Different Job Expectations for different jobs

The mentality that ‘ a job is for life ‘no longer exists in professional world. Many people today consider the chance of changing jobs, while others prefer not to. Changing employer also means a duration of uncertainty, where one may have to worry about moving back home, or temporarily lose a stable source of income. Staying in one position means these challenges are avoided.

6 Skills Needed for All Jobs

Another advantage of not changing occupation is that one is able to acquire a great deal of experience and knowledge in one’s specific career, thus increasing job security. The corporation of one may recognize their loyalty and reward their service. On the other hand, those who regularly change jobs may be interpreted as unreliable, sorely missing experience and business owners may be reluctant to hire and invest in training.

Nevertheless, there are reasons in favour of changing work regularly. One is because the employment prospects of an employee are enhanced. Working in several different jobs often indicates that the person has more skill sets. These workers are seen as more diverse and resilient. The advantage of constantly moving work is that you rarely get caught in a rut. One can also think employers generally don’t tend to reward loyalty or commitment very much. Increased salaries and promotion are often easier to achieve through changing jobs.

Employees demand bonuses and pay hikes if they believe they warrant them. Many people tend to constantly shift employers in order to achieve this while others stay in one job in the same business. Nowadays that is a typical question. One firmly believes both situations have both advantages and disadvantages.

Second, if people have the same job with the same business, then they accumulate a lot of experience that is eventually counted for promoting and this contributes to a pay hike. In addition, it provides security and also shows loyalty to a company for increasing responsibility for this scenario. Therefore, the employer acknowledges the employee as a trustworthy individual and provides other incentives including bonuses for international jobs. On the other hand, it is a slow process of career growth to continue a job in the same company for a longer time. A lot of people also get tedious about the same work throughout the career.

Second, switching from one job to another will bring challenging surroundings, whether or not they continue in the same company. We get chances of getting new social connections when doing so, learning various skills in the work.

New pictures come to the screen through continuous adjustments. So, the individual will eventually be fresher into the new career. But if the transition takes place between different firms with the same job leads to a fast career development. More people generally become interested in following this process. The one major downside is that there’ll be more wage hikes.

Lastly, It is strongly believed that continuous job change brings rapid career growth. While remaining in a single job in the same organization prevents personal concerns such as changing home, increasing children’s schooling, transitioning to new world etc.

Longer Working Hours and Increase in Stress Levels

The ever-increasing work overload, the burden of relentless deadlines, the technical dependency on employment, and the desire of people to succeed in the workplace have changed the concept of professional life, and most workers need higher and longer hours of work every day. We will examine the reasons behind this work pressure and long working hours in this essay, and suggest some ways employers can help improve the condition.

9 Simple Ways to Deal With Stress at Work

It is a reality that work days are getting longer and that the strain at work these days is becoming more extreme. There are different reasons that escalated the mess and there are certain things that employers can do to help their staff. Those are explored in depth in the accompanying article.

Competitive rivalry on the job market is one of the reasons why work these days has become so stressful. Employers still have chances to recruit new hires to replace someone, which is why somebody who has already been employed needs to work hard to keep his career. This instinctively has cognitive negative effects on the employees. Employees have to work longer hours to meet their specific goals as the invisible threat of firing is there. Another reason to make the workplace so stressful is to increasing competition caused by globalisation.

Many small and medium-sized enterprises in developing countries need to compete with other multinationals and firms where the labour price is cheaper. The consequence of this on staff is that if the company they work for fails they realize they will be made redundant. This compel the employees not only to work longer hours but also endure from work-related stress and unpredictability. Many days, managers are setting expectations for the workers of most companies and most of the expectations are hard to accomplish. Employees are often expected to work over 10 hours a day, often even on days off. Ultimately, the aspirations of the employees from the workplaces have hit a higher level and people are able to risk their personal life for the sake of promotions. This change in mind configuration has also been due to the rising burden on the job.

Despite the higher competition in business, employers should maintain a better working environment that supports their workers socially and financially in order to sustain in the long run. Without interactions and committed workers and company cannot thrive and the fear of change cannot guarantee a safe workforce. Employers should only allow workers to work the normal hours and work overtime where necessary. Employers should also motivate better performing people and give them awards for their performance. The workers should be permitted to take breaks and should not suffer from anxiety of losing jobs. Finally, employers should be friendly to the employees and have meetings to listen to their problem. If the employer can convince the workers that they are able to support each other and protect their jobs, so they can expect stronger production from the workers.

To sum up, it’s a fact that these days, work is more stressful and it takes longer hours. There are several steps employers might do to fix the issue, and one of them is supplying workers with gym facilities to reduce their anxiety levels. Another thing is that employers could also recruit unpaid internships to assist employees, as the working hours would be reduced.

IQ Versus EQ

IQ (Intelligence quotient or Cognitive intelligence)

IQ, or intelligence quotient, is an inborn ability and it measures the general intelligence. They can learn, understand and implement knowledge, perform logical reasoning and abstract thinking. IQ is the intellectual ability to manage ideas, knowledge and thoughts.IQ represents abilities such as: Visual and spatial processing , Knowledge of the world ,Working memory , Quantitative & logical reasoning.

EQ ( Emotional Intelligence)

EQ is…  Self Awareness ,  Self Confidence , Interpersonal Skills and  Social Competence

EQ is the ability to manage relationships with other people.EQ is centered on abilities such as:

  • Identifying emotions
  • Controlling one’s own emotions
  • Perceiving how others feel
  • Using emotions to facilitate social communication
  • Using Empathy – to relate to others

EQ refers to an individual’s level of emotional intelligence, which is represented by scores obtained in a standardized test. It is a learned and improved ability.

Measurement of EQ

Meanwhile, EQ assessments test different aspects of emotional intelligence: emotional literacy, empathy, intrinsic motivation and how we navigate emotions. Some school counsellors may suggest an EQ test for a child who is struggling socially, to determine which skills to work on.Just like with IQ scores, an EQ score of 100 is considered average; 115 is awesome, but 85 indicates there are some challenges.

There are a number of instruments that seek to “measure” emotional intelligence, including the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test or MSCEIT.

Unlike IQ, which is static, EQ can increase. But to really develop and master those skills, a child may need explicit teaching and practice.


5 Components of Emotional Quotient

When considering emotional intelligence, we look both internally and externally. EQ considers how we think about ourselves and how we think about and act toward others.The three internal hallmarks of emotional intelligence pertinent to self are:

  • Self-awareness is the the ability to identify your own emotions and their impact.
  • Self-regulation is the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods to suspend judgement and think before acting. In practice, it is your ability to influence your emotional clarity.
  • Motivation is to go beyond the external drive for knowledge to pursue goals with energy and persistence.

Externally, EQ is a measure of what goes on between you and others.

  • Social-awareness is the ability to recognize and understand the emotions of others and react appropriately Social-regulation is your ability to influence the emotional clarity of others through a proficiency in managing relationships and building networks. relationship management (the ability to influence and connect with others).

Emotional intelligence is measured using 5-major components and 15-subcomponents:1. Intrapersonal Skills (ability to understand and apply personal emotions) – Self Regard ,Emotional Self Awareness ,Assertiveness , Independence ,SelfActualization

 2. Interpersonal Skills (people skills) –  Empathy ,Social Responsibility ,Interpersonal Relationships ,3. Stress Management (ability to handle challenges) –  Stress Tolerance , Impulse Control

4. Adaptability (Ability to react quickly, appropriately, and efficiently to change) – Reality Testing , flexibility ,Problem Solving,5. General Mood – Optimism To a great extent, each of the five domains represents sets of habit and responses that are learned, and so can be improved with appropriate effort

Exemplary qualities of people with high EQ

They are called as “people smart” for their extra-ordinary interpersonal skills and are good communicators.The emotionally intelligent child is also one who can verbalise her own emotions accurately, regulate them and control reactions to them( think of ways to defuse her feelings rather than throw a book against the wall.) A child with a high EQ can also handle more complex social situations and build meaningful friendships, in part because of that ability to relate to or empathize with peers.

As a kid grows into a teen and then an adult, EQ becomes tied to internal motivation , governs how emotions impact decision making, to make her cope with stress, solve problems and pursue goals.

Many companies hire for entry-level positions based on IQ, then promote people based on EQ. You need to have a brilliant IQ to be a good engineer, but to be a leader of engineers, your EQ matters more than your IQ.People with high emotional intelligence are likely to be doing well, to be effective at work, to have strong relationships, good health and a high quality of life.

What matters is how you’re able to “connect with, understand and inspire other people”. He believes emotional intelligence enables you to demonstrate humility, making people naturally inclined to help you succeed. It also fosters resilience and grit, which empower you to overcome fear of failure and take risks for future success.

When you have the IQ to make good intellectual decisions and the EQ to build relationships with those around you, the sky is the limit.Leaders, Captains, Managers and people with social challenges tend to be more emotionally intelligent. high-EQ students are more co-operative and make better leaders in the classroom. get along with people in progressively collaborative workplaces.

Raise your EQ?

 EQ can be raised by recognizing  and naming the emotions we feel , understand why you feel that way , and distinguish between feelings and actions . It can also done by motivating oneself when considering how to productively harness your feelings, practice some emotional self-control  ,recognizing emotions in others and sensitive to other people’s feelings and listen well.

It is a good practice to manage emotions and accept your feelings, but find a balance between over-sensitivity or over-expression and emotional suppression .While handling relationships – Being perceptive, applying conflict management skills instead of ignoring conflict, and being considerate and cooperative . Lighten up the situation by learning to see the humor in difficult situations and use it to smooth over differences. It can be done by resolving conflict positively by choosing your arguments, staying focused in the present, and be prepared to forgive or end conflicts that can’t be resolved.

Can Emotional Intelligence Be Learned?

Some strategies for teaching emotional intelligence include offering character education, modeling positive behaviors, encouraging people to think about how others are feeling, and finding ways to be more empathetic toward others.

Emotional literacy is the term used to describe the naming and managing feelings and learning to respond to others’ emotions appropriately.“Kids learn to understand the social world through storytelling—it helps them relate to a situation and learn how to handle events and emotions,” it’s learning to be aware of their own feelings, to express those feelings, to be able to get along with other kids,  to be responsible”

Modelling EQ begins at home

Parents begin teaching emotional literacy to their kids from infancy. “One of the things that’s really important in the early years is for children to be able to understand how they’re feeling and to be able to put words to those feelings rather than acting out,” says Chapman.

Emotional intelligence can be developed over time, free of age limit, with the condition that it is provided the necessary attention and effort to it. It is vital for overall success and is a flexible skill set that can be nurtured, it seems prudent for parents to teach emotional literacy to children from infancy.

The final words :

Researchers have shown that our success at work or in life depends on Emotional Intelligence 80% and only20% of intellect.IQ makes up only 20 percent of the factors that determine life success, while other forces, such as EQ, wealth, temperament, family education levels and pure luck make up the balance. That means cognitive skills—verbal comprehension, memory, reasoning and processing speed—will help academically, but they will only get a person so far in life. To really go the distance, those IQ traits should be rounded out with social-emotional skills like motivation, perseverance, impulse control and coping mechanisms .

To gain extensive knowledge about this topic, please check the following link



What is cryptocurrency – the cryptocurrency is the digital assets based on a network that is the distributed across a large number of computers. This decentralization structure allows them to exists outside the control of government and central authorities. A cryptocurrency is a digital or virtual currency designed to work as a medium of exchange. Their are market ranking, and more. which in one of the-

1. Bitcoin is the crypto business take off the industries till waiting for regulation. Bitcoin rises during pandemic situation of 14% to performing assets of 2020 again.

The internet, when it rose to global consciousness and became an over get in amount of harbinger and industry, created enormous value in disrupting existing practices and building chapter, more accurate and efficient systems, Its advent promised much in term of decentralization and democratizing access to information, value service. It promised to remove barrier and middlemen, vastly reduce operational and logistic costs in so many ways.

In this article, i will explain the three main types of coins in cryptocurrency are the Bitcoin, Altcoins and Tokens. By the end of this guide and as well the before going to learning about the type of cryptocurrency. it’s important to understand what cryptocurrency is If you already feel too.

BITCOIN ECONOMY WORK – The bitcoin generate by the users transfer. The latest disruption, blockchain, and with it, the rise of cryptocurrencies show the way to the next stage , by creating decentralization computer or etc application.

2. RIPPLE(XRP) – Ripple was released in 2012 that acts as both cryptocurrency and digital payment network for financial transaction. It is a global set network that is designed to create a fast as well secure also.

3. LITECOIN – light coin was launched by 2011 as alternatively bitcoin. like other cryptocurrency litecoin is open source payment network that is completely not center authorities.

4. Ethereum – this is created by the in the 2015. Ethereum cryptocurrency that is an a open source based on a blockchain technology while tracking ownership of a digital currency transaction, the blockchain are also focus on the running by the programming codes on any decentralization applications.

5. Zcash – this was a digital currency and that was a build on the original bitcoin code and it was build a decentralization blockchain. A core chain feature and different of zcash is an emphasis on privacy. While not a function available to investors on equity Trusts. Zcash without the closing the sender, receiver the amount.

6. Stellar Lumen – steller lumen as an intermediate currency that was facilitates currency exchange. stellar a user allow a user send any currency they own to someone in different currency. Jed McCaleb founded the open source network steller creat the network native currency in 2014.

There was a time when you could the number and types of cryptocurrency on one hand. The today’s are their was no possible longer. The cryptocurrency market has grown, grown some more.

The available of over the internet of 19 August over by the $550 billion of the value wiped off cryptocurrency since their record just changes that’s why the cryptocurrency is used by more applications.

Free Spine for those who don’t have one!


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On Prima facie, this matrimonial advertisement published in a daily national newspaper bears testimony to the fact that marriage in Indian society has undergone a transformation. But while going deep into the root of the matter, we find out that no matter how marriage proposals have undergone a transformation, from arranged one to advertisement to the online matrimonial application, dowry system which is not seen in any of the forms but is still under the practice of ‘give and take.’ In many societies, the union of souls is not the sole criterion for marriage, rather dowry plays the role of ‘requisite criteria.’

