Role of Teachers

Teachers play important roles in the students ‘ lives in their classrooms. Teachers are best known for their role in educating the students who are brought into their care. Beyond that, teachers serve a lot of other classroom roles. Teachers set the tone of their classes, creating a comfortable atmosphere, mentoring and encouraging students, becoming role models and listening and watching for signs of trouble. Teachers play an important role in the life of everyone. They not only teach us in classrooms, but we also learn other useful things such as moral principles, social etiquette, how to treat others and be polite to our classmates. Granted that technology has opened the doors to new learning & to have also changed the direction of education. But a decent leader has the ability to change our lives, to set us on fire in the perfect way.

Importance of Teachers in Our Society | Why are teachers so important?

Providing Knowledge

Throughout the classroom, the most important role a teacher performs is to teach the children awareness. Teachers are given a curriculum that meets state guidelines that they must follow. Teachers teach in a range of forms including seminars, small group exercises and hand-on learning.

Creating classroom environment

As for the community, teachers often play an important role in the classroom. Students often mimic actions taken by a teacher. Students are more likely to be successful if the instructor provides a dry, happy atmosphere. Teacher creating an environment may either be positive or negative. If students feel the teacher is angry, students may react negatively to this and learning can be impaired as a result. The teachers in their classrooms are responsible for the social conduct. This conduct is largely a result of the actions of the instructor and of her setting environment.

Ideal Role Models:

Usually, teachers should not think of themselves as role models but they are unwittingly. Students spend a lot of time with their instructor, making the instructor a role model for them. Depending on the teacher, this can be a positive or negative influence.   There are educators not only to teach the kids but also to love and care about them. Teachers are usually highly valued in the community by individuals, and thereby are a role model for students and parents.


Teachers take on a natural role of mentoring, whether it is intentional or not. This can have positive or negative effects on kids, again. Mentoring is a way students are motivated to aspire to be the best they can. This involves inspiring learners to enjoy learning too. Part of the mentoring includes listening to the students. Teachers give students a sense of control in the classroom by taking the time to listen to what the students say. This helps build their trust and helps them to wish success.

Signs of Trouble

Another role which teachers play is a role of guardian. Teachers are taught to look to the students for sign of problems. When the characteristics of the students change or physical signs of abuse are noticed, teachers need to look into the problem. Teachers must follow the procedures of the faculty when all signs of trouble are to be followed.

How NGOs can help in improving the lives of Poor


While a country’s government can advance economically by improving the infrastructure and industrial development, accomplishing socio-economic development warrants Civil Society active engagement. Non-governmental organizations play a significant role in filling the void in the various government-executed socio-economic development schemes. Moving right in the centre of communities and through informative research, NGOs will ensure that India ‘s poorest people experience sustained growth and access to education and employment and critical services. This helps to ensure that economic growth benefits reach the tiniest denominator.

10 NGOs rejuvenating education in India - GiveIndia's Blog

Non-governmental organizations or NGOs have now become an increasingly relevant motif in countries of the third world as well as in the social business world. India denotes no exception. The NGOs have popped up as the messiah of countless people without food, clothing, education and basic facilities for health care. India is one of the top 13 least-favoured countries. With history of being the most heavily populated nation on earth and poor expertise in manpower, India faces a monumental task in meeting her ever-increasing population ‘s demand. Consequently, NGOs in India can continue to play the role of precursor in achieving sustainable growth and development provided that there is a lasting, comfortable and reliable relationship between the government and NGOs where both work for the benefit of people with different activities. Their main responsibilities are to organize these people, to raise public awareness within them and to make them oriented towards development. These organizations work on the basis of the needs and demand adjudicated by the farmers and women at the grass root level.

NGOs can help in ensuring that India sees poverty eradication, sustained development and the downtrodden empowerment in several ways.

  1. Leading the Fight for Sustainable Development

NGOs continuously campaigned for sustainable development. They provide government organizations with data-driven support, and they also empower local communities to move towards a sustainable way of living. The aim is to help the present communities evolve and succeed, without compromising the growth opportunities of future generations. By donating to NGOs you empower them to take up the cause of the Indian society’s most marginalized sections. Civil society leverages the support earned to push social movements and place pressure on businesses and governments and work sustainably.

  • Poverty Attenuation:

While the country has experienced substantial economic progression over the past two and a half decades, access to clean drinking water, sanitation , quality education , health care, housing, and nutrition are essential to allow India’s 260 million people to leave a life of poverty behind. To end the factors that cause poverty, NGOs run major research, awareness-raising, and growth programmes. Beyond that, they carry out projects on-ground to empower societies. Many children centric NGOs such as Child Rights and You, Teach for India, Save the Children etc. for example, works to provide education for the most vulnerable children in India with the goal of helping them to march forward in life. Similarly, poor toddlers are undergoing health and nutrition projects so they can lead a happy and healthy childhood.

  • Empowering children:

In any nation, children are the future. Healthy and peaceful children of today have grown up to become tomorrow’s mature, held accountable and educated adults, and can contribute much better to the process of nation building. Prominent Children centric NGOs carries out campaigns and projects across India to ensure for the safety, and health of the poorest and most deprived children and make provisions for them to get quality and holistic education.

Organizations such as CRY,TFI etc. are also doing some cutting-edge grassroots research in slums, tribal areas and remote villages when they go to help children in the midst of India’s most marginalized communities. It is absolutely essential that our society gives children their share, respects their rights and supports them and gives them a satisfying childhood. This will go a long way towards achieving genuine development.


Scholars now think of NGOs as non-state actors in the field of international relations (a category that may also include multinational corporations). This concept reflects the growing presence of NGOs in the foreign policy arena where only States had previously played a significant role. The former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mr. Kofi Annan, has called them “the conscience of humanity” and the World Bank and other UN agencies have consulted professional NGOs on related issues before adopting policies and drafting treaties. Its role will surely expand as global governance becomes more multicultural and less confined to state-based structures. It will continue to be a beacon enlightening the way forward as the world emerges to confront fresh problems.

NGOs can play a significant role in shaping the society for future generations. They may be the force that directs the political discussion to achieving equity and sustainable growth. Over the past 2 decades. NGOs can help bring about a systemic shift in India’s socioeconomic landscape with their rich knowledge in bringing about a change in the lives of backward communities and an experience in campaigning for their (backward communities’) cause. Donate today to charity to play your part in India’s development.

Women suffers at every phase of her life!


Right from the birth till death, we as ‘Women’s’ have to go through some or the other pain. Be it killing of a girl child after her birth, family abuses, menstrual pains,forceful marriages, domestic violences, molestations, pregnancy pains, emotional pains or sufferings, and many more. The list doesn’t stops.

Killing of a Girl born Child:

Women still have to go through a lot of things which they don’t talk about it openly. Although its illegal today, killing the girl child in the womb itself or right after the birth are not been practised from several years. But what about the days when such sins used to take place? It all started from there. Getting born as a girl child was earlier known as a sin. Thanks to the law and the changes in the mentality of the people that it has stopped now.

Family abuse or emotional torture:

Even after getting born as a girl child, some families still try to emotionally and at times physically abuse or torture them. Some orthodox families still compare their girls with the male members of their family. Some girls even today do not have the freedom to speak and even the rights to do something they wish to. Narrowminded people still follows a gender stereotype mentality that a women is made only for the kitchen and education and working or maybe chasing their dreams is worthless.

Yes, you read it right! There are people who still have such thinkings maybe not in cities but if you go and look around in the small districts or villages; such type of mentalites still do exist.


Educated or not, every women suffer during their menstrual days. Menstruation is normal still even today it is known as a taboo in ‘India’.Menstruation is associated with impurity in India.They are often kept out of communal cooking and eating places on days when they are menstruating, and are barred from entering temples. Menstruation comes with severe cramps, back pains, mood swings, and sometimes heavy bleeding. Women silently suffer the pains while menstruating. Working womens on their menstruation days never complained. However, now mandatory first two days of leaves have been issued by the law during the menstruation days which brings relief to the working women for atleast the first two days. Even while menstruating, a women does all her work, household chores,in that pain. Imagine working when you are bleeding for continous 5 to 7 days. Only womens can do that. She bleeds every month for 5 to 7 days and handles all the pain by herself.

Molestation or Harassments:

We do live in a democratic country. But yet ‘Womens’ are still not safe here. And its the fact. Even today, womens are not safe and to be honest I really don’t know when we would feel safe here.

Each and every girl or a women in the society has been through molestation or harrasments atleast once or twice or maybe more in her life. Sad but the truth. Some experience this through a family member while some experience this in their school. Some might experience in their college , some might in their classes. Work spaces, empty roads, bus stops, buses, trains, empty railway stations, restaurants, entertainment field, hospitals, etc. Where are the womens safe?

Actually, no where. Womens always live in the fear of getting molested or getting harassed by someone. Womens can never be relaxed if they are out of their houses. They have to be extra cautious and protect themselves from any happenings on their own. Womens everyday deals with the uncomfortable stares that are passed by mens to them. It is like a daily routine. Womens are not free and safe yet where they can openly roam anywhere and at anytime without having any fear.

Forceful Marriages:

Earlier, child marriages were been practiced in India. Today, the legal age of marrying for womens is above 18 years of age. Families who haven’t developed their minds force their daughters to get married as soon as they are above 18 years. Womens are forced to marry to strangers by their families and are led to suffer for lifelong. Forceful marriages are done where womens are emotionally blackmailed. Families stop their daughters education to just get her married. Womens are not only born for marriages. Today, Womens have created histories. But sadly, forceful marriages still takes place.

Domestic Violences:

Womens do suffer domestic violences in silence without raising their voices or asking for help. Womens suffer domestic violences for their childrens if any. Due to the society, womens tolerate domestic violences and do not seek help. Few womens are afraid to take steps against their husbands. Womens who do not work are afraid to leave their husbands. The fear of being alone, the fear of raising their childrens alone, the fear of not accepted in the society, the fear of getting a ‘divorce tag’ all this makes a women to suffer domestic violences alone.

Pregnancy Pains:

The biggest gift is to give birth to a child which womens are blessed with. The pregnancy phase every women deals with is unbelievable. A women while pregnant makes her whole body goes through drastic changes. A woman goes through frequent urination, dizziness, headaches, changes in breasts, fatigue, nausea, Her appetite changes, her moods, her body, and many more. The amount of pain while delivering a baby every women goes through is unimaginable. A women suffers all the pain for her baby.

Even after all this, Womens are not treated with the respect she deserves. Womens are made feel less superior than mens. Womens are compared every day with the mens of the society.

A woman compromises her dreams, her ambitions, her wishes, all for her family and still never complaints.

A woman has to face challenges at every aspects of her life be it through emotionally or physically. Women sufferings do not end. According to me, I listed out some of the common sufferings but it doesn’t ends here.

Till the death of a women, she has to go through something or the other. Womens are so powerful that they suffer in silence and still get up daily and fight back against the world. Womens pains are endless. Some choose to compromise with their life. Some get up and change their lives.

A basic guide to land in a dream job in Game industry

With the myriads of electronic gadgets , the genres of games available are immense. The strength of players ( getting addicted to PC games, online games through browsers, mobile games, video game consoles etc) increases multi-fold. Henceforth , the game industry is thriving and reaching its heights.
Definitely a decent job in Game industry with good expertise will be a lucrative one.
Intro to Game Development …
Some of the real world events are not in our control. Hence, changing the reality is always not possible. Creating a new reality is an interesting aspect of Game development.
Games are produced through the software development process , as a video game is software with art, audio, and game play. Game development is a process that starts from an idea or concept . Creativity and an open mind is vital for the completion of a successful video game.
Independent games or indie games are produced by individuals and small teams with no large-scale developer .Most modern PC or console games take from three to five years to complete.], where as a mobile game can be developed in a few months.
Components involved
The different elements involved in Game Development can either be handled by a single developer who is individually creating a game or normally by a team of multiple people.

  1. Story: Everything has a story and that is equally true for video games!!! Your story may be relatively easy. The main point is that there should be an interesting story to captivate your players!!!
  2. Characters: After the story, the characters are a fundamental part of any video game. You have to decide the looks and personalities of the characters, what should be manners and characteristics etc.
  3. Audio: It is the backbone of video games!!! There are various sounds in the game world like player sounds, background music, etc. that together create a realistic situation effect ( being in a forest , ocean etc) .
  4. Art: It is very important as it decides the feel of the game. Normally art in video games can include various things like the game texture, 3D modeling of characters and objects, particle systems to create fire, fog, snow, etc.
  5. Lighting or rendering: All the lighting in video games is obviously artificial and very important for mood setting. Less lighting can be used in association with horror or thriller games while increased lighting can denote more adventure or fun games.
  6. Levels: All good video games have various levels that increase the difficulty as time goes on. Levels can be denoted in games by multiple floors, different buildings etc.


How to Start Learning Game Development?
Game development involves bringing games from the conceptual phase, through development, and into reality. Initially , the beginner shall try to develop a new concept or idea , modify it and get a final draft as high concept .Then, he can develop its summary and later, the detailed game description ( feature list, setting and story, target audience, hardware and software requirements , time schedule, and finally staff and budget estimates ) at the conceptual level. Prototypes (miniature model of a game) are often meant only to act as a proof of concept or to test ideas, by modifying some of the features. Below are the steps given to start learning Game development.

  1. Learn Computer Programming: The final game is all created using Computer programming. You need to know programming in case you want to enter this world! Most commonly used languages here are C++, C#, HTML 5 , Java, JavaScript etc.
  2. Choose a known Game Engine: As you are a beginner in Game Development, it is best to start with a known Game Engine. They are quite useful in general as they provide 3D and 2D graphics rendering, audio support, animation etc.

• The most popular Game Engine is Unity as it is quite easy to learn, and also has the personal edition which is free!
• It is a game development platform first and foremost with a user-friendly drag-and-drop interface.
• It is possible to make 2D, 3D and VR (virtual reality)games with it
• It has an extensive asset store with a lot of assets and plugins
o There are also a lot of assets available for free
• A big community that can help you with the development issues
• Many tutorials provided by Unity and the community
• Supports export to every relevant platform (and more)
Unreal Engine

Another popular Game Engine is the Unreal Engine . You don’t need to write any code to make a game . It has a system called Blueprints. Instead of writing code, you can use their visual scripting system to build the logic of your game. It is easier to learn compared to learning a new scripting language. However, you still need to learn the logic behind it to understand what is going on. You can quickly come up with own features and mechanics. It can be used to create games for the system Windows, Android, Linux, Mac OS and iOS.
Godot Engine
This open-source engine is completely free to use. It supports 2D, 3D, and VR games. There is an active community that contributes to the engine and also provides tutorials.
The CryEngine a powerful platform for making games. It is free to use until you start to ship a game, similar to Unity and Unreal.
Construct 2
A powerful visual environment for developing 2D games. It has wide capabilities and several settings for events and behavior. It is simple and games for Android and iOS can be created quickly using this game engine.
Android Studio
Android Studio is the “official” tool for Android game development. This tool comes directly from Google and supports Java and Kotlin as the primary programming languages.
Unlike Unity , Android Studio is much more of a traditional IDE and coding knowledge or experience is needed for game development.

  1. Create a Basic Game: With this basic idea ,you can create a basic game. Try to keep your project around a week or so because the most important thing now is that you understand the basics and make sure that the game has a clear objective and endpoint.
  2. Learn 3D Graphics and high Math skills: And most of the famous games today require 3D graphics which provides a realistic feeling to the game. So if you want to become a Professional highly skilled Game Programmer, you should know computer graphics and also the mathematics behind it (linear algebra,matrices etc).

