Things I Wish Someone Told Me Before Graduating School

It’s again the time to apply for colleges while you’re just out of school. This stage in life always involves uncertainty and stress, and in addition COVID-19 has made it even more challenging for students. Here are some things I wish I knew before I got out of school-

It’s okay to not have everything figured out just yet

I’m sure you have heard all types of questions about your future- ranging from which college would you like to get into to what do you want to major in, from what type of career do you want after college to what’s your plan-B. If you know the answer to such questions then, congratulations you’re the lucky one. But It’s okay if you don’t know the answers to these right now. Most people don’t have their entire life figured out at age of 17/18. You’ll get there eventually. Try exploring one question at a time instead of stressing about all of these at once. Small steps, remember?

Don’t be afraid to get out of your comfort zone

This is probably one of the biggest things I had to learn after getting out of school. It’s so important that you learn to step out of your comfort zone while you’re in school. School offers you a very sheltered environment, but college doesn’t. You’ll have to make ways to achieve things you want and even go and extra mile for them. Inculcating this habit will benefit you in the long run. You surely don’t want to miss out on opportunities in college simply because you were afraid to take a risk.

You and your friends might grow apart

I was fortunate enough to experience my school friendships grow even stronger after leaving school. But this wan’t the case with most of the friend groups in my school batch. It is something that happens when you all jet off to different cities, when you meet new people who you connect with better or when you see that people who you were close to in school aren’t making as much effort to communicate as you are, which happens a lot. It’s highly unlikely for your entire friend group to end up in the same university or college after graduation or for them to make the same efforts they were making when you all were meeting each day. Either way, don’t be discouraged if you realise you’re not as close as you were in school.

ask for help

Don’t be afraid to ask for help. Whether it’s your pride or your fear holding you back, try and get over it. You don’t have to force yourself to struggle when you can ask the ones you trust for help. Whether it’s related to academics or your personal struggle adjusting to a new environment, reach out for help. Looking back you will wish you had asked for help when you had the chance to. This will make your life a lot more easier.

PRIORITIzE your health, physical and mental

Learn to prioritize your health and pay attention to what your body needs from you. Pulling all nighters day after day after day will destroy you and your focus. And No, you can’t survive the whole day at college on a diet of lays and coke forever. Don’t skip your meals. Your health is very important.

You don’t have to be the same person you were in high school

College is the perfect time to reinvent yourself. It’s the perfect time to unlearn concepts and opinions that you no longer agree with. It’s the perfect time to to better yourself educating yourself with issues that are revenant around you. University offers you an environment suitable to reinvent yourself, it offers you the space to give educated opinions and to find like minded people who you willingly want to interact with online school where you had to interact with your classmates only. If you were the brainiac that always had a secret passion for art, then join your college’s art club. If in school you were into sports but always appreciated and enjoyed debating, then join the debate club while participate in the sports activities of your choice. You don’t have to stay the same and that’s the beauty of it.

Book review : Anxiety & Depression Workbook FOR DUMmIES

Title of the Book : Anxiety & Depression Workbook FOR DUMmIES

Authors : Charles H.Elliott, Ph.D. and Laura L.Smith, PhD
This book is uniquely comprehensive and thoroughly covers the scientifically validated treatments for depression, including behavior therapy, medications, interpersonal therapy, and cognitive therapy. The authors have also included promising ideas based on mindfulness and positive psychology. Research-based strategies and plenty of practice opportunities are given to help you defeat depression and overcome anxiety.
You’ll be well paid if you spend some good amount of time doing the “work” part of the workbook in the form of increased life satisfaction and reduced emotional distress. And the work is actually rather interesting because you discover new ways to live your life and get what you want.

Summary of the Book
Part I: Analyzing Angst and Preparing a Plan This part is all about helping you identify your problem(with anxiety or depression) and take the first small steps toward recovery. The quizzes (The negative thinking Quiz, The Distraught Behavior Quiz, Personal Style Questionnaire (Thinkers, Doers, Feelers, Relaters), etc)
help you see what they do to your thoughts, behaviors, feelings, and relationships.
Thinkers require Thought Therapy, Doers need Behavior Therapy, Feelers require Physical Feelings and Relater need Relationship Therapy.
The Emotional origins ( from blood relations) , Physical contributors (genetics, drugs, illness) , The stressors in my world are sorted out. Change sometimes makes people feel overwhelming. The Fear of Change Quiz, The Unfair, Unjust Belief Quiz, Change-blocking belief, etc addresses self-sabotage and helps you keep moving forward by becoming more aware of your thoughts. Self-sabotage describes the things you do to keep from addressing and correcting your problems. Some people self-sabotage by telling themselves that change is impossible. Others defeat themselves by finding reasons to put off working on their issues.
Part II: Thinking About Thinking: Thought Therapy helps you become a thought detective to examine your thoughts for distortions. It then tells to prosecute those distorted thoughts, find out all possible causes & the Percentage of your Responsibility.
Life-lenses are the broad themes or assumptions you live by. These themes directly influence the kinds of thoughts you have and, in turn, how you feel about what happens to you.
Certain core beliefs darken and distort your view of yourself, your world, and your future. Tools are included for regrinding your life-lenses so you see things more clearly. Finally, you have the opportunity to practice mindfulness and acceptance — more techniques for handling troubling thoughts and preparing the Action strategy. Thank You Mind Exercise, Embracing Present Moments, Eating Mindfully, etc are some of them.
Part III: Actions Against Angst: Behavior Therapy – how you take direct action against the natural tendency to avoid what makes you depressed or anxious. It helps you to face those feelings by avoiding avoidance. When you’re depressed or anxious, few activities sound like fun, for reintroducing pleasure into your life. Finally, helps you tackle life problems that grow out of your emotional distress.
Essentially, obsessions are unwanted images, impulses, or thoughts that flood the mind. These thoughts may take the form of excessive worry about contamination by germs, chemicals, radiation, etc. Other obsessions include concerns about whether doors were left unlocked or appliances were turned off.
Part IV: Phocus on Physical Pheelings Addressing the physical side of distress is as important as addressing the mental or emotional side. Excessive stress associated with anxiety and depression produces hormones that ravage the body by increasing blood pressure and contributing to stomach problems, weight gain, and heart disease. Therefore, relaxation techniques play an important role in alleviating anxiety and depression. You find a variety of exercises for reducing tension and stress. Because the medication is an additional option for many people who are depressed or anxious, guides you through the decision of whether or not medications are the right choice for you. Compulsions are undesired actions that people find themselves doing over and over in order to temporarily reduce anxiety. Common compulsions include excessive hand washing, overcleaning, arranging objects in a particularly rigid manner, checking and rechecking things (such as locks), etc.
Part V: Relationship Therapy Depression and anxiety can spill over and contaminate your relationships like sewage dumped into a river. Good relationships offer support in dealing with emotional distress. This therapy finds out if your relationships are suffering and guide you in improving the quality of your relationships. It lifts the Mood through Exercise and tells you to fight de-motivating thoughts. It facilitates identifying Pleasurable Activities, Poisonous Pleasures, Pleasure Busters, etc.
Relationship therapy – It enables you to reveal the Emotion-Relationship Connection, by enhancing it through delightful doings and to deal with relationship loss. It helps to smoothen Out Conflict by Overriding Defensiveness, Softening the blow through buffered and unbuffered concerns.

Part VI: Looking Beyond Anxiety and Depression – Unfortunately, like the flu, you can catch depression or anxiety more than once. It helps you develop positive habits that lead to a more joyful, meaningful, and connected life.
When people are emotionally distressed, many situations seem overwhelmingly difficult. They make even small problems appear insurmountable because emotional pain interferes with clear thinking.
We have a way of breaking problems down and figuring out what to do with them. We call the plan S.O.C.C.E.R. so that it’s easy to remember. Here’s what S.O.C.C.E.R. stands for:
S: Situation, meaning the nature and causes of the problem as well as your beliefs and feelings about the issue.
O: All possible options for addressing the problem.
C: The consequences or results most likely to occur with each option.
C: Choosing which option to go with.
E: The emotional plan for dealing with distress associated with the solution you choose.
R: Running and reviewing your plan. Afterward, sit back and evaluate how well it worked; you may be pleased with the outcome, or you may want to revise your plan.
Part VII: The Part of Tens recommends resources for getting help in dealing with your depression and anxiety.
Relaxing the Heart and Soul by Breathing Tension Away. You may not realize it, but the way you breathe can either increase or decrease your tension. It can mellow your Muscles. Sleep-Sabotaging Thoughts & Sleep-Inducing Thoughts are listed out. Medication Indication is given.
Promoting Positives – Focusing on Gratitude by maintaining a My Gratitude Diary . It improves your mood to Making the World a Bit Nicer – letting go & forgive.
The way to use this book :
This book is meant to be written in. Writing enhances skills and commits the readers to take action. It is strongly encouraged that the readers do the work required for improving their moods and recovery by writing out their answers in the forms and worksheets.
Conclusion :
Spending Time with Self-Help Books, Browsing Helpful Web Sites, Sharing with Psychiatrists, Leaning on Family and Friends, Mellow with Music – Sound influences the mind and body. Pacify with Pets, Distract Your Distress When you’re upset is usually the only best thing to do.

To read the full content of the book , please use the below website links.

‘God’s Own Country’

Kerala was historically known as Keralam and it is located in Southern part of India on the Malabar Coast. Kerala has been a major source of exporter in spice since the very beginning. This beautiful state has the lowest population growth in India. The culture here is very deeply seated and rich and also shows off Aryan and Dravidian cultures.  The coastline here extends up to around 600 Kilometres. Kerala is apparently one of those tourist destinations which everyone wants to visit at least once in their lifetime with the rich natural diversity, food and breath taking backwaters. Here are the five reasons why Kerala is known as God’s own country:

Religion and cultural values:


As per the Hindu Mythology, Lord Parsurama who was an avatar of Vishnu once threw his axe from Kanyakumari towards the north and as a result a land arose from the ocean which is now known as Kerala. This story exactly makes Kerala “God’s own country”. On top of that, till date Kerala has kept its religious values undefiled. People from varied religions and cultures reside here. One must visit the august religious places like Sabrimala, Kottayam, St.Francis church to appreciate the religious values of this land created by God.

Gift of nature:


Kerala is gifted with the some of the incomparable flora and fauna. It is a land with diverse landscapes. The serene beaches especially the Kovalam beach, dense forests of Nilambur and Periyar, picturesque Athirappilly Waterfalls, the royal backwaters of Allepey and the beautiful tea plantation of Munnar make this place gods too must love to reside. Moreover, there are varied species of lovely animals living here. With this present of Flora and Fauna, Kerala is certainly “God’s own country”.

Scrumptious food:


How can we forget the mouth-watering “South Indian Food?” Kerala is known for the Sadya. It is a customary feast with rice, sambar, Thoran, Olan and assortment of pickles and coconut chutneys. Not to forget the delicious Appam, Iddiappam that is served as breakfast throughout the state. It’s like a haven for any foodie. With so much to serve on one banana leaf, Kerala is certainly known as “God’s own country”.