So what is dowry? Dowry is the money, goods or estate that a woman brings to a marriage. In a court judgement “The Dowry Prohibition Act 1961’’ legal definition of dowry is defined as:-
“Dowry” in the sense of the expression contemplated by Dowry Prohibition Act is a demand for property or valuable security having an inextricable nexus with the marriage, i.e., it is a consideration from the side of the bride’s parents or relatives to the groom or his parents and/or guardian for the agreement to wed the bride-to-be.

Although Dowry is illegal in India by the Dowry Prevention Act 1961, it is still prevalent and widely practised in many societies.
Pertaining to the history of the dowry system in India different scholars claim different things based on interpretation of ancient Sanskrit fiction and inconsistent smritis from India. The Shastras, the reservoirs of Indian culture and heritage is replete with references to the practices of dowry. The marriage hymns of Rigveda and Atharveda are its instances. The Smritis have recognized the right forms of marriage. It was only in Brahmin marriage and the gifts to be given in dowry were left entirely at the discretion by the bride’s father.
Al-Biruni further claims that a daughter, in 11th century India had legal right to inherit from her father, but only a fourth part of her brother. The daughter took this inheritance amount with her when she is married, claimed Al-Biruni, and she had no rights to take income from her parents after her marriage or to any additional inheritance after her father’s death. If her father died before her marriage, her guardian would first pay off her father’s debt, then allocate a fourth of the remaining wealth to her upkeep till she is ready to wed, and then give the rest to her to take along with herself after her marriage. (source: Wikipedia)

The idea behind the dowry system was very clear. Brides’ parents used to give money, land, assets, to the bride as a gift or blessing. But when British Rule came into the picture, they restricted women to own any property. Women were not allowed to buy any property, land, or assets. This leaves women dependent upon their husbands and in-laws, who keep the dowry when she marries. In 1956, India gave equal legal status to daughters and sons among Hindu, Sikh and Jain families, under the Hindu Succession Act (India grants its Muslim population the Sharia derived personal status laws). Despite the new inheritance law, dowry has continued as a process whereby parental property is distributed to a daughter at her marriage.

The magnitude of the problem of dowry today is to be assessed not only on the basis of money/goods, land etc given by brides family but also on grounds of reported cases of different forms of violence on a bride. These outbreaks of violence vary from burning of brides, cruelty, domestic violence against women, abetment to suicide, dowry murder, female infanticide and many more.
Although there are laws and acts which makes practising dowry illegal.

This legislation came into force from 1 July 1961. This act prohibits the practice, request, payment or acceptance of a dowry by either party to a marriage. This law also punishes demanding and advertising dowry. Any violation of the act leads to imprisonment up to 5 years plus fine of up to Rs 15000 or the value of the dowry given, whichever is true.

There are also sections in IPC that deal with dowry like:-
Section 304B
It is related to dowry deaths
Stipulates that death of a woman within 7 years of her marriage by burns or bodily injury with evidence of cruelty or harassment by her husband or his relatives in connection with dowry demand is ‘dowry death’ and punishable with imprisonment for not less than 7 years.

Section 406
Related to the recovery of streedhan (It is what a woman claim as her own property within a marital household. It may include jewellery, gifts, and dowry articles.)
It is Non-bailable and cognizable offence.

Section 498A
For any act of cruelty, imprisonment of husband or his relative for up to 3 years plus fine.
It is also Non-bailable and Non-compoundable(once a case is lodged there can’t be a compromise)

Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act,2005
It was passed in order to provide a civil law remedy for the protection of women from domestic violence in India.
It encompasses all forms of physical, verbal, emotional, economic and sexual abuse and forms a subset of the anti-dowry laws to the extent it is one of the reasons for domestic violence.

Despite such stringent laws and acts which are in force, Dowry practice is prevailing. In 2019, 913 cases pertaining to dowry deaths have been reported. And this is the number of reported cases. In Bengaluru, only the number of cases filed under the Dowry Prohibition Act witnessed a rise from 690 in 2018 to 739 in 2019.

Consequences of the dowry system
This system of dowry has solidified its root in our society that it is seen as a form of prestige in Indian marriages. The more dowry means more respect to the grooms family. Dowry or the amount of money given as dowry is proportional to the groom’s income. It is very clear that dowry is creating violence. Apart from this, sometimes brides’ parents have to lend money to give a huge amount of money demanded as dowry by the groom’s side. There are other ill consequences also like:-
Low Women Literacy:- In many cases girls are not allowed to pursue higher education after 12th or graduation because of the ill mentality that they have to take care of the family after marriage and from where the capital is going to be arranged for her marriage if all savings will be invested in her education.
Female Foeticide:- In the avarice of dowry, and because our society gives more preference to the boys, female foeticide takes place. Although Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal gender screening or testing are illegal in India by Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994.
Gender Discrimination:- Dowry coupled with female foeticide is the leading reason to gender discrimination and low sex ratio in India.
Violence against women:- Domestic violence, marital rape, physical and verbal abuse, torturing of women etc. There are many forms of violence which took place and still unreported either due to lack of knowledge or suppressed voices because few women try to save the sanctity of marriage which never really existed.

It should also be noted here that there are also false cases of harassments reported and these laws and acts are being misused as it happened in case of Nisha Sharma Dowry case in which IPC 498A was misused. But this does not show that every case or violence pertaining to dowry is false or fabricated.

So, Dowry is the tool of harassment and inhuman expression out of the coalescence of processes and relationship which are degrading women turning them into commodities. The central message of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that “all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and honour” only echoes a hollow concern. Be it in democracy or dictatorship, war or peace, women’s rights have been violated daily, systematically. Their freedom, dignity and parity are persistently compromised by law and customs.

The dowry system developed from India’s inheritance laws in which it is the mentality of people that Dowry is a form of inheritance which the bride brings along with her to the groom family. Law and acts should be made enforceable on the ground, not on paper only.
All groom need to take a step up and say “NO” to dowry as they can be a milestone in abolishing this dowry system. Boys need to convince their parents that they will not take dowry. They should have the confidence to earn for their living.
Parents must educate their daughters so that they can have dignity and become self-dependent or start earning which will make them financially stable and courageous. A well-educated girl will also be able to compete against any turmoil or raise her voice against the mishaps.
All the expenses of marriage must be shared by both families according to their own capability.
People must give encouragement to simple marriages without taking/giving dowry.
Dowry is a social stigma that can be removed with all our contributions and awareness. It will take time to abolish but it can happen if preferred.

There is a very well known quote- “There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of a woman is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing.
There is no hope for that family or country where there is no estimation of women, where they live in sadness. For this reason, they have to be raised first.”
– Swami Vivekanand.

Toxic positivity

You must have heard people telling you to stay positive when you are going through hard times or maybe you must have heard yourself giving advice to others about how staying positive can help them. Being positive is essential to get through life but too much of it can sometimes do more damage than good. Excessive of anything can be harmful. As much as everyone believes in the undeniable power of positivity, it can take a toxic turn when we try to use it to hide the negative situations. It is a very normal human experience to face the hardships along with the good stuff but trying to negate your true feelings goes against any sort of development.

Over sweetening of positivity comes at a price of hiding one’s true emotions. Since it is always encouraged to stay positive and be happy all the time, we miss the fact that feeling sad is one of the most basic human emotions and should not be sidelined under false happiness. This only builds guilt towards one’s own emotions. Being on the receiving end of someone’s feel good quotes can be annoying at times. Sometimes you just want to and need to face the reality. This should also hold true when you are the one giving advice to someone. You telling someone to think positive doesn’t help anyone. It just creates resentment and feels as if you are minimizing someone’s experiences. Telling someone to look at the brighter side of the situation should also not be your first response when someone confides in you. Try to be emotionally supportive.

It is also apparently believed that there is some shame attached to feeling certain emotions or letting them out in the form of crying. The only reply we get is to man up and stop being a crybaby. In order to avoid this, we end up braving and portraying a false front. Suppressing or hiding these emotions lead to more stress and can erupt in a harmful manner. It makes one end up creating a fake persona for themselves. It creates pressure to be or act in a certain way around some particular people.

In order to lose this toxic positive attitude, try listening to people’s emotions and feelings rather than brushing them off. Tell them that even though you may not be able to provide solution for their problems, you will still be with them or even ask them what they need.

Being a healthy person requires being conscious of one’s emotions as well as others. Being overly positive can be harmful to you as well as to those around you. So cut the chain of toxic positivity but don’t dwell in sadness either. Set healthy boundaries for yourself and don’t let anyone, including yourself belittle your experiences.

Air Pollution and COVID-19

The nationwide LOCK-DOWN due to the pandemic has led to a drastic decline of NO2 emissions and reduced air pollution levels. It’s important that this is maintained even after the LOCK-DOWN lifts

In the middle of the devastating Covid-19 pandemic, an inimitable positive has been the significant global decrease in air pollution levels. Primarily, experts have measured nitrogen dioxide (NO2), one of the six major air pollutants (in addition to particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, ground-level ozone, and lead). NO2 has, like most other gases, natural and human sources.

Natural sources include lightning, oceans, and volcanoes. But, in urban regions, natural sources of NO2 account for a small fraction of the total NO2 levels; as per a 2005 report by Australia’s Department of the Environment and Heritage, natural sources of NO2 only account for 1 per cent of overall NO2 levels in cities. Human activity is almost entirely accountable for NO2 emissions in urban regions, with road transport being the chief cause. Planes, power plants and ships, all of which burn fossil fuels, are also notable human sources of NO2. Given this, it’s unsurprising that during the stringent global lock-downs, NO2 levels have dropped significantly in urban areas, especially in India’s densely populated cities.

Satellite imagery from the European Space Agency’s Copernicus Sentinel 5P satellite measure NO2 levels globally. These measurements correctly reflect emissions sources, because unlike other gases that can travel a considerable distance from where they’re emitted, NO2 has a short lifespan and dies before it can move very far. In other words, if the Sentinel 5P satellite captures a hotspot of NO2 over Delhi, it’s highly likely it was emitted from within Delhi’s vicinity. Satellite imagery is, therefore, a highly authentic tool for measuring NO2 emissions, specially if data with high levels of cloud coverage is precluded.

The global decreases in NO2 levels were first seen in China, where levels plummeted dramatically following the strict quarantine measures enforced in late January. As countries in Europe and North America followed China’s lead in late February and March, akin trends have been observed globally. India’s nationwide lockdown, in particular, has had remarkable effects on air pollution levels. With citizens quarantined at home, road transportation and power plant operations have come to a grinding halt, and pollution levels across the country, especially in typically smoggy cities, have fallen to dramatic lows.

Dramatic decrease

In Delhi’s metropolitan area, pollution levels have dropped most dramatically; NO2 levels from March 25 (the day quarantine began) to May 2 have averaged 90 µmol/m2 compared to 162 µmol/m2 from March 1 to March 24. In 2019, NO2 levels from March 25 to May 2 were also over this year’s levels, averaging 158 µmol/m2.

In Greater Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, akin trend has been observed as NO2 levels from March 25 to May 2 averaged 77 µmol/m2 compared to 117 µmol/m2 from March 1 to March 24.

In almost all other big Indian cities, similar drops in NO2 levels are evident, highlighting the national scale of India’s lockdown.

The country-wide drop in NO2 emissions during this lockdown has significant immediate consequences. Exposure to high levels of NO2 has substantial detrimental effects on human health. Short-term exposure to high levels of NO2 can result in worsened coughing, aggravation of existing respiratory diseases (asthma), and hospitalization, while longer-term exposure can lead to the development of asthma and increase one’s susceptibility to respiratory diseases.

Many researchers have hypothesized that the drop in air pollution levels may presently be saving a notable amount of lives, not only by reducing individuals’ vulnerability to Covid-19, but also by averting some of the world’s seven million annual deaths due to air pollution exposure. Yet, the dangerously high levels of NO2 in many urban areas before Covid-19 has probably resulted in far more virus deaths compared to the lives saved by this current drop in emissions. The pandemic and the subsequent decreases in air pollution levels due to the quarantine have illuminated a severe issue regarding ongoing high levels of air pollution.

Going forward

The terrifying reality is that despite human activity essentially coming to a complete standstill, current estimates suggest that carbon dioxide (CO2) levels will only decrease by roughly 5.5 per cent in 2020 compared to 2019. To put this in perspective, to meet the goal of limiting the global increase in temperature to 1.5oC, which many experts agree would stave off the worst effects of climate change, global CO2 emissions would need to decrease by 7.6 per cent each year. Similarly, air pollution and NO2 levels are expected to rise to their normal unhealthy levels when quarantines are lifted.

It’s crucial that when India’s lockdown inevitably ends, and people return to their normal routines, they aren’t forced to revert to their old behaviors. To make the current drops in air pollution levels long lasting, serious policy change needs to be passed. The reduction in road transport and the corresponding decrease in air pollution have illuminated that gas-powered cars are key drivers of air pollution. Electrifying transport, expanding public transportation, building more bike lanes, and finding other ways to incentivise people to ditch their cars would dramatically reduce India’s emissions from its primary human source of air pollution. It’s also important that these electric vehicles, and India’s cities more widely, are powered by clean sources of energy rather than fossil fuels.

It’s ironic that this devastating respiratory virus has illuminated another respiratory crisis.

Northeast: The unexplored beauty

Northeast is the collective name of the easternmost states of India. It comprises of 8 culturally and ecologically rich states. It comprises of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. These states are also know as ‘The seven sisters’ and Sikkim being the only brother.
If you are a travel geek, visit to the Northeast must top your bucket list. Each state is very different from each other, yet so similar. Each state can mesmerise you with its beauty. This part of India is so raw and pure, in comparison to the rest of the country and this makes it even more special.
Introduction to each state
Arunachal Pradesh
The land of rising sun, Arunachal Pradesh, is characterized by mountainous ranges and sub mountainous ranges along the northern part. This state is truly diverse in terms of its culture. Arunachal Pradesh has 26 major tribes and multiple sub-tribes. People of Arunachal Pradesh speak over 50 dialects. Arunachal Pradesh is a green gold. Because of the variation in altitude and climatic condition, it has tropical, subtropical and temperate forest.

