Konkan area receiving the maximum rainfall in the state. five main region, Maharashtra has 19 Rajya Sabha or Upper House seat and 48 Lok Sabha or lower House seats. In the maharashtra their are many forts of with huge history as well as tracking

  1. Sinhagad Fort
  1. This fort is located to the Pune. This fort is name gets its mean from the Marathi word Lion. One of the more popular fort in Maharashtra Sinhagad Fort is believed to the have been conquered by Tanaji Malusare’s brother from the Mughals. At fort, you will see a few old stables were believed to the have been used by the Maratha army to keep their horses.this also a brave Tanaji malusare worrier.

2. Rajgad Fort

The rajgad Fort, Pune was built on the Murumbadevi Hills in the Sahyadris range. It was the first capital of shivaji Maharaj and is also for believed to be the place where shivaji’s wife, saibai, spent her last few days. Inside the rajgad is a popular of trekking spot for local and tourist who though the place in the monsoon. from the top of Rajgad Fort.

3. Shivneri Fort –

This fort is the birthplace of shivaji Maharaj, the shivneri fort holds high esteem in Maratha and Maharashtrian history. The fort was constructed in a unique triangular shape and had many mosques, ponds and a tomb inside the shivneri fort, there is a temple that is dedicated to goddess Shahi Devi and a massive chain gate at the entrance. However you are good at trekking, you can try up to the fort from chain route located on the western of the fort.

Culture of Maharashtra : The images of and social consciousness about deities such as Gautam Buddha, Shiva, Vishnu, Ganpati, Paravati, Laxmi, Saraswati, Jain gods etc, have been expressed through various art forms and that through various psychic disposition of the concerned artist.

Taking Care Of Your Mental Health In The Times Of COVID-19

Breathe In. Breathe Out.

Hey, It’s normal to feel stressed, nervous, anxious, drained or worried right now.

COVID-19 has most likely changed every aspect of your life- your family dynamics, your eqaution with your friends, your social life, your schooling, your career, your interests, your habits and even you. As you deal with uncertainity and all the emotions that tag along, it’s crucial that along with your physical health, you take care of your mental health as well. Here are some things that I religiously follow and have worked for me. I hope they work for you as well!

You deserve patience, so be patient with yourself

  • Allow others to help you when you’re struggling. Don’t be shy to ask for help from those you trust and the ones who care about you. Asking for help is not a sign of weakness, it’s a sign of strength, strength in acknowledging that you need help and that you’re willing to work towards a better self.
  • Remind yourself that “It will pass”. Like any other moment, any other journey, any other hurdle in life, this too shall pass, for better. We can’t control what’s happening around us, and with the lack of control and constant bugging of how uncertain the times are, it’s important to remind ourselves we are doing what we can and that’s enough for today.
  • Self-reflect and see what you feel is important to you right now.

Reach out

  • Call your close friends and share your feelings with each other. As simple as it sounds, it is therapeutic, and will leave you in a better state than before. This will help lift off the weight from your chest.
  • Arrange a video call with friends, seeing their faces is as close to physical proximity as you can get right now.
  • Text a friend you haven’t spoken to in a long time, rekindle with them. Maybe reminiscence the times you spent together, memorable moments that you shared, tell them something that remind you of them, go where the conversation takes you.

Take care of your body

  • Since there is very less to no physical activity. Make an active effort to do any form of exercise that you like: walking, jogging, skipping rope, dancing, Zumba, weights, yoga.
  • Get your quota of fresh air during the day. Inhale as much oxygen as you can.
  • Stick to a sleeping routine. In times that are so uncertain and unstable, having a routine can make you feel in control and calm about your surroundings. If you’re having trouble with sleeping, check my article- What should you do if you’re struggling to sleep in quarantine?
  • Practice deep breathing. Try 4-7-8 breathing if you feel anxious or stressed.

Eat your meals

  • Since most of us have erratic sleep schedules it’s no secret that we’re skipping out on meals. Try and eat three small meals each day.
  • Don’t starve yourself. It’s normal to not want to have full meals sometimes. Choose a trusted snack and rely on it whenever you feel hungry but not enough to have a meal.
  • Stay hydrated. Drink 4-6 cups of water daily to avoid dehydration. Warning signs of dehydration can include dizziness, weakness, low blood pressure, or urine that’s dark in color. (source: Harvard Medical School)

Releasing anger

Have you ever felt an intense anger for something that ticked you off because of which you unloaded your emotions on someone who didn’t deserve it and then ended up regretting it?  The same thing happened with me a few days back and now I regret my previous actions.

Anger is one of the many emotions that humans feel and is very natural but sometimes this anger may not find a proper outlet. It can be misdirected and may be harmful for the one being at the receiving end of it. This may destroy both personal and professional relationships.

Some people may often find themselves getting annoyed with even the slightest of discomforts. In times like this, one should learn to manage them. The first step to deal with one’s anger issues is to acknowledge them and address the nature that instigates it.  Sometimes it may be a spur of a moment thing such as getting stuck in traffic or it may be induced by some past traumatic events. Most people resort to high level of aggression when triggered. This natural response may work well as a defense when someone feels attacked but you can’t go on lashing out at every other person for the littlest of things that may bother you. For example: A person dropped his coffee at you as a mistake but then you started verbally abusing him even after he apologized.

Suppression of anger doesn’t work well either since this pent-up frustration may burst one day. Anger should be expressed but in a healthy way, meaning, that the person should keep his needs in an assertive manner and be clear about what actually bothered him. This should not sound demanding or disrespectful.  Keeping one’s anger inside without dealing with it can often eat up people from inside and make them bitter. Such type of people then become cynical about everything and try to criticize others at every turn.

Some people are naturally more hotheaded than others which can be attributed to genetic, physiological or sociocultural aspects. Since anger is always perceived as a negative emotion, people never learn to deal with it.