Richness of the land:


The soil of Kerala is highly fertile and rich in minerals. There are various non-native species of plants that grow in the soil of Kerala. The chief vegetation that grows here is Paddy, Coconut, Rubber, Banana, Tea, Coffee and many more. The land here is extremely fertile that spices like Pepper, Cardamom, Clove, Ginger grow here.

Thrill of adventure:


Kerala is also renowned for some sports events. One of the most famed sports in Kerala is the Snake boat race. It is held in August or September every single year. It is so thrilling to see hundred rovers row a hundred and thirty feet long snake boat in synchronization.

God has painted this land with all sorts of colors and with all the diligent time and efforts. It is truly “God’s Own Country”.

How to become a successful Entrepreneur?

Whether you’re starting as a pro or an amateur, who doesn’t want to be a successful entrepreneur? Owning your own business gives you a sense of freedom. You become more creative, release your ideas, visions, and make decisions yourself.

So to be strong at this game, here are some tips you may need:

  • Challenge Yourself: Every day is a new beginning. Your biggest motivation should be to keep challenging yourself. No one else is going to push, it is you who has to take the charge. Learn every day. Read books, blogs, and articles on entrepreneurs. Doing this will not only increase your knowledge but also expand your creativity.


  • Take Risks: Successful entrepreneurs always take risks. Without this one can never figure out what is good for their business and what is not. It is dangerous but sometimes it presents opportunities that often outweigh the potential danger.


  • Know your goals: Rome was not built in a day! Who hasn’t heard this famous quote? Just like that, a startup also cannot be successful in a few days. One needs to be patient in their way up. You should have a proper goal plan. Work on all your plans, make mistakes, and explore.


  • Be passionate: Nothing in this world fuels you better than your passion does. When you’re passionate about what you do, long hours won’t even matter. But if you are not, you won’t have any motivation when you are sleepy or tired. Ever noticed entrepreneurs who get that gleam in their eyes when they talk about what they do?


  • Support System: Let’s be honest, achieving things on your own, will only double the trouble in your journey. One needs a supportive network to lean on. Hire someone you have great character and whom you respect too.


  • Put everything on Calendar: Yes, you heard that right! Put everything on the calendar. From every important meeting to working hours, meeting friends, workouts, games, etc. The reason being this will always keep you on your toes and you will have no time to waste. ‘ Time is money’ – Every famous entrepreneur abides by this rule. Follow it and no one can stop you from being successful.


What’s your favourite success tip for entrepreneurs? Share it in the comment section.


Pink City

The very first planned city of India, Jaipur has a rich history of a clan of rulers who lived in magnificent forts and palaces. But, that’s not only what the capital of Rajasthan is famous for. The entire city of Jaipur is painted in the colour pink and there’s a really engrossing story behind this. Here’s all you need to know about the ‘Pink Paint Culture’ of one of the most convivial cities on the planet. The cause behind the terracotta-pink colour of the city was the influence of a king named Sawai Ram Singh. In 1876, Queen Victoria’s son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales visited India and, since pink was considered the colour of conviviality at the time, Maharaja Ram Singh had the entire city painted pink to welcome the royal guests. Lord Albert was said to have portrayed Jaipur as the ‘pink city’, hence creating the name Jaipur is known by today. The Maharaja made sure that Lord Albert visited Jaipur by constructing a lavish concert hall and naming it The Albert Hall, in his honor. The concert hall still dignifies the grounds of Ram Niwas Public gardens in Jaipur today. At the time of his rule, the Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh was one of the richest and most powerful men in the nation. His true power was displayed by the law passed by him to maintain the pink colour for any future buildings in the city. The law was passed in 1877 because legend has it that the Queen of Jaipur was very much into the color terracotta pink . As the law stayed in effect, the buildings of Jaipur is still painted in the pink colour today. For all I know the decision hasn’t been challenged as the residents of the city understand the heritage value of the law. Aside from a few buildings, the entire city is painted in the colour of hospitality, and welcomes visitors and guests with open arms.

Jaipur, the pink and splendid city of India , is home to royal palaces and historical forts, rich in tradition, famous for its Rajasthani food and host to one of the biggest literary festivals in the country. A few places that one should definitely visit during there trip to Jaipur are:

Jaipur City Palace

Present in the heart of the old city of Jaipur, the city palace proves the style and elegance of the Rajput royalties. To blend in the glorious city, the first place to stop by is this capital palace which is a sprawling complex with arresting buildings and collection of marvelous artifacts. Built by the Rajput king Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, a portion of the structure has now been converted into a museum, and it also houses two huge sterling silver vessels that can store 4,000 liters of liquid, recorded as the largest in the Guinness Book of World Records. The Royal Family still inhabits the palace.

Hawa Mahal

Just 700 meters from the palace is the ‘Palace of the Winds,’ Hawa Mahal. The five-story building is in the shape of a semi-octagonal structure, with 953 small windows (jharokhas), akin to the honeycomb of a beehive. It is considered that the structure was made for the royal ladies to observe the everyday bustling life in the streets without being seen under the obligation to ‘purdah’ (face cover).

Amber Fort

This fort is located on the outskirts of Jaipur. The lake in the front provides an exquisite reflection of the fort, which has four parts, including a temple, the meeting halls and the famous Sheesh Mahal. It is the same mahal where the song ‘Jab pyaar kiya to darna kya’ of Mughal-e-azam was shot. The mahal is magnificent with infinite mirrors used over the walls.

1135 AD

After appreciating the empire which was once home to the Royals, visit 1135 AD restaurant when you’re set to have some lunch. Hardly a kilometre away, the restaurant blesses visitors with an imperial elegant ambiance. Served in silver cutlery, one can enjoy the taste of Mughali, Rajasthani and North Indian cuisine and have the perfect royal experience.

Street Shopping

Rajasthan is famous for its traditional jootis, eye-catching ghagras and the pretty jholas with small mirrors stitched to it. Therefore to get the best of these, do shop in places like Johari Bazaar (Jewelry Market), Nehru Bazaar, and Bapu Bazaar. Johari Bazaar is famous for its fabulous collection of jewelry, with gems and other semi-precious stones. The colorful textiles and jootis (sandals) can be bought in this area too. While you’re shopping in Bapu Bazaar, you will also have the chance to notice the ‘pink’ in this pink city.


Is the central government again going to demand funds from RBI?
Corona crisis has a profound impact on revenue collection.

Amidst the ongoing Corona crisis in the country, the news is coming that the Central Government can once again demand funds (money) from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for its urgent expenses. In fact, the government can also do so because the Corona epidemic has had a profound impact on revenue collection and is facing difficulties in meeting its regular expenses. In such a situation, it can ask the RBI directly to buy government bonds or ask for financial help in the form of a dividend.

According to the news published in the Economic Times, the coronavirus epidemic has had a major impact on the revenue of the government. The government’s budget has increased to 7 per cent of GDP. According to one estimate, this is the highest in two decades. Quoting Sabyasachi Kar, a New Delhi-based professor of public finance and policy (RBI chair), the newspaper has written that taking measures to reduce losses would be the right step. If the government spends, only then demand will arise in the economy.
Sabyasachi Kar said that central banks from America to Japan are helping their governments in combating the corona epidemic. This is also seen in emerging markets. This week, the central bank in Indonesia has agreed to buy billions of dollars of bonds directly from the government. However, countries with emerging economies have their own risks. This can affect inflation, currency and central bank autonomy.

In India, RBI cannot buy bonds directly from the government in primary markets. There is a provision in the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, but this law is allowed to do so under special conditions. This can be done in an atmosphere of national emergency or too much economic lethargy. Although the RBI has made some purchases of bonds in the secondary market so far, it has not said yet how it will implement the plan to raise Rs 12 lakh crore of borrowings for the government in this financial year.

RBI works for the central government to raise debt from the market. Right now banks are investing in government bonds with the hope that the central bank will buy these bonds later. Right now, banks have a lot of cash and on the other hand, loan demand is limited. Because of this situation, they have invested their money in government bonds.  Investors of banks in government bonds reached Rs 41.4 lakh crore on June 19. This is 13 per cent additional, compared to the end of March.

It is worth noting that due to the autonomy of the Reserve Bank and the demand of Rs 3.6 lakh crore from RBI’s Reserve Fund by the Government, there was a fierce battle in the month of October-November of 2018. As a result, on 10 December 2018, the then RBI Governor Urjit Patel had to resign his post. After his resignation, the government appointed Shaktikanta Das as the Governor of the Reserve Bank.

Actually, the pull of 2018 was not just between the government and the RBI. It was the same at the level of fiscal policy and monetary policy in the economy. Fiscal policy and monetary policy have different effects on the economy. The Reserve Bank was established under the Reserve Bank of India Act. The central bank runs its monetary system through this act. Under Section 7 of the same Act, the government issues an order to the RBI if it considers it necessary to discuss any important issue.

How to be positive?

Positive thinking can lead to a lot of positive change in your life. Developing an optimistic outlook can be good for both your physical and mental health.

But sometimes, certain situations arise in life that makes it hard to keep a positive outlook. Take steps to make positive thinking become more like your second nature and you’ll reap the biggest benefits.

1. Start the day with a positive affirmation.

How you start the morning sets the tone for the rest of the day. Have you ever woken up late, panicked, and then felt like nothing good happened the rest of the day? This is likely because you started out the day with a negative emotion and a pessimistic view that carried into every other event you experienced. Instead of letting this dominate you, start your day with positive affirmations. Talk to yourself in the mirror, even if you feel silly, with statements like, “Today will be a good day” or “I’m going to be awesome today.” You’ll be amazed how much your day improves.

2. Focus on the good things, however small

Almost invariably, you’re going to encounter obstacles throughout the day—there’s no such thing as a perfect day. When you encounter such a challenge, focus on the benefits, no matter how slight or unimportant they seem. For example, if you get stuck in traffic, think about how you now have time to listen to the rest of your favorite podcast. If the store is out of the food you want to prepare, think about the thrill of trying something new.

3. Find humor in bad situations

Allow yourself to experience humor in even the darkest or most trying situations. Remind yourself that this situation will probably make for a good story later and try to crack a joke about it. Say you’re laid off; imagine the most absurd way you could spend your last day, or the most ridiculous job you could pursue next—like kangaroo handler or bubblegum sculptor.

6.Turn failures into lessons.

You aren’t perfect. You’re going to make mistakes and experience failure in multiple contexts, at multiple jobs and with multiple people. Instead of focusing on how you failed, think about what you’re going to do next time—turn your failure into a lesson. Conceptualize this in concrete rules. For example, you could come up with three new rules for managing projects as a result.