Different Job roles in Game development
There are different kind of roles in Game development.
A game designer is a person who designs game mechanics , user interface, characters, graphics , rules and structure of a game. They are the main visionary of the game. One of the roles of a designer is being a writer, often employed part-time to conceive game’s narrative, dialogue, video game packaging content, hint system, etc.
A game artist is a visual artist who creates video game art. The artist’s job may be 2D oriented or 3D oriented. 2D artists may produce concept art, sprites, textures, environmental backdrops and user interface. 3D artists may produce models, animation, 3D environment, and cinematics.
A game programmer is a software engineer who primarily develops video games or related software (such as game development tools). The game’s code base development is handled by programmers. Individual programming disciplines roles include: (i).Physics including simulating collision, object movement, etc.; (ii).AI – such as rule-based decisions, etc. (iii).Graphics – the production of graphics engine, integration of models etc.(iv).Sound – integration of music, speech, effect sounds into the proper locations and times. (v).Scripting – development of high-level command system for various in-game tasks, such as level editor triggers, etc.(vi).UI – production of user interface elements, like option menus, help and feedback systems, etc.(vii).Network communications – the managing of data inputs and outputs for local and internet game play.
Level designer
A level designer is a person who creates levels, challenges or missions for computer and/or video games using a specific set of programs.
Sound engineer
Sound engineers are technical professionals responsible for sound effects and sound positioning.
The quality assurance is carried out by game testers.
The testers ensure that the game falls within the proposed design: it both works and is entertaining. This involves testing of all features, compatibility etc.
Summing up….
Game industry is a promising field and it has a lot of scope for growth and sustain. Game playing is not mandatory for game development. Using Game engines, mobile games can be developed within months ( without much programming experience) compared to games for wider screens .Online courses and tutorials are extensively available in the Internet to master it.

To know further details about this topic, please check the following links.

The Beginners Guide to Video Game Development

work life with balance life.

Those who feel satisfied with in personal lives are more satisfied with their careers and them problems better to. The work life balance is commonly used by the balance of working individually between time allocated by the work and other aspects life. the family life with the professional life are equal. working is balancing but a limitations. but now days advance technology have made foe easy to work from home or anywhere task to accomplished to the via smartphones like for ex – video conferencing, mails etc. theses facilitate have a advance without 9 to 5 work day.

Why work life balance is important – Because of it helps to reduce mental stress burn – don physically consequences, physically problems etc to helps to discard through mind in the work. it aspects a healthy work environment is balance. It was maintaining is must important for the working life because it help you for the future working life experience, investment. their are different types of the balancing the working life.

  1. play to your strengths – Don’t try the all things of people.and focus on your strength and others. The outsource is the wasting time of the instead.
  2. Give priorities of your time – first of all you make have to do for the task then you should need for the priorities to accomplished the tasks on many categories like – Important, urgent but not important, neither important nor urgent.
  3. plot some personal time – Whenever the your personal problems are arises, it can tempting to your work. If your personal life in do not make for you personal then you don’t do it that work – your time like your family and your health.
  4. Find time for your Finance – Whenever your work for yourself is not , then it should be important to feel the confident about your finance. In order to this, then you need to get accounting software and use it from the day. The cash flow is the huge challenges facing the small small business. The it is must important for starting the accounting as early from the day dot.
  5. Manage your time for long term – Create a timeline of the activities or you can customize own excel spreadsheet or word tables. The top and down activities are the across the sides. Include the family – like holidays, birthdays, parties, and so on, as you not forget that are unavailable for workdays.
  6. Make exercise a must be do, a should do – It is easy to cancel the gym and the run or the yoga class because a client wants something done by the yesterday. And the ensure is given by the much priorities as your client and making money. A healthy body means a fresh mind, complete tasks n less time.

The employee Benefits Template 7 – The first one is the employee discount at various restaurants, lounges, shopping hours. Enabling Learning in the house library kiosks. Insurance medical and term life personal accidents. Parenting leaves 84 days maternity 5 days paternity. Vacation holidays 26 business days 12 festivals holidays. Work life balance pleasant shift timings.

Why is Shiva so popular among millennials?

Shiva is known as being both the destroyer and a mediator. He breaks all stereotypes of that one expects from being a typical God-like figure. From his long dreadlocks that holds the holy river Ganga to a snake around his neck. To wrapping himself with a tiger skin and wears a garland of skulls. He is fearless, minds his own business, and meditates most of the time in the Himalayas. This three-eyed god is the one who lives with reptiles, demons, goblins, and demi-gods without any prejudice of race or creed. It is probably his unique and mysterious ways that make his personality even more alluring.

The kind of world we live in now, one can learn a lot from Shiva. He never discriminated between good and bad, positive and negative, or god and demon. He was never biased. Karma is what he ardently believed in. He is Mahadev for a reason.

It isn’t much of a surprise that in the last few years, Shiva has become a rave among the millennials, especially in India. One can’t deny the fact that people get attracted to strong personalities. Isn’t it? At times he seems to be an epitome of all things good, at other times he is so frightening that you would not want to be around him. He is a quintessential god who breaks all the barriers, lives by his terms, dances in the forest – taandav (his dance of destruction). No doubt he is considered the ‘Millennial God.’

Shiva is very unconventional that makes and breaks all social customs and codes to reach his state of freedom. This means one doesn’t need to worry about how you live, eat, what lifestyle you follow, which caste and creed you belong to, and what norms you practice.

It is easy to worship him. You don’t require a priest, one can simply walk to a shiv temple and offers prayer directly, or pray in your own heart. 

He has immense powers that can destroy our sufferings, removes impurities such an ignorance, delusion, egoism, pride, and attachment to facilitate our personal growth. That means if you are looking for a change of direction in life, he is the right god to worship.

Mahadev is the source of all arts, science, and creations. He is himself a good musician, singer, and dancer. There is no better guru than him in this whole universe. All knowledge flows from him, in the form of Ganga.

He loves his family as dearly as he loves his devotees. One can learn from Shiv about family values and the importance of caring and compassionate relations.

Lord Shiva is one of the most powerful, strongest, and the fascinating Hindu deities ever. He is omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient. Despite him being considered as God of destruction one has to understand he is the reason for rebirth as well. He possesses both the generative and destructive powers of nature.

Whenever you feel life is unfair, just remember this ultimate power and you’re good to go!


Adaptive Physical Education

Adaptive Physical Education (APE) is a direct service that can be provided to a special needs child, should the Committee on Preschool Special Education (CPSE) or the Committee on Special Education (CSE) determine that the child is in need of such service. In many cases, if a child is identified as visually impaired, physically handicapped, severely multiply impaired, or other health impaired, he or she will be warranted APE services.

Adaptive Physical Education (APE) is an adapted, or modified, physical education program designed to meet the individualized gross motor needs, or other disability-related challenges, of an identified student. The program can be provided one-on-one, in a small group, or within the general physical education setting. The APE instructor needs to be trained in assessing and working with special needs children. Lesson plans, rubrics, and worksheets need to be adapted for the needs of the children.

The need for Adaptive Physical Education (APE) is determined by the CPSE or CSE. The APE instructor assesses the child and presents the information to the committee. The assessment must include diagnostic and curriculum-based data, observations, and input by the child’s general physical education teacher. If the child is receiving OT, PT or Vision Therapy (VT), then input should be obtained by these providers as well.

Based on the assessment and any other information provided by committee members, the committee determines whether or not APE services are needed. If the committee recommends such services, then APE becomes a part of the child’s Individualized Education Plan (IEP). The plan must include the assessment information, the amount of APE to be received, whether or not the child will be in the general physical education setting, and goals with measurable objectives/benchmarks.

It’s important to note that APE should not be viewed as a related service. Because physical education is federally mandated for all students, the APE teacher is a direct service provider. The APE teacher is to provide adaptations or modifications that will allow the special needs child to participate in age-appropriate physical educational activities. Adaptations or modifications can be made in four areas:

1. Instruction. Rules, lesson plans, strategies, etc. can be modified or included to help the child be successful in physical education. For example, a down’s syndrome child may respond to one word signs as reminders for doing a summersault correctly.

2. Rules. A rule can be adapted or changed if it allows the special needs child to be successful. For example, if the students are working on volley ball skills, a wheelchair bound student is allowed to serve the volley ball from four feet ahead of the serving line.

3. Equipment. Standard gym equipment can be replaced with other objects that vary in shape, color, size, etc. For example, when playing kickball, provide a large bright orange ball for a visually impaired child to kick.

4. Environment. If need be, change the size of the playing area or use tape to define the area. For example, if the general education students are pitching softballs back and forth, work with a severely mentally handicapped child on rolling a ball back and forth by starting out being two feet apart and gradually increasing the space.

For some special needs students, Adaptive Physical Education may be needed every school year. For other students, as they continue to make gains with their gross motor skills, APE services might be tapered back and at some point no longer needed. APE students need to be encouraged to do their best. Programs, such as the Special Olympics, have provided a wonderful and positive opportunity for APE students to experience competing just like their non-disabled peers.

Adapted games for disabilities

The adaptation and development of games for children with disabilities is fundamental for the progression and stimulation of children with disabilities. Apart from adapting the games and toys design according to certain standards to comply with the needs of children with disabilities, we should not forget, that adapting them to the universal standards will benefit, not only children with disabilities, put also children without them, so they can share moments together while playing, favouring social inclusion.  

Games and toys for children with disability: inclusion, encouragement and development

Games for children are a synonym with psychomotor activity, development and stimulation. They are a source of assertiveness, motivation, satisfaction and social interaction.

In the case of children with disability, games are more than that. All these benefits mentioned above are duplicated when disabilities are present, so that the game turns to be an occupational area which is a very basic element for their social, cognitive, sensory, prescriptive, affective and communicative development.

We need to take into account that games for children with disabilities are also essential tools to accomplish educational objectives. Nevertheless, children with disabilities usually find obstacles in the game, not only if toys are not adapted to their own needs, but also when interacting with other children.

Furthermore, since there is not only a type of disability (there could be motor, cognitive, sensory, perceptive, relational disabilities), it is hard to set global patterns to define games for every kind of disability. Professionals (doctors and specialists) and family members are the ones who need to be in charge of spotting the features each child needs.

adapted toys

Some of the esential things we need to take into account when choosing a toy or a game for children with disabilities are the age and type of disability. For instance, in cases of motor disability, adaptations in toys for babies is quite high per se. This is due to the fact that at an early age the mobility of babies with or without disabilities is practically the same, but the differences in motor activity are more notable as children grow.

But not only the age and the type of disability are key when choosing any toy or game, children (not only the ones with disabilities), usually have different learning rhythms, so it is important to call certain specifications into question with regard to the age, depending on the case.

Even so, when talking about games for children with disabilities, we can establish the following general guidelines.

  • Look for toys with different visual designs, use and play (characteristics of toys with universal design)
  • Choose those that allow you to change the rules so you can easily adapt them.
  • Encourage them to explore and participate so that they realise what they are or not able to do, and get to know their preferences too
  • Don’t forget that stimulation through games for the disabled is both an individual and group experience. The former reinforces personal autonomy while the latter promotes communication and teamwork.
  • Adapted toys are those that, in a group of children with and without disabilities, all of them can play with it and none feels excluded.
  • “Dirty game” (using sand, water, finger paints, play dough, kneading, wax, modelling clay…) stimulates sensory and motor development.
  • If you suggest games for disabled children, try to mix tradition and innovation together. Traditional games (clapping games, songs, etc.) promote the sensorimotor development and enhance social relations. On the contrary, innovative toys use interesting and useful programmes and technological adjustments for children with disabilities.

Games for children with physical disabilities: challenges and basic modifications

Children with motor disabilities usually start their physical therapy when their first months of life are taking place and their parents moving their efforts and eagerness into it. In this phase, play is presented as a major element for physical development.

Among the main obstacles that children with physical disabilities may find when playing, are problems with moving certain parts of their body, reaching the elements, and the precision of movement and coordination.

One of the usual elements for adapting games for children with disabilities is the use of push buttons. They, apart from stimulating the game, are used in some day-to-day devices such as computers, controls, switches or keys. Getting to have autonomy with push buttons, will make easier for them the fact of controlling those devices in the future.

Some other basic elements to take into account when choosing accessible games for children with phisical disabilities are:

  • Children can handle them without needing the help from others.
  • Push buttons (and other elements which they need to interact with) are adapted, distinguishable and easy to run.
  • Large structures like kitchen sets, little tables, etc. need to be large enough to allow the entrance of a wheelchair. In the absence of this possibility, the structure should be detachable.
  • The need to perform multiple actions at the same time is excluded (for example, the need of pressing two buttons simultaneously).

Technology Integration

Technology integration is the use of technology resources — computers, mobile devices like smartphones and tablets, digital cameras, social media platforms and networks, software applications, the Internet, etc. — in daily classroom practices, and in the management of a school. Successful technology integration is achieved when the use of technology is:

  • Routine and transparent
  • Accessible and readily available for the task at hand
  • Supporting the curricular goals, and helping the students to effectively reach their goals

When technology integration is at its best, a child or a teacher doesn’t stop to think that he or she is using a technology tool — it is second nature. And students are often more actively engaged in projects when technology tools are a seamless part of the learning process.

Defining Technology Integration

“Effective integration of technology is achieved when students are able to select technology tools to help them obtain information in a timely manner, analyse and synthesize the information, and present it professionally. The technology should become an integral part of how the classroom functions — as accessible as all other classroom tools.” — National Educational Technology Standards for Students, International Society for Technology in Education.

The success behind technology integration in education

There are two keys to successfully integrating technology in the classroom. The first lies in understanding the role of technology in the classroom. Keeping students — not the technology — at the center of instruction is the second.

Authentic and meaningful technology integration is a relationship between the teacher, the student, and the curriculum. Technology is the vehicle that makes it happen.

In Ms. Hart’s classroom, students used technology as an appropriate medium for completing their assignment. Their focus remained on the learning objectives and project goals — the tech was just a tool. Learning how to use the available technology also supplemented their learning experience and helped them work more efficiently.

Digital automation and machinery alone will never make school a better place. Technology integration in education doesn’t shift the focus from instruction. Instead, it enhances an existing educational program by serving as a learning device.

Benefits of technology integration

First, technology meets students where they are in the learning continuum by assessing their strength and weaknesses. Then, the programs identify appropriate learning objectives and establish learning pathways for each student.

Second, instructional software allows students to access their classwork anytime. Students may extend their learning by working on programs outside of class: before school, during lunch time, or from home if they have access to the apps from their own devices.

Third, learners find technology responsive and engaging. In the classroom, students with access to technology have useful tools that assist with active learning and problem-solving. Integrated technology encourages engagement and exploration in a way that traditional textbooks can never fill. Classroom lessons are less about the technology itself and more about deep learning. Students use technology to achieve the task at hand: understanding content.

Additionally, software and digital voice assistants provide alternative, reliable sources of information or fact-checking. These programs patiently repeat directions and lessons, customizing instruction through differentiation.

Finally, as learners engage with software and other technology, certain algorithms can collect data about student achievement for teachers to analyze. This data allows them to better plan future lessons and attend to their students’ needs

Career Counseling

Career counseling, also known as career guidance, is counseling designed to help with choosing, changing, or leaving a career and is available at any stage in life. One’s career is often one of the most important aspects of adulthood, and embarking on a new career, whether for the first time, the second time, or any time thereafter, can be a stressful event, especially when economic difficulties such as recession are a factor. A career counselor can help by outlining and discussing one’s potential career options.