Some easy steps one can resort to are:

  • Slowly repeat yourself to be calm.
  • Take deep breaths from your diaphragm
  • Meditation and some yoga techniques can be helpful
  • Take a time out and dissociate your self from the environment leading to your fury
  • Stop holding grudges. It does you more harm than others
  • Use humor to release tension

Whenever you see yourself getting agitated, always tell yourself that there is no point of getting angry. Learn to address and deal with the root cause of the problems. If you learn to stay calm and look at things with the same attitude, you will be able to come up with the solution to the problem. If there is no solution, then don’t let yourself get frustrated and choose to deal with it head-on. Also, don’t jump to conclusions and end up trying to find yourself a person who can be used as your personal punch bag. This will improve your communication skills and prevent you from spoiling building relationship. If you feel as if you are unable to control your issues, then never shy away from resorting to professional help. Professionals will be able to help you come up with certain strategies and techniques to deal with them.


Yakuza , also known as gokudō , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police, and media by request of the police, call them bōryokudan groups”, while the yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai (chivalrous organizations”). The English equivalent for the term yakuza is gangster, meaning an individual involved in a Mafia-like criminal organization. The yakuza are notorious for their strict codes of conduct, their organized fiefdom nature, and several unconventional ritual practices such as yubitsume, or amputation of the left little finger.Members are often described as males, wearing “sharp suits” with heavily tattooed bodies and slicked hair.This group is still regarded as being among “the most sophisticated and wealthiest criminal organizations. At their height, the yakuza maintained a large presence in the Japanese media and operated internationally. At their peak in the early 1960s, police estimated that the yakuza had a membership of more than 200,000. However, this number has drastically dropped, a decline attributed to changing market opportunities and several legal and social developments in Japan which discourage the growth of yakuza membership  The yakuza still regularly engage in an array of criminal activities, and many Japanese citizens remain fearful of the threat these individuals pose to their safety. However, there remains no strict prohibition on yakuza membership in Japan today, although much legislation has been passed by the Japanese government aimed at increasing liability for criminal activities and impeding revenue

Yakuza have a complex organizational structure. There is an overall boss of the syndicate, the kumicho, and directly beneath him are the saiko komon (senior advisor) and so-honbucho (headquarters chief). The second in the chain of command is the wakagashira, who governs several gangs in a region with the help of a fuku-honbucho who is himself responsible for several gangs. The regional gangs themselves are governed by their local boss, the shateigashira. Each member’s connection is ranked by the hierarchy of sakazuki (sake sharing). Kumicho are at the top, and control various saikō-komon , senior advisors). The saikō-komon control their own turfs in different areas or cities. They have their own underlings, including other underbosses, advisors, accountants and enforcers.Those who have received sake from oyabun are part of the immediate family and ranked in terms of elder or younger brothers. However, each kobun, in turn, can offer sakazuki as oyabun to his underling to form an affiliated organisation, which might in turn form lower ranked organizations. In the Yamaguchi-gumi, which controls some 2,500 businesses and 500 Yakuza groups, there are fifth rank subsidiary organizations.

Here are the four principal syndicate of the whole Yakuza legacy.

Yamaguchi-gumi The Yamaguchi-gumi is the biggest Yakuza family, accounting for 30% of all Yakuza in Japan, with more than 8,900 members. From its headquarters in Kobe, it directs criminal activities throughout Japan. It is also involved in operations in Asia and the United States. Shinobu Tsukasa, also known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi’s current oyabun. He follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo (which has not traditionally been the territory of the Yamaguchi-gumi.) The Yamaguchi family is successful to the point where its name has become synonymous with Japanese organized crime in many parts of Asia outside Japan. Many Chinese or Korean persons who do not know the name “Yakuza” would know the name “Yamaguchi-gumi”, which is frequently portrayed in gangster films.

Symbol of Yamaguchi-gumi.


The Sumiyoshi-kai is the second largest Yakuza family, with an estimated 4,500 members. Sumiyoshi-kai is a confederation of smaller Yakuza groups. Its current head ( kai-cho) is Isao Seki. Structurally, Sumiyoshi-kai differs from its principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumi, in that it functions like a federation. The chain of command is more relaxed, and its leadership is distributed among several other members.

Symbol of Sumiyoshi-kai


symbol of Inagawa-kai

The Inagawa-kai is the third largest Yakuza family in Japan, with roughly 3,400 members. It is based in the Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first Yakuza families to expand its operations outside of Japan.



The Aizukotetsu-kai is the fourth largest Yakuza family in Japan. Rather than a stand-alone gang, the Aizukotetsu-kai is a federation of approximately 100 of Kyoto’s various Yakuza groups. Its name comes from the Aizu region, “Kotetsu”, a type of Japanese sword. Its main base is in Kyoto.

Boycott of Chinese products in india

The call to boycott ‘Made in China’ products comes at a time when the government is promoting a campaign to make the country self-reliant under the Aatmanirbhar Bharat mission.
The survey, conducted by Local Circles, received 32,000 responses from citizens spread across 235 districts.
More than 8,000 responses were received for the question “Would you boycott buying Chinese products for next year?” and an overwhelming majority of them were ready to stop buying Chinese products.
87% of the 8,000 respondents said they were ready to boycott all Chinese made goods for the next one year.

When asked if they are willing to boycott buying/using products & services of Chinese companies like Xiao, Oppo, Vivo, One Plus, Club Factory, Aliexpress, Shein, Tik Tok, WeChat etc. effective immediately, 58% of those surveyed said ‘yes, won’t buy from now’, while 39% said ‘yes, won’t buy from now but have to use what I have already purchased’.
In other words, a massive 97% (39+58) said that they will boycott buying major Chinese brands and instead focus on Indian brands.

But  India is angry after bloody clash on June 15 between Indian and Chinese troops at Galwan. Across the country, there are calls to boycott Chinese products and halt bilateral trade, with people burning Chinese appliances and goods and a Union minister even wanting a ban on restaurants selling Chinese food.