5. Transform negative self-talk into positive self-talk.

Negative self-talk can creep up easily and is often hard to notice. You might think I’m so bad at this or I shouldn’t have tried that. But these thoughts turn into internalized feelings and might cement your conceptions of yourself. When you catch yourself doing this, stop and replace those negative messages with positive ones. For example, I’m so bad at this becomes Once I get more practice, I’ll be way better at thisI shouldn’t have tried becomes That didn’t work out as planned—maybe next time.

6. Focus on the present.

I’m talking about the present—not today, not this hour, only this exact moment. You might be getting chewed out by your boss, but what in this exact moment is happening that’s so bad? Forget the comment he made five minutes ago. Forget what he might say five minutes from now. Focus on this one, individual moment. In most situations, you’ll find it’s not as bad as you imagine it to be. Most sources of negativity stem from a memory of a recent event or the exaggerated imagination of a potential future event. Stay in the present moment

live life in your own terms

The life, do know about life? Who can explain clearly what is mean by life. Well the life in which we are watch everything like ups and downs, rejections, successes, broken, love, financially grow, may be down everything we can realized as well as experience on every single day with realize who care’s or not care’s for what you are doing or don’t just because of their are many different types of peoples for our surrounding.time you spend with yourself as much as the time you spend with others. It means having a purposeful career while also having the freedom and flexibility to pursue the passion and interests that add color to your life. A life lived on your own terms can include travel, volunteering, fitness or any other number of activities, tangible and intangible, real and imaged. When you are living your life on your own term, you get inspire to do more things can come easy and you do them well, because you are living aligned with your authentic self. The most beautiful kind of life there is with you.

Why important to live life on your own terms.

Just because of the you feel free for yourself. The idea is radically taking charge of your life can seem scary. After all we are live in society that encourage us to as little charges as possible. The problems with this, However is that when you go out though life without a purpose or a plan, you lose touch with what matter and you lose touch with your joy. Sometimes you will break some things you know or making radicals and dramatic changes to your personal and professional environment, However it’s being simple as being a little more mindful and little spending a little more time looking inward. Figuring out what you really want or what really matter isn’t always easy. It take a little drifting and it takes a little experiment to go the root of what you want; it’s not a process that can be rushes or worried over.

When you figure out principle or what it is that guide you, you’ll be able to stay on course and find a way to direct yourself joyfully through life. you have to ask yourself what really sums you up, however, and you have to make sure that you are one in control your through life. you have to ask yourself what really sums you up, however, and you have to make sure that you are one in control of your thoughts, will and emotions. Ask yourself what it is that light you up. Don’t assume you know yourself, but open up your heart and mind in a real and honest way. Reflect in a quiet space where you wont’s get disturbed and let your thoughts and emotions comes freely. you might be surprised and let your thoughts emotions come freely. you might be surprised by what you find waiting for you. More often than not, we fail to live life our own terms because we cannot keep our noses of other peoples business.

More often than not, we fail to live life on our own terms because we cannot keep our noses out of other people’s business

Smart Cities Mission

National Smart Cities Mission is an urban renewal and retrofitting program by the Government of India with the mission to develop smart cities across the country, making them citizen friendly and sustainable.The Union Ministry of Urban Development is responsible for implementing the mission in collaboration with the state governments of the respective cities. The mission initially included 100 cities, with the deadline for completion of the projects set between 2019 and 2023. On 7 September 2019, the 10,000-acre Aurangabad Industrial City (AURIC) in Aurangabad, Maharashtra was inaugurated as the first greenfield industrial smart city of India.

Cities accommodate nearly 31% of India’s current population and contribute 63% of GDP (Census 2011). Urban areas are expected to house 40% of India’s population and contribute 75% of India’s GDP by 2030. This requires comprehensive development of physical, institutional, social and economic infrastructure. All are important in improving the quality of life and attracting people and investment, setting in motion a virtuous cycle of growth and development. Development of Smart Cities is a step in that direction.

The Smart Cities Mission is an innovative and new initiative by the Government of India to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people by enabling local development and harnessing technology as a means to create smart outcomes for citizens.

Smart Cities focus on their most pressing needs and on the greatest opportunities to improve lives. They tap a range of approaches – digital and information technologies, urban planning best practices, public-private partnerships, and policy change – to make a difference. They always put people first.

In the approach to the Smart Cities Mission, the objective is to promote cities that provide core infrastructure and give a decent quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and application of ‘Smart’ Solutions. The focus is on sustainable and inclusive development and the idea is to look at compact areas, create a replicable model which will act like a light house to other aspiring cities. The Smart Cities Mission is meant to set examples that can be replicated both within and outside the Smart City, catalysing the creation of similar Smart Cities in various regions and parts of the country.

The total number of 100 Smart Cities have been distributed among the States and UTs on the basis of an equitable criteria. The formula gives equal weightage (50:50) to urban population of the State/UT and the number of statutory towns in the State/UT. Based on this formula, each State/UT will, therefore, have a certain number of potential Smart Cities, with each State/UT having at least one. The number of potential Smart Cities from each State/UT will be capped at the indicated number. This distribution formula has also been used for allocation of funds under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation – AMRUT.

The distribution of Smart Cities will be reviewed after two years of the implementation of the Mission. Based on an assessment of the performance of States/ULBs in the Challenge, some re-allocation of the remaining potential Smart Cities among States may be required to be done by the Ministry of Urban Development.

Pressure On Students To Do Well

Our extended families probably don’t wish us on our birthdays, don’t talk to us to ask about our general health from time to time. But they always call us the moment our results are declared. They pry on our very move after our results are out. And they always look out to see if their child is better than everyone else. Heck even our neighbors ring our doorbells to ask our parents about our result.

If you are a high achiever they would expect nothing less than admissions in the top universities. But if you are of any ‘other‘ category, you have to go through a kind of pressure that is worse than that of anything else. Your parents keep hovering over you to get good grades. Mostly because they want a bright future for you. Partly because they want to look proud infront of others. They want to boast about their child’s achievements. Sometimes, they worry a hundred times more than their child because they know what the society expects from them.

And because of all these multiple kinds of stress, the worst affected are the students. They study day and night, all year long. They study so much that sometimes they literally faint walking down their school halls. Because they too don’t want to disappoint their parents. They too, want their parents to boast about them in family and social gatherings. Why do we forget that ultimately they are just kids right now?!

Now with the current situation of Covid 19, I can’t imagine what these kids must be going through. Exams were cancelled. Students who were not very good at one subject were hoping that they would cover up in the upcoming exams. Now that the result is going to be declared soon, they are continuously on the edge. Some of them are sleeping too less or too much. Some of them are binge eating or not eating much. Their mental health is at stake and in grave danger.

So, to all those students who are going through a tough time, I would like to say that all this stress and anxiety is not worth it. Even if you don’t score as well as you expected, always remember that no matter what, your parents will never stop loving you. It all works out for the best in the end. If you score well, COODOES to you because you have made your life just a bit easier. Yes, just a little bit. Because this is just the beginning. Once you enter college it’s a whole different ball game. And once you get a job, forget about a comfortable social life.

Friends, it’s an endless cycle of struggle no matter how well you do. So take a break. Relax a little. Try to calm yourself down. Because that’s all you can do right now. What’s done is done. Start planning your timetable. For example, wake up, exercise a little, eat, spend a healthy time with your parents, call up your friends, play video games, watch movies and eat lots of food.

Because no matter what, at the end of the day you are going to make your parents proud. It’s a long way ahead. Don’t think too much about those prying relatives and neighbors. You are different. You are unique and you are special in your own way. Don’t forget that no one can steal this time from you. It’s yours. Develop a hobby and find out your zing. Live your life. Because if not now, then never!

How Can You Avoid Getting Sucked Into Toxic Behaviour Online

A lot of us, without even realising, engage in toxic and unhealthy behaviours online. I’ll shares some tips that I follow for avoiding getting sucked into such behaviours.


People today are always on some form of social media all the time, whether it’s Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, TikTok, Twitter, the list is never ending. Though using social media has its own benefits, I feel as though a lot of people get trapped in unhealthy behaviour patterns online without even knowing, as it isn’t something we talk about often.

step 1: Unfollow the ones you compare yourself to

It is a drastic step, but I really do believe that this helps you to stop comparing yourself to others online. If you compare yourself to people online and if you’ve been doing for a while, then it will be natural for you to compare yourself to the ones that you deem perfect. The best way to stop doing this, is to unfollow such accounts and fill your feed with accounts that are raw and make you feel good and real about yourself. After you have completed this step, you will begin to feel positive about yourself when you scroll your feed.

step 2: Make yourself Realise that it’s just one photo not their whole life

When you post a picture on any social media platform, do you tend to post when you’re having a bad day, or do you post it when you know you look your best? It’s more likely that you post a picture when you feel good about yourself, when you’re enjoying yourself, when you’re having fun and you then post the highlight of your day. When we look a someone’s picture, we automatically assume that you know everything about their lives, and that everything in their life is as perfect at their post. When you realise that every single person tends to post only the bits of the day that they love or enjoy, the sooner you’ll be able to ditch the unhealthy pattern and it will instantly make you feel good and much happierWhen you realise that every single person tends to post only those bits of their day that they love or enjoy, the sooner you’ll be able to ditch this unhealthy pattern and it will instantly make you feel good and much happier about where you are in life.

step 3: Set aside time to scroll

But I seem to have even 5 free minutes to myself I will pick up my phone and scrolled through my social media feed as if it is my daily newspaper. But this is something that I am working on and that something that you should aim to change too. The more you endlessly scroll through your social media feed, be it any platform, the more you will be out of touch with reality. That is why it is important to set aside some time for scrolling. In a long run this would allow you to focus throughout the day on things that you actually need to do as you know whenThat is why it is important to set aside some time for scrolling. In a long run this would allow you to focus throughout the day on things that you actually need to do as you know when you have allotted time to scroll.

Social Media can be a positive and an empowering place, but when/if it starts to have a negative impact on your mental health then something needs to change. Start making these small CHANGES today – you can do it

Employee Empowerment

“Empower your employees to make decision on their own, even if it means making a mistake.”

By Shep Hyken

Empowerment is the process of giving power, authority of decision making, responsibility and resources to an employee in the organisation. It is the process of empowering the employees so that they take the initiative and utilise their skills, knowledge, abilities and creativity by accepting accountability for their work. In order to take such initiatives and decision the employee needs adequate training, relevant information, tools and resources. Empowerment focuses on employees so that they can use their full potential towards taking decision, setting goals, accomplishing the goals and receiving rewards. Empowerment takes place when higher level transfers the power, authority and responsibility to lower level employees. Employee Empowerment is a continuous or ongoing process as it helps in achieving the predetermined goals of the organisation. Through empowering the employee becomes “self directed” and “self controlled”, they feel motivated and develops a sense of commitment. It helps in increasing the confidence of the employees. It generally occurs in human beings as we desire for recognition and rewards, power, status and responsibility. The process of empowerment also helps in increasing the productivity which can further reduce the cost. As we know that individual and organisational goals are not different from each other rather they are interdependent on eachother and if we empower an employee his morale will increase and this will help in achieving our organisational goals.