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Career Counseling

View of surveyor working in field through blades of grass

Career counseling, also known as career guidance, is counseling designed to help with choosing, changing, or leaving a career and is available at any stage in life. One’s career is often one of the most important aspects of adulthood, and embarking on a new career, whether for the first time, the second time, or any time thereafter, can be a stressful event, especially when economic difficulties such as recession are a factor. A career counselor can help by outlining and discussing one’s potential career options.


Most Americans will spend a third of their lives at work, but a 2014 study showed that only 52.3% of Americans report being satisfied with their jobs. Job stress may lead to anxiety or depression, so finding a fulfilling career is considered to be important to mental well-being. When choosing the most fitting career or finding a new job when one proves unsatisfying or frustrating, the services of a career counselor may be helpful.A career counselor could be a therapist, life coach, or a volunteer from the business world but will generally be trained to provide career information resources, discuss career development, and administer and interpret aptitude and ability assessments. Students might see a guidance counselor in high school before applying to college and then again in college before choosing or changing majors, but career counseling can help anyone who wishes to change careers, leave work altogether, or explore ways to be more satisfied with a current career.


Choosing a career is an important task, but it may also be a difficult one. It may not be easy to decide what type of job will be the best fit, and since career counseling helps people assess their skills, needs, and desires in order to find a career that works for them, this type of counseling is considered to be an important step to take before deciding on a permanent career. Researching a wide variety of potential careers may be overwhelming, and information on the skill sets and education needed for a particular position may be contradictory or difficult to find. A career counselor will often be able to provide valuable information in these areas and others.

Some of the following questions may be helpful for narrowing one’s focus when considering a career change:

  • What do I enjoy doing?
  • What kinds of activities are fun and fulfilling for me?
  • What am I good at?
  • What is my skill set?
  • What qualifications do I have, such as a degree or experience?
  • How much money do I need to make to feel satisfied?
  • What jobs are available in the place(s) I’d like to live?
  • Do I want to travel?
  • What are my values?
  • Is it important to me to be of service to others?
  • Am I looking for intensely challenging work or something relatively easy?
  • Am I willing to do what others tell me without question, or would I rather make most decisions on my own?
  • To what degree do I need stability and security?


In a career counseling session, the counselor will help a person explore skills and strengths, consider education levels and give advice about continuing education, and determine interests and personality type. Counselors may also administer an IQ test or an aptitude test. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has also been shown to be useful at helping individuals determine possible careers based on personality traits.

Some potential topics of discussion in career counseling:

  • Particular skills or talents. In which careers might they be useful?
  • The educational commitment required of various careers.
  • The potential earnings of various careers.
  • The daily working environment. Some people enjoy working in an office, while others might be more successful in a fast-paced or outdoor environment.
  • The opportunities for change or advancement in a particular career. Some careers are more flexible than others. Lawyers and doctors, for example, may shift their focus or area of specialty but will generally remain lawyers and doctors. Other careers or education paths might more allow mobility between positions in a given field.
  • The necessary skills/education for a desired career.

Who is a Career Counselor?

The Career Services staff member assisting you holds a masters degree and has expertise in career development theory, counseling techniques, administration and interpretation of assessments, and career information resources. Career Counselors have masters degrees in Counseling or Career Counseling.

Your job search/ career attainment process is also a critical aspect of your career development, and therefore, Job Search Advising and Career Counseling are intertwined. Your Career Counselor is also fully trained to assist with all aspects of your job search.

Job Specification

Job specification is the Qualities required by the person to perform the job. Job specification is the Education qualification, Experience, Skills, Knowledge and Required skills to complete the particular job . All this skills are required to complete the job.

Trend ‘Web-Series’

What is a Web Series?

A web series is a series of episodes designed like Television series except for the matter that its shown on the web. Normally, TV daily soaps run for months or years but a web series have small number of series of episodes that could end in a day or maybe in two to three days. It depends on the person who is watching. Some prefer in binge watching the episodes which means the practice of watching multiple episodes of a series in rapid succession. Where else some people prefer watching it at their free time.

Webseries tells you a story that are released over time in order. Its not like the episodes of daily soaps that requires dramas to entertain the audience. All you need is a creative content for the show to reach out the target audience.

The first web series in India that created a lot of buzz amongst the youths was ‘Permanent Roommates’ in 2015. Since then, there has been a rise on the Web series platform with various different shows or series.

Web series can be watched on your smartphones, desktops, laptops, tablets and even on Televisions. It can be scripted or non scripted videos or series of episodes.

The budget of the web series is normally less compared to the TV or films shootings. The web series can be made by anyone who has a great content and a creative ones which the audience would love to watch and also something new and exciting one.

The best part about web series is that you can show whatever content you want to and there are no restrictions or violations against it whereas on the other hand, TV shows or Films are violated for the content to a certain extent.

Over the few years, different genre of web series have been created and released on different platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Zee 5, Alt Balaji, etc. People typically spend time in watching the series for 4 to 5 hours or sometimes even more than that. Web series can be watched on the online platforms through WIFI or cellular data on your smartphones or tablets.

Web series can be in different genres like romance, drama, mysteries, horrors, suspenses, thrillers, crimes, etc. The contents can be made available in different languages like English, Hindi, German, Bengali, Malayalam, Telugu, Tamil and many more.

A great content is all you need and ofcourse the ‘Camera’ for creating a Web Series.


– Web series can be watched anywhere at anytime and at anyplace.

– Webseries can be watched alone with no disturbance.

– Web series can be watched in your free time to avoid boredom.

– Web series can be enjoyed without any censored content.

-Web series can be watched on different online platforms.

– You need to subscribe and login your details to watch your favorite series on the online platforms.


– Due to the uncensored content, web series can’t be watched with families.

– People with busy schedules cannot enjoy web series as it requires free time.

– You need to do payments for your subscription.

The current scenario:

Today, Webseries have took over the Television daily soaps among the youths and certain age groups who like to watch series on the Web. Not completely but more than TV shows, the youth prefers to binge watch the different series as per their likings that are released on different online platforms.

Netflix, Amazon Prime Videos, Alt Balaji, Zee 5, Voot Select are few of the online platforms that are the most trending. The nation lockdown has made people sit at their homes due to which some are working from wfh and some are free. As more and more people have free time, generally youths are spending more time in binge watching the trending series which are going on releasing and entertaining and keeping themselves busy in this lockdown.

Depending on the preferences or depending on the trending series people make time and binge watch it. Nowadays, youths have no topics to talk about except for one i.e CoVid-19. So, they do discuss about the series that are trending or the ones which they have watched amongst their friends and yes resulting in ‘word of mouth’ publicity which helps the series to grow and be trending.

Television soaps are rarely watched by the youths due to the upgrowing webseries industry. Not completely neglected by youths but yes they do enjoy watching series on the web more than Television daily soaps.

Well, that doesn’t mean that TV daily soaps are not in demand or will be going off air in the upcoming years. No, not at all.

Web series have created a trend in the market. The nation- wide lockdown increased the number of viewers of web series more rapidly and is trending today than compared to earlier as TV daily soaps weren’t available with new episodes or dramas.

Everyone wants something new always due to which the web series have started getting maximum number of viewerships as new series are being released till date.

Web series or TV daily soaps , all we need is entertainment, creative and different stories. The people who prefer series over the TV daily soaps will continue to watch series and vice-versa. And the people who love watching web series and TV soaps will always continue doing that.



Racism is the belief which consist of a idea that for instance a particular people of colour is superior or inferior from another, that someone’s social and moral traits or values are not determined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. This is a kind of separatism which is to be believed that one person is different from another for instance white and black people and it is to be believed that they should be remained segregated and apart from each other.

Racism has existed throughout human history that means it is present in the society for a long time and it define the hate which is present in the superior and inferior group of people which are being differentiated on this basis. It can be on the basis of skin colour, language, customs, place of birth or any factor that supposedly reveals the basic nature of that person and because this nature it has influenced my wars, slavery and the formation of nations and legal codes.

What is racism?

Racism is a belief of the superiority of one race to another. It means discrimination, prejudice or antagonism against people because they belong of a different race or ethnicity. Racism also describes the differentiation on the basis of social, legal, cultural, economic and political aspects which impacts in increase of this idea. Though in terms of political aspects, leaders always used racism to gain votes and rule and they also make this issue so big so that their actions seens all right.

During the past 500-1000 years of history, racism has always impacted on non- westerners by westerners which has a significant impact on the history of racism for example, Asians and Africans. This belief was not originated automatically. This issue is a result of many years of torture, humiliation and physical and mental violence. This issue started when Portuguese sailors has explored Africa in 15th and 16th Century. African was very wealthy and powerful back then and Portuguese considered then as serious rivals. Over time when African started deteriorate and they were no longer match to advance technologies of Europe, and then the major European powers has began to plunder the continent and forcibly remove its inhabitants to work as slave labourers in new colonies across the Atlantic, Africans came to be seen as a deficient species. Here we are describing the time of slave trade, willingness of some Africans were selling other Africans to European slave traders on the idea of savagery, which was based on the belief that the dark people were all kinsmen.

Features of Racism:

One of the important features of racism is centralisation towards black or immigrant groups. Jews were usually seen as Anti-Semites as sub humans but also superhuman as devilishly cunning, skilled and powerful. Black people and others were seen as subhuman more like beasts of the society.


All of these arguments are based on a false understanding of race; in fact, contemporary scientists are not agreed on whether race is a valid way to classify people. What may seem to be significant “racial” differences to some people — skin colour, hair, facial shape — are not of much scientific significance. In fact, genetic differences within a so-called race may be greater than those between races. One philosopher writes: “There are few genetic characteristics to be found in the population of England that are not found in similar proportions in Zaire or in China….those differences that most deeply affect us in our dealings with each other are not to any significant degree biologically determined.

Importance Of Staying Positive

In a world full of “glass half empty”, it is important for us to be the “glass half full”. Some people are happy even when their situations are challenging. And some people, no matter how comfortable they are, they always feel like they are still lacking something in their lives, which ultimately makes them sad.

Human is a materialistic being. After s/he gains one thing, they get their eyes set on another. Humans always want more than what they have. For some, it works as an extrinsic motivation which may or may not be healthy for them.

Some believe that if you persistently think of wanting something, you will just magically get it without putting actual efforts. And when they don’t get it, for obvious reasons, they blame their ‘destiny’. But let’s not talk about these people. Let’s look into the lives of people who are genuinely happy and satisfied with their lives.

These people are quite rarely found in our society. Such people aren’t running after materialistic things. They love to live in the moment and make the best out of a situation. Even when all odds are against them, they manage to find one positive thing that keeps them going.

For example, I was out for a morning run in our community park when it suddenly started pouring. It was around 6:30 in the morning. Everyone took shelter under a tree a or nearby shed. I too, went under a shed to protect myself from the rain. That’s when my eyes landed on an old couple who looked around the age of early 60s. They were still out there and we’re now soaking wet. All their clothes stuck to their bodies and their shoes looked wet too. But, they were laughing and smiling. If I can recall correctly, they were even dancing merrily. A guy beside me, around my age, yelled at them telling them to take shelter from the rain. They just looked at him and laughed. A woman in late 30s mumbled ‘Great. Now I am going to get late. The road is going to be filled with water. Ugh.. What am I going to do..’

That’s when I saw the old couple again as they continued laughing and enjoying the weather. Since I was on school break I decided to see why they were so happy. I myself got out of the shed and the moment I did that my clothes turned wet. But then I realized something. The water felt nice against my body and brought coolness inside me. I suddenly started enjoing the rain and started walking around.

Now that I think about it, I too got scolded by my mother for getting wet in the rain. And I think I even caught the flu. But those moments when I was enjoying the rain, I never regretted them. Since then, I understood that if we spend our entire lives worrying about one thing or the other, we will never really get to live in the moment.

Yes, I know it’s easier said than done. Everyone’s situations are different. Everyone’s lives are stressed. Especially in these times. But if we try to look at the brighter side of the picture, it might just help us learn to cope with the current situation. It won’t be easy. Because the glass right now looks half empty. But with practising, we can start looking at things in a somewhat positive light!

Vikas Dubey Encounter & U.P Police

Was Vikas Dubey’s house demolition legal? Was Dubey killed in fake encounter?

Rule of Law states that even in case of worst Human Being or Dreaded Criminal, he should not be eliminated and given due process of natural justice. Principle of Human Rights- Every person shall have right to fair trial and should be assumed innocent until proven guilty, i.e. AUDI ALTERM PARTEM.

Five of Dubey’s men have been killed in encounter since July 3, 2020. Now in this present case, how Vikas Dubey travelled from Faridabad to Ujjain through Kota and how he is roaming in Ujjain’s temple fearlessly to offer prayer in temple, where he got arrested by U.P police, confessing “Mai Hoon Vikas Dubey Kanpur Wala”. Whole story seems to be concocted one. U.P Govt. here might have thought of being exposed by Dubey as he has insider connection with various high-profile ministers, Police officers and other personnel. They were left with single option of encounter to refrain Dubey from recording his statement.

Here arises Dozens of questions regarding Dubey’s Encounter?

  1. In Toll Plaza’s CCTV footage, we can see Dubey in Safari, however he was encountered while fleeing in another car of police personnel. How cars got switched?
  2. That vehicle was lying conveniently on its side with all the doors being closed and not much damage to road with open fields on each of its sides. How person can escape in open field?
  3. Press/Media was following the cavalcade it seems Press was threated and might be halted in between state highway?
  4. In ordinary crimes, criminals are handcuffed so they can’t escape, in present scenario Dubey being dreaded criminal was not handcuffed by the police. Why?

These are just kind of factual errors. Moreover, encounter seems to be scripted badly.

U.P is a state where encounters are celebrated. If we look few years back, one police office was heavily applauded for the encounter he had done, he sat in chariot decorated with flowers and took round of city.

Words of Chief Minister regarding Encounter-

OUTLOOK JOURNAL (9th Oct, 2019)

CM announces, “Agar Apradh Karenge to Thok Dieye Jayenge” the state police without any doubt, becomes trigger happy. Moreover Swatch Bharat Abhiyan was replaced with Swatch Badmas Abhiyan.

Supreme Court’s Judgement:

“It is not the duty of the police officers to kill the accused merely because he is a dreaded criminal. Undoubtedly, the police have to arrest the accused and put them up for trial. This court has repeatedly admonished trigger happy police personnel, who liquidate criminals and project the incident as an encounter. Such killings must be deprecated. They are not recognized as legal by our criminal justice administration system. They amount to state sponsored terrorism.”

# When Police kills a Criminal it’s called an ‘Encounter’. When a Criminal kills police it’s called ‘Murder’

Few things that readers should understand:

1. It’s Time for major Criminal Laws reforms in the country

2. Who will judge the Police?

3. Has it become so easy to by-pass Court system?

4. Is calling every high profile case as Encounter in the garb of socio-media justice lawful?

5. A person who is one of the most wanted Criminal after a failed escape surrenders to police

6. Will he try to run away and endanger his own life?

7. For someone as smart as Vikas Dubey@Vikas Pandit that’s a really stupid way to die. Isn’t it?

8. How far would he have run away on foot with an army of armed police persons surrounding him?

9. Police training requires a fair warning and thereafter shooting at non-fatal body parts only to disable a person

10. Killing someone and claiming self-defense in the given scenario comes across as foul play

11. The real question is who is a Criminal?

12. The criminal himself or the police. Both Breaking Laws and not respecting any Due Process

We need to ask ourselves:

“Are we safe when Police is stepping out of the domain of Policing and entering the domain of Judiciary?”