There is a very big question here – will boycotting of Chinese products really helps India imports items like transmission apparatus for radars, TV and cameras. Electrical transformers, microphones, headphones and loudspeakers also feature heavily on this list.2019 (34%) import

India imported nuclear reactors, boilers worth $13.87 billion during 2019, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade.

India imports diammonium phosphate, a crucial element in fertilizers to boost crop yield, from its neighbor. Another type of plant nutrient, urea, favored by Indian farmers, is also supplied by China. 2019(import 2%)

India depends on China for items like personal protective equipment, ventilators, N95 masks and other medical kits. With the current pandemic, these items have become even more crucial. India, however, has begun mass producing its own PPE kits and N95 masks to meet the ever growing demand of these items during the health crisis. (2019-2%) import

A lot of the components for cars being manufactured within the country also comes from China. Items like drive transmission, steering, electrical, interiors, brake systems and engine components are supplied by Chinese companies, to Indian carmakers. (2019-2%) import

Now, we can see that China’s exports to India account for only 2% of its total exports, so even if Indians boycott all the goods imported from China… 

But if really India want to be aatmnirbhar: so we have to take some measures

  • The government must lower the rates at which loans are issued to Indian companies, just like China. Recently, finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced a stimulus package to address the needs of various sectors battling for survival. Now, steps should be taken to ensure these announcements are actually implemented on the ground and aren’t reduced to hollow jumlas. In addition to this, the government must provide infrastructure, services, etc. to prepare Indian companies to compete with China.
  • The foreign direct investment (FDI) regime also needs to be further liberalised. India receives only 25% of the FDI that China gets and only 10% of what the US receives. Increase in the levels of FDI may provide the necessary nudge to our industrial sector to surge towards better productivity and efficiency.
  • It would be extremely beneficial if we diversify our import basket, by importing our necessities from a host of other countries and lessening our dependence on China. All these steps, collectively, could take us closer to self-reliance.
  • Increasing mutual investment and encouraging Indian companies to participate in the China International Import Expo will strengthen bonds between these two economic giants. We must acknowledge that China has a strategic role to play in India’s growth.

After taking all these measures: may India can achieve the mission which has been started by our prime minister of India .87%of Indian ready to boycott Chinese products and it’s a good sign to generate employment, and development of technology in India.

In the first four decades of India’s existence, it has tried — and miserably failed — making mantras like “self-reliance”, “import-substitution” and “protecting infant domestic industries” work. But now India can achieve all its self-reliance in all over the world.

Obsession with Fair Skin

Sapna Babul Ka.... Bidaai (2007-2010)

In a country like India, where more people population is brown, people are still strangely obsessed with fairer skin colours. This affinity that Indians have with white skin dates back to the time when the country was ruled by the Mughals, Portuguese, Dutch, French and finally the British. All these rulers were relatively fairer than Indians and so the fair skin came to be viewed as a trait of people who are superior in position and class. Even after the independence and to this date, the country has reincarnated the views giving the fair-skinned men and women preferential treatment in almost all aspects of life.

Only recently have we started to see not-so-fair actresses on the big screen but before that, the film industry was mostly dominated by actresses with glowing, white skin. This regime did not only impact the careers of many brown and darker skin people who aspired to be in movies but also the general public who is the audience to these movies, TV shows, and commercials. It had helped in building the perspective that people have towards skin colours. The unjust treatment starts at a very tender age of childhood when kids knowingly or unknowing fellow kids names like Kaali and Kaalu just for fun.

The victims of skin colour based bullying may or may not take it too seriously at that time but it does get into their head. In several cases, getting called out for having dark skin by both friends and relatives had lead to depression, social anxiety and underconfidence. It is not even just about getting bullied but also losing the opportunities for something that is so natural and we have had from our birth. Not only do people with fair complexion get jobs regardless of their qualifications, but they also get unjust special treatment at the workplace. The matrimonial sites and advertisements too emphasise the need for fair-skinned bride and groom. Even when the brown ones do get accepted, it is unfair when families ask for more dowry just because the prospective bride isn’t snow-white.

Indians are so obsessed with fair skin that shelves of stores are filled with cosmetics that claim to lighten your skin colour and people do believe and buy these products to change something that cannot even be changed. The colour of our skin is genetic and one can only get lighter to some extent by removing the tan. People often bleach their skin and put on make up that is supposed to be for lighter tones. There was a time when people weren’t even aware of the different colours of foundations that are supposed to go with different colours and there was only one colour of foundation in the eyes of these people – the one that makes them unrealistically fair. There are even products available that make the groin fairer.

The change in the mindset of people regarding skin colour is a very recent phenomenon but better late than never. People have started to value what’s inside more than the view. There are many NGOs that are working towards creating awareness and fighting discrimination against skin colour in various parts of the country and with the online campaigns have started to reach more people as almost everyone is joining the world of internet. Several brands have taken steps in order to resonate the values of equality by making their products and commercials unbiased to fair skin.

Online Education Vs Traditional Education: Which is Better?

The convenience factor is one of the main attractions of online vs. on-campus education. Simply put, online learning can be done at anytime from anywhere, and is an incredibly efficient option that can easily fit into the busy schedules of the students. Students may “go to class” during their commute, during their break at work, during the weekend, or after their kids go to bed-it is up to them to monitor their class time in a manner that makes sense for them.

Is Online Education Better than Traditional Education? - Kitaboo

In contrast, on-campus education is a less sustainable choice. While many programs, particularly those aimed at adult learners and working professionals, will have class times during the night to facilitate other obligations of the students, students will still have to take the class at designated times, which may interfere with business hours, parenting commitments, and other routines. Additionally, students should take into account in travel time to and from campus-this may present a severe barrier to those who lack reliable transportation, or to those who lives in rural areas without a college campus near the area.

Another advantage of choosing an online college is that when it comes to degree programs, you can have almost infinite choices. When you participate online classes, you can enrol in any school that offers the program you are interested in, regardless of whether that institution is headquartered across the country in a neighbouring state or in any part of the world. That means you can choose an university course that really fits your objectives, preferences and career trajectory. While migrating is an option, for adult learners, who have developed lives, careers, and relationships, this is often not realistic. For older students who wish to attend on-campus classes, because of geography they only have the choice of a few educational institutions and those schools may or may not offer the program they are interested in.