Pros of Employee Empowerment

  • Helps in saving cost – Empowering those employees who have years of experience and allowing these employees to suggest and make changes that can make their jobs more efficient, companies benefit by saving money.
  • Boost Morale – Employees who are empowered in their jobs experience a sense of responsibility. They know that there ideas matter a lot to the success of the organisation. This can even reduce employee turnover rate as they experience satisfaction from the organisation.
  • Less stress on Managers and Supervisors – As in employee empowerment, higher level transfers the power, authority, responsibility and accountability to lower level employees so now they don’t have to take day-to-day decisions and can focus on key areas like making strategies, network building, etc which reduces the stress on managers and supervisors.

Cons of Employee Empowerment

  • Demoralisation – Although empowerment seems attractive to many people but not every employee wants authority and responsibility that comes to them. So, if we force those employees for taking the additional responsibilities they may become seriously demoralised.
  • Security – Empowerment may lead to leakage of critical data as information comes and is shared by all.
  • Delay in taking important decision – When employees get authority and responsibility to make their own decisions, it can slow down the process of decision making as quick decisions can’t generally be made.
  • Increase in Risk – Empowering an employee who has lack of experience can increase the number of mistakes made and can put reputation at risk. So in order to minimise this situation proper training should be provided to the employee.

So, the key practices that will help you to empower your employees are delegate responsibility, share your vision and recognise good performance.

Last But Not the Least

We know that employee empowerment is a positive element in an organisation as it develops self confidence, commitment and loyalty among employees.

Break Up Grief

Going through a break up can be traumatic. Similar to other traumas, like the death of a loved one , break up can cause immense and long-lasting grief. But how do we mourn these losses, especially when the person may still pop up on social media or be connected with friends or colleagues.

In what ways are breakups like grief?
Similar to death, we carry the grief and inescapable pain of breakups with us for months, even sometimes for years. When people talk about a breakup, they often use the same language as when someone dies. I think it’s because we have a relatively limited range of words for communication when it comes to loss. Often, with a breakup and when someone dies, we look for closure because we’re uncomfortable with sadness. In this way, the losses are similar.
We’re losing someone who was embedded in our life. We no longer wake up to see the person’s face beside us in the morning. We can no longer call the person to chat for a few moments in a busy day. Anniversaries take on a new, potent significance. And you may never again visit the places you shared together.
But with a breakup, the suffering can be magnified in a particular way, because you know the other person is still out there somewhere. In turn, we can be drawn to dwell on how our lost love is living without us.

How does social media make it difficult for people to move forward after a break up?
Even, when a relationship ends, whether it’s a distant friendship or an intimate partnership, the digital footprint remains. Our feeds become a representation of the person we lost. And yet, in reality, we’re seeing only a curated glimpse of their life. From that glimpse we weave fantasies, believing that our narratives are true.

How to deal with the grieving process?
While grieving a loss is an inevitable part of life, there are ways to help cope with the pain, come to terms with your grief, and eventually, find a way to pick up the pieces and move on with your life.
• Acknowledge your pain.
• Accept that grief can trigger many different and unexpected emotions.
• Understand that your grieving process will be unique to you.
• Seek out face-to-face support from people who care about you.
• Support yourself emotionally by taking care of yourself physically.
• Recognize the difference between grief and depression.

Air Pollution

What Is Air Pollution?

Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants into the air that are detrimental to human health and the planet as a whole.

The Clean Air Act authorizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect public health by regulating the emissions of these harmful air pollutants. The NRDC has been a leading authority on this law since it was established in 1970.

What Causes Air Pollution?

“Most air pollution comes from energy use and production,” says John Walke, director of the Clean Air Project, part of the Climate and Clean Air program at NRDC. “Burning fossil fuels releases gases and chemicals into the air.” And in an especially destructive feedback loop, air pollution not only contributes to climate change but is also exacerbated by it. “Air pollution in the form of carbon dioxide and methane raises the earth’s temperature,” Walke says. “Another type of air pollution is then worsened by that increased heat: Smog forms when the weather is warmer and there’s more ultraviolet radiation.” Climate change also increases the production of allergenic air pollutants including mold (thanks to damp conditions caused by extreme weather and increased flooding) and pollen (due to a longer pollen season and more pollen production).

Effects of Air Pollution

“While we’ve made progress over the last 40-plus years improving air quality in the U.S. thanks to the Clean Air Act, climate change will make it harder in the future to meet pollution standards, which are designed to protect health,” says Kim Knowlton, senior scientist and deputy director of the NRDC Science Center.

Smog and soot

These two are the most prevalent types of air pollution. Smog, or “ground-level ozone,” as it is more wonkily called, occurs when emissions from combusting fossil fuels react with sunlight. Soot, or “particulate matter,” is made up of tiny particles of chemicals, soil, smoke, dust, or allergens, in the form of gas or solids, that are carried in the air. The EPA’s “Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act” states, “In many parts of the United States, pollution has reduced the distance and clarity of what we see by 70 percent.” The sources of smog and soot are similar. “Both come from cars and trucks, factories, power plants, incinerators, engines—anything that combusts fossil fuels such as coal, gas, or natural gas,” Walke says. The tiniest airborne particles in soot—whether they’re in the form of gas or solids—are especially dangerous because they can penetrate the lungs and bloodstream and worsen bronchitis, lead to heart attacks, and even hasten death.

Smog can irritate the eyes and throat and also damage the lungs—especially of people who work or exercise outside, children, and senior citizens. It’s even worse for people who have asthma or allergies—these extra pollutants only intensify their symptoms and can trigger asthma attacks.

Hazardous air pollutants

These are either deadly or have severe health risks even in small amounts. Almost 200 are regulated by law; some of the most common are mercury, lead, dioxins, and benzene. “These are also most often emitted during gas or coal combustion, incinerating, or in the case of benzene, found in gasoline,” Walke says. Benzene, classified as a carcinogen by the EPA, can cause eye, skin, and lung irritation in the short term and blood disorders in the long term. Dioxins, more typically found in food but also present in small amounts in the air, can affect the liver in the short term and harm the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems, as well as reproductive functions. Lead in large amounts can damage children’s brains and kidneys, and even in small amounts it can affect children’s IQ and ability to learn. Mercury affects the central nervous system.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, are toxic components of traffic exhaust and wildfire smoke. In large amounts, they have been linked to eye and lung irritation, blood and liver issues, and even cancer. In one recent study, the children of mothers who’d had higher PAH exposure during pregnancy had slower brain processing speeds and worse symptoms of ADHD.

Greenhouse gases

By trapping the earth’s heat in the atmosphere, greenhouse gases lead to warmer temperatures and all the hallmarks of climate change: rising sea levels, more extreme weather, heat-related deaths, and increasing transmission of infectious diseases like Lyme. According to a 2014 EPA study, carbon dioxide was responsible for 81 percent of the country’s total greenhouse gas emissions, and methane made up 11 percent. “Carbon dioxide comes from combusting fossil fuels, and methane comes from natural and industrial sources, including the large amounts that are released during oil and gas drilling,” Walke says. “We emit far larger amounts of carbon dioxide, but methane is significantly more potent, so it’s also very destructive.” Another class of greenhouse gases, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), are thousands of times more powerful than carbon dioxide in their ability to trap heat. In October 2016, more than 140 countries reached an agreement to reduce the use of these chemicals—which are used in air conditioners and refrigerators—and find greener alternatives over time. David Doniger, director of NRDC’s Climate and Clean Air program, writes, “NRDC estimates that the agreed HFC phase-down will avoid the equivalent of more than 80 billion tons of CO2 over the next 35 years.”

Pollen and mold

Mold and allergens from trees, weeds, and grass are also carried in the air, are exacerbated by climate change, and can be hazardous to health. They are not regulated by the government and are less directly connected to human actions, but they can be considered air pollution. “When homes, schools, or businesses get water damage, mold can grow and can produce allergenic airborne pollutants,” Knowlton says. “Mold exposure can precipitate asthma attacks or an allergic response, and some molds can even produce toxins that would be dangerous for anyone to inhale.”

Pollen allergies are worsening because of climate change. “Lab and field studies are showing that the more carbon dioxide pollen-producing plants—especially ragweed—are grown in, the bigger they grow and the more pollen they produce,” Knowlton says. “Climate change also extends the pollen production season, and some studies are beginning to suggest that ragweed pollen itself might be becoming a more potent allergen.” That means more people will suffer runny noses, fevers, itchy eyes, and other symptoms.

How to Help Reduce Air Pollution

“The less gasoline we burn, the better we’re doing to reduce air pollution and harmful effects of climate change,” Walke says. “Make good choices about transportation. When you can, walk, ride a bike, or take public transportation. For driving, choose cars that get better miles per gallon of gas or choose an electric car.” You can also investigate your power provider options—you may be able to request that your electricity be supplied by wind or solar. Buying your food locally cuts down on the fossil fuels burned in trucking or flying food in from across the country. And perhaps most important, “Support leaders who push for clean air and water and responsible steps on climate change,” Walke says.

How to Protect Your Health

  • “When you see in the newspaper or hear on the weather report that pollution levels are high, it may be useful to limit the time when children go outside or you go for a jog,” Walke says. Generally, ozone levels tend to be lower in the morning.
  • When you do exercise outside, stay as far as you can from heavily trafficked roads. Then shower and wash your clothes to remove fine particles.
  • If the air quality is bad, stay inside with windows closed.
  • Wear sunscreen. When ultraviolet radiation comes through the weakened ozone layer, it can cause skin damage and skin cancer.

Why Do Mosquitoes Buzz?

They’re actually singing mating songs for each other.

mosquito buzz

The drawing to the right showing part of the mosquito’s wing is what makes the buzzing or whining sound. The comb-like half, shown in blue, scrapes against the part shown in yellow, whenever the mosquito flaps its wings. (Source: “On a Possible Stridulating Organ in the Mosquito”)

Why do mosquitoes buzz in your ears? The short answer: They can’t help it. Mosquitoes’ wings make that annoying buzz or whining sound whenever they fly. When they circle your head, looking for a place to land and bite, their buzz sounds louder whenever they’re close to your ear.

Both male and female mosquitoes buzz, since they both have wings, but you probably won’t notice the whine of the males, because they don’t want to drink your blood. So they stay away from your ears, eating nectar, while the females come near to annoy you.

Scientists have discovered that the buzz of mosquitoes is more than just a way to annoy you. It’s actually important to help them find suitable mates.

Since female mosquitoes are larger, they flap their wings slower, and males know it. They use the distinctive pitch of the females’ buzz to recognize them. Louis M. Roth, who studied yellow fever mosquitoes for the U.S. Army during World War II, noticed that males ignored females whenever the females were quietly resting, but whenever the females were flying, and therefore buzzing, the males wanted to mate with them. The males even wanted to mate with recordings of female mosquitoes or tuning forks that vibrated at the same pitch.

“A delightful African folk tale for anyone who hates the sound of mosquitoes buzzing in their ears. Kids will learn the lesson not to gossip, and they’ll enjoy looking for the little pink bird in the colorful pictures too.”