Assam is a northeastern state popular for its wildlife, archaeological site and tea plantation. Assam is also known for its temples, especially the Kamakhya Temple. The world’s largest river island, Majuli, and the smallest river island, Umananda, are both located in this state. The culture of Assam is a rich and exotic tapestry. Natives of this state are known as Asomiya (Assamese) and it is also the state language of Assam. Weaving is an important part of Assamese culture. Gamocha is one of most easily recognisable cultural symbol, besides many.

Manipur is situated in the eastern frontier of India. Physically Manipur comprises of two parts, hills and valleys. The valley is centred surrounded by hills on all sides. The state has a forest canopy ranging from thickly dense forest to moderately dense forest to open forest. The cultural expression and art form of this state is famous worldwide. Manipuri dance whether folk or classical, is distinct from any other form.

Meghalaya is a hilly state in northeast India. This area is geographically rich, with mountains, stretches of valley and Highland plateau. Mawsynram, Cherrapunji in Meghalaya is the wettest place of earth. Shillong, the capital of Meghalaya is known as the rock capital of India. The forest in Meghalaya are among the richest botanical habitat in Asia. Meghalaya’s forest host 660 species of birds.

The state with highest literacy rate in Northeast is Mizoram. Among the northeastern states, it is the southern most landlocked state. Mizoram is the state of rolling hills, valleys, rivers and lakes. Traditional festivals in this region revolve around jhum cultivation. This state has several dance forms, including, Cheraw, Khuallam, Chheihlam, Chai.

Nagaland is largely a mountainous state. It is 16th state of India on 1st December 1963. The state has a monsoon climate with high humidity levels. Nagaland, just like all other northeastern state, is high in flora and fauna. Mithun is the state animal and has also adopted as the official seal of the Government of Nagaland. Music and dance is an intrinsic part of Naga life. The Hornbill festival celebrated in Kohima, capital of Nagaland, is famous worldwide.

Sikkim is the only northeastern state which is not a part of ‘seven sisters’. It host Kanchenjunga, the highest peak of India and third highest in the world. Sikkim climate ranges from sub tropical in the south to tundra in the north. Sikkim is one of the few states of India to receive snow fall. The state is situated in the ecological hotspot of the Lower Himalayas, one of the only three ecoregions of India.

Tripura is the third most smallest state in the country. The state is characterized by hill ranges, valleys and plains. Tripura has a typical savanna climate. Unakoti in Tripura is popular worldwide. Multiple folklore are famous about Unakoti.

Latest Government Schemes

Hey Readers, let’s go through some of the schemes launched by the Government of India in the year 2020. The main purpose of these schemes is to address the social and economic welfare of the society.

  1. Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan 

The Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan was announced in four tranches by the Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman in May 2020. It aims to take India in the position of becoming self-reliant. The economic stimulus relief package announced by the government is touted to be worth Rs.20 Lakh crores. This amount is almost 10% of India’s GDP. This includes the already announced Rs 1.70 lakh crore relief package, as the PMGKY, for the poor to overcome difficulties caused by the coronavirus pandemic and the lockdown imposed to check its spread.

This scheme was based on 5 pillars that included economy, infrastructure, demographics, technology and demand. The relief package emphasized on land, labour, laws and liquidity.

For more details about the relief package, you can go to: https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/atmanirbhar-bharat-abhiyan/.

2. Pradhan Mantri Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana

This a Central Sector Scheme which is administered by the Cooperation & Farmers Welfare, Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare and Government of India in partnership with Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC).

LIC is the Pension Fund Manager for PM Kisan Maan-Dhan Yojana that provides an assured monthly pension of Rs. 3000/- to all the farmers after the age of 60 years. This scheme was introduced with an aim to secure the lives of around 3 crores small and marginal farmers in India.

3. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY)

The Scheme is available to people in the age group 18 to 70 years with a bank account who give their consent to join / enable auto-debit on or before 31st May for the coverage period 1st June to 31st May on an annual renewal basis. Aadhar would be the primary KYC for the bank account. The risk coverage under the scheme is Rs. 2 lakh for accidental death and full disability and Rs. 1 lakh for partial disability.

The premium of Rs.12 per annum is to be deducted from the account holder’s bank account through ‘auto-debit’ facility in one instalment. The scheme is being offered by Public Sector General Insurance Companies or any other General Insurance Company who are willing to offer the product on similar terms with necessary approvals and tie up with banks for this purpose. As on 31st March, 2019, cumulative gross enrolment reported by Banks subject to verification of eligibility, etc. is over 15.47 crore under PMSBY. A total of 40,749 Claims were registered under PMSBY of which 32,176 have been disbursed.

For more information, refer to: https://financialservices.gov.in/new-initiatives/schemes

4. Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

APY was launched on 9th May, 2015 by the Prime Minister. APY is open to all saving bank/post office saving bank account holders in the age group of 18 to 40 years and the contributions differ, based on pension amount chosen.  Subscribers would receive the guaranteed minimum monthly pension of Rs. 1,000 or Rs. 2,000 or Rs. 3,000 or Rs. 4,000 or Rs. 5,000 at the age of 60 years. Under APY, the monthly pension would be available to the subscriber, and after him to his spouse and after their death, the pension corpus, as accumulated at age 60 of the subscriber, would be returned to the nominee of the subscriber.


Kitna achha hota agar acid bikta hi nai, bikta hi nai to phir fikta bhi nai!!” – Chhapak

This famous dialogue from a Bollywood movie clearly depicts the pain and hopelessness of a victim when she was being attacked for nothing but denial. It clearly shows how insensitive and callous we have become as a society.

Acid attack is one of the most gruesome and brutal crime. Most of the acid attack victims are women. Men have also been the preys, but they’re minimal in numbers compared to the women. Section 326A & 326B in the Indian Penal Code (IPC) lays down the punishment for acid attacks. The minimum punishment is 10 years’ imprisonment which can be extended up to life imprisonment along with a penalty. But this punishment is not enough for such criminal minds who think it is okay to distribute, torture or kill an innocent person if she is refusing his so-called lusty love, or they can’t digest a marriage refusal. Conflicts regarding property or land disputes have also been reported as reasons for acid attacks. Attacks against individuals are also based on their religion and religious beliefs or socio-political activities.

The crime data for 2018 from the National Crime Bureau (NCRB) exhibits, the cases of acid attacks are constantly being transferred and delayed even though there are fast-track courts to handle these cases but unfortunately they do not seem fast enough!

Why do they take months and years to pronounce a decision?
Why can’t they declare the verdict in such cases as soon as possible? So that the attackers at least fear the law before committing such heinous crime.

If nearly 90% of cases in a year are being transferred for trial to the following year, how can a survivor get justice or can even hope for it?
This is shown by the data; in Indian courts, 523 cases were slated for trial in 2018 which are adding to the 407 cases in 2016 and 442 in 2017. Many such cases of acid attacks occur but never get filed because in multiple cases, settlements are done outside the courts or several other factors come into play like class, caste, power, religion, etc.

The percentage of cases that the courts cleared out of the cases that went for the trial, was 6.6% (27 cases out of 407) in 2016; 9.9% (44 cases out of 442) in 2017 and 6.11% (32 cases out of 523) in 2018 respectively.
The total number of cases of acid attacks that police investigated dropped consistently- 196 cases in 2016, 182 in 2017 and 150 in 2018.
While the attempt to commit such sin has increased in the last three years. The growth of the conviction rate is almost negligible. 2.45 per cent cases in 2016, 3.39 per cent in 2017 and 3.36 per cent in 2018 respectively.
Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal have been reporting the most number of acid attack cases in between 2016 and 2018 as per the NCRB data.

India, the country with the most number of acid attacks has the least number of convictions, even less than 5%. At least one case of acid attack takes place daily in India.
Supreme Court has ordered all the state governments to regulate the sale of acid in an attempt to stop or at least reduce these crimes. The court said that acid should not be sold to anyone below the age of 18, and that too only to the person who shows a valid identity card. And if anyone doesn’t follow the rules it will be a non-bailable offence. But all these rules and regulations are found to be just in paper. Anyone can still walk into a store and purchases a bottle of acid. The non-bailable charges also have loopholes through which the attackers get through easily and roam around freely while the victims undergo reconstructive surgeries and are bound to visit hospitals after hospitals.
The pathetic thing is that with a bottle of liquid that would cost a demon just Rs.10, he can degrade anyone’s life within seconds.

‘Scotland of the East’

Situated in one of the Seven Sisters Of India (seven states), Shillong is the capital of Meghalaya state in country’s northeastern region. There are as a matter of fact numerous similarities between this place and Scotland, and this is reason why Shillong is called Scotland of the East. Moreover to prove that the naming is indeed done appropriately, here are a few points that justify it.

Though, each place has it’s own unique charm, but let’s just have some fun wondering about the similarities for the time being.

1. FIRST, the striking similarity between landscapes is actually a major reason behind the naming

Glen etive in Scottish Highlands

Shillong’s terrain is adorned with rolling and sky soaring hills bestowed with lush greenery. Most times, you can browse through pictures of both Scotland and Shillong, and you will actually get your mind baffled wondering which photograph is of which place! On a cloudy day the mist-laden pasturage look nothing less than a paradise.

2. The meandering roads amidst valleys make way for that ultimate road trip you’ve been dreaming of

Shillong Pass

The road to Mawlynnong, Cherrapunji, and the curvaceous road of the Shillong Bypass surely do allure just experienced drivers. You’d anyway rather sit at the backseat, so you can keek out of the window, let your hair flutter with the breeze, as the Himalayas unfold mesmerizing panorama before you.

3. Everyday is fun with cultural extravaganza

Culture in Shillong

The rich, colorful culture of Shillong makes it stick out. Just like the Scottish people, the tribes feel delight in presenting folk performances, and it’s fascinating to sit back and witness. You can also be a part of the act and join them as they are on it, but make sure you’re not spoiling the fun for others too. If not performances, you’ll be bewitched by handicrafts, tribal attires, and of course traditions. For a culture vulture, the perfect way to get an understanding of locals’ lifestyle is by staying in homestays.

4. The Scottish Highlands and the hills of Shillong razzle-dazzle with roaring waterfalls

Waterfall in Shillong

When you’re travelling through the valleys of Scotland and Shillong, be prepared to come upon random glistening waterfalls, especially if you’re visiting in the monsoon season.

5. The lakes of Scotland and Shillong hold stunning resemblance

Lake in Shillong

Alongside roaring waterfalls, Shillong and Scotland are embellished with lakes that are encircled with rolling hills. You can sit by for some time, or espouse this beautiful moment by boating on the lake. Keep aside any electrical device for a little while and just inhale the enticement in front of your eyes.

6. Many regions are undisturbed by heavy tourist crowd

Mist in Shillong

Even though Shillong in Meghalaya is a major tourist attraction in Northeast India, but you will come across a commendable balance when it comes to crowded attractions. There are numerous places in this place where you can pitch in your tent and connect with nature. Such is the natural beauty of this place.

7. The music festival scenario in Shillong is equally spellbinding as the Scottish one!

Music festival in Shillong

Scotland might be hosting some stunning music festivals, but believe me, Shillong will have your jaws drop too! The NH7 Weekender is a music festival which is one of India’s most awaited events. Famed artists like A.R Rahman, Steven Wilson, Farhan Akhtar and Fear Factory have performed in the festival.

We can come up with many similarities between Scotland and Shillong to justify its naming, but we believe, that the beauty of this beautiful Indian hill-station is one-of-a-kind, and that it cannot be compared with any other place in the world.

Introduction to share market

Share market is the market place where the shares of different companies will be listed and purchased and sold among different buyers and sellers.companies will bring their shares to the stock market through the IPO which means Initial Public Offering where company will first time sells its shares to the open public. When company need additional capital or Fund required then company will go for the IPO so the share will be listed. If the companies share is listed then only public can purchase that particular companies share in share market. Share market has its own time and working days which is depend on different countries. In working days only one can purchase and sell the shares.


India, home to one-sixth of all humanity, holds the key to the success of the 2030 Agenda. India in its second VNR has made a paradigm shift to a “whole-of-society” approach with Government of India engaging sub-national and local governments, civil society organizations, local communities, people in vulnerable situations and the private sector.

India’s commitment to the SDGs is reflected in its convergence with the national development agenda as reflected in the motto of Sabka Saath Sabka Vikaas (Collective Efforts for Inclusive Growth). Based on the evidence from the SDG India Index, which measures progress at the subnational level, the country has developed a robust SDG localization model centered on adoption, implementation and monitoring at the State and district levels.

The following narrative further encapsulates India’s progress across the SDGs.

Sashakt Bharat – Sabal Bharat (Empowered and Resilient India): India has successfully lifted more than 271 million people out of multidimensional poverty through economic growth and empowerment. Enhanced access to nutrition, child health, education, sanitation, drinking water, electricity and housing, has led to reduced inequalities especially among people in vulnerable situations.

Swachh Bharat – Swasth Bharat (Clean and Healthy India): Through a nationwide initiative triggered by the Clean India Campaign and the National Nutrition Mission, India achieved 100% rural sanitation and sharp reduction in stunting and child and maternal mortality rates. Universal health coverage has been institutionalized through Ayushmaan Bharat, the world’s largest health protection scheme which provides an annual cover of USD 7,000 to 100 million families, covering nearly 500 million individuals.

India is at the forefront in the call for joint global action to address the COVID-19 pandemic. The country has extended medical assistance to several countries and has operationalized the SAARC COVID-19 Emergency Fund with an initial contribution of USD 10 million. Domestically, India’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic includes an initial USD 22.5 billion economic stimulus package, comprehensive health coverage for front-line workers and direct cash transfers for the most vulnerable.

Samagra Bharat – Saksham Bharat (Inclusive and Entrepreneurial India): Social inclusion is pursued through universalizing access to nutrition, health, education, social protection, and developing capabilities for entrepreneurship and employment. Financial inclusion through Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile (JAM) trinity – near universal access to bank accounts aided by the Jan Dhan Yojana (National Financial Inclusion Scheme); Aadhaar card (National unique identity number) for over 90% of the population; and expansive access to mobile phones, has propelled new avenues of credit, insurance, and Direct Benefit Transfers (DBT) to the poor, including to over 200 million women, thereby accelerating their economic empowerment.