Science Vs Religion

The relationship between science and religion has been a complicated one for a very long time. Science and religion are without a doubt mutually incompatible. In the seventeenth century, the doctrine of the motion of the earth was condemned by a Catholic tribunal. A hundred years ago the extension of time demanded by geological science distressed religious people, Protestant and Catholic. And to-day the doctrine of evolution is an equal stumbling block.

While in the late nineteenth century, after the publication of Darwin’s book on evolution. In the wake of the stir over Darwin’s idea that humans were descended from apes, some people on both sides tried to paint the other side as the enemy. Although at the time there were many people who believed in both science and religion, did not see a conflict between the two worlds, the hostilities view became deeply barricaded in many people’s minds, and it has continued to influence thinking throughout the twentieth century.

Although, there are many people of faiths and levels of scientific expertise who see no difference at all between science and religion. They just acknowledge that the two establishments deal with different domains of human expertise. Science investigates the natural world, while religion deals with the spiritual and supernatural hence, the two can be interconnected. It should also be taken into account that to be a scientist one does not have to be an atheist. There was a survey conducted in 2005 at top research universities, and it was found that more than 48% of the research fellows had some religious affiliations and more than 75% believed that religion conveys important revelations.

To sum up the debate between science and religion, it would be wise enough to say that the two have always had an edgy relationship. Even though most people have no problem accepting the norms of the two sides, there are political and media developments that have driven a wedge between the two sides.

Although the most balanced view is from `Abdu’l-Bahá, son of the founder of the Baha’i faith:

Religion without science is superstition and science without religion is materialism.”

Taking Advantage of The Internet

Growing up we have always been told that you must pay a price for anything you use, that nothing is free of cost. But then came the Internet in our lives, where several services were available for free. Surely, you would think that you pay the price of your privacy or data for getting things for free on Internet but let’s just get above our marketing and social media websites and talk about services which the Internet provides us free of cost and we should surely be taking advantage of that. So, let us talk about a few such websites-

  • The Gutenberg Project– If you are looking for free eBooks, Gutenberg is the place to be. While Google Books is a project that digitizes all of the books, you will never really be able to read these books for free. Whereas, Project Gutenberg encourages free reproduction and distribution of eBooks. there are also a few copyrighted texts that it distributes with permission.
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  • Photopea- Isn’t it annoying that whenever you visit a site to get the simplest work done and they ask for you to sign-up? Well, Photopea is one such site where you can get your job done without the hassle of signing up. Photopea is a replica of Photoshop, which gives you access to all the basic features for free.
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  • 10-Minute Mail-If you are signing up for a site that requires you to enter an e-mail id for verification, 10minutes mail got you covered. It gives you a fully functional e-mail id, with access to an inbox for 10 whole minutes.
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  • Documentary Heaven- For all those who love watching documentaries, Documentary Heaven gets you hundreds and thousands of documentaries available for streaming free of cost. Just go to the website and search for the documentary according to your favorite topic and you’ll get access to many documentaries available.
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  • Internet Archive -Internet Archive is a non-profit library where you can get millions of books, movies, music, websites, software, and more for free of course. Its archive contains around 330 billion web pages, 20 million books, and texts, 4.5 million audio recordings, 4 million videos, 3 million images, and over 200,000 software programs.
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  • Desmos-If you love maths or even hate it, desmos is the place to be. Desmos provides access to their free suite of math software tools, including Graphic Calculator and Scientific calculator which is used worldwide by students and teachers. From evaluating complex equations to plotting graphs, graph functions, and much more is made simple through desmos. It certainly provides a structure where you will instantly fall in love with maths.
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The Digital Cocaine

Cocaine is a stimulant that affects the central nervous system, it powerfully affects the body and the mind. Using cocaine can damage brain cells, even after a few times of heavy use. Like other stimulants, cocaine gives you a rush of energy, which boosts your alertness, leaving you feeling a “high” from the drug.

While Cocaine can be in the form of powder or crack, a very prevalent sort of cocaine is the digital form which we commonly know as SOCIAL MEDIA. Just like cocaine, the use of social media realizes dopamine which travels through the brain and causes moments of happiness and satisfaction, these tiny moments of satisfaction leads to excessive use and thus leading to addiction.

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Not only teens but grown-ups too use social media as a virtual scrapbook to document every detail of their life as they are living it. From multiple points of view, internet-based life has improved our lives by interacting and motivating individuals. Be that as it may, there is a clouded side also. Besides all the contrary posts via Social media, the cyberbullying, and the FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out) that exists, ongoing studies show that over the top online networking utilize prompts helpless dynamic, yet individuals who utilize web-based life perpetually frequently have mentalities, behaviors, and practices that impersonate those of an addiction fanatic.

Researchers at Michigan State University conducted a study where the participants completed a common psychological task known as the Iowa Gambling Task, which helps gauge value-based decision-making skills. During the task, the goal is for the participants to collect as much money as possible. The researchers found that those participants who spent more time on social media were likely to have less money at the end of the task. Meanwhile, those who spent less time on social media finished the task with more money. Because this type of deficit in decision-making skills often goes hand-in-hand with drug addiction as well as gambling addiction, the researchers likened the results of excessive social media use to aspects of addiction.

When some people are unable to check their social media accounts, it causes them to break out in cold sweat, they get anxious and nervous. Such situations are often referred to as social media anxiety disorder, by therapists, which is similar to social anxiety disorder.

It is important to see the initial signs of social addiction, just like any other addiction, this could also be kept under control. Just like any other addiction, this digital addiction could be lethal to human mind if not curbed on time.

Online Education: The new face of education

With the growing global pandemic, the trend of online learning has surged significantly, as people are looking for ways to be productive while staying at home. There was already strong global growth in top-ranking professional skills such as languages, designing, IT and software, marketing, and much more, but with the COVID pandemic, online learning becomes an important part of our day to day life. Classroom learning got restricted to e-learning.

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Now, many see online classes as an alternative to classroom learning and there of course are many pros that come with it whereas some see online classes as a hassle and nothing less.

Online classes give the student the flexibility to be present in a class from the comfort of their homes, the students have the freedom to be anywhere and just log in for their classes as per their convenience. There is no hassle of getting ready to go to school or college, which takes up a considerable amount of time.

Not only does online classes minimize being exposed to people and the flexibility of learning, online classes gives students access to recorded database of the material which they can go back to anytime for revision.

But with all the advantages come the disadvantages, the biggest one being the lack of one-to-one interaction. Traditional, classroom learning gives students access to their tutor in a physical form, and asking questions, clearing out the queries becomes much easier.

Online learning does provide comfort learning but takes a lot of self-discipline too, but slowly and steadily e-learning could become the new face of learning and education.

What is Job Description

Job description is the Role or the Duty of the employee that need to done or performed by him. Job description says what employee need to do after joining the work. Job Description explains areas of operation, Responsibilities, Whom to Report and Who are all the subordinates, What are all the work need to be done. Job description will give complete details about the work, Role and Responsibilities of the employee.

Quarantine period

With the on-going global pandemic, people have become stuck in their homes. Many people are not able to go to work and are finding it hard to deal with the financial loss. This quarantine has also taken a toll on many people’s mental health. Honestly, I was scared when I realized that I will have to stay in my home and this might become the new normal for a long time. But this time made me learn a lot of lessons.

I learned to be more grateful towards even the littlest moments of my life. I used to obsess over a lot of materialistic stuff but I have realized that there is so much more to be grateful for.

I started spending more time with my family which not only strengthened our family bond but also created a healthy atmosphere where we can talk and have fun. We are so used to being attached to our screens that we often forget that we need to actually learn to socialize without the use of it. Sitting with my family has made me open up more and have also considerably decreased the amount of time I spent using social media.


I get a lot of time to reconnect with myself. This makes me more self-aware and I am able to point out my strengths as well as weaknesses. I have started enjoying my quite time.


I have tried to make use of this period to do something productive and tried to develop new skills, painting has been a recent hobby of mine. There are many more activities that people can do indoors and still make it fun. People can switch to dance, indoor workout, cooking, learning languages, reading books and catching up on the shows that they previously missed because of their busy schedules.

Reconnecting with old friends

Since it’s not possible to meet friends, gadgets come in handy. Face-timing your friends or even calling them up can also be a good use of one’s time.

Rest and Relaxation

As much as it is good to use your time to do something productive, rest and letting yourself relax is equally important. We work in our lives almost every day to meet the needs. This free time should not be another stress trigger for you. One should not feel overburdened with work. Take some time for yourself and grow at your own place.

Hopefully, everyone finds a way to deal with this quarantine period and come out as a better person at the end of it.

To Travel Is To Live


It sucks to be stuck in a rut. Travel helps us to comprehend the importance of life and it helps us become better individuals. Each time we travel, we see the world with new eyes. The best thing about traveling is that it gives you plenty of stories to talk about. I would rather share stories about my travels than telling people what is going on in my day to day life.

Drinking your morning coffee at the same office cubicle and staring at your screen at your nine-to-five every day is not the way one should be living. Travel at least to the point where you can say that you have finally found yourself and sipping your coffee at h same place, in front of the same screen seems meaningful.

Travel is full of moments of joy and challenges. Overcoming the challenges gives you some of the greatest joys of all. Explore yourself, explore this world, face the challenges, you never thought you could face, overcome your fears, and see how beautiful the world is.

Travel is not just a vacation or getting away thing, it helped us find our purpose and put the focus on our lives. The more we got lost in our travels, the richer our lives became.

Domestic violence

“I am living in hell from one day to the next. But there is nothing I can do to escape. I don’t know where I would go if I did. I feel utterly powerless, and that feeling is my prison. I entered of my own free will, I locked the door, and I threw away the key”
Above words of Haruki Murakami precisely echo the sentiments of millions of souls suffering the agony of tourture and harrassment in the hands of their loved ones. Domestic Violence is a multifaceted problem. It roots from our verandah and branches out nationally and globally. There is hardly any village, hardly any city, hardly any country which is free from this social evil.
But the question arises: “What is domestic violence?” We all know the answer: the violence against women done by her husband in perticular or any male in general is known as domestic violence. Wrong! Domestic Violence is not limited to violence against women alone. It is a much broader concept. Shortly put, Domestic Violence is any form of violence which is born inside the four walls of the house. It has nothing to do with the gender of the victim or the victimizer. Any act of violence and torture whether physical or emotional, against anyone whether male or female inflicted by their intimate partners or any other member of the family is Domestic Violence.
Let’s take the case of this young woman for example which was highlighted by the Deccan Herald. A young married woman sought refuge in her mother’s home in Delhi to save herself from the verbal and physical abuse of her spouse. Just after that the country wide lockdown was imposed so she was not able to return to her husband’s home for long. She felt safe here but not for long as her brother saw her to be an extra burden on the family in the time of financial crisis and in a fit of anger and frustration beat her black and blue. Another famous case is of former stuntman of the ‘James Bond movie’, Eddie Kidd. According to a report Eddie was subject of constant physical torture by his wife Samantha for years. After the imprisonment of his wife Eddie narrated his plight while talking to an English Newspaper. He said that Samantha had a drinking problem and she used to punch him and slap him in front of their house help. Eddie was rendered unable to walk after a work mishap and hence became the recipient of verbal, physical and emotional abuse in the household.Both of the above-mentioned cases tell us about the universality, genderlessness and seriousness of the problem.
Let’s talk about the present scenario for example, the pandemic and the lockdown. There has been a soaring increase in the rate of domestic violence during the lockdown period globally. According to WHO data, the cases of domestic violence reported in Jingzhou (Hubei), tripled during lockdown as compared to the number of last year. There is a report by National Commission of Women (NCW) released in mid April 2020, which claims that there has been an increase of 100% in the cases of domestic violence against women during the period of lockdown. This is the data of domestic violence against women specifically in lockdown. But, we know that the problem is neither limited to lockdown nor to women alone. So where is the data of men you ask? Well there are none available. Yes you read it right!

Domestic Abuse against men is not legally recognised by Indian Law. The gender biased law only sees men as the abuser and not the abused. The cases of domestic violence against men have risen as alarmingly as women’s in recent years; maybe more because we have no systematic data. Most of the cases go unreported because most men suffer from the additional stigma of public humiliation if matter is highlighted. Moreover, the form of violence is different than the one we have presumed in our minds. Many victims told that they were beaten by the male members of the wife’s family or were pressurized by the wife in ways unimaginable which left them traumatized both physically and emotionally.
Society is a coin and male and female are the two faces of the coin. Evils like domestic violence are heinous crimes not against sexes but against humanity as a whole. It is inopportune that such a nefarious atrocity exists in our society and we are responsible for it. As civilized humans it is our duty to raise our voices against the malpractices of our surroundings. We need to be more sensitive as citizens, more observant as neighbours, more vigilant as colleagues. We need to stop stigmatizing and stereotyping the people around us. We can’t shrek our responsibility by saying “How can we interfere in someone else’s private affairs“. It is time to intervene. There are numerous laws to correct this felony and to safeguard the victims. Both the central and Government along with NGOs are working to eradicate it. But, our support and encouragement is needed. We need to strengthen the law, reduce the loopholes and extend a helping hand to protect the victims. The need of the hour is to remove the spectacles of prejudice and ignorance and to come together as a society.

Succession Planning

” Succession Planning helps build the bench of strength of an organisation to ensure the long-term health, growth and stability.” – Teala Wilson

Succession Planning is a very important part of the talent management process. Succession Planning has many benefits in an organisation in current scenario. It helps in ensuring the continued success of an organisation. But before moving further we should first understand that what is succession planning? Succession Planning is the process of identifying and developing new leader who can replace the old leaders and can fill each key role within the company. It can also be described as having the right people with right skills and experience in the right job at right time. It is an ongoing process of identifying future leaders in an organisation and making them capable enough so that they can fill the key or important position within the organisation.

Succession Planning establishes a balance between individuals and organisation as succession planning not only helps in achieving organisational goals and needs but also the growing recognition that your employee need. As we know recognition and rewards are the things which each and every employee or person wants in his or her life and if they get it they would work hard to retain the same. It helps in maintaining organisational performance during uncertain times. Assume if an employee retires so it won’t be possible to hire someone immediately, in this situation succession planning helps a lot. One more example is if an employee decides to leave your organisation and take another job, it is a form of voluntary separation. So, companies need to be prepared for such situations. To handle this type of situation the organisation need to train its staff that can back-up current employees and can act smoothly. Succession Planning also helps the employee so that they can realise their career plans for the future. It also helps in enhancing the employee’s morale and to motivate them so that they can perform better on their job. Succession Planning also helps in cutting cost of recruitment. Some of the impact of Succession Planning are –

  • Leadership- Succession Planning helps in providing continuous leadership. Organisation select leader from the current employees who are more likely to adhere to their mission and manage new challenges.
  • Reputation- It helps in enhancing reputation of the organisation. As if an employee and those outside the organisation get to know that this organisation uses succession planning process within their organisation this will build confidence in them. As this will show that the organisation is well-organized and ready for future. This process will also show that the organisation helps its employees to choose their potential career path and achieve the same.
  • Eliminates Confusion- Succession Planning helps in eliminating confusion as to who will fill the key or critical position of the organisation when the employer is no longer available to make decisions.
  • Builds Confidence- Succession Planning helps in building confidence among employees. It also helps in bringing a sense of security.
  • Saving Time- Succession Planning helps in saving time as the organisation has already planned to promote and train people within the organisation which means that less time is spent on recruiting from external sources.