On-campus education is generally structured in a manner that is very recognizable to the students: classes take place in physical classrooms, teachers give lectures and lead discussions, and students have in-person conversations about course material. This is very analogous to the classroom experiences students could have had in high school, so it’s something that unconsciously attracts adult learners to. On-campus class experiences are built around face-to-face interaction and this is something that many learners thrive on – being in a classroom surrounded by your peers, being able to start conversations, form friendships, asking questions, and set up meetings in person with the teaching staff and support staff as required.

For certain students the perception of online learning may at first feel very unfamiliar and even a little awkward, especially if they are not used to conversing through written work. However, by the end of their first term, most students have absolutely adjusted to this new way of learning, and find that their conversations with professors and classmates come to feel entirely natural, and the same conversations, friendships, questions, and meetings still occur. In addition, some students find the online discussion format more stringent than a conventional teaching experience; Since they need to think more carefully about what they’re saying, and they can’t just put their hands up to answer a question.

To determine the feasibility of their various choices, students can contact the school financial assistance offices they are considering to learn more about the average help packages, their eligibility for student loans and tuition rates, and evaluate the final dollar amounts they will owe each term. They should also carry out a complete analysis of the overall attendance costs for the institutions that they consider. It is necessary to decide whether participants are likely to be paid extra, undisclosed fees for items such as access to distance learning, equipment, online libraries or resources (for an online program) or fees for student participation (for on-campus programmes). They all have to be factored into when measuring the tuition expenses, which can easily add up.

Ultimately, although both in-person and online degrees have their positive and negative aspects, both are decent alternatives, and it is up to each individual student to determine which suits their lifestyle, habits and schedule best.

Helping Dyslexic Students to Read

Dyslexia is a variation in the manner in which the brain processes language, from moderate to severe. With the right balance of school and home support, most children with dyslexia can learn how to read fluently.

Objective and systematic instruction that progresses sound-letter knowledge and understanding of how written language works is a very important way to improve children with dyslexia learn to read. At home, parents can use simple techniques to give dyslexic children the greatest available start in reading.

How to Teach a Dyslexic Child to Read

Individuals with dyslexia lose phonemic comprehension – the ability to understand the words that make up the individual sounds. In their learning environment, structured and clear training tends to resolve the issue for most children with dyslexia. Once a child has learned the idea of phonemic awareness, they start focusing on phonics skills – connecting sounds to letters to learn to read words. This is when the students start to develop a working vernacular. Eminent reader Linnea Ehri has found that the alphabetic system provides a mnemonic that helps students secure new memory vocabulary and grammar, both pronunciations and interpretations. Parents can help this development at home through a variety of activities using phonics to sound words out and develop the vocabulary for their child.

It is important to limit sessions to ensure the attention of your child is not worn out, and just focus on a couple of new words per session. Studies have shown that teaching too many words to children during a lesson reduces engagement.

Constructing CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant) Words:

Lay out in two rows a set of alphabet cards-one for consonants and one for vowels. The six letters start with: s, t, p, n, a, i. Also have set of pictures using the specified letters, which are CVC words (consonant‐vowel‐consonant). Some explanations of these are pan, tin, or tap. Tell the kid to pick an picture, and name the object. They could also identify the initial sound, and choose the corresponding letter. Then do the same with the finishing sound.

Lay the two consonant cards with a gap between them, and request kids to identify the missing middle vowel. Then question them if they should use the remaining vowel to make a word with certain consonants. If they make ‘pan,’ for example, they can also make ‘pin.’ To help cement them in memory write down their CVC words. For each discussion add another letter building their CVC word bank.

Adjective Alliteration:

Teach your child to select an entity, a location or a person. Reflect on, and recognize the first sound in the word. Now simply come up with an adjective that has the same beginning sound (describing the word). Put them together and have the boy, for example, draw a picture of a blue balloon or a muddy mountain.

Afterwards those who try to sound out the two words and write down the letters for the sounds they hear. Laud all the right letters, point out the significance of a letter that may be incorrect but that denotes the right sound, and help them to work out what letters or sounds they overlooked.

Locating Mistakes:

Select a book that you’ve read with your child. Reinterpret the text but fill in some errors. Using the wrong vowel, such as ‘cer’ rather than car. Forget to double a letter (‘cal’) or add an extra letter (‘bookk’).

Asking your child to read this text which seems familiar. Tell them that there are some spelling errors and that they should circle every word they can seek that doesn’t look right. Admire all the issues they experience, and ask if they understand what went wrong and how to fix it. If not, then jointly explore the problem.

Sushant Singh Rajput’s relatives launch Nepometer app,say it’s a tribute to SSR

After Sushant Singh Rajput’s tragic demise on 14th June 2020,the debate on nepotism in Bollywood has gained momentum. People started reiterating that Bollywood does not give chance to struggling actors who are outsiders. Whereas, the star kids get all the stardom even though they may not have talent. Kangana Ranaut was bold enough to describe how nepotism was the cause of the Star’s death. This may be true indeed, because SSR himself in an interview on the ‘Raabta’ movie release event said that nepotism is everywhere. And he was so humble to say that nepotism is fine if they also give chance and recognise the outside talents. This gives us a hint of how much he had struggled to reach where he was.

In a recent development, Sushant’s brother in-law, Vishal Kirti posted on his Twitter profile about the launch of Nepometer app. The app will measure how much nepotistic a movie is. Vishal Kirti wrote that it is a ‘not for profit voluntary effort’ and they wanted people to make ‘informed choices’. “The app is a tribute to SSR”Vishal Kirti wrote in his another post. The app has been developed by Vishal kirti’s brother Mayuresh Krishna.