Dr. Christopher Johnston of Baltimore, Maryland had already discovered how mosquitoes can hear, almost a hundred years before. He found that they have an organ in their antenna, which was named the Johnston organ after him. It allows them to recognize the buzz of other mosquitoes.

It took other scientists to discover exactly what made the sound. Though you hear the buzz whenever mosquitoes fly, it’s not actually caused by the wings beating against the air. There’s an organ at the base of the wings which scrapes and makes the sound when the wings move. British entomologists A. E. Shipley and Edwin Wilson published a paper describing it in 1902, which they called “On a Possible Stridulating Organ in the Mosquito.” Stridulating means to make noise, and the toothed organ they found made noise as it rubbed against itself, while the wings moved.

By the middle of the 20th Century, scientists had figured out that mosquitoes have special organs to whine or buzz as they fly, that other mosquitoes can hear the noise, and that the buzz of female mosquitoes makes males want to mate with them.

It wasn’t until more recently that researchers Gabriella Gibson and Ian Russell discovered that mosquitoes actually change their buzz to “sing” to each other before they mate. They discovered that when males and females flew nearby, they altered the pitch of their buzz to match each other, and if they matched well enough, they mated. Cornell researchers tried the same experiment with mosquitoes which carry the dangerous disease dengue, and found the same thing.

As scientists learn more about why mosquitoes buzz, they may be able to use that knowledge to help keep them from mating. Fewer mosquitoes mean fewer mosquito bites, and fewer diseases being spread. For example, in this article, researcher Lauren Cator suggests that if scientists can make sterile male mosquitoes who “sing” to females just as well as fertile males, the females will choose the sterile males, and won’t produce fertile eggs.

There are a few myths about the mosquitoes you hear buzzing near your ears. Some people say that mosquitoes which buzz, don’t bite. Well, that’s true. As long as they’re buzzing, they’re flying, so they won’t bite you. But as soon as they land, look out!

Does anybody actually enjoy the sound of mosquitoes buzzing? Apparently, teenagers do! With what scientists are learning about mosquitoes, I suppose it’s fitting that teenagers are using an electronic sound called a mosquito buzz as their mating “call.”

Cornell researchers have found out that mosquitoes not only buzz in your ears, they buzz in each others’ “ears” too.

The commitment a mother bears her children, biological imperative though it may be, can produce some astounding behavior. Fathers, take note. Not one of the 3,000 known species of mosquitoes features a male willing to dine on blood for his kids.

In most species the female requires a meal of blood to aid in egg production, in addition to her usual diet of nectar.

To find victims, the mother-to-be follows cues like our body heat, moisture and carbon dioxide emissions. In particular, the carbon dioxide we exhale attracts the insect to our heads, where they fly around looking for a tasty spot.

I would write a brilliant blog tonight, but I am tired. Not because of bad dreams or pressure at work. No, I am sleepy because of a small winged, creature who snuck into my room and proceeded to offer a high pitched tone directly into my ear. When I turned on the lights to find it, it was not there. When I gave up and attempted sleep, buzzzz… or maybe zzzzinnng? I would find the perfect word, but as mentioned, I am too tired.

Dang mosquito.

Mosquitoes are actually the most dangerous animals in the world, killing more than two million people per year. In the United States alone, there are 150 different species, each carrying a different type of disease. The most common species found in the U.S. include the Aedes albopictusCulex pipiens and Anopheles quadrimaculatus, but what I am interested in tonight is, why do they buzz? Why right in my ear? Why?

According to the West African tale, it happened this way: a mosquito said something foolish to the iguana who put sticks in his ears to hear no more of such foolishness. This frightened the next animal and thus created a chain of panic until a monkey killed an owlet which caused the mother owl to mourn and neglect her duties of waking the sun. The animals were furious with the mosquito. So, mosquitoes buzz in people’s ears cause they are asking if everyone is still angry with them. I’m not buying it.

A ranger at a local park told me that since mosquitoes are attracted by the smell of carbon dioxide, given off by us when we exhale, perhaps the mosquitoes benefit from our jumping about when they try to buzz us, causing more breathing and more carbon goodness. Another expert said it was a little warning sign, a gift from nature, like a snake’s rattle. Another said the tone attracts the male. Then why in MY ear? Does anybody really know?

Here’s a few things I do know:

  • Mosquitoes are crepuscular, most active at dawn and dusk.
  • Only female mosquitoes suck blood so that their eggs can mature prior to laying. The blood serves no nourishment. Both males and females feed on nectar.
  • She will often drink more than her weight in blood in one “sitting.”
  • A mosquito does not “bite”, but siphon the blood out by a tube.
  • The only place mosquitoes do not live is Antarctica.
  • You can scare off mosquitoes by eating garlic! For more tips on keeping them away, check out:
  • You can get a mosquito buzz ringtone on your mobile phone that is rumored to be at a frequency too high for those over 40 to hear. (17KHz Mosquito .wav). I could hear it fine, by the way, but why would anyone want to?

I am now off to sleep with no answers, fearing another night of mystery buzz tones. If anyone can tell my why mosquitoes buzz in our ears, please do. With sleep and knowledge, I promise my next blog will be brilliant.

The Dark Pandemic….

The black death or what we call the Bubonic Plague is the most feared epidemic in this whole world till date. The three types of plague are the result of the route of infection: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. Bubonic plague is mainly spread by infected fleas from small animals.It may also result from exposure to the body fluids from a dead plague-infected animal. In the bubonic form of plague, the bacteria enter through the skin through a flea bite and travel via the lymphatic vessels to a lymph node, causing it to swell. Diagnosis is made by finding the bacteria in the blood, sputum, or fluid from lymph nodes.The plague was the cause of the Black Death that swept through Asia, Europe, and Africa in the 14th century and killed an estimated 50 million people.This was about 25% to 60% of the European population. Globally between 2010 and 2015 there were 3248 documented cases, which resulted in 584 deaths. The countries with the greatest number of cases are the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar, and Peru. For over a decade since 2001, Zambia, India, Malawi, Algeria, China, Peru, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo had the most plague cases with over 1,100 cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo alone. From 1,000 to 2,000 cases are conservatively reported per year to the WHO. From 2012 to 2017, reflecting political unrest and poor hygienic conditions, Madagascar began to host regular epidemics. Between 1900 and 2015, the United States had 1,036 human plague cases with an average of 9 cases per year. In 2015, 16 people in the Western United States developed plague, including 2 cases in Yosemite National Park. These US cases usually occur in rural northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, southern Colorado, California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada. In November 2017, the Madagascar Ministry of Health reported an outbreak to WHO (World Health Organization) with more cases and deaths than any recent outbreak in the country. Unusually most of the cases were pneumonic rather than bubonic. In June 2018, a child was confirmed to be the first person in Idaho to be infected by bubonic plague in nearly 30 years. A couple died in May 2019, in Mongolia, while hunting marmots.Another two people in the province of Inner Mongolia, China were treated in November 2019 for the disease. On July 2020, in Bayannur, Inner Mongolia of China it was reported that a case of bubonic plague happened since the last case on May across the border of Inner Mongolia. Then later, the authorities issued a third-level of warning for plague prevention that will last till the end of the year.

First pandemic

The first recorded epidemic affected the Sassanian Empire and their arch-rivals, the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian I, who was infected but survived through extensive treatment. The pandemic resulted in the deaths of an estimated 25 million (6th century outbreak) to 50 million people (two centuries of recurrence).The historian Procopius wrote, in Volume II of History of the Wars, of his personal encounter with the plague and the effect it had on the rising empire. In the spring of 542, the plague arrived in Constantinople, working its way from port city to port city and spreading around the Mediterranean Sea, later migrating inland eastward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and Italy. Because the infectious disease spread inland by the transferring of merchandise through Justinian’s efforts in acquiring luxurious goods of the time and exporting supplies, his capital became the leading exporter of the bubonic plague. Procopius, in his work Secret History, declared that Justinian was a demon of an emperor who either created the plague himself or was being punished for his sinfulness.

Second pandemic

In the Late Middle Ages Europe experienced the deadliest disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit in 1347, killing a third of the European human population. Some historians believe that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution. The Black Death originated in Central Asia and spread from Italy and then throughout other European countries. Arab historians Ibn Al-Wardni and Almaqrizi believed the Black Death originated in Mongolia. Chinese records also showed a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early 1330s.Research published in 2002 suggests that it began in early 1346 in the steppe region, where a plague reservoir stretches from the northwestern shore of the Caspian Sea into southern Russia. The Mongols had cut off the trade route, the Silk Road, between China and Europe which halted the spread of the Black Death from eastern Russia to Western Europe. The epidemic began with an attack that Mongols launched on the Italian merchants’ last trading station in the region, Caffa in the Crimea. In late 1346, plague broke out among the besiegers and from them penetrated into the town. The Mongol forces catapulted plague infected corpses into Caffa as a form of attack one of the first known instances of biological warfare When spring arrived, the Italian merchants fled on their ships, unknowingly carrying the Black Death. Carried by the fleas on rats, the plague initially spread to humans near the Black Sea and then outwards to the rest of Europe as a result of people fleeing from one area to another.

Biological warfare

Some of the earliest instances of biological warfare were said to have been products of the plague, as armies of the 14th century were recorded catapulting diseased corpses over the walls of towns and villages to spread the pestilence. This was done by Jani Beg when he attacked the city of Kaffa in 1343.Later, plague was used during the Second Sino-Japanese War as a bacteriological weapon by the Imperial Japanese Army. These weapons were provided by Shirō Ishii’s units and used in experiments on humans before being used on the field. For example, in 1940, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service bombed Ningbo with fleas carrying the bubonic plague. During the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, the accused, such as Major General Kiyoshi Kawashima, testified that, in 1941, 40 members of Unit 731 air-dropped plague-contaminated fleas on Changde. These operations caused epidemic plague outbreaks.

A Glare Beyond Ravages of Time: Lupine Arcticus

Lupinus arcticus is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common names Arctic lupine or subalpine lupine. It is native to northwestern North America, where it occurs from Oregon north to Alaska and east to Nunavut. It is a common wildflower in British Columbia.This is a perennial herb growing from a taproot and producing an erect stem up to 50 centimeters tall. The dark green, hairy leaves are borne upon rough, hairy petioles up to 17 centimeters long. The leaves are palmately compound, made up of 3 to 9 leaflets each measuring up to 6 centimeters long. The inflorescence is a raceme up to 15 centimeters long bearing up to 30 flowers. The flowers are usually blue, sometimes purple, and occasionally white. The banners of the pealike flowers may be tinged with pink. The fruit is a hairy, greenish to blackish legume pod 2 or 3 centimeters long. It contains up to 10 white-speckled black seeds each about half a centimeter long. The plant may hybridize with other Lupine species when they grow together.