Satat Bharat – Sanatan Bharat (Sustainable India): India’s climate action strategies call for clean and efficient energy systems, disaster resilient infrastructure, and planned eco-restoration. Acting on its nationally-determined contributions, India has electrified 100% of its villages, reduced 38 million tonnes of CO2 emissions annually through energy efficient appliances, provided clean cooking fuel to 80 million poor households, and set a target to install 450GW of renewable energy and restore 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030. Globally, India stands third in renewable power, fourth in wind power, and fifth in solar power. India launched the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure and the International Solar Alliance to leverage global partnerships for climate action and disaster resilience.

Sampanna Bharat- Samriddh Bharat (Prosperous and Vibrant India): India is one of the fastest growing emerging market economies with a young population and burgeoning innovation and business ecosystem. With a GDP of USD 2.72 trillion in 2018-19, India strives to become a USD 5 trillion economy by 2025, and pursue an inclusive and sustainable growth trajectory by stimulating manufacturing, building infrastructure, spurring investments, fostering technological innovation, and boosting entrepreneurship.

In the spirit of South-South Cooperation, for realizing the 2030 Agenda, India supports developing countries through the USD 150 million India-UN Development Partnership Fund. In this spirit of regional and global partnerships, and the country’s commitment to ‘leave no one behind’, India steps into the Decade of Action, drawing confidence from its experience in addressing challenges. Government of India will continue to work collaboratively with all domestic and global stakeholders to accelerate efforts for a sustainable planet for future generations.

Anorexia Nervosa

‘Hey, you have lost a lot of weight suddenly. Are you alright?’ You might have seen someone saying this to a girl/boy who really did lose a lot of weight suddenly. They look weak and skinny and often come across as short tempered. This is a common symptom of a disorder named anorexia nervosa.

It is an eating disorder causing people to obsess about weight and what they eat. Anorexia is characterised by a distorted body image, with an unwarranted fear of being overweight. Basically such people constantly obsess over their weight. This usually happens during adolescence. This is because during this time period, teenagers go through puberty. This means they feel the need of constantly looking pretty. This also usually happens to girls as the social norm is set as such that the skinnier you are, the prettier you look. No doubt this social norm is now dramatically rejected as people are more accepting of all kinds of body types.

Anorexia nervosa is a dangerous disorder. It’s like having a voice in your head constantly telling you that you look fat and should lose more weight. This is dangerous because people suffering from anorexia nervous are repulsed by the idea of eating. They literally don’t like eating. To the point they isolate themselves from their friends and family so that they don’t have to eat.

They not only despise eating, they exercise aggressively and push their limits to the store extent that they endanger their own lives. They constantly work out and drink water when they feel hungry. Whenever they do eat, they feel guilty and put off all the calories by working out more than ever.

Other symptoms of this disorder includes dizziness, dehydration and feeling cold all the time. Girls often miss their menstrual cycle. People often become short tempered or moody. They also become more anxious and apprehensive about basically everything.

They are often constipated and force themselves to vomit from time to time. Their nails become brittle and hair become dry, thin and fall out occasionally. Most dangerous of all is that they become malnourished and their heart beats slower than usual. They refuse getting treated because they constantly feel that they will become ‘fat’ or overweight. They might also suffer from depression.

Now that we know about this disorder, one must look out for all of these symptoms as we might just be able to help them. People suffering from anorexia nervosa need their family and friends even though they might avoid them. It is important for their family and friends to make them realize that life is more than just body types and weight. If they are not happy even after losing all that weight, losing weight is not the true path of becoming happy. They need to realize that their family and friends love them for who they are. Yes, it will be very hard for everyone around them. Especially the parents. But this is the time we must remember that we are the only ones who can bring their child back. Proper professional help should be taken and apart from that through therapy and proper healthy diet, they can always come back to their real home.

The only way to gain true happiness is through self care and self love. They need to realize no matter how skinny they become, if they don’t love themselves for who they are, all this trouble can never be worth it! Loving yourself is more important than anything. Accepting your body type is one step of becoming happy.


Now Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is well accepted among shareholders as well as with various other stakeholders of society in India. The term CSR is new normal for Indian organisations. CSR tends to focus on what is done with profits after they are made. Larger corporations understand that CSR is an integral part of business framework for sustainable development. Companies also consider that CSR is an approach towards sustainable development and focus on the triple bottom line of Economic, Environmental and Social performance.

In India, the term Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is widely being used even though related concepts and terms, such as business responsibility, sustainable development, philanthropy, sustainability, corporate citizenship, responsible business, triple bottom line, shared value, value creation, business ethics, socio-economic responsibility, bottom of pyramid, stakeholder management, corporate responsibility, and corporate social performance.

The CSR activities of Indian companies are in line with the provisions of Section 135 with Schedule VII to the Companies Act, 2013. The CSR initiatives of companies thrust on creating value in the lives of the communities around its areas of business and manufacturing operations.

CSR has become an effective tool to work in the line of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with a strong focus on social performance indicated in the CSR projects of the organizations. The SDGs, otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

Most of the businesses consider community as one of its apex stakeholders and believes in inclusive growth. This year most of the organisations continued its CSR initiatives in the realm of Education, Health, Livelihood, Rural Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

Organisation’s diverse projects and operations touch lives of people in many ways and create value by helping in overall and holistic development of communities within multiple geographies. Through its various initiatives, Companies endeavour to play a relevant role by serving communities and projects that address gaps in basic societal requirements.

Conscious business decisions by the Companies have directly and indirectly created value for multiple stakeholders and helped in improving lives of the people and species. Businesses in India believed in creating societal value by providing affordable products and services which have assisted in the growth of relevant and allied industries. Across all its areas of operations of Business, there are inherent linkages and interconnections with the immediate and long term societal impact.

Most of the business have a practice of reporting the CSR performance not only in Annual Report but also in dedicated Annual CSR Report and Sustainable Development Report. These reports are externally verified and are in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines and Business Responsibility Report, mandated by the law and competent authorities.

CSR initiatives are conceptualized and implemented through Corporate Foundations, Non-Government Organisation (NGOs) and Agencies and not-for-profit organisations. Most of the organisations worked on 4P model (Public-Private-People-Partnership) for empowering communities and stakeholders. Businesses have positively impacted lives particularly of several hundreds of thousand underprivileged people through various CSR activities and approaches.

It has been observed that for Indian Companies, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the commitment of businesses to contribute to sustainable economic development by working with the employees, their families, the local community, experts and the society at large to improve lives in ways that are good for business and for its development.

In the broad manner, CSR segment of the organisation is guided by the Board of Governance, Business DNA, CSR and Sustainability Mission of the Companies. In compliance with the provisions of Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013 with the Companies (Corporate Social Responsibility Policy) Rules, 2014, Companies have taken measures and steps to ensure improvement and betterment.

Most of the businesses seek to continue its contribution to the society through its distinct value proposition that meets the needs of millions of people, enhancing their lives through education, healthcare, improving quality of living by providing attitude, means and enabling livelihoods by creating employment opportunities through and for the Business, By the Business and Beyond the Business.

For the Business, value is being created for the society through business including employment generation, market growth and opportunity creation. By the Business- value is also being created through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) interventions across different operating facilities with appropriate linkages to local communities in which businesses operate and Beyond Business- value is being created through interventions for the societies in diverse geographies across India through creation of demand and services.

At public sector business organisations in India, CSR has been also looked upon as closely linked with the principle of sustainable economic development, which demand that organisations should make decisions and act based not only on financial factors but also on immediate and long term social and environmental consequences of their operations and activities.

Businesses in India have been sensitive towards the concerns of society and is committed to operating its core business in a socially responsible way by taking into consideration the wider interests of the community and the environment.

Seven pillars of CSR strategy

1. Need of partnership in CSR

2. Cross learning

3. Supplementing and nurturing CSR

4. Per beneficiary cost reduction and maximizing the impact while reaching more people

5. Knowledge management and documentation

6. Use and reuse of resources for better CSR

7. Capacity building of the CSR workforce and re-skilling

Need of partnership in CSR

Business organisations now recognise Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a great opportunity to significantly strengthen their businesses – while building, strengthening and renewing human, social and natural resources and wealth. Finding the right kind of partners is absolutely important to the success of a CSR strategy. We are in connected world.

All issues are connected to the other issues, perspective and environment. Working alone is good but working together is great. Working alone yields lesser benefits as compared to the working together always. CSR world should explore togetherness by partnering with other entities. Togetherness in addressing the social and environmental issues is good for all. CSR world should encourage partnership to execute the mega social projects.

To fulfil the corporate social responsibility (CSR) goals businesses have to realise and act in partnership. Formation of partnerships has played a very significant role in progress and prosperity across the world. Partnership brings companies, businesses, people and society together and then pool their resources together in order to achieve the set goals. Partnerships is CSR is need of hour. Partnership opens doors for cross learning of knowledge and experiences.

Cross learning in CSR

Cross learning is key to CSR strategies. Learning improves performance and minimise risks. Effective partnership among likeminded organisations for CSR execution ensures cross learning in Corporate Social Responsibility. CSR leaders from different organisations must visit specific CSR locations of other organisation where CSR projects are being implemented and meanwhile they should meet the beneficiaries to gain new insights. CSR leaders must build a deep understanding of the socio-economic issues and they must be open enough to understand issues both from a business and a societal perspective. Learning from others in CSR can save time and resources. Concentrate on your CSR efforts but same time CSR leaders must learn from variety of successful CSR programmes. The greatest opportunities will come from areas where the business significantly interacts with society. Cross learning in CSR is immensely helpful in supplementing and nurturing CSR programme and projects.

Supplementing and nurturing CSR

Good CSR strategy and projects must be encouraged and supplemented. Opportunities for complementing and supplementing ongoing social projects and initiatives, programmes must be explored. Supplementing CSR emphasises on the sustainability of projects and programmes to ensure they remain relevant and viable even upon disengagement at the end of the project period. Every organisation explore possibilities for collaborating and co-operating with other corporations in order to synergise its efforts and increase both financial and social resources as well as outcomes and impact. Businesses may consider in supplementing even in smaller well defined CSR projects. Supplementing the CSR projects by the smaller or larger organisations matter in order to ensure optimal utilisation of the CSR budget and resources.

Per beneficiary cost reduction in CSR

Per beneficiary cost reduction and maximizing the impact while reaching more beneficiaries in CSR is key to success. Business organisations have a variety of motives for being attentive to CSR and run a CSR projects. Leaders can increase impact and reduce costs when they understand the role of Corporate Social Performance (CSP) in driving CSR Performance (CP). Business should think of reaching more people by using less money and resources. Reduction in per beneficiary cost can be achieved by the partnership, collaboration, cross learning and reuse of resources.

Knowledge management and documentation

CSR reporting practices strengthen organizations. The process of documenting and communicating CSR practices provides benefits to corporations, including the ability to formalize their position on CSR, identify organisational strengths and weaknesses, and manage stakeholder relationships and expectations. In India, any shortfall in spending in CSR shall be explained in the financial statements and the Board of Directors shall state the amount unspent and reasons for not spending that amount. As per the CSR Law, the CSR Committee of organisation shall institute a transparent monitoring mechanism for implementation of the CSR projects or programs or activities undertaken by the company.

Documentation, reporting and communication of the CSR performance in crucial to the CSR strategy.  Documentation of the CSR must be organised and structured and should be accessible. Companies can explore the new way of documentation, reporting and communications.

Use and reuse of resources for better CSR

Effective use and reuse of resources can improve the CSR performance. Awareness on use and reuse of resources among across the stakeholders can help in achieving the desired goals of CSR sustainability. Sustainable CSR can be achieved through community and beneficiaries engagement. CSR is a process oriented task.

Recycling and reuse often are the easiest places to start. CSR leaders should take the essential steps to recycle the commonly recyclable materials, and look for easy opportunities to replace disposable or recyclable items with reusable ones. CSR leaders also should look for partners to help with more challenging to recycle or exotic materials, as well as for opportunities to introduce reusable packaging. And of course, look upstream to design new idea, services and programmes.

Capacity building of the CSR workforce and re-skilling

In the fast changing world, capacity building of CSR workforce and re-skilling them are always relevant and are key to CSR performance. Human resource are fundamental requirement. CSR leaders must empower their subordinates by providing them right attitude, knowledge, information and trainings. Same time, CSR managers also be open to learn new things. Developing soft skill, professional skill, project management skill and leadership skill among CSR workforce is continuous process. Rigorous training, development and re-skilling of the CSR manners can save time, efforts and resources.

What Are the Effects of Water Pollution

Causes and consequences of water pollution

On human health

To put it bluntly: Water pollution kills. In fact, it caused 1.8 million deaths in 2015, according to a study published in The Lancet. Contaminated water can also make you ill. Every year, unsafe water sickens about 1 billion people. And low-income communities are disproportionately at risk because their homes are often closest to the most polluting industries.

Waterborne pathogens, in the form of disease-causing bacteria and viruses from human and animal waste, are a major cause of illness from contaminated drinking water. Diseases spread by unsafe water include cholera, giardia, and typhoid. Even in wealthy nations, accidental or illegal releases from sewage treatment facilities, as well as runoff from farms and urban areas, contribute harmful pathogens to waterways. Thousands of people across the United States are sickened every year by Legionnaires’ disease (a severe form of pneumonia contracted from water sources like cooling towers and piped water), with cases cropping up from California’s Disneyland to Manhattan’s Upper East Side.

A woman using bottled water to wash her three-week-old son at their home in Flint, MichiganTodd McInturf/The Detroit News/AP

Meanwhile, the plight of residents in Flint, Michigan—where cost-cutting measures and aging water infrastructure created the recent lead contamination crisis—offers a stark look at how dangerous chemical and other industrial pollutants in our water can be. The problem goes far beyond Flint and involves much more than lead, as a wide range of chemical pollutants—from heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury to pesticides and nitrate fertilizers—are getting into our water supplies. Once they’re ingested, these toxins can cause a host of health issues, from cancer to hormone disruption to altered brain function. Children and pregnant women are particularly at risk.