Last But Not the Least

So lastly, Succession Planning is a critical but an important part of the talent management process and should be done nicely to reduce cost and time and to increase efficiency and confidence.

Consulting Doctor Google

According to Wiktionary, Dr. Google is a term when the Internet is used to seek out medical advice. Most of the time when we are feeling under the weather, how often do we land up going through the Internet, trying to Google our symptoms rather than going to an actual doctor?

More often this self-diagnosis through the Internet turns out to be scarier than it should be. For instance, your search for a simple headache you’ve been having, and Dr. Google will point you towards several scary diagnoses like a tumor, aneurysm, or a brain bleed. Simple fatigue can be self-diagnosed as underlying cancer. Self-diagnosing your symptoms using Google can sometimes mask a potentially dangerous disease. So, apart from the inaccurate diagnosis given by several medical websites on the internet, what is worse is the risk of mistreating a potentially dangerous disease.

There is an actual term “Cyberchondria” which refers to a person’s anxiety about their health that is created or exacerbated by using the internet to search for medical information. You just look for any symptom online and it is definitely linked with some form of tumor or cancer, and then psychology comes in play and it can make you feel sicker than you are, which feeds your anxiety.

One thing that we should realize is that Internet is a free space where anyone can post anything, there is no credibility of most of the content being posted so even if you think that it’s just a simple rash and you can get medication through Dr. Google think twice because a real doctor goes through rigorous years of study and only then they are qualified enough to examine you.

The bottom line is that you can not replace a professional medical help with Google search, by doing so you are just putting yourself at risk.

Indian Education Future

India is known for a quiet a few things through out the world. For example india’s information technology one of the leading factor in shaping the future of the world.
Similarly India has also emerged as an important player in the field of outsourcing . India’s economy is the 5th largest in the world with a GDP of $2.94 trillion, overtaking the UK and France in 2019 to take the fifth spot.There are a number of reasons for such dramatic success of India but the most important one is the education system of india as two third of India’s GDP is due to the skilled jobs created in tertiary sector. And in order to predict the future of india it is necessary to determine the future of the education system of India. Therefore this article will be discussing the promising future offered in education as well as the dark abyss that the country must overcome to walk on the boulevard of development.

As Robert Kiyosaki once said “The best way to predict the future is to study the past, or prognosticate.” it is essential to learn about the past of education in India and how it has changed up till now. Since independence providing education to all has been the major goal of the government. During 1952-2014 the percentage of total government expenditure increased from 7.92 to 16 %
But the increase in education exoentiure has not been uniform and there has been irregular rise and fall. However the total educational expenditure including the private expenditure by individuals and charitable institutions has been quite much.

Indian government is trying there best to make the promising dream offered by the education system come true and due to this there are a number of positive changes that are expected to take place in the near future. Firstly education for all ,that is, 100 per cent literacy might just not be a distant dream and can become a realty as free and compulsory education is already a fundamental right and in addition to this government sanctioned a large outlay for the promotion of higher education and new loan schemes for students. Secondly, education might change into e-education, that is, technology will innovate the present education system. For example-Examination patterns will change completely with increased use of online quizzes and group discussions, classes would be more computer based and become more paperless. Thirdly there would be more subjects to chose from and education system would be more flexible as with more subjects to chose from students can actually study subjects according to there interest.

However for these to positive changes to take place the government needs to overcome a lot of challenges. Like the Indian education system is like a pyramid indicating lesser and lesser number of people for higher level of education. Therefore the government needs to increase allocation for higher education and also improve the standard of higher education institutions, so that students are imparted employable skills in such institutions. Similarly there is huge difference in educational opportunities across states. The per capita educational expenditure differs considerably across states from as high as ₹34651 in Himachal Pradesh to as low as ₹4088 in Bihar. This leads to differences in educational opportunities and attainments across states.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil with anomalous concentrations of toxic substances. It is a serious environmental concern since it harbours many health hazards. For example, exposure to soil containing high concentrations of benzene increases the risk of contracting leukaemia. An image detailing the discolouration of soil due to soil pollution is provided below.

Soil Pollution

It is important to understand that all soils contain compounds that are harmful/toxic to human beings and other living organisms. However, the concentration of such substances in unpolluted soil is low enough that they do not pose any threat to the surrounding ecosystem. When the concentration of one or more such toxic substances is high enough to cause damage to living organisms, the soil is said to be contaminated.

The root cause of soil pollution is often one of the following:

  • Agriculture (excessive/improper use of pesticides)
  • Excessive industrial activity
  • Poor management or inefficient disposal of waste

The challenges faced in soil remediation (decontamination of soil) are closely related to the extent of soil pollution. The greater the contamination, the greater the requirement of resources for remediation.

What are the Pollutants that Contaminate Soil?

Some of the most hazardous soil pollutants are xenobiotics – substances that are not naturally found in nature and are synthesized by human beings. The term ‘xenobiotic’ has Greek roots – ‘Xenos’ (foreigner), and ‘Bios’ (life). Several xenobiotics are known to be carcinogens. An illustration detailing major soil pollutants is provided below.

Soil Pollutants

The different types of pollutants that are found in contaminated soil are listed in this subsection.

Heavy Metals

The presence of heavy metals (such as lead and mercury, in abnormally high concentrations) in soils can cause it to become highly toxic to human beings. Some metals that can be classified as soil pollutants are tabulated below.

Toxic Metals that Cause Soil Pollution

These metals can originate from several sources such as mining activities, agricultural activities, electronic waste (e-waste), and medical waste.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (often abbreviated to PAHs) are organic compounds that:

  1. Contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
  2. Contain more than one aromatic ring in their chemical structures.

Common examples of PAHs include naphthalene, anthracene, and phenalene. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been linked to several forms of cancer. These organic compounds can also cause cardiovascular diseases in humans.

Soil pollution due to PAHs can be sourced to coke (coal) processing, vehicle emissions, cigarette smoke, and the extraction of shale oil.

Industrial Waste

The discharge of industrial waste into soils can result in soil pollution. Some common soil pollutants that can be sourced to industrial waste are listed below.

  • Chlorinated industrial solvents
  • Dioxins produced from the manufacture of pesticides and the incineration of waste.
  • Plasticizers/dispersants
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

The petroleum industry creates many petroleum hydrocarbon waste products. Some of these wastes, such as benzene and methylbenzene, are known to be carcinogenic in nature.


Pesticides are substances (or mixtures of substances) that are used to kill or inhibit the growth of pests. Common types of pesticides used in agriculture include:

  • Herbicides – used to kill/control weeds and other unwanted plants.
  • Insecticides – used to kill insects.
  • Fungicides – used to kill parasitic fungi or inhibit their growth.

However, the unintentional diffusion of pesticides into the environment (commonly known as ‘pesticide drift’) poses a variety of environmental concerns such as water pollution and soil pollution. Some important soil contaminants found in pesticides are listed below.


  • Triazines
  • Carbamates
  • Amides
  • Phenoxyalkyl acids
  • Aliphatic acids


  • Organophosphates
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Arsenic-containing compounds
  • Pyrethrum


These chemicals pose several health risks to humans. Examples of health hazards related to pesticides include diseases of the central nervous system, immune system diseases, cancer, and birth defects.

What are the Processes that Cause Soil Pollution?

Soil pollution can be broadly classified into two categories –

  • Naturally caused soil pollution
  • Anthropogenic soil pollution (caused by human activity)

Natural Pollution of Soil

In some extremely rare processes, some pollutants are naturally accumulated in soils. This can occur due to the differential deposition of soil by the atmosphere. Another manner in which this type of soil pollution can occur is via the transportation of soil pollutants with precipitation water.

An example of natural soil pollution is the accumulation of compounds containing the perchlorate anion (ClO4) in some dry, arid ecosystems. It is important to note that some contaminants can be naturally produced in the soil under the effect of certain environmental conditions. For example, perchlorates can be formed in soils containing chlorine and certain metals during a thunderstorm.

Anthropogenic Soil Pollution

Anthropogenic Soil Pollution

Almost all cases of soil pollution are anthropogenic in nature. A variety of human activities can lead to the contamination of soil. Some such processes are listed below.

  • The demolition of old buildings can involve the contamination of nearby soil with asbestos.
  • Usage of lead-based paint during construction activities can also pollute the soil with hazardous concentrations of lead.
  • Spillage of petrol and diesel during transportation can contaminate soils with the hydrocarbons found in petroleum.
  • Activities associated with metal casting factories (foundries) often cause the dispersion of metallic contaminants into the nearby soils.
  • Underground mining activities can cause the contamination of land with heavy metals.
  • Improper disposal of highly toxic industrial/chemical waste can severely pollute the soil. For example, the storage of toxic wastes in landfills can result in the seepage of the waste into the soil. This waste can go on to pollute groundwater as well.
  • Chemical pesticides contain several hazardous substances. Excessive and inefficient use of chemical pesticides can result in severe soil pollution.
  • Sewage produced in urbanized areas can also contaminate soil (if not disposed of correctly). These wastes may also contain several carcinogenic substances.

Other forms of waste that can pollute soil include nuclear waste, e-waste, and coal ash.

What are the Negative Consequences of Soil Pollution?

Soil pollution harbours a broad spectrum of negative consequences that affect plants, animals, humans, and the ecosystem as a whole. Since children are more susceptible to diseases, polluted soil poses a greater threat to them. Some important effects of soil pollution are detailed in this subsection.

Effects on Human Beings

Soil contaminants can exist in all three phases (solid, liquid, and gaseous). Therefore, these contaminants can find their way into the human body via several channels such as direct contact with the skin or through the inhalation of contaminated soil dust.

The short term effects of human exposure to polluted soil include:

  • Headaches, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Coughing, pain in the chest, and wheezing.
  • Irritation of the skin and the eyes.
  • Fatigue and weakness.

A variety of long-term ailments have been linked to soil pollution. Some such diseases are listed below.

  • Exposure to high levels of lead can result in permanent damage to the nervous system. Children are particularly vulnerable to lead.
  • Depression of the CNS (Central Nervous System).
  • Damage to vital organs such as the kidney and the liver.
  • Higher risk of developing cancer.

It can be noted that many soil pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons and industrial solvents have been linked to congenital disorders in humans. Thus, soil pollution can have several negative effects on human health.

Effects on Plants and Animals

Since soil pollution is often accompanied by a decrease in the availability of nutrients, plant life ceases to thrive in such soils. Soils contaminated with inorganic aluminium can prove toxic to plants. Also, this type of pollution often increases the salinity of the soil, making it inhospitable for the growth of plant life.

Plants that are grown in polluted soil may accumulate high concentrations of soil pollutants through a process known as bioaccumulation. When these plants are consumed by herbivores, all the accumulated pollutants are passed up the food chain. This can result in the loss/extinction of many desirable animal species. Also, these pollutants can eventually make their way to the top of the food chain and manifest as diseases in human beings.

Effects on the Ecosystem

  • Since the volatile contaminants in the soil can be carried away into the atmosphere by winds or can seep into underground water reserves, soil pollution can be a direct contributor to air and water pollution.
  • It can also contribute towards acid rain (by releasing huge quantities of ammonia into the atmosphere).
  • Acidic soils are inhospitable to several microorganisms that improve soil texture and help in the decomposition of organic matter. Thus, the negative effects of soil pollution also impact soil quality and texture.
  • Crop yield is greatly affected by this form of pollution. In China, over 12 million tons of grain (worth approximately 2.6 billion USD) is found to be unfit for human consumption due to contamination with heavy metals (as per studies conducted by the China Dialogue).

How can Soil Pollution be Controlled?

Several technologies have been developed to tackle soil remediation. Some important strategies followed for the decontamination of polluted soil are listed below.

  • Excavation and subsequent transportation of polluted soils to remote, uninhabited locations.
  • Extraction of pollutants via thermal remediation – the temperature is raised in order to force the contaminants into the vapour phase, after which they can be collected through vapour extraction.
  • Bioremediation or phytoremediation involves the use of microorganisms and plants for the decontamination of soil.
  • Mycoremediation involves the use of fungi for the accumulation of heavy metal contaminants.

Solar Power- India’s new potential

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Friday said, as part of Atma Nirbhar Bharat or self-reliant India campaign, the country’s aim is to end its dependence on import of all equipment, including solar panels.

Dedicating the 750 megawatt (MW) solar project at Rewa in Madhya Pradesh to the nation, Modi said India won’t be able to fully use its solar power potential, unless the country doesn’t develop better solar panel, battery and storage manufacturing capacity.

This assumes importance given that green energy projects now account for more than a fifth of India’s installed power generation capacity. India has 34.6 gigawatt (GW) of solar power, with an aim to have 100 GW of solar capacity by 2022.

The fast-growing domestic market for solar components is dominated by Chinese companies due to their competitive pricing. India imported $2.16 billion worth of solar photovoltaic (PV) cells, panels, and modules in 2018-19.

Modi said that several steps are being taken to increase domestic manufacturing, and it has been decided that government’s departments and institutions will only buy domestically manufactured solar cells and modules.

India is working on a wider power sector decoupling from China, with New Delhi planning to enforce a list of approved manufacturers for government-supported schemes in the clean energy sector, including projects from where electricity distribution companies procure electricity for supply to their consumers and wants states to follow suit.

The surge in imports led the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government in its previous term to impose a safeguard duty from 30 July 2018 on solar cells and modules imported from China and Malaysia that ended in July. Post that, a basic customs duty (BCD) on all imported solar cells, modules and inverters was imposed, that will make their import from China expensive.

Going forward, India plans to impose more tariff and non-tariff barriers to check imports from China as part of its economic strategy in the backdrop of tensions along the India-China border. A case in point being India’ plan to impose BCD on wafers and ingots that go into the manufacturing of solar cells and modules.

Modi said for an Atma Nirbhar Bharat, self-reliance on electricity is very important.

India is evolving a strategy of not using Chinese equipment and technology in the power sector, and subsidising finance for promoting local power equipment usage and prior-permission requirements for imports from countries with which it has a conflict. The plan also involves procuring equipment and material locally and increase domestic capacity.

India is among the top five countries in the world in terms of solar power generation, Modi said and added that this form of energy power is “sure, pure and secure”.

India has become one of the top renewable energy producers globally, with ambitious capacity expansion plans to achieve 175GW by 2022 and 500GW by 2030, as part of its climate commitments. This has bolstered India’s image as a clean energy champion at a time the world is grappling with climate change concerns.

Modi also spoke about India being the most attractive market for clean energy and being viewed as a model for transition towards clean energy.

India’s solar power tariffs hit a record low of ₹2.36 per unit during a bid conducted by state-run Solar Energy Corporation of India Ltd (SECI) last week. The auctions were dominated by foreign firms with the lowest bid placed by Spain’ Solarpack Corporación Tecnológica, S.A., followed by Italy’s Enel Group, Canada’ AMP Solar Group, France’ EDEN Renewables and Ib Vogt Singapore Pte ltd placing the second lowest tariff bid of 2.37 per kilowatt-hour (kWh). UK’s CDC Group-backed Ayana Renewable Power and Goldman Sachs backed ReNew Power placed the third lowest bid of Rs2 .37 per unit each. The previously recorded lowest solar bid was of ₹2.44 per unit in May 2017.

“Today Rewa has actually written history,” Modi said.