“We’re still grieving. Our focus now is to take care of each other. I shared my brother’s idea of Nepometer because it enables people to make informed choices. It’s a small tribute to Sushant. It’s a not for profit voluntary effort. Please stay patient since it isn’t our 1st priority,” he wrote on Twitter.

The news was announced on Twitter with the caption, “Fight Bollywood Nepotism with Information. We will provide ratings for movies based on how nepotistic or independent movie crew is. If the #nepometer is high, then it’s time to #boycottbollywoodnepotism #fightnepotism.”

Nepometer gives Alia Bhatt starrer ‘Sadak 2 ‘ movie 98% rating

Nepometer gives rating to a movie based on the fact whether it’s actor and actress and supporting crew members Viz director,producer,writer, supporting actor are star kids or anyway related to Bollywood celebrities. The greater the number of insiders or star kids in a movie,the higher rating it will get on Nepometer app. Higher rating on Nepometer dneotes that the movie is highly nepotistic.

For eg, the movie ‘Kalank’ starring Varun Dhawan and Alia Bhatt is likely to get a high score on Nepometer while ‘Thappad’ featuring Tapsee Pannu is likely to get a lower score.

The first movie to be rated by Nepometer on Thursday is ‘Sadak 2’ which is a sequel of ‘Sadak’. Sadak 2 is starring Alia Bhatt in the lead role. The app gave the movie a 98% rating which means it is highly nepotistic.

A tweet on the Nepometer Twitter page read, “#Sadak2 is 98% Nepotistic. We rated it based on 5 categories, Producer, Lead Artists, Supporting Artists, Director & Writer. 4 out of 5 categories have Bollywood Family members. When #nepometer is high it’s time to #boycottbollywood. Will you watch this movie? Tell us in comments.”

The idea behind developing the app is that people should avoid watching movies which are featuring star kids and go for movies featuring outsiders to encourage new talents.

Meanwhile,police is investigating on Sushant Singh Rajput’s case and so far, the police have questioned at least 28 people, including his domestic staff, family, friends and co-stars.

Home Business Ideas


These home business ideas give you a few more business options that are either based at home or online.

1. Freelancer

In the world of freelance, you can work from home and be your own boss. Use your skills to earn business in your desired field:

  • Writing
  • SEO
  • Transcription
  • Design
  • Illustration
  • Coding
  • Consulting

2. Social media manager

Do you have a knack for social media? As a social media manager, you can use your skills to manage the social media accounts for companies and even individual people. Influencer marketing has become more common and many influencersrely on marketing agencies or employees to help them run their social channels.

3. Data entry clerk

Many businesses seek data entry clerks to help them enter information into their computer systems and spreadsheets. If you have fantastic computer and typing skills, this might be the business for you.

4. Pet sitter

Do you have a passion for pets? Consider becoming a pet sitter. While the pet’s owners are away on vacation, either host their pet at your home or make visits to their home. Join a pet sitting service like Rover or to get started.

5. Vacation host

Have you ever used a home sharing service instead of a hotel? You could make a living by hosting visitors in your own home or renting out a room. Consider becoming a host with companies like Airbnb, Vrbo, or Homestay.

How to Start a Small Business at Home

  1. Identify your small business idea.
  2. Start as a side business or hobby.
  3. Create a business plan.
  4. Decide whether you’ll be an LLC or sole proprietorship.
  5. Create a business bank account.
  6. Decide on your software.
  7. Determine if your business idea works well from home.
  8. Set up an office.
  9. Get to work!

1. Identify your small business idea.

Whether you choose an option from the list above or have another idea up your sleeve, it’s important to have the experience, training, or skills necessary to be successful. Want to run a daycare but have never even visited a successful daycare center? Spend time conducting research to learn whether this is really the right fit for your experience and interests.

2. Start as a side business or hobby.

Can you get your business off the ground as an evenings or weekends side job? This allows you to make some mistakes, test the market, and understand whether your idea has legs before you quit your nine-to-five job and lose your primary income.

3. Create a business plan.

Once you know your idea has the potential to succeed, it’s time to build a business plan. Not sure where to start? Try this business plan template.

Your business plan should include the following elements:

  • Executive summary — A high-level overview of your company and market placement.
  • Business model — Outline what your business does, who your business serves, and how your business is structured. You should include a description of what products and services you offer, and how they meet the needs of your customers.
  • Market condition — A summary of pertinent competitor information. Determine the strengths and weaknesses of your closest competitors.
  • Products and services — Use this section to describe your products and services in detail, and outline what differentiates your product from others in the market.
  • Operations and management — Outline your business’ organization structure, key roles, and responsibilities.
  • Marketing and sales strategy — This section should describe how you will market and sell your product. Include information on your ideal customer, how you plan to position your offering, and your sales strategy.
  • Financial plan — Create a detailed outline of your business financials. Include your start-up costs, your initial financial productions, and how you anticipate generating funding.
  • Appendix — Once the above pieces are complete, end the document with an appendix summarizing your business plan.

Business plans should identify what makes your offering different from competitors. They should also be short and actionable. And your business plan should evolve with your business.

4. Decide whether you’ll be an LLC or sole proprietorship.

Two common legal structures for small businesses are limited liability corporations (LLCs) and sole proprietorships.

An LLC is a more complex business structure than a sole proprietorship, and can include individuals, corporations, and other LLCs as members. Additionally, LLCs are not subject to a separate level of tax and offer the business owner liability protection and tax advantages. LLCs are formed on a state-by-state basis.

Sole proprietorships are businesses owned and operated by one person, and are not identified as a separate entity from the owner by the government. While a sole proprietorship is the simplest business structure, sole proprietors are personally liable for their business.

Learn more about choosing the right structure for your business from the Small Business Administration.

5. Create a business bank account.

Once you have a legally formed business and have been issued an Employer Identification Number (EIN), open a bank account specifically for your business. Having a business bank account is essential for keeping your personal and business finances separate which can help you gain an accurate picture of your business’ cash flow and financial health. Additionally, keeping your personal and business finances separate makes bookkeeping and tax preparation easier.