Even swimming can pose a risk. Every year, 3.5 million Americans contract health issues such as skin rashes, pinkeye, respiratory infections, and hepatitis from sewage-laden coastal waters, according to EPA estimates.

On the environment

In order to thrive, healthy ecosystems rely on a complex web of animals, plants, bacteria, and fungi—all of which interact, directly or indirectly, with each other. Harm to any of these organisms can create a chain effect, imperiling entire aquatic environments.

When water pollution causes an algal bloom in a lake or marine environment, the proliferation of newly introduced nutrients stimulates plant and algae growth, which in turn reduces oxygen levels in the water. This dearth of oxygen, known as eutrophication, suffocates plants and animals and can create “dead zones,” where waters are essentially devoid of life. In certain cases, these harmful algal blooms can also produce neurotoxins that affect wildlife, from whales to sea turtles.

Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways as well. These contaminants are toxic to aquatic life—most often reducing an organism’s life span and ability to reproduce—and make their way up the food chain as predator eats prey. That’s how tuna and other big fish accumulate high quantities of toxins, such as mercury.

Marine ecosystems are also threatened by marine debris, which can strangle, suffocate, and starve animals. Much of this solid debris, such as plastic bags and soda cans, gets swept into sewers and storm drains and eventually out to sea, turning our oceans into trash soup and sometimes consolidating to form floating garbage patches. Discarded fishing gear and other types of debris are responsible for harming more than 200 different species of marine life.

Meanwhile, ocean acidification is making it tougher for shellfish and coral to survive. Though they absorb about a quarter of the carbon pollution created each year by burning fossil fuels, oceans are becoming more acidic. This process makes it harder for shellfish and other species to build shells and may impact the nervous systems of sharks, clownfish, and other marine life.

What Can You Do to Prevent Water Pollution?

With your actions

It’s easy to tsk-tsk the oil company with a leaking tanker, but we’re all accountable to some degree for today’s water pollution problem. Fortunately, there are some simple ways you can prevent water contamination or at least limit your contribution to it:

With your voice

One of the most effective ways to stand up for our waters is to speak out in support of the Clean Water Rule, which clarifies the Clean Water Act’s scope and protects the drinking water of one in three Americans.

Tell the federal government, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and your local elected officials that you support the Clean Water Rule. Also, learn how you and those around you can get involved in the policymaking process. Our public waterways serve every American. We should all have a say in how they’re protected.

Water Pollution

The world’s water resources are under increasing threat from the impacts of climate change, population growth, and pollution. As the global population grows, a persistent challenge is how to access enough water to meet humanity’s needs while also preserving the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. The Pacific Institute works on water resource issues around the globe, collaborating with stakeholders to ensure communities and nature have the water they need to thrive now and in the future.

Internationally, the Institute promotes source water protection and “green infrastructure” solutions in order to increase the climate resiliency of water systems and improve ecosystem function. The Institute collects, catalogues, and shares good practice examples of nature-based solutions; catalyzes investment in green infrastructure projects; and connects stakeholders with a common interest in advancing nature-based solutions.

In California, the Institute has played an active role at the Salton Sea for more than two decades, emphasizing the importance of the sea and the negative consequences of failing to act on its behalf. The Institute has produced leading reports on the sea, developed restoration concepts, participated on the state’s Salton Sea Advisory Committee, and continues to work actively with state agencies and local stakeholders to get real habitat constructed on the ground to benefit at-risk species and to diminish the amount of dust blowing off of the sea’s exposed lakebed.

The Institute has engaged in Colorado River research and decision-making for more than twenty years, from early reports on climate change impacts on the basin, to a 1996 report on sustainable use of the river, to policy proposals for surplus and shortage criteria and the ongoing Basin Study. We have developed pragmatic, feasible solutions to the problems that challenge the river, for the people, fish, and wildlife that depend upon it. Our Colorado River work has also included place-specific research and restoration proposals for the Salton Sea, the Laguna Reach, and the limitrophe reach of the River.

What Is Water Pollution?

Water pollution occurs when harmful substances—often chemicals or microorganisms—contaminate a stream, river, lake, ocean, aquifer, or other body of water, degrading water quality and rendering it toxic to humans or the environment.

What Are the Causes of Water Pollution?

Water is uniquely vulnerable to pollution. Known as a “universal solvent,” water is able to dissolve more substances than any other liquid on earth. It’s the reason we have Kool-Aid and brilliant blue waterfalls. It’s also why water is so easily polluted. Toxic substances from farms, towns, and factories readily dissolve into and mix with it, causing water pollution.

Categories of Water Pollution


When rain falls and seeps deep into the earth, filling the cracks, crevices, and porous spaces of an aquifer (basically an underground storehouse of water), it becomes groundwater—one of our least visible but most important natural resources. Nearly 40 percent of Americans rely on groundwater, pumped to the earth’s surface, for drinking water. For some folks in rural areas, it’s their only freshwater source. Groundwater gets polluted when contaminants—from pesticides and fertilizers to waste leached from landfills and septic systems—make their way into an aquifer, rendering it unsafe for human use. Ridding groundwater of contaminants can be difficult to impossible, as well as costly. Once polluted, an aquifer may be unusable for decades, or even thousands of years. Groundwater can also spread contamination far from the original polluting source as it seeps into streams, lakes, and oceans.

Surface water

Covering about 70 percent of the earth, surface water is what fills our oceans, lakes, rivers, and all those other blue bits on the world map. Surface water from freshwater sources (that is, from sources other than the ocean) accounts for more than 60 percent of the water delivered to American homes. But a significant pool of that water is in peril. According to the most recent surveys on national water quality from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, nearly half of our rivers and streams and more than one-third of our lakes are polluted and unfit for swimming, fishing, and drinking. Nutrient pollution, which includes nitrates and phosphates, is the leading type of contamination in these freshwater sources. While plants and animals need these nutrients to grow, they have become a major pollutant due to farm waste and fertilizer runoff. Municipal and industrial waste discharges contribute their fair share of toxins as well. There’s also all the random junk that industry and individuals dump directly into waterways.

Ocean water

Eighty percent of ocean pollution (also called marine pollution) originates on land—whether along the coast or far inland. Contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals are carried from farms, factories, and cities by streams and rivers into our bays and estuaries; from there they travel out to sea. Meanwhile, marine debris—particularly plastic—is blown in by the wind or washed in via storm drains and sewers. Our seas are also sometimes spoiled by oil spills and leaks—big and small—and are consistently soaking up carbon pollution from the air. The ocean absorbs as much as a quarter of man-made carbon emissions.

Point source

When contamination originates from a single source, it’s called point source pollution. Examples include wastewater (also called effluent) discharged legally or illegally by a manufacturer, oil refinery, or wastewater treatment facility, as well as contamination from leaking septic systems, chemical and oil spills, and illegal dumping. The EPA regulates point source pollution by establishing limits on what can be discharged by a facility directly into a body of water. While point source pollution originates from a specific place, it can affect miles of waterways and ocean.

Nonpoint source

Nonpoint source pollution is contamination derived from diffuse sources. These may include agricultural or stormwater runoff or debris blown into waterways from land. Nonpoint source pollution is the leading cause of water pollution in U.S. waters, but it’s difficult to regulate, since there’s no single, identifiable culprit.


It goes without saying that water pollution can’t be contained by a line on a map. Transboundary pollution is the result of contaminated water from one country spilling into the waters of another. Contamination can result from a disaster—like an oil spill—or the slow, downriver creep of industrial, agricultural, or municipal discharge.

The Most Common Types of Water Contamination


Toxic green algae in Copco Reservoir, northern CaliforniaAurora Photos/Alamy

Not only is the agricultural sector the biggest consumer of global freshwater resources, with farming and livestock production using about 70 percent of the earth’s surface water supplies, but it’s also a serious water polluter. Around the world, agriculture is the leading cause of water degradation. In the United States, agricultural pollution is the top source of contamination in rivers and streams, the second-biggest source in wetlands, and the third main source in lakes. It’s also a major contributor of contamination to estuaries and groundwater. Every time it rains, fertilizers, pesticides, and animal waste from farms and livestock operations wash nutrients and pathogens—such bacteria and viruses—into our waterways. Nutrient pollution, caused by excess nitrogen and phosphorus in water or air, is the number-one threat to water quality worldwide and can cause algal blooms, a toxic soup of blue-green algae that can be harmful to people and wildlife.

Sewage and wastewater

Used water is wastewater. It comes from our sinks, showers, and toilets (think sewage) and from commercial, industrial, and agricultural activities (think metals, solvents, and toxic sludge). The term also includes stormwater runoff, which occurs when rainfall carries road salts, oil, grease, chemicals, and debris from impermeable surfaces into our waterways

More than 80 percent of the world’s wastewater flows back into the environment without being treated or reused, according to the United Nations; in some least-developed countries, the figure tops 95 percent. In the United States, wastewater treatment facilities process about 34 billion gallons of wastewater per day. These facilities reduce the amount of pollutants such as pathogens, phosphorus, and nitrogen in sewage, as well as heavy metals and toxic chemicals in industrial waste, before discharging the treated waters back into waterways. That’s when all goes well. But according to EPA estimates, our nation’s aging and easily overwhelmed sewage treatment systems also release more than 850 billion gallons of untreated wastewater each year.

Oil pollution

Big spills may dominate headlines, but consumers account for the vast majority of oil pollution in our seas, including oil and gasoline that drips from millions of cars and trucks every day. Moreover, nearly half of the estimated 1 million tons of oil that makes its way into marine environments each year comes not from tanker spills but from land-based sources such as factories, farms, and cities. At sea, tanker spills account for about 10 percent of the oil in waters around the world, while regular operations of the shipping industry—through both legal and illegal discharges—contribute about one-third. Oil is also naturally released from under the ocean floor through fractures known as seeps.

Radioactive substances

Radioactive waste is any pollution that emits radiation beyond what is naturally released by the environment. It’s generated by uranium mining, nuclear power plants, and the production and testing of military weapons, as well as by universities and hospitals that use radioactive materials for research and medicine. Radioactive waste can persist in the environment for thousands of years, making disposal a major challenge. Consider the decommissioned Hanford nuclear weapons production site in Washington, where the cleanup of 56 million gallons of radioactive waste is expected to cost more than $100 billion and last through 2060. Accidentally released or improperly disposed of contaminants threaten groundwater, surface water, and marine resources.


“Training helps teach the vision and mission, but employees must put the training into action for it to have meaning.” – Shep Hyken

The above quote really has a deep meaning as it is an important element for an employee and his organisation. It constitutes a basic concept in human resource development. Before starting further first we should know what is training? According to Edwin Filippo- ” Training is the act of increasing the skills of an employee for doing a particular job.” In layman terms training is a learning process which gives an opportunity to the employees to develop their skills, knowledge and competency as per their job requirements. It is a very useful tool as it brings an employee into a position where they can perform their jobs correctly, efficiently and confidently.

Generally training is not a continuous process, it is periodical and given in specified time. Training is given by an expert or professional in related field or job. Training helps an employee to keep themselves updated in this dynamic environment. Training programs is generally provided to the employees so that they can improve their quality of work. Training bridges the gap between job need and employees skills. Training is a task oriented activity as it helps in improving the performance of an employee. Training is about acquiring competencies to cope with the variety of complex and difficult situation. It is a journey of self-awareness and self-discovery as it leads to growth and development. It helps your employees to explore and realise their potential and talent. Through this training program one is able to identify his strength and weaknesses and it also helps in clearing there doubts and misconception which will help them to know their hidden abilities. It helps in establishing relationship between theory and practice as it develops the ability to translate acquired concepts, principles, knowledge and skills into action and through this way we can build a relationship between the two. Training is very important in an employee’s life as through training he or she will be able to know and learn so many new things like it will develop new skills in an employee, it helps in improving employee’s performance, it increases engagement as we know that an engaged employee has an increased level of productivity, it improves employee retention and growth as the process of training involves cost and thus it motivates the employee who undergoes training, consistency in training- as creating consistency within an organisation is difficult but training helps reduce a disparity between your teams, it helps in tracking employee skills, training is necessary when the existing employee is promoted to the higher level in the organisation as it requires some new skills and knowledge according to job requirements and so on the list of importance of training is never ending. As good things has never ending positive results. Training also helps in motivating the employee and helps in gaining organisational excellence. It also helps in preventing employee attrition as training program provides them a sense of satisfaction as they think that there organisation invest in them by this training session.

Last But Not the Least

“Our strength comes from our people.” Training is a very important HR function as it helps in the growth of an employee as well as the organisation.


Environment is the surrounding in which an organization operates ,including air,water,land,natural resources flaura ,fauna,human beings and there interrelation .

the natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally ,meaning in this case not artificial .the term is not often applied to the earth or some parts of earth.

Components of environment. Environment mainly consists of atmosphere ,hydrosphere ,lithosphere and biosphere .but it can be roughly divided into 2 parts such as micro environments and macro environments. It can be divided into two types such as physical and biotic environments.

Some important components of environment. Atmosphere. The atmosphere is the protective blanket of gases which is surrounded the earth .it protect the earth from the hostile environment of outer space .

Hydrosphere the hydrosphere is a collective term given to all different forms of water.it includes all type of water resources such as oceans ,sea ,river,lakes ,streams,and groundwater .

Biosphere the biosphere refers to the realms of living organisms and there interactions with the environment .the biosphere is very large and complex and is divided into smaller units is called ecosystems.

Environment is a place where different things are such a swampy or hot environment it can be living or non living things. It includes physical, chemical and other natural forces ………..since everything is a part of of environment of something else .the word environment is used to talk about many things.

human impact on the environment .human impacts of physical environment in many way .overpollution,pollution, burning fossil fuels ,and deforestation .changes like these have triggered climate change,soil erosion, poor air quality, and undrinkable water.

How do our activities affect the environment human activities contribute to climate change by causing changes in earth’s atmosphere in the amount of greenhouse gases aerosols and cloudiness .the largest known contribution comes from the burning fossil fuels ,which realised carbon dioxide gas at the atmosphere.

the simple things you can do to help protect the earth . Reduce,reuse,and recycle volunteer conserve water plant a tree use long lasting lights bulbs etc.