Lupinus arcticus - Wikipedia

This plant grows in several types of habitat, including fields of sedge and moss, alpine regions, and the hills of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It grows on tundra and in moist and wet substrates. This species has been the topic of some biological research. In 1967 it caused a stir when the seeds of this species were discovered in ancient lemming burrows dating back to the Pleistocene; the seeds were germinated and they produced plants, causing them to be declared the oldest viable seeds ever discovered. In 2009 a follow-up article detailed how radiocarbon dating was used to determine that the seeds were, in fact, just a few years old at the time of their discovery, and had probably fallen into the burrows not long before.

The plant contains a neurotoxin called sparteine, possibly as a deterrent to herbivores such as the snowshoe hare. The levels of sparteine in the leaves cycle, becoming higher at night, when herbivory is more likely to occur. In addition to the hare, species of ground squirrel have been known to feed on the plant.In Science, they described how these burrows, found at Miller Creek within the Yukon territory of western Canada, had been buried deep within frozen silt since the Pleistocene. That made them over 10,000 years old. As well as rodent nests, faecal pellets and seeds, they also contained an ancient lemming skull, further confirming their old age.Crucially, the seeds remained viable, as the scientists managed to germinate and cultivate normal healthy Arctic lupine (Lupinus arcticus) plants from them.”These were considered to be the oldest viable seeds to have ever grown,” says Grant Zazula, a scientist working for the Yukon Palaeontology Program run by the Government of Yukon, based in Whitehorse, Canada. They were found in ancient frozen lemming burrows and the radiocarbon dating did confirm that the lemming skull found alongside the seeds was from the Pleistocene. That validated the original researchers’ claim that they had collected Pleistocene samples from deep within the permafrost.But without their knowledge, the seeds must have fallen into the burrows just years before they were collected. The burrows had likely been exposed by mining activity in the region.More than four decades ago, Canadian scientists published details in one of the world’s foremost scientific journals of how they discovered two dozen seeds of an Arctic lupine plant within ancient lemming burrows and finally these plants survived and thrived as a few of the challengers to the tides and cleansing of that being called time.

How to Choose your Career?

With thousands of options, how will you choose a career that’s right for you? If you don’t have any idea what you want to do, the task may seem insurmountable. Fortunately, it isn’t. Follow an organized process and you will increase your chances of making a good decision.

1.Assess Yourself
Before you can choose the right career, you must learn about yourself. Your values, interests, soft skills, and aptitudes, in combination with your personality type, make some occupations a good fit for you and others completely inappropriate.

Use self-assessment tools, and career tests to gather information about your traits and, subsequently, generate a list of occupations that are a good fit based on them. Some people choose to work with a career counselor or other career development professionals who can help them navigate this process.

2.Make a List of Occupations to Explore
You probably have multiple lists of occupations in front of you at this point—one generated by each of the self-assessment tools you used. To keep yourself organized, you should combine them into one master list.

First, look for careers that appear on multiple lists and copy them onto a blank page. Title it “Occupations to Explore.” Your self-assessments ​indicated they are a good fit for you based on several of your traits, so they’re definitely worth exploring.

Next, find any occupations on your lists that appeal to you. They may be careers you know a bit about and want to explore further. Also, include professions about which you don’t know much. You might learn something unexpected
Explore the Occupations on Your List

3.Explore the Occupations on Your List
At this point, you’ll be thrilled you managed to narrow your list down to only 10 to 20 options. Now you can get some basic information about each of the occupations on your list. 

Find job descriptions and educational, training, and licensing requirements in published sources. Learn about advancement opportunities. Use government-produced labor market information to get data about earnings and job outlook.

4.Create a “Short List”
Now you have more information, start to narrow down your list even further. Based on what you learned from your research so far, begin eliminating the careers you don’t want to pursue any further. You should end up with two to five occupations on your “short list.”

If your reasons for finding a career unacceptable are non-negotiable, cross it off your list. Remove everything with duties that don’t appeal to you. Eliminate careers that have weak job outlooks. Get rid of any occupation if you are unable or unwilling to fulfill the educational or other requirements, or if you lack some of the soft skills necessary to succeed in it.

Never forget – if you’ve got the interest, you can build the skills and qualifications.

There’s no one set path to a career destination, whatever careers you choose. We always list multiple career paths in all the career ideas we offer. You can go to university. You can start in a junior job and work your way up. And you can get apprenticeships for almost any career you can think of. It’s all about finding the right apprenticeship for you. For example, if you want to get into a finance career or a digital career, financial service giants EY offer business apprenticeships and even digital degree apprenticeships – where you can become an apprentice and get a degree for free!

Remember –  there is more than one path to your dream career, and there’s also more than one dream career.

Your skills and interests could be a great match for all kinds of careers – even some you haven’t heard of yet. What’s important is figuring out a range of careers that excites you, because a career path that starts with customer service (maybe you love being social) could lead to a career path in healthcare, catering and hospitality, journalism or sales careers – to name a few.

Personal Development

Personal development is a lifelong process. It is a way for people to assess their skills and qualities, consider their aims in life and set goals in order to realise and maximise their potential.

It helps you to identify the skills you need to set life goals which can enhance your employability prospects, raise your confidence, and lead to a more fulfilling, higher quality life. Plan to make relevant, positive and effective life choices and decisions for your future to enable personal empowerment.

Although early life development and early formative experiences within the family, at school, etc. can help to shape us as adults, personal development should not stop later in life.

Firstly are the basic physiological needs for food, drink, sex and sleep, i.e., the basics for survival.

Second are the needs for safety and security in both the physical and economic sense.

Thirdly, progression can be made to satisfying the need for love and belonging.

The fourth level refers to meeting the need for self-esteem and self-worth. This is the level most closely related to ‘self-empowerment’.

The fifth level relates to the need to understand. This level includes more abstract ideas such as curiosity and the search for meaning or purpose and a deeper understanding.

The sixth relates to aesthetic needs of beauty, symmetry and order.

Self-actualisation refers to the desire that everybody has ‘to become everything that they are capable of becoming’. In other words, it refers to self-fulfilment and the need to reach full potential as a unique human being.

Managing Your Personal Development

There are a number of steps to take in managing your personal development.

1. Developing a Personal Vision

Personal development can simply be for fun. Most of us, however, find it easier to motivate ourselves to learn and improve if we have a purpose in doing so. Developing your personal vision – a clear idea of where you want to be in a few months or years, and why – is a crucial part of developing this purpose.

There is more about this in our pages on Developing a Personal Vision, Refining and Narrowing Your Vision, and Setting Personal Goals.

2. Planning Your Personal Development

Once you are clear about where you want to be, you can start planning how to get there. Drawing up a personal development plan is not essential, but it does make the planning process more realistic.

For more about this part of the process, take a look at our page on Planning Your Personal Development.

If you are struggling to identify which areas to target for development and improvement, you may find it helpful to read on Personal SWOT Analysis and Identifying Areas for Improvement.

3. Starting the Improvement Process

There are a number of different ways in which you can learn and develop.

Our page on Improving Performance – Some Specific Techniques explains some ways of learning, including a technique called expertise transfer.

Our page on Learning Preferences suggests how different types of learning process may be more effective for certain people. You may also find our page on Learning Styles helpful in understanding how you like to learn.

4. Recording Your Personal Development

It is often a good idea to keep a record of your personal development. By writing down key developments in your learning and development as and when they occur, you will be able to reflect on your successes at a later date.

There is more about this on our page, Recording Your Personal Development.

This reflection may well help to motivate you to learn more skills in the future. Try keeping a learning log or journal as you develop your skills and knowledge.

See our page on Reflective Practice for some ideas of how to do this.

5. Reviewing and Revising Personal Development Plans

 Learning Styles uses Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle to show that learning is a cycle. For more effective learning, it is important to reflect on your experience, and consider what you have learnt from it. Regular review of your personal development plans, and your development activities, will ensure that you learn from what you have done. It will also ensure that your activities continue to move you towards your goals, and that your goals or vision remain relevant to you.




Benefits of Learning Music

Music is one of the greatest gifts ever given to mankind. It has played an important role in the development of civilization and is an intrinsic part of all cultures. With a greater emphasis on overall personality development, we see many people opting to learn skills that are not academic in order to develop their talents. Co-curricular activities are necessary for the wholesome growth of a child as well as for the well-being of the individual at all stages of life. Learning music is one such activity that is fun and invigorating for people of all ages. This could mean being trained to sing, to play instruments or even to learn music theory like a subject in school. The number of music schools are on the rise in most of our urban cities. Many of them teach Western Music like an academic discipline with syllabus textbooks and exams. Indian classical and Carnatic music centres as well as other forms of traditional music are also taught, and one just needs to decide what to learn based on interest and talent.


Learning music has multiple benefits, particularly for students. Let us look at some.

  1. It helps with cognition and brain development

Learning music involves utilizing multiple senses and processing information in particular ways that enhance brain functions and improves cognition. Faculties of perception and understanding are bettered through regular music lessons and practice. Researchers also say that the left side of the brain which accommodates the facilities of reasoning and understanding language also develops better if one is trained in music. They will also be better at coordination and listening.

  1. It helps with academics

Owing to the heightened cognitive abilities that learning music provides, students of music will also be able to perform better in academics. This is because their senses are trained and their ability to understand concepts, retain them in memory and even to use language well can be positively influenced by this. This is not to say that music training makes you a genius in every way but that it improves your individual capacities and helps you become more aware of who you are and how you perform.

  1. It nurtures discipline

Excelling at any skill requires a lot of attention, practice and discipline. This is especially true of music. It is in regular and thoughtful sessions of focused practice that one develops the skill over time. This also influences the other aspects of our life and will help with managing time and being disciplined with various other activities.

  1. It increases self-esteem and health

Musical training lets the individual explore his own individuality and interests. In a highly competitive world, it also increases his self confidence since he knows he is capable of using his talents and skills. It creates a healthy mindset where he recognizes that he is trained well and able to use what he has learnt in real life. It is also proved to be beneficial to physical health as a healthy frame of mind will also positively affect the body.

  1. It opens up new possibilities

Music lets us explore our own talents but also opens up new worlds which we can explore. We can become acquainted with multiple cultures and their practices, which will instill respect and appreciation in us. We will learn to appreciate diversity and the rich heritages of our own and others’ histories. One can become invested in learning instruments or musical styles of a different culture and grow in our understanding of humanity. Music itself can becomee a career for those especially talented in that arena and challenges the idea that only those who are academically strong can be successful in life.

Live your dream or leave your dream- The placement trap

We provide 100% placements- liar

Top companies come for recruitment- liar

Provide Average salary of ten lac- liar

Today, we are going to talk about the tricks which most of the private educational institutions fool around with their “#precious students”. Discuss this with any final year students and they will unpretentiously disclose how they are ensnared in the pawn of placement drives. Throughout the admission process, educational institutes falsified the information, they also photo-shopped the uncut procedure and funded in figures- to exert pull-on students or parents to take admission to their university. Unluckily, afterward, they get caught red-handed but the entire dealings live on consistently every year.