Many banks offer business checking and savings accounts. Business checking accounts typically do not have a limit on the number of transactions that can take place, and issue a debit card that can be used for making business purchases. However, these checking accounts do not accrue interests.

Business savings accounts typically earn interest over time, but have a limited number of transactions that can occur each month. When you’re just starting out, look for a business bank account that does not have a minimum balance requirement so you are not penalized for having low funds as you work to build your business.

6. Decide on your software.

You’ve got a lot of things on your plate when first starting up. But one step that’s critical (and often forgotten by first-time entrepreneurs) is deciding on the software that can help you be more efficient as your business grows.

Every business is different — but almost all companies can use software to help with analytics, project management, accounting, bookkeeping, email marketing, and other basic day-to-day tasks.

One of the most important software tools every business should utilize is a free CRM to keep track of important customer information in one central database. It will help align your team and make sure you stay organized as your business grows.

7. Determine if your business idea works well from home.

Ask yourself whether your business idea will work well from home. Some businesses simply aren’t suited to being based from home. If you want to run a dog boarding center but live in an apartment without a backyard, you might want to consider a dog walking business instead.

8. Set up an office.

If your business idea is well-suited for being run from home, it’s still important you have a designated work space. While a home office might not be possible, consider setting aside a corner in your living room or putting a desk in your bedroom for a space that inspires you and creates the conditions for success.

Need a more professional space? If you conduct client-facing work requiring you to be on video calls, no one wants to see your rumpled sheets in the background. Check out local coworking spaces for memberships that earn you access to conference rooms, desk space, and more.

9. Get to work!

You’ve put in the hard work and I’ve got good news … it’s only going to get harder. But most entrepreneurs will agree the payoff of being your own boss, making your own hours, and working on projects you’re passionate about will pay dividends for the rest of your life.

Selecting a small business idea is a personal decision. But it can be helpful to bounce ideas off your friends and family. Don’t be afraid to ask for help throughout this process — and remember to have a little fun while you’re putting in the work.

Ready to begin building your small business today? Check out our complete guide for how to start a business. Or brush up on your reading with this high-impact list of books about starting a business you can’t afford not to read.

The boat of “Hallyu”

The extensive Korean culture counting films, dramas, and Music present universally portrays the influence of it. This large wave is introduced as Hallyu. Adding to the economic value, this wave also has a weighty impression on the Korean GDP. As the Korean culture has fired up and breaks through the Western, Asian, and African boundaries, it was followed by a whim of craze, which was never experienced and existed. The term Hallyu was originated in the year 1990. Since then many researchers have also teamed up to find the reason lying underneath this intense obsession flooded globally. After observing you will also discover, the mass media (television and internet) befitting the only tool in making this culture omnipresent. There is an outbreak of obsession with Korean fashion, food, language, song, and etc.

Those glitzy videos and puzzling libretti have also appealed millions of Indians.

I start my day listening to the BTS song “Boy in Luv’’, surfing internet in search of interesting stories about them, and updating my fan page with new photos on Instagram. In fact, my closed ones are also aware of my playlist is filled with all the BTS songs.

“I am not the only one, who is obsessed”. Like me, you could find many Indians following the Koreans.

Recently ended Korean drama “The king-eternal Monarch” of Lee Min Ho gained the huge Indian followers on social sites and went viral. The “Boat of Hallyu” is nowadays mooring in India. This new cultural revolution of the present era in no doubt is acquiring berth everywhere. Think about any BTS videos or tweets getting viral in an hour, it displays the acceptance. Regardless of being concise and a different tongue, each drama is efficacious in forming an emotive relationship with the viewers through subtitles. Fans progressively get hooked that they started craving for everyday Korean dose.

Well, everyone has their own reason but simply put K-dramas or music are worth watching for. What do you think?

Importance of Mental Health during Pandemic Times

Mental Health is a topic much discussed in the current times owing to its increasing importance in the world. Since it was not considered as important as our physical health, mental health disorders, illnesses and issues had been ignored and pushed under the rug for many years. However, with depression and suicide becoming the greatest threat to human life in this modern world, addressing mental health with understanding and seeking solutions are extremely important. Emotional and mental well-being is necessary for an individual to function as he ought in society, complete his tasks and maintain his space in the world.

Modernity has brought with it a number of problems all of which have contributed in their own way to a crisis of mental health. Long hours at the office, increased stress levels, financial crisis, managing work life and home life are all significant factors that affect our mental health. Among students, demanding coursework, fear of the future, a crashing job market, worry about not performing well and peer pressure can all lead to a situation where one is not able to think and behave as one ought.

Right now, the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a spike in the number of mental health issues coming up. There is fear of the virus, worry about what happens next, and many don’t see how they can survive. 1 in 5 college students say that they are experiencing heightened mental health issues during this pandemic. This will become a pandemic by itself and the countries of the world are already realizing this.

A major issue that we in India is what the World Health Organization considers the mental health gap. It refers to the gap between number of those with the need and the number of providers available. There are not enough responders who can adequately deal with the issues and the number of people who are in need of help.

Another major issue with addressing mental health concerns in India is the stigma associated with it. Many are told to ‘just get over it’ or asked to ‘forget about it’. The honour-shame culture in India lends itself to this.  It is considered shameful to approach someone for help or to say that I am struggling mentally. It is not a choice to go into depression. There is rejection and discrimination against people who suffer from severe anxiety or other issues and they are not given the care they need. We need to understand that mental health is as important as physical health and that it needs to be dealt with as seriously.

If you or anyone you know seem to be struggling mentally, never hesitate to reach out for help. It is important that we ourselves do not try to treat anyone or counsel them if we are not qualified. Never wait for your mental health to deteriorate immensely before you start seeking help. Self medication and deluding oneself into thinking that they can conquer this on their own should also not be encouraged. If we see someone struggling with mental health, learn how to move towards them and assure them they are not alone. Don’t moralize them but listen to them and walk with them in their journey. You can do much by taking people seriously when they talk to you about their struggles and by being there for them.