The Problem with Online Education in India

With Covid-19 disrupting all the hitherto establish modes of living, studying, and working in our society, more activities are being moved online. This is aimed at continuing our stream of activities but in a different mode so as to ensure that no business or endeavour is fatally suffering from this pandemic. While this might not be fully possible for every aspect of existence, it is a method to try and maintain a semblance of normalcy in our everyday activities. Most IT companies have moved completely online and allow all their workers to work from home. Restaurants and hotels rely highly on apps that deliver food to continue their business, and even education is now gearing to completely move online. This seems well and good at first glance but the question of whether this can ever be successful in a country like India is a serious one.

woman working at home using her laptop
Photo by Vlada Karpovich on Pexels.com

Our country is a developing one, where the majority of the population still lives in rural areas and the internet is not a luxury that everyone can afford nor have access to. While the need to continue education is important, one might ask at what cost this is being done. Even when we talk about work from home, we are all aware that a very narrow part of the population has this privilege. Daily wage workers do not get to work from home and they have no option but to risk their lives in the midst of the pandemic if the government itself fails to take care of them. Small scale industries and shops all close down. We have a massive economic crisis on our hands but alongside this, we need to understand that there will be a widening of the educational gap, a crisis whose effects we will start to fully comprehend in a couple of months.

Most middle-class and upper-class households are able to comply with the needs of online learning since they own laptops and smartphones. They also have enough money for data and internet connections. However, it is still a stark reality that education in rural India and amongst lower-class households is extremely limited owing to factors of economy and access, as well as gender and caste. India supposedly houses 430 million persons below the age of 18 many of whom come from rural settings. Only 47% of households in India have electricity for more than 12 hours a day according to a survey that the Ministry of Rural Development conducted in 2017-18. It is an eye-opener to the urban citizen that only 24% of Indians own a smartphone. And one must remember that in a household with more than one child, there has to be multiple gadgets for all of them to receive their education.

66% of India’s population lives in villages and an extremely minuscule portion of them will even be able to attend classes of any sort. The development of our country and much of its economy is reliant on these villages but if we forget them in this hour of need, the consequences will be hazardous for the whole country. If we do not take aggressive measures to tackle these problems and provide materials resources to those in need so that their children can access classes, the current online education system will create a massive digital divide that will cause a majority of the Indian population to suffer. It will impair their access to a better life and opportunity, any attempt to get on par with their privileged peers would largely result in failure and this will drive many to lives of low economic value, toil, suffering, and access. This will be carried forward into their coming generations. Unless addressed, it will lead to a systemic denial of the fundamental right to education and opportunity, and hence, while attending our own online lectures, we should take this very seriously and implement measures to better this situation in every possible way. This is not the only problem that online education creates but it is by far the most important.

Delhi the city of pandavas

Delhi, the capital of India has a strong historical background. It was ruled by some of the most powerful emperors in Indian history.

The history of the city is as old as the epic Mahabharata. The town was known as Indraprastha, where Pandavas used to live. In due course eight more cities came alive adjacent to Indraprastha: Lal Kot, Siri, Dinpanah, Quila Rai Pithora, Ferozabad, Jahanpanah, Tughlakabad and Shahjahanabad.


indraprastha is not only known from the Mahabharata. It is also mentioned as “Indapatta” or “Indapattana” in Pali-language Buddhist texts, where it is described as the capital of the Kuru Kingdom, situated on the Yamuna River. The Buddhist literature also mentions Hatthinipura (Hastinapura) and several smaller towns and villages of the Kuru kingdom. Indraprastha may have been known to the Greco-Roman world as well: it is thought to be mentioned in Ptolemy‘s Geography dating from the 2nd century CE as the city “Indabara”, possibly derived from the Prakrit form “Indabatta”, and which was probably in the vicinity of Delhi.


After their Uncle King Dhritarashtra partitioned the Kingdom of Hastinapur (which was rightfully Yudhishtir’s) into two in order to stem the rivalry between the Pandava brothers and the Kauravas .

Mahabharata is about the Kauravas and the Pandavas, two groups of relatives engaged in a long conflict with each other. It refers to Indraprastha as a major city that was the capital of the Pandava Kingdom from about 1400 BC. Indraprastha is considered to have been the first significant settlement in the Delhi area, which has since hosted a succession of kingdoms and giant civilisations. At some point, Indraprastha fell from grace, either conquered or abandoned. The ASI believes that Purana Qila may have been built on top of these ruins.

How much years did pandavas ruled on indraprastha?

Indraprastha, The capital of the Pandavas (the Pandus) whence they ruled for 36 years.

It lay to the west of Yamuna river, in modern-day Delhi territory.

How did pandavas built the indraprastha?

 Pandavas cleared this forest to construct their capital city called Indraprastha. This forest was earlier inhabited by Naga tribes led by a king named Takshaka.

Arjuna and Krishna cleared this forest by setting up a fire. The inhabitants of this forest were Killed or displaced. This was the root cause of the enmity of the Naga Takshaka towards the Kuru kings who ruled from Indraprastha and Hastinapura.

The Mahabharata states that Indra was the protecting deity (deva) of Khandava forest, which is why the region was known as Indraprastha.

When the forest was being burned, Indra attacked Arjuna with his bolt (vajra), injuring him.

But Arjuna defeated all gods, Gandharvas and demons in that fierce battle and burnt entire forest.

chhapadeshwar Mahadev Mandir in Kharkhoda, Haryana was the part of Khandav Van.

Khanda village named after Khandava Forest.

Later Lord Indra sent Mayasur and Vishvakarman  to Build a Superlative City that would be so Beautiful and Magnificent that it would compete with Lord Indra’s Heavenly abode – Hence it was called as “Mayanagari” or a Magical city as Maya an Asur had built it with several Magical Tricks and Treats in Architecture and construction.

Who ruled on indraprastha after the defeat of kauravas and pandavas?

The death of several rulers and kings in the war resulted in several successions, of which two notable ones being the crowning of Yudhishthira as the king of Hastinapura and declaration of Yuyutsu as the subordinate king to Yudhishthira for the kingdom of Indraprastha. Evidently, the central power in the Gangetic plain had now shifted from the Kurus to the Panchalas. The states of Hastinapur and Indraprastha were reunified and were governed by the Pandavas.

Now, where the indraprastha situated in delhi and on what place?

 It is often thought to have been located in the region of present-day New Delhi, particularly the Old Fort (Purana Qila), although this has not been conclusively confirmed. The city is sometimes also known as Khandavaprastha or Khandava Forest, the name of a forest region on the banks of Yamuna river.



One of the currently discussed topic in society is about parent children relationship. Family is the basis of all economic activities. Bonds can be a blessing and also a curse.

Parents always prefer their children to perform well. They often dream of their children attending the best of universities and then securing a most respectful job in society. They work hard to earn money to take care of their children. Now, students are experiencing tremendous pressure to keep their grades to a near-perfect level. The sources of pressure are both internal and external. This pressure sometimes lead them to commit suicides as a solution for every problems. Many awareness classes are organized in schools and colleges. But every year thousands are committing suicides. Literacy or illiteracy is not a matter of choice.

Parents tend to apply pressure because they are worried about whether or not their child will be successful and also if they are a good enough parent. Marks are always considered as a parameter for judging their children. So, they pressure children to get full marks. High parental aspiration led to increased academic achievement, but only when it did not overly exceed realistic expectation. When aspiration exceeded expectation the children ‘s achievement decreased proportionately.

Too much pressure damages a child’s self esteem and can lead to severe consequences,including depression. It can lead to stress causing headaches, stomachaches, neck aches, lack of sleep and even anxiety attacks.

Parental pressure creates a sense of worthlessness which was discovered to be one of the chief reasons why teenage suicide rates increased from the 1950’s, according to a study done at the University of St Thomas.

What parents can do?


  1. Managing children’s frequent tantrums – Not to react immediately to the situation, Calm oneself before reacting.
  2. Tackling disobedient children-Disobedient children do not want to stamp their autonomy on the household.Try to hear their side of the story and once they are done put across your opinions.
  3. Mediating in sibling rivalry – Understand the psychology of the children and discipline them separately without judging who is right and who is wrong.
  4. Stopping children from telling white lies – They often lie to their parents to turn adverse situation in their favour.
  5. Removing study related fears.
  6. Don’t criticize in each and every act.
  7. Avoid spending too much time talking about hardwork.
  8. Don’t focus on how they need to win or be the best.

Encouragement coming from parents can be a child’s stepping stone to success. They are key player in children ‘s life to learn confidence, hardwork and excellence. It is the responsibility of each parent to teach their child to accept failure withoutllosing heart. Failure is a cue to seek opportunity and not an occasion for mourning. Make sure that child is happy with what they are pursuing and don’t let them miss out on opportunities to learn from their own life experiences. Every person in the world are unique. Home is supposed to be a sanctuary for the whole family not a place where kids come to get probed, lectured and controlled. Create a restful home full of divergent opinions, healthy debates and spontaneous self expression.


Everyone has anxiety, but chronic anxiety can interfere with the quality of life. It can also cause severe damage to our physical health. Anxiety is a normal part of life. For example, feeling anxious before entering the exam centre or a job interview. In general terms, anxiety increases breathing and heartbeat, concentrating blood flow to our brain, where we need it. If it gets too intense, however, people might start to feel lightheaded or likely to be in a state of trance. An excessive or persistent state of anxiety can have a devastating impact both on our physical and mental health. Anxiety disorder can happen at any stage of life, but they usually begin by middle age. Women are more likely to have an anxiety disorder than men. Stressful life experiences may increase risk for an anxiety disorder, too. Symptoms may begin immediately or years later. Having a serious medical condition or a substance use disorder can also lead to an anxiety disorder.

There are several types of Anxiety Disorders. They include :

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Generalized anxiety disorder is marked by excessive anxiety for no logical reason. GAD is diagnosed when extreme worry about a variety of things lasts six months or longer. If you have a mild case, you’re probably able to complete your normal day-to-day activities. More severe cases may have a profound impact on your life.

Social Anxiety Disorder
This disorder involves a paralyzing fear of social situations and of being judged or humiliated by others. This severe social phobia can leave one feeling ashamed and alone.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
This develops after witnessing or experiencing something traumatic. Symptoms can begin immediately or be delayed for years. Common causes include war, natural disasters, or a physical attack. PTSD episodes may be triggered without warning.

Obsessive – Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
People with OCD may feel overwhelmed with the desire to perform particular rituals (compulsions) over and over again, or experience intrusive and unwanted thoughts that can be distressing (obsessions).
Common compulsions include habitual hand-washing, counting, or checking something. Common obsessions include concerns about cleanliness, aggressive impulses, and need for symmetry.

These include fear of tight spaces (claustrophobia), fear of heights (acrophobia), and many others. You may have a powerful urge to avoid the feared object or situation.

Panic Disorder
This causes panic attacks, spontaneous feelings of anxiety, terror, or impending doom. Physical symptoms include heart palpitations, chest pain, and shortness of breath.

Anxiety disorder can cause other symptoms, including:
• headaches
• muscle tension
• insomnia
• depression
• social isolation

‘The New Normal’

Lockdown In India: India has been in a complete lockdown system due to the global pandemic issue since March 2020. It was the only way of staying safe at our homes and maintaining social distancing. However, all essential services,essential commodities and medicines were available. Banks, ATMs, grocery shops, petrol pumps, hospitals were not included in the lockdown. The night curfew was initiated by the Government that no movement of people from 7pm to 7am shall take place except for essential items.

The global pandemic changed the daily lifestyles of people, the work scenarios, the Indian economy, the Entertainment Industry, and so on.

Nothing like this was expected that the world would be in such a dilemma.The entire world has been affected by the global pandemic issue. Be it the economy, the business and industry sectors, the health sectors, the agriculture and law sectors, small scale and large scale sectors,railways and metros,aviations,etc.

The poor and daily wages workers have been hit tremendously by this pandemic. They are the ones suffering a lot today. Even the unemployed are facing problems and a number of employees have lost their jobs already. The ones still working in their work spaces are constantly in fear of the safety of themselves and the others.

This pandemic has changed a lot of things over the past few months. Each and every person is suffering due to the sudden issue be it through mentally or financially.

Even after the complete lockdown system initiated by the Govt. of India for literally three months, the number of cases of covid-19 has been going on tremendously increasing day by day. There is no number of decrease in the cases till date.

The nation followed complete lockdown for more than two months except for essential items. Initially, the domestic flights were resumed from May 25th with guidelines that has to be followed for travelling. The Railways then decided to start to operate the Shramik Special trains from May 1st to transport the stranded migrant workers, students, pilgrims and tourists.

The centre then decided to start lifting few restrictions on things in lockdown as Unlock 1.0 phase from the 8th of June. The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi Ji however gave the authorities to the States and Union Territories to decide about what should be made opened and not in their respective states.

In the Unlock 1.0 phase malls, hotels and restaurants for takeaway and home delivery, and places of worship for the public were made opened. However, social distancing and proper safety measures had to be followed. The containment zones were in complete lockdown as earlier. People stepped out of the houses as soon as they heard about the Unlock 1.0 phase thus increasing the risk of themselves and others.

Amid the rise in the cases of the coronavirus after the Unlock 1.0 phase, the Government directed the State & Union Territories to ensure mandatory basis that no movement of people except for essential things would be allowed from 9pm to 5am throughout the whole nation. Indian Railways decided to operate 15 pairs of Special AC trains from 12th of May and 200 time-tabled trains from the 1st of June.

On July 1st, the nation entered into the Unlock 2.0 Phase with relaxations in night curfew, provision for more domestic flights and trains and clearance for more than five people in a shop. However, schools, colleges and other educational institutions are closed till July 31st. At present, offices are too opened with all the safety measures that has to be followed. Some offices still prefer work from home (wfh) for their safety. Works which can’t be done from wfh are resumed.

Shootings have also been resumed for daily soaps and TV Stars are practicing all the social distancing and are following safety measures while they are on the sets and all the reality shows would be getting back with new episodes from 13th of july.

Looking at the increasing number in the cases day by day, the nation would be entering in the Unlock 3.0 phase from July 31st.