“You are communicated with a voice dripping honesty and flooded with sincerity that- placements are sure-fire, we provide hundred percent placements in the bag but not that everyone is not placed.”

“Placement ratio is poorer than they professed”.

Neeraj Kumar (Fake name) doing MBA, was shoved to undertake the offer letter of the company delivering 2 lac per annul for the reason that regardless of what university sworn “none of the big bulky guys” visited him. He was not the only one, they are in thousands who don’t even get an opportunity to serve.

We are the one who pays you

We are the one who makes you

If we deny, you will fall

Surviving will make you roll and roll

So, keep yourself guided and do not lie

Otherwise, if we take steps, you will cry.

Close your eyes and think about what you have done.

You have played with millions of life-line

Always speak the truth and don’t be in denial.

Universities are made for Career growth

Not to bring our careers on road.

These scams are not new-fanged, they are running for decades. Whose fault is this? Is it us, who do not take the necessary steps against these money suckers? Or, it is none fault? Think.


A business is an organization where people work together. In a business, people work to make and sell the product or services…….A business can earn a profit for the products and services it offers. The word business comes from the word busy,and means doing works on regular basis this is called business.

What is a purpose of business. Business purpose is the reason you have formed your company boiled down to a single can be industry specific or general enough to include ancillary and future business activities. To understand business purpose .

Understanding a business generally,A business begins with a business concept .depending on the nature of the business. Extensive market research may be neccessary to determine whether turning the idea into a business is feasible and if the business can deliver value to the consumers .

Business types

Sole proprietorship owned by one person No legal and financial distinction between business and business owners.

Partnership Business financial and legal responsibility equally divided. Must be registered for IRS purpose.

Limited partnership ideal for those interested in raising capital from investors who are not achieve in day to day duties .

Corporation independent, multiple shareholders appropriate for established businesses with employees .

LLC blend of partnership and corporation . No personal property at risk. Less regulation.

Non profit earning pay expenses of company . Can applyFor tax exempt status .

Co-OP members use it services.

Business is the activity of making one’s living or making money by producing .such as goods and services .simply put , it is “any activity or enterprise entered into for does not mean it is a company,a corporation, partnership, or have any such formal organization ,but it can range for a street peddler to general motors .

Having a business name does not separate the business entity from the owner, which means that the owner of the business is responsible and liable for debts incurred by the business. If the business acquires debts,the creditors can go after the owner’s personal possessions. A business structure does not allow for corporate tax rates. The proprietor is personally taxed on all income from the business.

The term is often used colloquially to refer to a company. A company ,on the other hand,is a separate legal entity and provides for liability, as well as corporate tax rates. A company structure is more complicated and expensive to set up,but offers more protection and benefits to the owner.

Re-imagine, Re-invent, Re-boot – B-Schools in the post Corona world

Management education is one of the most sought after disciplines and the students making the cut are exposed to a range of diverse opportunities within and outside the country across sectors. However, in the post-corona era, we will all need to reinvent ourselves and the way we work. 

The B-Schools are no exception. Even they would need to re-align themselves to the ‘New Normal” since they cannot be teaching old rules of the old game. The game has changed and so have the rules. 

I keep telling trainees who we hired in the last couple of years from various B-Schools that now is the golden era to experience the unprecedented in their professional lives. Those who will weather this will have mastered skills that no book could ever teach, and such an experience would definitely enrich one’s CV.  Having said that, students who are currently undergoing their Bachelors or Masters in Management will need to be equipped with skills to deal with the ‘new normal ’to be successful.  

Here are some aspects that can further boost both confidence and performance of every B-School grad. This is not to say that B-Schools aren’t already doing all of this and more. However, these are skills that most companies would look for in graduates from B-Schools, to face the new future.

Study the Case Study

Ensuring that students get exposure to relevant real life case studies so that they can understand the real life challenges and issues that could crop up on projects and watch out for potential pitfalls. Take for example the impact of the current pandemic. Scoping out the right case studies is literally learning from others’ mistakes. Practical learning like this where industry leaders engage with students and walk them through their own professional journey and their learnings from each crisis/challenge they faced is invaluable. Applied research, classroom discussions, case studies, role-plays, special sessions, management games, trainings, industrial visits, etc. all contribute immensely to the learning and development of a student. With the blend of technology, real time data and complex problems solving can become part of course design.

It is also suggested that B-Schools create a programme that enables their faculty members to shadow practitioners in their field of research and teaching. This will increase collaborations and enable faculty members to curate unique experiences and applied learning. Having industry leaders frequently participate and augment classroom learning is something that cannot be ever found in books.

Development of soft skills

Often times B-schools students are great at their jobs, they are sharp and smart, but their EQ, or Emotional Quotient, is not honed. EQ can be that differentiator between a good leader and a brilliant leader, and B-Schools would be adding a huge skill by building the emotional quotient of students, teaching them resilience, and inculcating in them the challenger mindset that gives them the confidence to move beyond their comfort zone and think out of the box to tackle real business challenges. There is also an increasing demand for young leaders to be involved in sustainability, environmental, CSR, and ethical initiatives in an organization as they are expected to walk the talk and do their bit to change the world for the better. Therefore, business programs must take part onus of creating leaders who are ethical along with being environment and community conscious.  Today’s new normal requires leaders to keep teams motivated even while working remotely and being forced to stay within the confines of their homes.  

Incorporate blended learning 

Today is the day of the digital natives, and the students of today have grown up with technology that is readily available and affordable. All management programs need to offer a well curated mix of in-class and virtual classroom education that aids optimum learning as well as convenience and flexibility. This not only enables students to learn better, it also empowers them with the savviness needed to use innovative technology to their advantage in the real world.  Therefore B-Schools must adopt a new approach towards design of their classroom, teaching materials, technology platforms, and of course the course itself! 

Connecting the Dots

Fresh recruits at any organization, especially from B-Schools, are expected to have the ability to get the big picture vision and ensure that all they do dovetails into driving results therein. Practical project work, inter disciplinary exposure and design thinking in B-Schools enable students to find solutions that work, if the regular is not working, they need to be able to think from a different perspective to arrive at the results desired. They need to relate and connect the external with the internal, the industry and competition vis-à-vis their own organization and make their plans while keeping each aspect in mind for the best results. The need to be able to think lateral, circular, external, and internal to really keep focused on the bigger vision.

To put it succinctly the idea is to develop the ability of “Conceptualization to Execution” – or the capability to think end-to-end. 

Project Management Skills

In their hurry to impress and off-load all they have learnt, at times freshers forget that if they want to be true leaders, project management is the first test they need to clear. To be a great project manager skills that play a critical role include time and team management, attention to detail, creation and adherence to timelines, the ability to stay calm and implement strategic change, and cost management, among others, and these are skills that can make or break B-Schools’ reputations as each of their students is an ambassador for them.  

Increased emphasis on Experiential Learning

The experiential learnings inside the classroom will become more of threshold requirement going forward. The differential learning will come through a faculty guided projects with organizations for students to learn in the real time environment. This will provide then with the foundation of new skills required for a successful leader of future.

Looking Ahead

Whoever said that you can’t really move forward if you are always looking in the rear view mirror was absolutely right. One hears about really bright students suddenly falling prey to low esteem and losing confidence. Most times it is because they are wallowing in past failures and not been able to bounce back. It’s critical that students learn the art and science of letting go of what has not worked and focus on what has worked and embrace failures as stepping stones to learning and moving forward. This will help them embrace ambiguity, build agility, resilience and a willingness to make change as the situation demands.

B-Schools today need to realize the responsibility they shoulder – that of shaping future leaders. It is imperative that these leaders are equipped with global technical, digital, and emotional skills for them to lead and grow the economy. Ethics play a huge role in how businesses are done today and I can’t emphasize enough when I say that ethical behavior needs to be a huge focus of education.  The sooner all of this gets implemented the sooner we will have new batches of Leaders who can walk the talk.

Tobacco consumption

Tobacco consumption is a huge public health issue in India and its impact is especially devastating among the poor. Effective tobacco control should be a top priority, both as a health issue and as a method to reduce poverty. Tobacco use is deeply ingrained as a cultural practice and there are a myriad of tobacco types. We reviewed multiple determinants of tobacco consumption including socio-economic status, marriage, population growth, marketing strategies, and price. We also considered the tobacco burden including economic and social costs and adverse health impacts especially those resulting from oral cancer. We then addressed the history of tobacco control legislation in India and challenges in implementation. Tobacco consumption in India is continuing to increase despite tobacco control policy. Needed are more visible and aggressive anti-tobacco campaigns including increased public awareness of tobacco harms and active engagement of worksites and health professionals in promoting tobacco cessation.

Databases searched include PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar using key words tobacco use in India, cigarettes, beedis, smokeless tobacco, tobacco control, and legislation policies, and wide probability of these words was used in a variety of combinations. Reports of Government of India and World Health Organization (WHO), news reports from Web sites, names of individual states in India were used with the above key words to obtain state-specific information. The cross references of the selected articles were also considered. Nationally representative surveys conducted by Government of India time to time with tobacco as the component and large-scale and local community-based studies on tobacco were all taken into consideration. Articles reporting findings of empirical studies and were extended to increase use of evidence-based prevention and intervention to maximize review data. Most of the studies included are those relevant to Indian subcontinent.

India is the second largest consumer of tobacco.

Males contributed 91% of the entire economic burden and remaining accounted for the females. SLT accounts for 66% of direct medical costs among the females. SLT has grown at an alarming rate in India, about one-fifth of the world’s total production and cultivation is done by India.

Hazards of tobacco use

Tobacco is deadly in any form either be smoking or smokeless; scientific evidences have proved that tobacco leads to disease, disability, and death. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monograph, there is sufficient evidence in humans that tobacco smoking causes cancer of the lung; oral cavity; naso-, oro-, and hypo-pharynx, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses; larynx; esophagus; stomach; pancreas; liver; kidney (body and pelvis); ureter; urinary bladder; uterine cervix; and bone marrow (myeloid leukemia). Colorectal cancer is seen to be associated with cigarette smoking, although there is insufficient evidence for it to be causal. Ninety percent of all lung cancer deaths in men and 80% in women are caused by smoking. Research has clearly indicated causal associations between active smoking and adverse reproductive outcomes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Studies on bidi smoking, the most common form of tobacco smoking in India, provide evidence toward causality of it as carcinogenic substance. Case–control studies demonstrate a strong association of bidi smoking with cancers at various sites, such as oral cavity (including subsites), pharynx, larynx, esophagus, lung, and stomach. The research has indicated the significant trends with the duration and number of bidi smoked with causation of any type of cancer; passive smoking also attributed to diseases related to tobacco consumption.