Spread over 1,590 acres, the Rewa solar park settled the debate on competitive tariffs from green energy sources in India by landing a then record low-winning bid of Rs2.97 per unit in the country through intelligent risk distribution.

By breaking the electricity grid parity barrier in February 2017, the project brought home the point that solar energy is no longer a green fad but a game changer in India’s energy mix.

Modi also spoke about India’ global electricity grid plan— ‘One Sun One World One Grid’—- that seeks to transfer solar power generated in one region to feed the electricity demands of others and India’ aim of becoming an electricity exporter.

India’s global grid plans have gained traction in the backdrop of China’s attempt to co-opt countries into its ambitious One Belt One Road initiative that seeks to invest billions of dollars in infrastructure projects including railways, ports and power grids across Asia, Africa and Europe, and the withdrawal of the US from the Paris climate deal.

How the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code Changed the Default Policies

Introduction to the Code

India had the highest economic growth rates after the internet boom in the year 2000. A huge amount of investments were pouring inside the country as big companies saw it as a vast market and wanted to put solid footing in India. Companies had over-leveraged themselves in fear of losing lucrative opportunities. During the financial year of 2007-08, the Global Financial Crisis hit, and the high growth levels stopped. It led to low revenues, and subsequently, the high inflation levels caused RBI to increase the interest rates. This all led to the creation of an enormous number of NPAs in the financial sector. 

The government introduced the 12 Debt resolution mechanisms, but it was a failure in the end as all the laws failed to curb NPA’s. The borrowers used the loose provisions of law and created ambiguity in the judicial proceedings. They kept delaying it, and even when the cases were resolved, the creditors ended up taking massive cuts in debt recovery. 

The Ministry of Finance, in the year 2015, estimated that it would take 326 years to complete the backlogs. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) was enacted in the year 2016 to tackle problems relating to insolvent companies and their closure. Many public sector banks, operational creditors, and financial institutions were facing challenges. The Code aimed to tackle the bad loans which were affecting the banks due to these insolvent companies. The Code has introduced a time-bound process under which insolvency will take place. Enactment of the Code has helped many employees working in these companies in India. They are now able to claim their dues quickly with the help of the National Company Tribunal (NCLT) established under this Code. IBC, after its enactment has successfully stopped many companies from defaulting their loans. The Code improved India’s ranking in “Ease of Doing Business” drastically. Currently, India stands at the 66th position. Before this Code was enacted, India’s ranking was 133. 

Objective and Purpose of the Code

  • Resolve Conflicts between the creditors and the debtor – The Code defines procedural certainty and the process of negotiation. The Code works in a way that reduces the problems of common property. This Code reduces the information asymmetry for all the economic participants.
  • The Code provides flexibility to the parties to reach the most efficient solution to achieve the maximum value during negotiation.
  • A platform for negotiation between the creditors and the external financers are created through this Code to create the possibility of rearrangements.
  • To amend the laws relating to the reorganization and insolvency resolution of the partnership firms, individuals, and corporate firms. 
  • A time limit is to be set in which the insolvency proceedings will be completed i.e., 180 days.
  • To raise the value of the assets of the interested parties.
  • This Code works in increasing the global ranking of the world in doing ease of business. 
  • The Code will help in promoting entrepreneurship. 
  • The Code establishes an Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India to act as a regulatory body. 
  • The Code proposes to regulate the insolvency professionals and professional insolvency agencies. The role of these agencies would be to develop professional standards and work as a disciplinary committee. 
  • Three types of resolution professionals are set up under the Code i.e., the Interim Resolution Professional, Final Resolution Professional, and the Liquidator.
  • Information Utilities has been set up under the Code. The work of these information utilities is to various types of data from the listed companies and also the data of the creditor’s companies. 
  • Individual Insolvency database is to be set up to provide information about the insolvency status of individuals.
  • An Adjudicating authority is set up to exercise the cases over a debtor. 

Relevant Social & Political Scenario at the time of enactment

At the time when the Code was passed in the parliament, big defaulters like Vijay Mallya and Nirav Modi’s defaults were putting pressure upon the public sector banks of India. There was no unified law against these defaulters. The rules which dealt with defaulters came under the likes of the Indian Contract Act, the Sick Industrial Companies (Special Provisions) Act, 1985, (SICA), the Securitizations, and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002. The Code aims to bring all the laws under one roof to provide ease to the primary creditors. The then Finance Minister Mr. Arun Jaitley said that “A systemic vacuum exists with regard to bankruptcy situations in financial firms. This Code will provide a specialized resolution mechanism to deal with bankruptcy situations in banks, insurance firms and financial sector entities. This Code, together with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code 2015, when enacted, will provide a comprehensive resolution mechanism for our economy”. However, at the time of enforcement of the Code, there were no special provisions for cross-border insolvency. 


1. The Code went under a lot of changes since its inception; the first change came with the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment Act), 2017. Partnership firms, a proprietorship firm, individuals, and personal guarantors will be included under the heads “applicability” With this amendment, frivolous applications made by the personal guarantor will be avoided after the moratorium period is declared. Section 29A is inserted in the Code which lists the persons who cannot submit a resolution plan. It includes the undischarged insolvent, person convicted of an offence, disqualified from the post of director, account is NPA, a willful defaulter etc. If a person is NPA, if he pays his/her dues within 30 days, then they can submit the resolution plan. 

2. The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Ordinance Bill was introduced in the year 2018. The objective of the Ordinance Bill was to strengthen the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIPR). The Ordinance states that “to balance the interests of various stakeholders in the Code, especially the interests of home buyers and micro, small and medium enterprises, promoting resolution over the liquidation of corporate debtor by lowering the voting threshold of the committee of creditors and streamlining provisions relating to the eligibility of resolution applicants.” 

 One significant change brought with this Ordinance was the inclusion of “Home Buyers” under the definition clause of Financial Creditors. The home buyers will be able to recover the amount paid as advanced through this addition. Another significant addition to this Act was that CIPR can now be initiated by the guardian, administrator, and the executor of the financial creditor. 

 A “Committee of Creditors” will be formed that will consist of all the “financial Creditors.” They will majorly work as a body to make routine decisions regarding the CIPR. 

3. Insolvency and Bankruptcy (Second Amendment) Bill, 2018 – The approval of the Competition Commission of India is required to finalize the resolution plan set by the financial creditors. This will reduce the chances of extending the time of the CIPR, i.e., 90 days of extension. 

4. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment Bill), 2019 – The amendment proposes to strengthen the time-limit provisions in the Act. Secondly, a specific minimum payout is defined for the operational creditors for any resolution plan. Thirdly, it provides the manner in which the group of financial creditors should vote. 


The work that you do regularly to earn money.

A job ,employment ,work or occupation is a person role of society .morespecifically .A job is an activity. Often regular and often performed in exchange for payment .many people have multiple jobs.A person can being a job by becoming an employee, volunteering,starting a business ,or becoming a parent.

A job is homogeneous tasks related by similarity of functions. When performed by an employee in an exchange for pay, A job consists of duties, responsibilities and task

BENEFITS OF JOB you have an identity ,not just a name ,image credit. The paycheck. The joy of being independent. Adding the new one to your slam book polishes to your skills. Have happy retirement let your personal life breathe let you enjoy some extra perks . It gives you money and purpose.

The job is just not about working for few hours. It’s more than that,working ,improving you as the person ,learning the skills will make certainly help u in full filling your matter how small your work is ,remember that u are adding value to the organization and ultimately to the world. Having the job will give you the satisfaction. Happiness of maximization of wealth.


wastage of time and effort . Employees take time . Leads to a whole lots of stress . It doesn’t check the time wasted. Zero results.

can be costly and time consuming. Could end up with dusgruntied employees.

Some jobs name are.

teacher. Doctor. Lawyer. Artist. Scientists. Etc.

Culture of Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh, also known as the state of Rising Sun, is a state of India. It is located in the North-eastern region of the country and is one of the seven sister state. It shares borders with Assam and Nagaland to the south. The state also shares international borders with Bhutan in the west, Myanmar in the east and disrupted borders with China in the north.

The state has long been recognised as a region of Indian subcontinent and finds its mentions in ancient Hindu literature like in Kalika Purana and the epic poems of Mahabharata and Ramayana. The state was a part of Assam until it was made a Union Territory in 1972 and in 1987 it was made an Indian state.

The land of rising sun, Arunachal Pradesh, is characterized by mountainous ranges and sub mountainous ranges along the northern part. This state is truly diverse in terms of its culture. Arunachal Pradesh has 26 major tribes and multiple sub-tribes. People of Arunachal Pradesh speak over 50 dialects. Arunachal Pradesh is a green gold. Because of the variation in altitude and climatic condition, it has tropical, subtropical and temperate forest.

Tribes and Religion

Arunachal Pradesh has a truly varied culture with 26 major tribes and multiple sub-tribes. Each tribe is characterized by its own unique set of culture and traditions.
• The first group of people in Arunachal Pradesh is made of Monpas and Sherdukpens of Tawang and West Kamang district. The following Lamaistic tradition of Mahayana Buddhism.
• The second group are the worshipers of Sun and Moon God, and comprises of Adis, Akas, Apatanis, Bhagnis, Mijis, Mishmis, Nishis and Thongsas.
• The third group consist of Octes and Wanchos tribal communities of Tirap district. They are followers of Vaishnavism and maintain strict village society which is ruled by hereditary chief.

The people of the state mostly practices indigenous religion which is highly inclines towards nature. However Christianity too in practiced by 30% of the population. Certain amount of the state population practice Hinduism. Tibetan Buddhist is practiced in certain parts of the states which is adjacent to Tibet. The central faith along the Burmese border is Theravada Buddhism.

Art and Dance

The state of Arunachal Pradesh possesses great craftsmanship skills. From weaving to painting, carpet making to pottery, wood carving to ornament making, basketry to cane and bamboo work and many more, the local man are skilled for all. The women on the other hand expertise on handloom and handicraft making.

Dance and music are important part of life of Arunachal tribes. Various dance forms are seen in different part of Arunachal Pradesh. They can broadly be divided into four different categories, namely, festival dance, ritual dance, recreational dance and dance drama. Most of the dances are accompanied by chorus songs.


The people of Arunachal Pradesh celebrate a string of festivals, and the reason ranges from religious to socio cultural to agricultural. Since agriculture is the main occupation, there are many festival celebrated for good harvest. Some predominant festival of the state include Losar, Solung, Boori- Boot, Mopin, Dree, Nyokum, Reh, Si-Donyi etc.

Print vs Digital: Reading in the Modern Era

Much has changed with the advent of technology and globalization in our societies. This change comes in all kinds of forms, from how we dress and eat to how we study and engage. Reading is an arena where this is very evident. Our reading habits have changed drastically with the inflow of gadgets and technologies that transform the reading experience. It has also affected how we engage with what we are reading, our attention span, and the ability to grasp and recollect the things we read. While many prefer older ways of reading like directly from a book or newspaper, more people are turning to the digitalized spaces to read what they are interested in.

The print versus the digital media has always been an ongoing tug of war. Both have their advantages and disadvantages but as time moves on, one is bound to see a shift in reading habits, when a generation that grew up with technology starts becoming the main consumers of the market. Reading printed copies of books and newspapers are many a time described as a wholesome activity with no ‘modern’ interruptions. It allows the individual to engage with something tactile, a book with pages they can feel, touch, and turn. It also allows one to mark passages with pencil and scribble down notes on the sides. And how can one let go of the sensory experience, the smell of old books, and the satisfaction of putting it down after finishing it or running your hands through the worn pages? Researches also opine that one is prone to remember better when one reads something in print rather than from a screen.

person reading on book
Photo by Oladimeji Ajegbile on

However, with the evolving ways of being and living in a technological era, change is inevitable. Today it is not uncommon to read entire books online or as a pdf on a computer. Books are available in these formats for sale as well as for free on some sites. Gadgets like the Amazon Kindle have furthered this field by offering a digital device that can store a large amount of information and books which you can access at all times. It is like carrying around thousands of books in your pocket and very efficient in that sense. It is also a very convenient and cost-effective investment. Books online tend to be much cheaper than paperbacks or hard copies. So, investing in a kindle and buying and reading books online turn out to be much more economical than spending on printed material. As a betterment from the app, kindle as a device also does not have any screen glare which makes the experience of sight exactly how it is as that of a book.  It also allows you to highlight, bookmark, and add notes. However, the aesthetic experience that paperbacks afford is almost non-existent here.

In the end, it comes down to what you and your preferences are. Older generations tend to prefer reading print, but also a huge part of the current generations lean towards print as well when given a choice between the two because of the experience of holding a book in your hand and reading. However, we should never discount the conveniences that digital reading affords, especially in such a fast-paced world. Understanding the limitations of both while embracing what is best suited to your situation in life, without discounting either completely, is the only way to go about it. Mixing both as and when required in order to gain the most out of it and learn better should be our goal. And one can keep wondering if reading as a phenomenon refers to only the act of reading or if it denotes the entire sensory experience.

How has the Pandemic affected the Supply Chain?

COVID-19: Is Your Hospital's Supply Chain Ready for Coronavirus?

Current scenario

The impact of Covid-19 across the world has been completely devastating. The nations across the world have taken steps out of ordinary. From putting ban on travel, closing borders, stopping business to complete national lockdown, the economic growth has downgraded tremendously. Several attempts have been made to “flattening the curve” which involves reducing the number of new COVID-19 cases on day to day basis.

For a country like India with high population density, it becomes necessary for the Government to take up vital steps to protect its citizens as high population attracts the virus to spread easily and rapidly. Therefore, keeping in mind, the limited infrastructure, the Government had to completely lockdown the nation from March 25. The lockdown was supposed to last for only 21 days but has been extended till further instructions. The impact of this has already begun by troubling the Indian economy resulting in slow growth and shrinking consumption.

Impact on supply chains

Even before the spread of Covid-19 across the globe and nationwide lockdown, there seemed to be a ripple effect on the global flow of trade due to disruption in China. Due to this many companies had started working to thin the supply chain from China. Because of Covid-19, the vulnerabilities of costs have been exposed and “just in time” deliveries with emphasis laid on minimization has led to decrease in inventory buffers and has left very small or rather no room for adequate buffers

However in India still there are certain industries which are heavily dependent on Chinese imports. Some of these industries are that of pharmaceuticals where about 70 per cent of pharmaceutical ingredients are imported from China for the requirement of industry. Automobiles which adds up to 10-30 per cent of imported raw materials from China for the base parts. The renewable energy sector especially Solar in the area of solar is heavily dependent on China for Solar panels which is 80 per cent of our renewable sector’s requirement.

Managing the crisis

To combat the current crisis, Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) imposed restrictions on the export of 13 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and 13 formulations made from these ingredients. Major actions were taken to quickly initiate customs clearances of imports from China.

The Apparel Export Promotion Council (AEPC) advised its members not to rely on Chinese products by diverging the source of raw materials as the supply from China has been cut off due to the pandemic. According to AEPC Chairman A. Sakthivel the industry body has approached the government on the matter who in turn has asked the Indian embassies to find the alternate sources of suppliers for India.

Due to crisis many companies want to move at least a part of their supply chains locally which would increase investment in India’s local industries and help to overcome economy in crisis. The Indian Government has decided to promote domestic manufacturing of critical Key Starting Materials (KSMs) and Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the country which will promote Bulk Drug Parks with investment of ₹3,000 crore in the next 5 years. This is a wake-up call for India to develop its own local sourcing units and adopt alternative strategies for reducing the dependency on China.