The fact:

Currently, as we have entered unlock phases of lockdown people have accepted and are trying to make it a habit of wearing masks and scarfs before stepping out of their homes. Maintaining social distancing and using a hand sanitizer as and when required. All the precautions and safety measures have been followed by every person.

Markets have realised that masks are now an essentials things and also trendy and therefore, producing different brands and patterns of masks to the customers. This is an amazing business which is in actual demand and has already started making profits.

People are trying to accept ‘the new normal’ or you can say ‘the new usual.’ Earlier hand sanitizers were not in much demand the way it is now. Without masks, its impossible to think of going out right now today. And you think we have to follow this only for some months?

No, we have to follow and adapt this new normal not only till the number of cases gets reduced to ‘0’ which we all are hoping but also for some years for future prevention. It is true that we are not safe anymore. We can’t freely go out or hang out like earlier we used to do. We can’t do social gatherings or get together at some one’s home. We can’t chill with our friends or spend time with them at our homes. We can’t go to theatres for watching movies or go shopping with our friends. We can’t chill at the malls, or public places like earlier. This is the reality. We can’t touch anywhere or anyone without having the fear of risk right now or for few years till everything settles down completely.

I am just stating the facts. No one knows when exactly we all will be free and will be back to our normal life. Everyone is waiting for that one day when we hear the news that coronavirus (covid-19) is reduced and no more cases have been detected.

Hence, today looking at the current situation I do feel its not safe to step out of the houses without wearing our masks for coming years. This is the new normal that we have to abide by and just like we can’t leave our smartphones at homes, the same way we can’t leave our masks today before stepping out of our homes for anything.

Well, who imagined a world full of people wearing masks one day? But here we are today.

Masks are the new normal.

Brief Summary of Indo-China conflict and the role US has played over the years

Due to the clash between soldiers of both the countries – India and China around Pangong Lake in Ladakh, one thing is clear that nobody knows what’s coming up next. Once India’s friendship with China seemed natural as the country has put socialist principles in its national constitution and prided on taking a neutral stand during the cold war. Under its first prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, India was interested in broadening ties with other socialist nations, including Russia & China. But factors more powerful than the ideologies knocked off the relationship leading to tensions and war-like situations today.

At first, the relationship was all smiles based on five principles enunciated under the Panchsheel Agreement: mutual non-aggression, mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty, mutual non-interference in internal affairs, peaceful coexistence and equality and mutual benefit. A slogan also went out, “Hindi Chini Bhai-Bhai”– India and China are brothers.

But soon, India and China started to disagree on the border between the two nations. All thanks in part to the legacy of certain colonial boundaries. The Ardagh- Johnson Line was drawn by British India that showed Aksai Chin inside Jammu& Kashmir in India. This didn’t go down well with China as they never accepted this border. Instead, they argued for Macartney-MacDonald Line, a later boundary that gave it more territory.

There were talks in India in 1960 between Nehru and Zhou Enlai, the Chinese Premier to address border issues but no solutions came up. Keen to maintain the strategic relationship between the two countries, India hosted Dalai Lama when he fled and kept funding resistance movements in Tibet.

The brotherhood died after the two nations went to war. The events of 1962 are broadly seen as humiliating domestically for India.

Even more critical to understand India- China relationship is an alliance between Pakistan & China. As both have border issues with India, a common goal emerged. In recent years, Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan and his predecessors have maintained deeper ties with China through initiatives such as Chinese funding for Gwadar port, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, and other economic initiatives. Because of this, Pakistan’s cooperation with the US has also crumbled up under pressure. If another Cold War happens, it already seems Pakistan has chosen its side.

This has helped India to strengthen its relationship with the US. India choosing free markets was a drastic change for the nation, and a shift to the Western economic sphere soon followed. As India started seeing high rates of growth, it started becoming China’s competitor. India also managed to tighten relations with American allies such as Vietnam and Japan.

Today, the United States plays a key role in the Indo-China relationship. In recent times, India has sought to strengthen ties with the US, powered by fear of Chinese political and economic influence in the region. Even since the Chinese have got more aggressive in the Indian Ocean, India is seeking an ally in the US to bolster deterrence.

All this clearly shows we are a long way in Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai.



Should PTSD get more attention from the healthcare department?

PTSD or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a traumatic disorder that occurs in people who have experienced something horrifying in life or witnessed one. The reasons can be a road accident, natural calamity, personal assault, or death or disappearance of loved ones.

These days PTSD is affecting many lives. Other than emotional distress, it brings many other health problems like anxiety, depression, mood swings, etc. It affects a person’s day to activities and may stop them from participating in it that they enjoyed once. The stress can sometimes hamper a person so much that they slowly start distancing themselves from their loved ones. It may eventually begin amassing suicidal thoughts. Hence, it is necessary to support people affected by PTSD.

One needs to be extra cautious with these people as sometimes symptoms of PTSD start showing within a few weeks of the tragic incident while at times it may take years too. Initially, it is very difficult to find the reason behind its cause, therefore it is always recommended to see a specialist in case one experiences any signs

Why PTSD must receive more attention in Healthcare?

In our society, mental issues are neglected most of the time. Most of the families do not bring the matter into the limelight as they consider it some kind of taboo or equate them to being possessed by evil spirits.

The National Mental Health(NMH) survey states that nearly 150 million people in our country need Mental Health care, but hardly 50% receive the treatment. We rush to hospitals even at the slightest bit of uneasiness, whether it is abdominal pain or severe sickness. But when it comes to mental health, why nobody talks about it? Why nobody is rushed to the doctor in this situation the same way? We limp!

It is high time that we let go of our conservative mindset and discuss mental health issues under broad daylight. To bring mental health issues under attention, this should not be neglected:

-Survivors should discuss their stories so that others learn from it

-Doctors should share their clinical knowledge and aware people about these issues

-Society must change the negative mind and take health care seriously


How Is COVID-19 Impacting The Environment?


The coronavirus disease- COVID-19 is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2, which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery.


The first human infections were reported at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province in China when a cluster of 41 pneumonia cases was identified. Deeper analysis showed that it was a novel coronavirus. A third – 66% of the cases – had direct exposure to the Huanan Seafood market. Fish, shellfish, wildlife, snakes, birds and several different types of meat and carcasses were sold at this market. The market was closed immediately, and it has not reopened since. (source: ScienceDirect.com, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673620301835?via%3Dihub)

The strongest speculation of the origin has been that the virus is somehow linked to the market given two thirds of the first batch of people infected had had ties with it. But even this hasn’t been proved yet. Nevertheless, Bats, in particular, have been studied closely because they are considered to be the natural host of coronaviruses.

this is not my image, credit to the artist

EFFECT of covid-19 on the environment:

The objective of this article is to analyse the positive and the negative environmental impact of this abhorrent pandemic, Covid-19.

The Positives-

  • Improved Air Quality: 

The coronavirus has temporarily slashed air pollution levels around the world (source: European Space Agency). Readings from ESA’s Sentinel-5P satellite also show that over the past six weeks, the levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over cities and industrial clusters in Asia and Europe were markedly lower than in the same period last year. Nitrogen dioxide is produced from car engines, power plants and other industrial processes and is thought to exacerbate respiratory illnesses such as asthma. While not a greenhouse gas itself, the pollutant originates from the same activities and industrial sectors that are responsible for a large share of the world’s carbon emissions and that drive global heating. Take transport, for example, which makes up 23% of global carbon emissions. Driving and aviation are key contributors to emissions from transport, contributing 72% and 11% of the transport sector’s greenhouse gas emissions respectively. (Source: http://www.ipcc.ch)

If we consider the case of Delhi, on 6th April, for the third week Delhi continued to breathe clean. The weekend before this saw the best air quality in the national capital region (NCR) in 2020, with an average AQI of 46. The weekend before that, it was at 159.  There was a remarked improvement in air quality in the NCR, as the harmful PM10 and PM2.5 levels were down by 35-40% in Delhi (source: The Economic Times).

The visible positive impacts whether through improved air quality or reduced greenhouse gas emissions – are but temporary. This is because they come on the back of an economic slowdown and human distress. During the pandemic, these emissions will stay lowered. But what will happen when the safety measures are eventually lifted?  The people will be back to regular.

  • Some Cut Downs on Wastage:

During the coronavirus outbreak, the habits that are coincidentally good for the climate might be travelling less, like cutting down on food waste as we experience shortages due to stockpiling.

  • Rethinking how we use energy:

A benefit of no travel and a lockdown is we will spend some time rethinking how we use energy.

The Negatives-

  • Increase In Use Of Single-Use Plastics:

With as many as 12,82,931 cases recorded in 211 countries ( as of 8 April 2020, 05:30 GMT, Source: WHO), the United Nations’ World Health Organization has recently declared the fast-spreading COVID-19 outbreak as a pandemic. It is natural then that citizens around the globe are hastening to take every possible measure to safeguard their health against the virus. The most widespread of these precautions is the extensive use of surgical face masks.

These masks are mainly made of non-woven fabric such as polypropylene, polystyrene, polycarbonate, polyethylene or polyester. While they keep out bacteria effectively, the masks are plastic-based, liquid-resistant products that have a long afterlife after they are discarded, ending up in landfill or oceans.  

Given that surgical masks are supposed to be worn for no longer than one day, their disposal- along with that of empty hand sanitizer bottles and soiled tissue papers- is leading to a massive trail of clinical waste in the environment.

Take the case of Wuhan, for example. The Chinese city which has been at the epicentre of the pandemic and which is home to over 11 million people, is reported to have generated 200 tons of clinical trash on a single day (24 February 2020), four times the amount the city’s only dedicated facility can incinerate per day. (source: scmp.com)

  • Mountain Of Waste:

With consumers stuck at home, there’s been a surge in the amount of household garbage as people increasingly shop online and order meals to be delivered, which come with a lot of packaging. (source: time.com)

Meanwhile, China is drowning under medical waste produced by hospitals including face masks and single-use tissues. If the waste is not handled properly, the garbage collectors are likely to catch and spread the infection

  • More Hand Wash, More Use Of Water:

Today, the only defence against the pandemic is that we wash our hands frequently — 20 seconds each time. The fact is, clean water remains the most important preventive health measure in the world.

A proper hand wash involves lathering soap and scrubbing hands on both sides for at least 20 seconds, according to WHO guidelines. A 30 to 40 second hand wash would use up around four litres of water if the tap is on, or two litres with the tap closed, while scrubbing with soap. Around 20 to 40 litres of water is used up every day, with the assumption that every person cleans her hands at least 10 times a day, instead of a usual average of five times a day.

A family of five members would thus need 100 to 200 litres of water per day only to wash hands. This would result in the generation of around 200 litres of wastewater per day, a 20 to 25 per cent increase in water demand and generation of wastewater from human settlements. (source: downtoearth.org.in)

It is also important to note that a large numbers of people in India and vast parts of the still emerging world do not have access to water, forget its portability. 

  • Climate Issues Take a Backseat:

Before the coronavirus, momentum seemed to be building behind governments and businesses taking steps to address climate change. As 2020 began, wildfires were destroying vast swaths of Australia; and the climate activist Greta Thunberg had become a household name. But the spread of the coronavirus has thrown an even more urgent crisis at governments and business: how to save the lives of millions of people, prevent health care systems from collapsing, and shore up economies that must now enter something comparable to an induced coma. 


In conclusion, the coronavirus crisis has been having short term positive environmental effects but long term negative effects on the environment. Production has decreased, there’s less pressure on energy resources, less fuel burnt in transportation, fewer carbon emissions, and less air pollution. However, all of this is temporary and in the long term, the environmental impacts of the coronavirus such as water shortage, increase in plastic production and waste and issues relating to correct waste disposable, to name a few, will pose as a greater problem.

Self-love Culture: Is it Healthy?

Importance to the individual and the self is a phenomenon that came by as a product of modernity. With more emphasis on self-accomplishment and success becoming often defined as what you are able to make of yourself, talks about what is important to the self and how to understand our own personalities have increased. Nowadays we see a large number of people who propagate what is known as the ‘self-love’ culture. The self-love essentially prioritizes the well-being of the self and calls for the acceptance by each person of their own individuality.

woman in black shirt holding white flowers
Photo by Masha Raymers on Pexels.com

This movement which is increasingly seen in online spaces and urban settings have its benefits as well as adverse effects. We can say that it is extremely necessary, especially when we have a society that is constantly finding fault with us and setting standards that very few are able to stick to. Everyone who does not meet those standards, whether it be about success or beauty or relationships, are considered as failures. Many companies are designed in such a way that they prey on insecure individuals and make a profit by offering them products that supposedly will make them ‘enough’. However, this is a false hope. in this situation, it is absolutely crucial that we have counter-narratives that dispel these myths of success and encourage people to understand their own uniqueness. We should not buy into the ideas that are marketed for the sake of money nor give into traditions that place unwarranted emphasis on appearances and performances. This idea can even cause serious mental health issues when one is constantly seeking the approval of others to be worthy of love.

The problem with this self-love culture, however, is when it goes out of hand and becomes almost narcissistic. People tend to get obsessed with their own selves and will do anything they have to in order to secure what they think will bring them fulfillment. This is dangerous because such an individualistic outlook might lead them to take advantage of others and even cause them harm. It also makes them egoistical and unwilling to accept any criticism. They forget that loving oneself does not mean loving everything about one’s own self and being against all kinds of change or betterment. In fact, if one is loving, one should be willing to change or work towards bettering aspects of their personality which might be potentially hurting themselves or others. Anger issues is an example of an aspect like this.

Self-love is healthy as long as it doesn’t lapse into the other extreme of being obsessed and infatuated with everything about ourselves. Man being a social animal has to live in relationship with others and anything that hinders that will potentially hurt him as well. It is a tightrope walk of loving oneself and accepting our personalities, flaws and all, and being cocksure of our supremacy and infallibility as an individual. We should love ourselves enough to identify things that could potentially be hindering our growth as a person while also keeping in mind that it is not our performance in the world out there that defines our worth. If we are able to be secure in our identity thus, evolving and changing, and embracing it, then we will also be willing to take constructive criticism as well as discern between what should be taken seriously and what should not be.

Friendship And Physical Distancing

Introverts or extrovert, social interaction is a need for everyone. No one is liking the fact that physical distancing isn’t taking place on their terms.