Prevalence of various smoking tobacco in India

People smoke more tobacco in urban areas as compared with rural mind. With increase in age, smoking prevalence increases, and in India, males smoke more tobacco as compared with females. As compared with the urban area, there is more consumption of bidi and hookah in the rural areas. Daily cigarette smoking is about 6% compared with bidi smoking, which is 10%. In total, 63% of cigarette smokers smoke cigarette every day, whereas 81% of bidi smokers smoke bidi every day. In rural and urban areas, prevalence of daily cigarette smoking is 3% and 5%, respectively, whereas that of daily bidi smoking is 9% and 5%, respectively.

Sociocultural factors influencing tobacco consumption in India

Prevalence studies of tobacco use in India have shown wide variations between urban and rural areas, regions, age, gender, education, and other sociodemographic variables across the country.

There has also been a complex interplay of sociocultural factors that not only influenced the acceptance or rejection of tobacco by sections of society but also determined the patterns of use. In ancient India, smoking tobacco in the joint family was considered as a taboo and was mostly consumed by the dominant male members of the family. The younger members of the family avoid consumption of tobacco products in presence of elder family members. The practice of members of different generations smoking together, in a home setting, is rare even today though modernity has led to some relaxation of these rules.

Now,tobacco prevention and control policies in India have largely focused on awareness and behavior change campaigns, with much weaker implementation of more effective population level interventions, such as taxation increases and the banning of smoking in public places.

Public policy and health promotion interventions (a part of the sociopolitical context) need to have an inequality perspective to have desired impact and accordingly modify tobacco control policies. Uniform population-based approach of health education had worsened social inequalities as major benefits are harnessed by upper economic classes. Tobacco control measures that differentially target the poor include banning of advertisements, raising tobacco prices, work place interventions, free supply of cessation aids, and telephone help lines. Taxation has been reported as the most effective policy measure to curb smoking epidemic in poor. A 10% increase in bidi prices cut down bidi consumption by 9.2%.

All in all, addressing the inequalities in tobacco consumption did not necessitate introducing new set of interventions for tobacco control, but modifying the existing ones. To reduce the mortality and morbidity related to tobacco, there should be suitable policy reformation with interventions like inclusion of large public health programs in relation with NCD program to solve this problem holistically.

Inaccessible or Untouchables?

There is more to this existence than meets the eye!

Our economy is being ruined between inefficient government and sluggish opposition, if the situation does not improve then we will become the new ‘Untouchables.’

Untouchability has been a stigma for our country for centuries. Ambedkar, who fought for his whole life, claimed that there is enough evidence to suggest that it has been going on since 400 BC and it has always been the way of Indians to live.
This is the reason why devout Hindus on one hand and committed inclusionist Gandhi, on the other hand, believed that it is good for us to end this deadly practice. And Nehru, who relied on social justice, had said that India will never reach its true height until we end the caste system and ensure equality for all Indians.

This is the motive that our constitution made untouchability illicit and considered it a punishable offence.
But is it over? No.
Untouchability is deeply ingrained in our thinking and is seen openly. Its ugliness has recently increased, which has been promoted by some political parties, who want to keep it alive to achieve ruthless majoritarianism.

Now only the lower castes, Dalits, are not suffering. In some parts of India, indigent people belonging to a particular community have become new untouchables. So in some parts, some tribes are the new untouchables, who have been left marginalized by governments to grab their land, forest and mineral wealth.

And now, after this pandemic in the country, we see a new class of untouchables is emerging. These are sick, migrant labourers, unemployed and extremely impoverished people. Their connection with the cities is broken and their villages do not want to take them back because they are unemployed and miserable and additionally there is a risk of health issues.

Today the suffering/affected people are being boycotted openly. Their wives and children are not allowed to be home quarantined as per the regulations. People are getting them out of the village, throwing them along with their family members from trains, refusing to burn in the crematorium when one dies. Dead bodies are being collected in hospital corridors. Nobody wants to accept them, not even own family. The corpses are placed next to the patients being treated. It is like a return to the fierce plague.

But, today who is the frustrated-indigent?
No, not the farmers who commit suicide every year due to poverty. Now, these dispirited poor are those who were working in our factories, offices and our homes till back in the days. It also includes small traders, food carts, autorickshaw drivers, small restaurant workers, multiplexes and security guards standing outside malls.

Viruses and lockdowns left them unemployed, homeless and nearly devastated. And now about 14 crores middle-class families have also been associated with them. According to research, their savings will end by the end of July. That is, they will be poverty-stricken.

A recent survey shows that 84 per cent of the households have suffered severe loss of income after lockdown. They are living on their savings right now. By the end of this month, with the increase in rains, many middle-class families will fall into the category of destitute.

They will also be unable to spend on treatment or meet basic family needs. They will have to leave the rented house, sell their goods and borrow money at such a rate, which will become impossible for them to repay later. They are also worried pensioners who relied on interest from the bank, as banks have reduced interest rates.

Those who counted on their children working abroad are also trapped because their children have lost their jobs or lost wages. Meanwhile, the prices of petrol and diesel are continuously increasing, while the prices should have been reduced based on the global trend. This is going to make everything expensive.

Overall, the pace of the wave is not stopping and more and more people will continue to drown.  The government is refusing to provide cash in their hands, as some other countries are doing. These are the new untouchables. Nobody has time for these and the government has the least interest in their future or prospect. Instead, govt is making hefty policies of millions for billions, which will never reach out to these people.

An economy that was ready for a better future, is being wrecked.

The origin history of Pride Movement

The Pride movement is self affirmative movement, celebrated by the LGBTQ+ community and it’s supporters. The LGBTQ+ is an abbreviation for lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender, queer and everything in between. The Pride movement celebrates the spectrum of sexuality.

The Stonewall Riot is often considered as the birth of modern LGBTQ+ rights movement. The first pride parade was held one year after Stonewall riot incident, on 28 June 1970. The parade was then known as Christopher Street Liberation Day March, named after the street on which Stonewall was located.

Back then, the largest LGBTQ+ rights rally was a silent yearly vigil known as the “The Annual Remainder” held in Philadelphia. The event was a remainder to American people that a substantial number of American citizens were denied the right to life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness. It was a sober and orchestrated event. It was a silent event, and both men and women had formal dress code. However after Stonewall riot, the need of an entirely new event arose.

Unlike the Annual Remainder, these new marches had no formal and gender- normative dress code. Rather, the marchers were encouraged to be themselves. It celebrated being gay with utmost pride.

People related to the initial movement

The Pride movement was not a one day thing. It took a lot of courage and determination to go ahead with this movement. It was due to the prime contribution of some individuals that we today celebrate the month of June as pride month.
• Mattachine Society, which was one of earlier LGBTQ+ right group in United States.
• Craig Rodwell, a member of Mattachine Society, originally came up with the idea of The Annual Remainder.
• Fred Sargeant was one who organisers of the first march.
• Ellen Brody and Linda Rhodes, activists who along with Rodwell and Sargeant attended the Eastern Regional Conference of Homophile Organisation (ERCHO) in Philadelphia and proposed the resolution of holding a annual march on last Sunday of June to commemorate Stonewall.
• Brenda Howard, known as “Mother of Pride” coordinated week long series of event around the Pride day.
• Activist L. Craig Schoonmaker, the one who suggested the world “Pride” instead of “gay power”.
• Gilbert Baker, designed the Pride flag.

Pride Movement in India

In context of India, the Pride movement had a long struggle. During British Rule in 1860, homosexual intercourse was considered a criminal offence under Chapter 16, Section 377 of Indian Penal Code. Post independence, the right to equality was implemented on 26 November 1949, however homosexuality remained a criminal offence.
The first gay protest was conducted on 11 August 1992. In 1999, Kolkata hosted the first Gay Pride parade, however it was a small affairs with only 15 attendees. In 2009 the high court of Delhi held that considering consensual homosexual intercourse between two adults as a crime is violation of fundamental right to equality. However this was overturned by the supreme court in 2013.
Shashi Tharoor introduced the bill to decriminalise homosexuality in the year 2015, however it was rejected by Lok Sabha. In August 2017, the Supreme Court upheld the right to privacy as a fundamental right under the Constitution in the landmark Puttuswamy judgement, giving LGBTQ+ community a new hope. On September 6, 2018, the supreme court decriminalised homosexuality by scrapping Section 377, calling it unconstitutional.
The scrapping of Section 377 has been a partial win for the LGBTQ+ community. However a long battle is still ongoing. The battle is long, but the community is winning small successes.

Big fan of Korean Cuisine!

나는 한국 음식의 큰 팬입니다

There is nothing wrong with saying that Globalization has changed our taste buds. Different varieties of delicacies present all over the world has attracted many people towards them. Let’s talk about Korean dishes. There are many which has gained popularity In Asian and Western nations. People are becoming a die-hard fan of them. Kimchi is the foremost dish which come to our mind when we talk about Koreans. It is turn out to be a global sensation.

Today, I am going to tell you some of my favorite Korean cuisine.

Kimchi: Mixture of fermented vegetables. It’s a side dish but has gained so much popularity that UNESCO has identified it in the list of Cultural Heritage. Ingredients added in it are Korean chili peppers, garlic, ginger, and green chili. Korean believes it’s rich for health, it contains vitamins that are needed for their glass skin. Kimchi is an enriching representation and state gem of South Korea. There is even a kimchi museum developed in a city of Seoul in South Korea. 

Bibimbap: It is a blend of rice along with desired vegetables, eggs, fried mushrooms, soy sauce, and beef. The color combination of the bowl filled looks great and attractive. It’s definitely added to my favorite list.

Makgeolli: If you love to drink, then you must try Makgeolli often called Drunken rice. It’s the easiest drink to be made at home. Korean generally ferment it at home and try it with Kimchi. It’s the best combination. It increased the flavor of your taste buds. Counted as an alcoholic beverage, it has milk consistency included with rice water, sweet and nuruk. It takes 5 days approximately to get fermented.

Jeon: Universally known as Korean pancake. It is definitely a type of snack that Koreans relish a lot. You have to pick beef, kimchi, or green onions, it will come layered in a mixture of eggs and flour.

The most significant superiority while eating Korean food is “sense of taste”

Korean food is good for your health for the reason that it comprises primarily of puffed rice and root vegetables.

It’s absolutely true that Korean foods are becoming the favorites among people universally. In this, the leading role portrayed by “Hallyu Wave” has publicized successfully. If we grasp the whole situation, we could see the Korean Government has also worked a lot in globalizing the Korean food business in numerous nations like the USA, France, India. The drum up support by the Government also displayed a constructive impression on the preferences of people.

Breonna Taylor’s Family Says She Was Still Alive After Being Shot, But Police Didn’t Offer Aid

Breonna Taylor’s family is once again speaking out about new details regarding the murder of the 26-year old EMT after a new report reveals that she was actually still alive after being shot in her home. On Monday (Jul 6), Breonna Taylor’s family, who is currently in a lawsuit against police and the city of Louisville, revealed that Taylor was actually still alive after being shot more than 8 times while sleeping in her bed and only succumbed to her injuries after being denied medical attention by the detectives. 

Breonna Taylor’s Family Says She Was Still Alive After Being Shot, But Police Didn’t Offer Aid