How can Emotional Responses to the Pandemic be addressed?

Spread of the Coronavirus Emoji

The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was a huge shock to governments, administrative agencies, businesses and ordinary people. In addition to the imminent threat to public health, the pandemic is causing tremendous economic and social stress. Following measures can slow the spread of flu:

Large rallies can be canceled, schools can be dismissed and business hours shortened. Workers may stay at home and continue their jobs using computers and telephones. People with flu can be told to stay home, along with their families. You may need to reorganize your life to provide for your loved ones or get treatment.

Several companies have introduced contingency plans. Employees can function online, or adapt to significant organizational changes. Systems are in place and the enterprise continues. You may have also provided advice to your workers on how to better adapt to work from home or on self-care ideas. However, we are seeing gradually one missing piece of the solution that can undo all the rest that has been achieved.

While there is plenty of information on how we can adapt and care for ourselves, there is much less information on how we can feel and think about changes. The key component in crisis psychology is called “normalization”. Whenever something occurs that’s distressing, unplanned or affects the people we ‘re close to, most individuals will develop an unpleasant, disturbing and potentially overwhelming reaction. When we feel that we are unable to control the outcome and our standard lifestyle is threatened or impeded, then that is particularly challenging.

The ongoing COVID-19 disease outbreak means that treatment for our mental health and wellness is just as important as our physical health. At the center of handling crisis emotional health, we ‘re learning the same stuff from people:

I feel restless constantly and can’t settle. I think sometimes that I’m not in charge of my brain.”

Normalization describes that this is how the body and brain respond. In terms, it would make sense for people to connect to. It should be providing advice on what people could do to help calm the reaction. It should encourage people to generate action plans that give them a sense of control, as they now have a clear idea of their reaction and action justification. Unless we normalize the emotional reaction, it is very unlikely that we will involve people in activities that will help them take good care of themselves and adapt to what is going on.

As part of the pandemic response, health care providers have a significant role to play in resolving such emotional outcomes. Emergencies in public health can affect the health, safety and well-being of both individuals causing, for example, feelings of inadequacy, confusion, emotional isolation and communities due to economic losses, closures of work and schools, inadequate medical response resources and poor distribution of necessities. These effects can transform into a range of emotional reactions, such as distress or mental illnesses, undesirable lifestyles, such as increased use of substances, and lack of compliance with public health directives like home restraint and vaccination in people contracting the disease and in the general population.

Health problems from natural causes such as life-threatening viral infection would not match the new trauma criteria required for PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) diagnosis, but other psychopathologies, such as mood and anxiety disorders, may try to emulate.

Many people are even more vulnerable to the psychosocial impact of pandemics than others. In specific, individuals who catch the virus, those at increased risk for it, including the elderly, people with weakened immune function, as well as people with medical history, mental health, or drug use issues, are at increased risk of adverse psychosocial consequences. Medical professionals are also especially prone to emotional distress in the current pandemic, considering their risk of virus transmission, worries about infecting and caring for their loved ones, scarcity of personal protective equipment (PPE), extended working hours, and participation in the allocation of resources that are emotionally and morally complicated.

 Besides the stresses inherent in the disease itself, guidelines on mass home containment, including residence-at-home orders, quarantine, and isolation, are unfamiliar to individuals and raise questions about how they may respond individually and collectively. A recent analysis of psychological impact in samples of quarantined individuals and health care providers could be instructive; it reported various emotional outcomes, including stress, depression, irritability, insomnia, anxiety, uncertainty, rage, annoyance, boredom and quarantine-related stigma, some of which remained after the quarantine was ended.

In the existing pandemic, huge areas of the population’s home confining for indefinite periods, differences between the stay-at-home orders issued by different states and countries, and mixed information from government and public health organizations will most probably amplify distress. COVID-19 will provide behavioral evaluation and tracking of associated stressors such as exposure to infected sites, infected family members, loss of loved ones, and physical distance, secondary adversities such as economic loss, psychosocial consequences such as depression, anxiety, insomnia, increased use of drugs, and domestic violence.

 Bearing in mind the worsening economic crisis and various uncertainties surrounding this virus outbreak, suicidal thoughts could arise and require urgent consultation with a mental health professional or referrals for potential psychiatric emergency hospital treatment. Medical professionals may give strategies for handling and dealing with stress, such as organizing and maintaining habits, connecting patients to social and mental health resources, and encourage patients to receive appropriate mental health treatment when required. Because media reports can be emotionally distressing, contact with news related to the pandemic should be regulated and reduced.

Since parents frequently ignore the distress of their children, open discussions should be urged to address the reactions and concerns of the children. Self-care for services, such as mental health care providers, includes being educated about the disease and risks, checking one’s own stress reactions, and seeking additional help with personal and professional commitments and concerns — including, where indicated, professional mental health interventions. Health care facilities would need to tackle the burden on individual providers and overall operations by tracking reactions and results, changing assignments and schedules, adjusting priorities, and developing structures to provide supportive care where appropriate.

Separating from others could be stressful if a healthcare provider thinks you may have been exposed to COVID-19, even if you are not getting sick. After quarantine everyone feels different. Emotional responses to quarantine probably include:

  1. Mixed emotions like post quarantine relief.
  2. Fear and worry about your own health, and your loved ones’ health.
  3. Stress from the perspective of observing yourself or being watched by others about COVID-19 signs and symptoms.
  4. Sorrow, frustration, or disappointment, as friends or loved ones, have irrational fears of contracting the disease from contact with you, even though you were determined not to be infectious.
  5. Guilt over not being capable of performing normal duties of job or parenting throughout quarantine.
  6. Many improvements to the physical or mental wellness.

 In view of the fact that most COVID-19 cases will be reported and handled by staff with almost no mental health experience in health care settings, it is important that psychosocial issues identification and treatment be implemented in those situations. Ideally, incorporation of mental health issues into COVID-19 treatment should be discussed at the organizational level by state and local planning; processes for recognizing, referring and managing serious psychosocial consequences; and the capacity to communicate with specialists will be assured. Health sector executives, emergency workers and health care providers should be provided with information and training on psychosocial issues. The sectors in mental health and emergency management will work together to identify, create and analyze evidence-based services regarding mental health crises and referrals in mental health and certain population’s needs. Risk-communication initiatives will predict the dynamics of evolving problems such as guidelines on prevention, accessibility and acceptability of vaccinations, and require pandemic-related evidence-based approaches and tackle a variety of psychosocial concerns. Healthcare professionals should assist in developing messages which respected leaders should deliver.

The Covid-19 pandemic has disturbing consequences for emotional and social functioning of a person and collective health. Beyond delivering medical services, already strained health care professionals have a significant role to play in tracking psychosocial needs and offering psychosocial support to their patients, health care professionals, and the public — activities that should be incorporated into general pandemic health care. We see people affected from all walks of life, with especially big numbers among those working in the medical field or as first people on the scene along with other essential workers. Our hearts are going out to those heroes. Furthermore, residents of nursing homes and even prisoners are also at higher risk due to health factors and proximity to each other.

Crisis incidents can cause a lot of shock – and then emotional distress, which can take time to subside. Once we know our emotional responses and accept them, we are much more likely to take steps that can help.

corona virus vaccine

As expected in recent news , corona virus vaccination can be launched on 15 august 2020 but now the vaccine for COVID-19 can be expected only by early next year, a parliamentary panel was informed on Friday. The House panel of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science and Technology, Environment and Climate heard presentations by the Department of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the principal scientific adviser to the government on Centre’s preparedness for COVID-19.

Sources said that the panel was informed that a COVID-19 vaccine could be available only by early next year. The panel which is chaired by senior Congress leader Jairam Ramesh, saw six other members in attendence for the meeting.

This was the first meeting of the panel since the country wide lockdown to curb the novel coronavirus outbreak was imposed on March 25.

On July 2, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in a statement had announced that it would partner with Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) to fast-track clinical trials of the indigenous COVID-19 vaccine (BBV152 COVID Vaccine).

In an official statement, ICMR Director General Balram Bhargava stated that ICMR aims to launch the indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by August 15.

  • COVAXIN has become the first vaccine candidate developed in India to receive the DCGI nod to conduct phase 1 and 2 clinical trials
  • The ICMR’s August 15 deadline for the India’s first indigenous coronavirus vaccine has created confusion among experts.
  •  A safe and effective vaccine is the best way to control and finally end the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus. With more than 200 candidates being developed across the world, vaccine development is moving at unprecedented speed. Joining the global race to create a safe vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus, Indian researchers will soon start testing the country’s first indigenous coronavirus vaccine candidate, COVAXIN, on 1,100 people in two phases – phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. Developed by Bharat Biotech in partnership with Indian Council Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV), the experimental inactivated vaccine is derived from a strain of SARS-COV-2 virus isolated by ICMR-NIV, Pune. COVAXIN has demonstrated safety and immune response in preclinical studies.
  • The world urgently needs a COVID-19 vaccine, which will help prevent and reduce the risk of infection, as well as resultant complications. However, there’s also a growing momentum of skeptics raising doubts about future vaccine programmes against other infectious diseases – with safety being a major concern. As COVID-19 continues to spread, pathways of vaccine development are changing in ways as researchers race against time to create a safe jab by shortening process time from the usual 15- to 20-year timeline to one that might be as short as one year. Perhaps, the ICMR’s 40-day target to launch Bharat Biotech’s COVID-19 vaccine by August 15 has caused alarm among scientists and some in the medical fraternity. While the research body has clarified that the date was ‘not a deadline’, several experts have warned against any hasty solution that may compromise standards of scientific rigour.
  •  Experts, familiar with vaccine trials, including the AIIMS Director, New Delhi, have already said that such deadlines may not be met, given the vaccine is yet to undergo the phase 2/ 3 trials and still there are a few more stages to go through before it could get FDA regulatory approval for production, which in itself is a time-consuming task.

So, even if clinical trials vaccine is in accelerated mode all the world ( multi-centric trials), the whole process of vaccine approval by FDA to vaccine production and coming to market for effective distribution will not be before August 2021.

  • Right now we are in a situation, where desperate time needs desperate measures – and at the fastest speed, it takes 12 to 18 months. Post-approval by the FDA, it should take around 1 – 1.5 years for the massive production of billions of vaccine doses.
  • Hence, on the safer side, it looks like August 2021 for a viable COVID vaccine to enter the market.

So, we should maintain the precautions, use of face mask, hand sanitizer and social distancing now is the only medicine of covid-19 till covid-19 vaccine launch.

skill india mission

 Skill India Mission is a government scheme launched in 2015. It is an umbrella scheme that has many skilling schemes and programmes under it. The chief objective is to empower the youth of the country with adequate skill sets that will enable their employment in relevant sectors and also improve productivity. 

Skill India Objectives

The chief objective of the Skill India Mission is to provide market-relevant skills training to more than 40 crore young people in the country by the year 2022.

  • The mission intends to create opportunities and space for the development of talents in Indian youth.
  • It aims to develop those sectors which have been put under skill development for the last many years, and also to recognize new sectors for skill development.

Other objectives are:

  1. Closing the gap between skill required by the industry and skills people possess for employment generation.
  2. Reducing poverty in the country.
  3. Increasing the competitiveness of Indian businesses.
  4. Ensuring that skill training imparted is relevant and of quality.
  5. Preparing Indians to take on the world manpower/resources market.
  6. Diversifying the existing skill development programmes to meet today’s challenges.
  7. Building actual competencies rather than giving people mere qualifications.
  8. Offering opportunities for lifelong learning for developing skills.
  9. Augmenting better and active engagement of social partners and building a strong public-private partnership in skill development.
  10. Mobilising adequate investments for financing skills development sustainable.

Features of Skill India

There are many features to the Skill India Mission that make it different from the previous skill development missions.

  • The focus is on improving the employability of the youth so that they get employment and also enhances entrepreneurship among them.
  • The mission offers training, guidance and support for all traditional types of employment like weavers, cobblers, carpenters, welders, masons, blacksmiths, nurses, etc.
  • New domains will also be emphasised on such as real estate, transportation, construction, gem industry, textiles, banking, jewellery designing, tourism and other sectors where the level of skill is inadequate.
  • Training imparted would be of international standards so that India’s youth get jobs not only in India but also abroad where there is demand.
  • An important feature is the creation of a new hallmark ‘Rural India Skill’.
  • Customised need-based programmes would be started for specific age groups in communication, life and positive thinking skills, language skills, behavioural skills, management skills, etc.
  • The course methodology would also not be unconventional and would be innovative. It would involve games, brainstorming sessions, group discussions, case studies and so on.

Why does India need a skills development programme?

As of a 2014 report, India’s formally skilled workforce is just 2%. Additionally, there is a huge problem of employability among the educated workforce of the country. Lack of vocational or professional skills makes it difficult for the youth to adapt to changing demands and technologies of the marketplace. The high level of unemployment is due to the failure to get jobs and also due to a lack of competency and training.

  • A study by the Skill Development Council (NSDC) indicates that there will be a need for around 12 crores skilled manpower by 2022 across 24 key sectors.
  • Casual workers, who constitute about 90% of the labour force, are poorly skilled as they do not get adequate training. Current vocational training programmes do not meet their demands.
  • There is a problem of social acceptability when it comes to vocational education. Vocational courses are looked down upon and this needs to change.
  • Changing technology is a big challenge and opportunity for the labour force. Employees will have to constantly upgrade their skills if they are to remain relevant in the job market.
  • There is a problem with the lack of infrastructure in the current training institutes.
  • Another problem is the poor quality of trainers available. Students trained by such trainers are not employable in the industry.
  • There is a big issue with the standardisation of skills in the country. New schemes are designed to resolve this issue by having nationwide standards that also stand up to international benchmarks.

Skilling is important because of the following factors:

  1. Demographic dividend: Most major economies of the world have an ageing population. India, with a favourable demographic dividend, can grab this opportunity and serve the manpower market. But, for this adequate skilling is to be provided to up the employability. To capitalise on this, there is only a narrow demographic window, that of a few decades.
  2. The percentage of the workforce receiving skill training is only 10% in India which is very small compared to other countries – Germany (75%), Japan (80%), South Korea (96%).
  3. Sectoral mobilisation: As productivity improves in agriculture due to increased mechanisation, there will be fewer people required in the farming sector. There will thus be a shift from this sector to other secondary and tertiary activities.

National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015

The chief objective of this policy is to match the challenge of skilling at scale with speed, standard (quality) and sustainability. It aims to offer an umbrella framework to all skilling activities carried out within India, to align them to common standards and connect skilling with demand centres. In addition to laying down the objectives and expected outcomes, the policy also identifies the overall institutional framework which will act as a means to achieve the expected results. 

Skill Loan Scheme

Under this scheme, loans ranging from Rs.5000 to Rs. 1.5 lakhs will be provided for those seeking to attend skill development programmes. The idea behind the scheme is to remove financial hurdles for people who want to upgrade their skills and learn new skills.


Though skill training in the country has improved in recent years, the absence of job linkages is only aggravating the problem of unemployment. The newly appointed Minister for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, Dharmendra Pradhan has echoed a similar concern. “We have to think big way, a lot of technologies are coming, conventional jobs are squeezed, new verticals are emerging, what are they, they have to be informed to employable youths which all big jobs are there.”