Self Isolation, physical distancing and ‘Real Friends’

To give you a breakup: Some of my friends aren’t taking self-isolation very well. Some don’t seem to be minding it at all. And then there are those who, on the surface, seem to be taking it well, but in reality are carrying the heavy load of being ‘the strong friend’.

In April, a tweet by the handle @/tiamowry got viral, it read “During this pandemic, you’ll really see who your friends are. Who’s really checking up on you? Making sure you’re okay? Remember that when all this is over?”. It was deleted after the backlash, but the sheer number of likes, retweets and all the ‘yes omg, you’re right’ comments it received made it clear that a lot of us follow the same mentality that the tweet reflected. The mentality, in plain words, is being self-absorbed. Sure, all of us want to receive love and feel loved. We want constant reassurance from our friends and family that care about us.

However, to go ahead and suggest that a friend who is not constantly checking up on you isn’t a ‘real’ friend is parochial. This mentality implies that the pandemic is only affecting you and your mental health. It fails to acknowledge that it is also affecting everyone else, which includes your ‘real’ friends.

The last thing you should do is measure the strength of your friendships based on how often a friend is checking up on you as if they don’t have other things that could be worrying them or occupying their time during a pandemic.

Personally, I’ve been checking in on my friends, talking to them as much as I can. Doing as much listening as sharing. In no way am I doing this expecting everyone else to do the same for me. While saying this, it is also important that I mention the context- I’m in an extremely privileged position than most in this whole situation. For one, I have a roof over my head, three hot meals and not any financial burden to keep me worried about. I am someone who can be described as an ‘overly productive’ person during the pandemic. While on most day I like to be buried in work, but there are also days when everything starts to take a toll on me, on those days, sometimes I’m busy pretending to be strong for people even though I can hardly seem do anything for my own mental health. The other times I prioritise myself, something I learned the hard way.


There is no fixed answer to this question. It could be people with emotional/mental disorders, your current friends, old friends, new friends, family or even distant relatives. It is okay to do this as long as it doesn’t cost you your own peace of mind. You can not help anyone if you yourself are struggling. If you are over extending yourself it is okay to not check in with people you regularly check in with. You can keep yourself first without dissolving in guilt.


Like I mentioned before, I personally don’t take offence to whether or not a friend drops me a text or randomly video calls me. The pandemic isn’t just about me nor is it just about them. It is something that we are all collectively experiencing combined with our own personal struggles.

Take a quick moment to practice a more open and accommodating mindset.

High Salary Vs Job Satisfaction

There is not one individual that doesn’t need more cash and want more. Whether for a holiday or a fancy vehicle, everyone is going to enjoy some extra bucks. Nevertheless, does he have a job that pays well but does not really offer the secret to happiness?

While the term “happiness” varies from person to person, one would say there’s more significance to job satisfaction. Yes, good wages can lead to job satisfaction and it’s important to earn enough just to make a living, but they’re not the sole reason that employees find fulfilment in their jobs. Pursuing a field that gives your personal happiness is important, because if you can get a good pay, but you are not happy, then there’s really no point.

Salary vs. Job Satisfaction: Which is More Important? | BrighterMonday

While income is a satisfaction factor in a job that should not be the only factor that will drive individuals to pursue a particular career. Nonetheless, it’s not to say that a high pay check isn’t important because it’s extremely important for some people because they have a parents to support after or pay many other bills.

Essentially, if earnings are the only incentive for doing a task, then it’s not a good fit for you or your talents, which may lead to bad results ultimately. Furthermore, job fulfilment is actually more critical than a high wage because if workers are satisfied at work, they would put their best foot forward, which is less likely to happen if one continues to pursue a career that does not please them.

During the college application process, I often heard classmates say they were planning to focus on a specific subject in order to get a job in the industry with a massive salary. It is important to pursue a career that keeps you happy, because it is a part of your life forever.

Job happiness not only applies to the job environment, but it also allows you to be happy both individually and professionally. We are trying to live our life happily at the end of the day. It can be argued that in order to be happy one should fly abroad or purchase many luxury things with a high pay work.

However, if you continue pursuing a field or job that you enjoy, then you don’t need money to satisfy your desires and needs because you are already happy.

While it’s clear that a high pay check is appealing, we couldn’t imagine commuting to a job we didn’t love doing every single morning. A renowned writer actually said, Earning more money doesn’t always mean you’re going to be satisfied with the job.In addition, as per a study conducted by two University of Basel economists and published in the Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organization, it was disclosed that rising wages have no continual effect on job satisfaction.

It was found that wage raises positively affected job satisfaction but it was only temporary, typically lasting 4 years. This was due to people adapting over time to their new wage level, and ending up wanting more money.

Another side to this is that at the beginning, rewarding jobs may not always pay off well. While the passion and determination of the worker can, over time, contribute to future rewards, which may potentially make the job a profitable profession.

Overall, there is more significance and sense of career fulfilment than to seek a company that provides a high salary. It is crucial to be happy in your private life when thinking about the longer term, and that should never be based on a quantity or sum of cash. After all, salary usually comes once a month but every minute of the day, job satisfaction remains with you.

Effect of Automation on Jobs

During a period when India is concerned with the lack of satisfactory work, it is only natural that expectations would be raised on technologies that appear to accomplish a task of humans. This is analogous to our previous suspicions of computers taking over workers upon widespread adoption.

Today in every sphere we regard computers and laptops as indispensable goods. In fact, they performed miracles — from helping to control missiles to tracing water under dry soil.

Intro to AI for Policymakers: Understanding the shift – Brookfield ...

Because of machines, the latest collection of buzz terms that have entered our lexicon include industrial automation, artificial intelligence (AI), robotisation, virtual help and block chain technology. The Google Assistant can now actually remember your schedules reasonably, search nearest coffee shops and plan for your health check-up with a single command. The Aristotle, Mattel’s configurable computer, can read the children’s bedtime books, and teach the babies foreign vocabulary. A security robot, the Steve, can walk around a spot and detect possible fires. The nanny-robots will track a chicken’s wellbeing. The list continues to widen by the day. By 2025, robotics is forecasted to be a sector of $67 billion. The assertions about the impact of the aforementioned technologies are rather much further-fetched, coming back to the question of jobs.

Let’s look at the employment share of different sectors in India, for starters. According to the report of the Reserve Bank of India, of a total of 48 crore jobs in 2015-16, 42 per cent were in agriculture, 14 per cent were in construction, 12 per cent were in retail, bars and restaurants, another 12 per cent were in manufacturing, 11 per cent were in government, social and personal services and the rest were in other sectors. In agriculture, 27 per cent were farmers, and 15 per cent were farm labourers.

But much of the new jobs that were developed in the past were confined to very few industries. Roughly 1.5 crore new employees joined the workforce around the country between 2010-11 and 2015-16, totalling approximately 70 lakh new jobs per year. Business services absorbed most of these entrants (23 per cent) , followed by engineering (17 per cent), education (12 per cent), commerce (11 per cent) and transportation and storage (11 per cent). It is interesting to notice that about 2, 7 crore employees left agriculture, including growers, throughout these five years. About equivalent in number, about 2.5 crore new jobs have been reported in the construction industry, reflecting the fact that many of the farm workers have now become construction workers.

Instead, moving towards these innovations will open up opportunities for new employment, especially in information and communication technology and data sciences. To unlock talent, we need institutional capacity building to prepare the youth workers for those sectors. There is a huge demand for the building of skills, not only in these emerging technologies but also in existing industries. Only 10 per cent have earned some sort of training today, also in the manufacturing sector. It’s only five per cent in agriculture, construction and commerce, and it’s six per cent in finance. Overall, in India, no more than six per cent of the workers are given training. While there are definite margins for skilled staff, the ongoing effort to deliver skills development could generate substantial employment itself.

Finally, when there is sufficient institutional capacity to train the workforce for future jobs and give skills to the existing force, the threat to job loss could be a lesser threat. Yet job formation for the underemployed could also be a difficult thing to contend with. Bumpy roads to go.

Technology and the pandemic

Tech companies may not have developed a new technology due to COVID-19, but they started to implement the technologies with innovative studies, said an expert.

Academician Ilker Kose, head of Istanbul Medipol University Technology Transfer Office, said Tech companies now focused to curb coronavirus.

With the transformation of the COVID-19 outbreak into a pandemic, measures have been taken in many areas to prevent the effects of the epidemic worldwide.

Technological developments are among the most curious topics in these difficult days.

“Among these developments protecting social distance comes first, and also controlling mobilizations situations and tracing systems are other important developments,” Kose said, in an exclusive interview with Anadolu Agency.

Meanwhile, tech giants Apple and Google had announced that they will make cooperation on COVID-19 contact tracing technology.

Turkish Health Ministry had also launched an application for smartphones that will enable people to detect and monitor the COVID-19 cases in their locations.

Another issue is technology companies focused on right after the first shock was the solutions that enable the things we do in daily life to be done remotely, said Kose and added:

“Distance education and video conferencing solutions improved and increased rapidly, and similarly, solutions have been developing to provide health services remotely.”

People still in COVID-19 trauma

Applications for smartphones, which developed as a warning system when entering the intensively COVID-19 patients area, became popular.
Kose said tracing people with their cameras and phone signals was already possible but it was limited due to law restrictions.

He emphasized that the people still have not gotten over the social trauma caused by COVID-19 and once we overcome this situation we will make more rational decisions.

“However, it is certain that relevant legislation will move forward to a point in which the public’s health becomes will be more important than individuals’ freedom. Therefore, many applications will be used for marking and following people, measuring the social distance which recent technology already enable to do so,” he said.

Saying that doing it is possible with all kinds of traceable devices, said Kose and added that mobile phones, smart ID cards, wearable technology such as watches and bracelet will become widespread.

5G technology people’s demand

Although the world focuses its eyes on vaccine studies, there are also very important developments in the field of digital technology.

Kose stated that wireless communication has become essential in our lives and this system mostly has been using for voice, image, and data communications.

“If people use their smartphones as they do now, this current infrastructure would be enough for these developments, but people’s demands are increasing. Furthermore, not only humans but devices also use the internet infrastructure,” he said.

He also stressed that the world approached the technological limit in wireless communication, therefore using 5G and the following technologies are necessary.

“5G technology is a solution that arising from the demands of people” he added.

Waiving freedom to prevent virus

Answering questions on personal data and individual freedoms Kose said people will prefer restriction instead of getting the virus from other people.

“This will certainly limit individual freedoms in the current sense. However, the same individuals will be willing to waive their freedom due to the risk of infection from anyone else. Therefore, when paradigms change, norms and rules will also change,” he added.

Kose said in modern societies, individual freedoms are somewhat ahead of public health.

“We see this approach in mandatory vaccine applications, but people and states will have the same opinion even the most libertarian state after this trauma for more strict tracing system to protect public health,” he said.

Western countries’ approach

China is known to have an enormous surveillance system that gives the ability to trace millions of people.

On the question of whether Western societies can establish a Chinese-style social surveillance system, Kose said: “Western societies will develop unique solutions different from China and similar countries.”

“Authoritarian countries will proceed by setting rules that the whole society will follow. But I don’t think Western countries will put pressure on people on this issue. Instead, they will ask the public to decide for the transition to the surveillance system to prevent pandemics,” he said.

Kose said that in a society where people accept such a surveillance system some people would disagree.

“Those who don’t accept it would be alienated from the people and the number of who disagree would decrease,” he added.

He claimed that there would be an accumulation of anger against surveillance and tracing system, and would witness social riots.

The novel coronavirus has spread to 185 countries and regions since emerging in Wuhan, China last December, with the U.S. and Europe now the hardest-hit areas.

There are over 2.71 million coronavirus cases worldwide with more than 191,000 deaths. More than 745,000 people have recovered, according to data compiled by US-based Johns Hopkins University.

ADHD: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

ADHD - Unique Mindcare

An ADHD patient behaves a certain way because they feel like they lack people’s attention, right? Wrong. Actually, People who have ADHD are impulsive and/or unable to pay their full attention to anything. The mental disorder is very common in children and even after therapy and medication, it can still persist in childhood. With increased awareness now, it is easier to detect but earlier, it wasn’t so as so many people discovered their condition in late adulthood, only after getting tested. Detection becomes crucial as it is the first step that an ADHD patient could take towards learning to deal with it as it is not completely curable.

There are three types of ADHD – inattentive, hyperactive and a combination of the two. If a person has the inattentive type of ADHD, they might show symptoms like inability to be attentive during a conversation or lecture and get distracted easily, forgetfulness and losing their things often. These people are also unable to stick to a routine and meet deadlines because they lack organizational skills. If they remain unaware of their state, they might start feeling that they are just inferior to their peer and become depressed. People who have the impulsive type of ADHD get agitated quickly, so much that they become impatient when they have to wait for their turn and they interrupt a conversation often in order to get their point across. 

Imagine having a constant urge to move that you are unable to sit quietly in one place. People who have ADHD are so hyperactive, they often get up from their seat and start to move around in the middle of a lecture. Their energy is evident from the way they can talk nonstop. They also try to multitask or switch from a task to another without completing the first one and switch to something else later. All of these episodes of lack of attentiveness and impulsivity can lead to distress in both personal and professional lives. People surrounding the ADHD patients may try to help them without knowing that they have ADHD, but their advice can make the patient feel even more helpless as an ADHD brain is very different from neurotypical or normal brain. After detection. however, a patient can find their own strengths and ways in which they can deal with their weaknesses.

There are also good sides of ADHD. It brings out some very special personality traits like generosity, fairness, compassion and persistence. Individuals with ADHD tend to be more humorous with exceptional conversational skills. They can also have the ability to hyperfocus which could serve as a great advantage in almost all professional fields. With so many years making trials and errors in just getting on with life, their level of resilience becomes very high. They would also make great entrepreneurs, owing to their spontaneity, risk-taking behaviour and ingenuity. Present a problem to them and they would come up with the most creative, out-of-the-box solutions to them because like Jessica McCabe said, in her Ted Talk, “We not only think outside the box; we’re often not even aware that there is a box.”

Check out Jessica McCabe’s Tedx Talk.