Yummy Pasta….

One of my all time favorite delicious food is Macroni this might be with you all too….. it is often called as Pasta. Every Year on July 7th people celebrate as “Macroni Day”.Macroni is one of the type in Pasta. Macroni was introduced in Italy in 13th century but efficient manufacturing equipment and highly quality produce came only during 20th century and it was the nation this of Italian and it was prepared by hand before industrialization in small shops.25 years ago the only way that the average American enjoys perfect plate was probably to take a tribe to Italy.

One of the most accessible food every country has its own unique version it is made from grain flour commonly wheat. Pasta is of two types of categories one is dried and other is fresh pasta Both of them come in number of shapes and varieties with 310 specific forms known by over 1300 documented names. Its Nutritional value per 100gms is Energy 160 kcal,Carbohydrates 30.9g, Fat 0.9g, Protein 5.8g, Calcium 7mg, Iron 0.5mg .Macroni is one of the famous variety in dry Pasta and it does not contain egg.It is associated with Italian Cuisine and made from semolina and it is formed into various shapes like cords,tubes,ribbons etc. It is something everyone eats and loves so today make your own Macaroni on this Macroni Day to you loved onces and enjoy the day.

What makes life beautiful?

The most beautiful thing about our life is that it works in a mysterious way. Sometimes, dwelling upon the past, clinging to things we desire most, chasing our passion, overthinking our problems don’t help us much and we find ourselves stuck at the same place even after years with slight or no change in our lives.

May be sometimes it’s essential to be truthful to ourselves and keep doing what we are meant to do every single day because it would just take one second for every thing to change. A single decision of someone, one random event, thought or proposal and our life will change it’s entire course. Read that again because the message is more powerful than we think.

For years, I have been imagining myself on a magical stage, with an overhead spotlight, glistening every cell of my outer body. My eyes are sparkling, heart sinking in fear and yet I am holding myself all together in front of the huge crowd whose faces are barely vivid. I see myself taking small walk on stage, gesturing my hands, occasionally stopping to make a point and smiling at my audience. I have witnessed myself doing this in the closed room with no particular intention in my mind. I have practiced telling stories, rehearsed in front of the mirror, recorded my audio, listened how my voice sounded while I spoke and all that I have imagined is about to happen.

The power to imagine things and events happening for real in front of our eyes, mind and in our dreams is beyond comprehensible. Everything that I have achieved and enjoyed in my short life is the manifestation of the image I created in my mind. I always imagined being surrounded by quality people, eating healthy food, earning just sufficient money, being loved, writing and inspiring others through my actions and that’s exactly how my life has unfolded. I have never asked for any of this exclusively. I have only imagined myself in a situation which I prefer and where I find myself physically and emotionally comfortable.

Visualisation is one step ahead of positive thinking. The research has proved that our subconscious mind doesn’t know the difference between what we want and what we don’t, what is right and what is wrong. All it does is, bring to life the thoughts and characters we create inside our mind.

We can easily see that when, instead of letting the hungry husband dive into the sumptuous dinner before us, for example, he’ll still have to wait because we are going to take pictures first (for IG perhaps!) before the nice arrangement is messed up. Instead of sitting quietly down to dinner, thank the Lord for the good food and ask Him to bless it, then share it with the ones we love gathered around, our thoughts and actions are centered on sharing it first to the world. We make these little decisions for the sake of the world and not for us.

Now, if we fail to show our moments to the world before they come to pass, we feel like there’s something lacking in our lives. But, this shouldn’t be the case. Our lives should be lived to satisfy us and not the world through its “likes and comments”.

Is life beautiful because a photo shared is scooping up “likes” by the hundreds or even thousands? Is that the gauge?

I’m learning, dear readers, I’m learning!

What makes life beautiful? Is it what people see on the outside? Or is it essentially the life on the inside, the one that cannot be seen? The one that is sturdily connected to its Creator and Sustainer and Savior? The one that is whole and full and complete enough in its God it doesn’t need glorying in “likes”? The one that doesn’t need to show off because it is happy and contented in itself?

I am learning hard, yes, on how to live this one life in contentment in God and not in the world. Sometimes, we think that striving to make our lives beautiful for others to admire and emulate is the way to happiness, but I believe that we need to create first a place in our inmost being that is authentically contented, happy, and grateful before it can even be called beautiful. Our lives should deeply satisfy us first before it can attempt to satisfy others. They should be loved, cherished, and made happy first before they can even be useful to others.

I used to think that adorning and surrounding my life with beautiful things – scented candles, pretty English teacups, flowers arranged in a crystal vase, lovely and comfortable bedroom with walls and covers in perfect harmony (you get the picture) – will somehow cover the want in other areas, such as the lack of health and the absence of travel because of it. These things could temporarily bring comfort and joy and even peace, but in no way can they reach that place in the heart and soul where true and enduring happiness and contentment reside, if in the very first place they aren’t there. The true state of the heart, mind, and soul will determine whether the life that they support is beautiful or wanting.

Marketing Keywords

Hey Readers! Hope you are doing well. Here are some terms related to the field of “Marketing” that are not much popular but everyone should be aware of them. Let’s try to know about them in a simplified manner.


  • Bottom of the funnel

The funnel approach determines the customer journey with the company. It begins from awareness when customers start knowing about the product or service and then move to other stages and finally making a purchase. At the bottom stage, the leads are finally ready to try the product/service.

How the Marketing Funnel Works From Top to Bottom

  • Business-to-Business (B2B)

B2B is a transaction between businesses where both parties are involved in some agreement for benefiting each other and fuel the business growth of their company with the deal.

  • Business-to-Customer (B2C)

B2C, as the name suggest, involves transaction and communications that take place between a company and an individual (customer).

  • Churn Rate

Sometimes, individuals leave the usage of product or service in the middle and churn rate measures the number of such individuals who stop subscribing to a service or a product in a specific time duration.