Skill development starts with identifying future job prospects and segmenting it according to the need and feasibility of training candidates. The PPP model of operation of SSCs presents a great chance of bringing industry best practices in learning and development into such training modules. Private players can use technology to automate, improve and scale training and certification approach of skill-based training. By creating better linkages between the many stakeholders in the process and establishing key deliverables and a clear chain of accountability would help make such training programs more effective. Working towards increasing the accessibility of such training programs, in parallel, should also be looked at. A recently proposed move of making such training more district centric is a step towards that direction.

As India aims to have one of the strongest economic growth stories in the 21st century, it becomes vital for it ensure it growing workforce is capable to handle the incoming disruptions and find suitable jobs. And a core part of this is to tackle the problem of unskilled labor in India and fix its skilling initiatives, today rather than tomorrow.

Types of Education

What is education?

In general terms, it is the act or process of imparting or acquiring general knowledge, developing the powers of reasoning and judgment, and generally of preparing oneself or others intellectually for mature life.

Four types of Education:

Indigenous education

1. Indigenous Education- It focuses on spreading knowledge of cultural beliefs, rules and customs and its oral transmission from one generation to another. Indigenous education can be seen as a response to a strong wave of globalization. This type of education is more accepted and valued in some systems than in others, but in African context it is seen as a vital part of protecting and maintaining a nation’s cultural spirit.

Formal education

2. Formal Education- As a prototype of the picture we have of education, is set in a formal, school environment with professional teachers, who follow a specific and planned teaching program. This program concentrates on specific skills, knowledge and education goals. Formal education is in most countries fully-funded by the state and in Nigeria there are different levels of formal education system: kindergarten, primary, secondary (divided in junior and senior secondary school) and tertiary education. Children would spend 6 years in a primary school, 3 in a junior secondary and 3 in senior secondary school, and at the end 4 years in a tertiary institution i.e. institution of the third level education such as university.

Informal education

3. Informal Education- As the name says, takes place in an informal setting and is a lifelong process. People learn from each other in everyday situations about various topic. This can be illustrated as a parent teaching his/her child how to determinate sides of the world or how to cook a family meal. There are no specific teaching/learning methods when it comes to informal education and a person can gain informal knowledge by visiting museums, reading books in library or being a part of a local community.

Non- formal education

4.Non-formal Education- This form mostly focuses on specific needs and goals of a group. Students of the non-formal education can be from different age and this system and its program, although pre-planned, takes place outside the institutional system. Non-formal education aims often adult literacy problems and other continuing education and skill programs such as, for example, swimming lessons for children. Methods used in non-formal education are very flexible and can last for different period of times, depending on the goals and the student group.

Through different types and methods it is easy to use children’s natural curiosity. And although different, every type of education is a part of a puzzle, which leads to youth having good career opportunities and living conditions in the future.

Vikas Dubey Encounter

Someone said it right “What you sow, so you reap”. This is very true when it comes to the latest encounter of criminal Vikas Dubey in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. He had a criminal record of killing 8 policemen recently who went to arrest him instead were killed. He also has a record of almost 60 criminal cases against him including murders. The most daring and high profile one was the one in which he killed a BJP MLA inside a police station 20 years ago and was acquitted for lack of evidence.


The world around us is surrounded by various criminals and sometimes people at top positions are involved in the domain directly or indirectly. The manipulate and monopolize the truth and hence elevate the culture of the wrong being. Since so many people are involved, the network of such criminals gets more power and they try to spread their wings by doing more criminal activities. The large network also allows them to be convicted and arrested. Many of the murderers and criminals in the past have been released due to a lack of evidence when the truth was known.

What can you do with a law degree? | Times Higher Education (THE)

In the case of Vikas Dubey, the person was doing wrongful activities for a long time but the killing of 8 policemen recently led to his encounter as the case became high profile and came to media. Some rumors and reports indicated that once he will be arrested, there are chances that he will be killed sooner. The law doesn’t take account of the killing of criminals at the point unless he/she has created harm and is trying to escape. 

Now, this encounter seems like a typical Bollywood movie scene where the vehicle in which criminal was taken was rammed and in the process, the criminal tried to escape and police had to kill him on the spot has led to debate whether what happened is correct or not. If police can kill a person in such encounters, won’t all rapists who have clear records of what they did was incorrect be killed at that time? Won’t terrorists be hanged at the moment? Won’t other criminals who have the record against them be killed similarly in nearby future taking the shortcut? 

There is no doubt in the fact that criminal and legal cases in India take time and the best advice anyone gives is to settle the case outside the court as it is more convenient and saves a lot of time of all the parties involved. To kill a criminal on the spot saves a lot of time and effort in keeping him alive. When Kasab, one of the terrorists was taken into custody, there was a lot of money spent each day to keep him alive. But sometimes, it is also needed to keep them alive to get more information about how they have managed to do all these activities in the past and to know more about who else was involved with them.

A lone wolf is dangerous but a pack of the wolf can certainly create more problems in the jungle. Similarly, it is important to follow the legal steps and guidelines so that along with one criminal, the network-attached is also exposed and punished by the law. 

Is Branding a recent phenomenon?

Let’s get to our journey by knowing – what is brand? The notion behind brand and branding? What purpose does it accomplish?

Branding is the utmost central task for marketers and corporations, as it’s vital for continued existence. Corporates term brand as a “lens through which the consumer assesses their products and an image of a firm”. Brand associations epitomize the attribute of goods and services in the cognizance of customers. Numerous analyses confirm that brands are not anew created model. It’s historic.

If truth be told, branding has survived for ages and can be sketched to the time of Harrapan civilization. We all know language was developed for two things during that days- First, for religious communication and second, for business trade and practices (Barter system). In the trade and practices, people use to keep record by sketching symbols or signs or any icons. Many historians named it “an early brand”. They are also called “Proto-Brand”.

In 2000 BC, Indus valley civilization was rising. They used seals and it was used as brand to differentiate the culture. The seals were used in trading by merchants. The seals were attached with goods before dispatching. The Greek market revolution round the 6th century BCE, has led an entrepreneurial culture. There the pottery industries give a visual of artistic designs and branding, which potters used in arts. It gives an image of value and power of Greece culture. What is brand? Brand is a name, sign, symbols, picture, etc. which helps in identifying the goods and services provided by different sellers. Any product become a brand when some dimensions are added to it to differentiate the product in some way from other similar products. The dimensions can be rational, functional, tangible, emotional, symbolic or, intangible. Anything can become a brand – A service (Life Insurance Corporation), A product (Samsung, Dell, Apple), A store (Big Bazaar, Shoppers stop). Brand has an attribute which help in maintaining- high quality level, associated feelings, is worth the price it commands, evoke the feeling of confidence and pride amongst the users.


Through the centuries the world has seen many acts of hooliganism and inhuman acts. Men like Abraham Lincoln fell victims to the bullets of assassins. The twentieth century has also its quota of assassinations. Since the death of Mahatma Gandhi, the country never experienced such a tragedy as that which took place on October 31,1984. It was the assassination of the then Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi.

When Mrs. Indira Gandhi reeled and writhed on the ground riddled with bullets from the guns of her own security gaurds it marked the beginning of the end of a great era. An epoch making personality left the scene which she had dominated like a colossus. It was a tragedy beyond description. It was an end as sudden as it was tragic, an end to a glorious career, but the misery and pity of it was that such a life should come about in this way in Blood. The greater tragedy it was that she was gunned down by her own trusted security gaurds in her own house. The gardener had destroyed his own garden.undefined

Mrs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her security guards as she was leaving her residence to appear in a television documentary, then being produced by the world – famous actor and director, Mr. Peter Ustinov. She was rushed to the All India Institute of Medical Research where a team of a dozen doctors fought a vain battle with death to save her. On the next day her mortal remains were moved to Teen Murthi Bhavan to lie in State to enable people to pay their last homage to the departed leader. An unending stream of people, tears streaming down their cheeks, filed past the body. But for the tragedy in it, the proof of the people ‘s love for the loyalty to Mrs. Indira Gandhi would have been a marvellous spectacle. On November 3, 1984, Mrs. Indira Gandhi left her residence on her last trek along a route lined by lakhs of people among whom, four thousand and more Army personnel maintained order and discipline. At 16-30 hours the mortal remains of the immortal Mrs. Indira Gandhi, one of the greatest fighters for freedom and one of the greatest figures of the 20th century world was consigned to the sacred flames, the funeral pyre lit by her son, Mr. Rajiv Gandhi, the then Prime Minister.

No adjectives would do any justice to the greatness of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. Coming on the Indian Political scene even before her tenth year – when most children of her age would have been at their pranks- she had her political tutelage under her illustrious father, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. From that period till she shed her blood in her own house, gunned down by traitors there was no looking back for her. To list her achievements or to mention her many meritorious qualities would require volumes. But among her achievements could be mentioned a few like the bold step of nationalising banks, her heroic leadership and exhibition of indomitable will in the war with Pakistan when she was dubbed THE DURGA and her 20- point programme aiming at the amelioration of the poor and the downtrodden. More than all these, her personal approach to problems of men and matters and her secular outlook and attempts to carry the people with her irrespective of considerations of caste, creed or religion gave her the stature that she retained till the end. Her incessant mission of striving for international peace and understanding could find proof in her work as the Chairperson of the NAM. The only homage that the people of India can pay her are not mere tears, but their practical action in eschewing violence and in striving to complete the various tasks that she had been prevented from performing by the cruel hand of death.

Migraine Vs. Headache

When there is pressure or pain in the head, it can be difficult to tell whether the individual is experiencing a typical headache or a migraine. Differentiating a migraine headache from a traditional headache, and vice versa, is important.

What Is A Headache?
Headaches are unpleasant pains in your head that can cause pressure and aching. The pain can range from mild to severe, and they usually occur on both sides of your head. Some specific areas where headaches can occur include the forehead, temples, and back of the neck. A headache can last anywhere from 30 minutes to a week. Triggers for this headache type include stress, muscle strain, and anxiety.

What is migraine?
These headaches are intense or severe and often have other symptoms in addition to head pain. Symptoms associated with a migraine headache include:
• Nausea
• Pain behind one eye or ear
• Pain in the temples
• Seeing spots or flashing lights
• Sensitivity to light and/or sound
• Temporary vision loss
• Vomiting
When compared with tension or other headache types, migraine headache pain can be moderate to severe. Some people may experience headaches so severe they seek care at an emergency room. Migraine headaches will typically affect only one side of the head. However, it is possible to have a migraine headache that affects both sides of the head. Other differences include the pain’s quality: A migraine headache will cause intense pain that may be throbbing and will make performing daily tasks very difficult.
Migraine headaches are typically divided into two categories: migraine with aura and migraine without aura. An “aura” refers to sensations a person experiences before they get a migraine. The sensations typically occur anywhere from 10 to 30 minutes before an attack. These can include:
• feeling less mentally alert or having trouble thinking
• seeing flashing lights or unusual lines
• feeling tingling or numbness in the face or hands
• having an unusual sense of smell, taste, or touch
Some migraine sufferers may experience symptoms a day or two before the actual migraine occurs. Known as the “prodrome” phase, these subtler signs can include:
• Constipation
• Depression
• frequent yawning
• irritability
• Neck stiffness
• unusual food cravings

Treating Migraine

Prevention tips
Prevention is often the best treatment for migraine headaches. Examples of preventive methods your doctor may prescribe include:
• making changes to your diet, such as eliminating foods and substances known to cause headaches, like alcohol and caffeine
• taking prescription medications, such as antidepressants, blood pressure lowering medicines, antiseptic medicines, or CGRP antagonists
• taking steps to reduce stress

Importance of training for the employee

To get started with the any work as a employee the company or the employer will give the training to the employee. As employee has skills but training will helps make that skills sharpen and gives more new skills to the employee. Training may be inform of on the job training and off the job training. On the job means training will be given along with doing the the job training means training will be given in the form of class room lecture,online training etc. Totally training is important to get started with any new work it will give new skills and makes the existing more sharpen.

New Media And Reporting Gender Based Violence

Trigger Warning: Mention of Rape and Sexual Assault

New Media has also changed the style of journalism, such as the rise of online journalism, where facts, information, and reports are produced and distributed through the internet. News in the New Media era is enabled to spread more widely and rapidly. News content is now enriched by lots of digital elements such as images, embed videos, comment box. These elements make the information presented becomes more attractive. One of the salient characters of online journalism is its dependency on speed in delivering information. When we talk about the emerging trends in media, we cannot afford to overlook the role of online media in changing the scenario in the context of women’s issues. The content that the online media produces reflects the pattern of value the society. The prevailing attitude of society gets revealed through the way subjects dealing with women are treated by the media (Arpita Sharma, 2012). 

Media has the choice of acting as both, a protagonist and as a perpetrator-it can either reinforce the gender-based discrimination by portraying sensational and stereotypical images of women or it can provide balanced reportage that empowers women and not degrades them while exposing acts of gender-based violence. Rape cases and sexual assault cases are not a recent trend in the society but sensitive reportage and wide coverage by media while also bringing these issues forefront are relatively very new. 

Gender-based violence or GBV is violence that is directed against a person because of their gender. Both women and men experience GBV but the majority of victims are women and girls. GBV and violence against women are terms that are synonymous as it is widely acknowledged that most gender-based violence is inflicted on women and girls, by men. The issue of GBV reaches every corner of the world. The numbers of women and girls affected by this problem are shocking. According to the World Health Organization’s data from 2013, one in every three women has been beaten, compelled into sex or are abused. One in five women is sexually abused as a child, according to a 2014 report.

In coverage of GVB, several stereotypes are often perpetuated by the new media. These include that rape is similar to sex, that the assailant is motivated by female lust, that the assailant is perverted, crazy or a monster, that the woman provokes rape or assault, and that only women are only victims. Scholars have found that these stereotypes and myths are pervasive in media coverage of rape and assault cases. Not only the language and the framing of the headlines but also the visuals used in the articles regarding GVB play an important role in the general perception of these issues.

In Gender-Sensitive Indicators for Media (UNESCO, 2012), under Category B- Gender Portrayal In Media Content, B1.5- Strategic Objective 5 states the indicators for the coverage of gender-based violence. Three of them are-

  1. Use of non-judgmental language, distinguishing between consensual sexual activity and criminal acts, and taking care not to blame the victim/survivor for the crime 

2. Use of the term ‘survivor’ rather than ‘victim’ unless the violence-affected person uses the latter term or has not survived 

3. Use of background information and statistics to present gender-based violence as a societal problem rather than as an individual, personal tragedy 

Terms such as ‘victim’ or ‘survivor’ are often used to describe individuals who undergo these experiences. The term ‘victim’ reiterates feelings of helplessness and lack of female agency, while the term survivor connotes a sense of strength and resilience. However, the affected person should have a say in what to refer them as. The ‘victim’ terminology limits individual self-agency and identity. It is important to note that experiences of violence do not define the individual, but rather are a piece of a larger self-identity. Such labels focus on experiences of violence and presuppose an individual’s inability to change or undergo any personal development to transform their identity into a peaceful, empowered personality. 

Images of sexual violence in the media often depicts women as covering their face, being silenced by looming hands, teary faces, large shadows near the woman, are some of the visual examples. These images not only fuel the stereotypes of women as helpless and weak, but also these images are also extremely triggering for the survivors of sexual assault and rape. 

When media reports women who have been assaulted or raped as nothing but victims, society can disengage and fail to take the issue as a broader societal issue and fail to take responsibility for any individual or group action to change it. It is crucial then for journalists to report on GBV in an informed way and to have a good theoretical understanding of the roots of these gender based violence’s and what needs to change in society. Otherwise, they can do harm by perpetuating patriarchal stereotypes and falsehoods.