  • Cold Calling

This term is quite common and used a lot when it comes to sales department. The main objective if any business is that their product or service should reach out to the masses and for that the concept of cold calling comes into picture. It means reaching out to potential customers who have never been contacted before and telling them about the product or service.

Cold Calling Techniques: Are you doing these 10 things to improve ...

  • Comparative Advertising

Some days before, I wrote a blog on “reverse comparative marketing”. Comparative Advertising is one of the advertising method where companies make direct comparison with their competitors.

  • Corporate Identity

Just like your identity is defined by various parameters, a company has its own logo, vision, mission, symbols etc. that form the “corporate identity”.

  • Dark

Well, now that “Dark” has taken the internet by storm and people are loving the series, “dark” in case of marketing refers to the person who is not more responding to notifications and has left probably due to his/her own reasons.

  • Demographics

This term is also used in various circumstances to get the basic information about the person such as their age, gender, occupation, income, family class etc. In the field of marketing, demographics help in segmenting people into various groups that can be used for strategizing and implementing innovative campaigns.

  • Discovery Call

This refers to the first call that the person makes to any prospect in order to get information about the person, “to discover about them”.

  • Engagement

After people have joined the service, it is very important to design campaigns to maintain their interest and keep them “engaged”. Social media is a boon and helps in customer engagement with various activities such as comments, asking questions, creating a poll, live streaming about something, resharing the content, viral marketing and real time advertisements etc.

What is digital engagement? | The Digital Engagement Guide

  • Forecasting

It refers to the process of predicting the future with past data and other analyses and help in getting more insights of marketing and sales trends.


I am now making a prediction that you will have gone through these keywords and must have learnt something new. Don’t go in the “dark” as there will be more articles coming with more such interesting keywords.


Till then, keep reading, liking and sharing.









Types of Toxic Relationships

Everyone has difference in opinions which leads to disagreement and argument with partner, family member and over close to them. At times, we all do things that cause unhappiness to people who care for us. Our actions and words might hurt our loved ones, and we do regret it. However if it becomes a constant and consistent phenomenon, then chances are you are in an toxic relationship.

It is difficult to get out of an toxic relationships. In most of the cases the one suffering might start thinking it is their fault and they deserve it, but the fact is no more deserves to be hurt every single time. Do not blame yourself for someone else’s behaviour.
Here are the types of toxic relationships, and none of it is worth being in.

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is intentional and unwanted contact to you or something close to your body. It might not always leave a bruise, but it is still unhealthy. It includes :
• Scratching, punching, pushing, pulling, biting, or kicking
• Throwing objects at you, like phone, book, plates
• Using weapons like gun, knife
• Forcing you for sexual acts
• Grabbing your face, clothes or you violently
• Pulling your hair

Emotional or Verbal Abuse

Emotional abuse are non physical behaviour, such as threats, humiliation, insults, constant monitoring, excessive texting, stalking. It includes:
• Calling you names and putting you down
• Yelling or screaming at you
• Intentionally embarrassing you when in public
• Not letting you speak to family and friends
• Dictating you what to do and wear
• Accusing you of cheating or flirting
• Stalking you and threating you to spill out your secrets
• Threating you of self harm or harming you or things related to you
• Using gaslighting techniques to manipulate you

Sexual Abuse

Sexual abuse is forcing someone to do something sexual that they do not want to and consent to. It is important to understand that “not saying no” is not a “yes”. Unless there is a loud and clear yes, it is a no. In such circumstances, physically resisting can cause even more violence. It is a myth that if the individual did not physically resist, it is not a abuse. In reality it is not the case, the person might be intoxicated or felt pressurised. Sexual abuse includes:
• Unwanted kissing or touching
• Unwanted rough and violent sexual activity
• Rape or attempt to rape
• Using sexual insults
• Not letting someone to use contraception
• Sexual contact when the person is drunk, unconscious or intoxicated
• Pressuring someone to perform sexual activities
• Marital rape

Financial Abuse

Financial abuse can be quite subtle. It might include resisting you to buying something or require you to share your bank account details. It may not look like a big of a problem in first place, but no one you are dating has the right to tell you how to spend your own money and restrict you from getting things you desire. Financial abuse includes:
• Looking closely what you buy and how much you spend
• Not letting you to see the joint bank account records
• Forbidding you to work or limiting work hour
• Harassing you, your co-worker or employer so as to get you fired
• Refusing to give you money for food, clothing, rent and medication
• Maxing your credit card for their need
• Using your financial aid for their own benefit
• Using their money to hold power over you
• Giving you gifts and paying your gift and expecting you to return the favour somehow

Digital Abuse

Digital abuse means using digital platforms such as texting or social networks to bully, harass, stalk or intimidate your partner. It is becoming extremely common in recent times. Digital abuse includes:
• Pressurises you to send sexually explicit video or sexts.
• Send you unwanted sexually explicit content and demands you to send the same in return
• Makes decisions with whom you can or cannot be friends on social networking sites
• Steals or forces you to give your passwords
• Using technology, such as GPS to monitor you
• Looks through your phone frequently
• Messaging you constantly and lashing out on you when you reply late
• Sending you negative messages or threats on social networking sites


Stalking means you are constantly watched, followed or harassed to the point you feel afraid and unsafe. A stalker can be some you know like an ex partner or any stranger. Stalking includes:
• Showing up at your house or work place unannounced or uninvited
• Sending you unwanted gifts, messages and letters
• Using social media sites to track on you
• Constantly calling you
• Spreading rumours about you
• Use other people as resource to investigate about you
• Damage your property, such as your car, or other property

Experiencing even one or two of these warnings are a major red flag and probably you are trapped in the viscous cycle of toxicity in the relationship. Each type of abuse is serious and no one deserves abuse in any form.

If you are the sufferer of a toxic relationship it is important to call off the relationship, no matter what, it is not worth you. No relationship that drenches your happiness and mental peace is a major red flag. If you are the toxic one, still end the relationship. By hurting someone else you will end up hurting yourself too. In addition do seek medical help to deal with your internal psychological issues.