Anurans Vocal Communications

In the scientific book, sounds of frogs and toads is often said to be ‘croaking’. Whatever their musical qualities, vocalizations are conspicuous features of behaviour of most frogs and toads. Acoustic signalling has a great importance in the breeding ecology of most frogs. Acoustic data are used in taxonomic studies of frogs. Thus, researchers today are very interested in studying sounds produced by anurans to know about their behaviour, study their evolution, monitoring population, comparison of species and find ways for their conservation.


In anurans, generally males are involved in bioacoustic signalling. Only a very few female and at very few times are found producing signals. Anuran vocal repertoires can be into various calls namely advertisement calls( mate calls), courtship calls( responsive calls), aggressive calls, release calls, defensive calls. These are useful in male-male and male- female communications. These sounds are also used by them to protect them from predators too. They can estimate distance between opponent and get warned.  Further, the produced sound defines the species, it’s size, it’s habitat , it’s dominance, etc in some way or other.

Advertisement calls are often referred to as mating calls and are principal signals given by males during breading season. Experiments have shown that females approach conspecific calls. Advertisement calls are often found to stimulate hormone production in females. It also expertises male’s position to other males.

The vocal behavior of male frogs often changes when females are nearby or are approaching. Courtship call are a sort of continuous trill( unlike two-note advertisement calls). These are simply increased call rates. Female courtship calls also exists. These are given in response to the calls of male, which tends to be at low intensity and therefore, are hard to hear. It enhances the ability of males and females to find each other.

Aggressive calls are produced as a sign of defence for their calling sites against conspecifics. These are often called territorial calls. Then there are release calls given when male anurans are clasped by other males. Further exists distress calls, which are generally loud screams to describe vocalisations given by frogs being attacked by predators. Alarm calls and defensive calls are to warn neighbours of danger or startle the predator, to allow victim to escape.

The pitch(determined by frequency) of sound is an indicator of anuran’s body size. The frogs with higher pitch are found to be small in size while the frogs having low-pitched calls are large and heavy. Call structure is an indicator of habitat of frogs( whether near waterfall or near sream or in forest or in open habitat). For ex: frogs living in dense forest are large in size and produce low pitched calls and vice versa. Thus, there also exists preference in calling site for different species. If male and female, both are at the same level, then high frequency components will suffer greater attenuation than low frequency components. But, if either caller or receiver is elevated, then differential loss of higher frequencies is reduced.


Comparison of frogs living in Amazonian forests with those in floating meadow habitats revealed that forest species have significantly lower-pitched calls. The forest species generally are larger than those in open areas, and call frequency decreases with increasing body size. Calls of many species probably are not adapted for long range propagation, but for ease of localization at short distances. Phylogenetic differences probably are important as well. Forest frogs have very different call structure than open-habitat frogs. They tend to have more narrowly tuned calls with lower pulse repetition rates than open habitat frogs. Call intensity is related to factors other than habitat structure. For ex: frogs that call in open habitats tend to call in much denser choruses than those in forested habitats, and competition among males should favor the evolution of very loud calls.

Thus, understanding sounds of anurans is a very interesting part of study and researchers are working on it, striving to discover more, finding ways to conserve some endangered species( like N. sahyadrensis).

Upcycling Household Items

Hacks everyone should know

When it comes to upcycling household goods and items, it can involve creative and innovative thinking. Instead of letting item you no longer use pile up, gather dust, occupy unnecessary space or throwing them out in the garbage, which is definitely not recommend, give them new life.

To get your DIY routine warmed up, I’m sharing some ways to upcycle household items that are present in every home which aren’t in use anymore. Use these green hacks and shift your home to a more sustainable and waste free home. 

Hacks to Upcycle Household Items:

Before you toss your over used rubber gloves, that have seen better days, in the bin, cut the fingers off and then cut them further into small rings and use them as elastic rubber bands to keep miscellaneous items in place. 

Only a single sock left? Take the solo sock and turn it into a reusable and washable face mask by cutting the top section off, and then cut two slits in the heel portion for your ears. 

Turn your broken belt or any belt that you no longer style into a rustic shelf in a few easy steps. First, remove the buckle part, then cut your belt in half. Form a loop out of each half of the belt and then nail them into the wall. Then gently slide a piece of sleek board or an old piece of wood between the loops.

Upcycle your household and beauty products like candles in glass containers, glass bottles, old jewellery boxes, containers that you no longer use. First, properly cleaning them out, then use them as decorative storage- story your pins, makeup brushes, pens, use these to store spices in the kitchen or use them to store flowers in the bathroom. 

Do you have too many mason jars laying around? Create your own homemade scented candles- fill the jar with oil, lemon, and add a wick. Or just YouTube the procedure. 

A run in your favourite tights and you can’t wear them anymore? Get yourself nice beachy waves, watch this viral no-heat curls hack using a pair of tights.

Want to go grocery shopping in your shoes but fear them contacting any corona surface? Use on old shower cap to cover the sole. Throw them out before entering back. 

Want to read more such hacks? Check my favourites ones out: 

  1. 22 genius ways to upcycle everyday objects

2. How to Repurpose or Upcycle 38 Common Household Items

3. Reuse Everyday Objects! 10 DIY Home Decor Ideas and More Upcycling Hacks

4. Upcycling Household Items Quick Make

5. 11 Genius Ways To Upcycle Loads Of Household Items!

It Took A Pandemic…

Remember the pre-COVID times when going out was not counted as a privilege, we could go out and enjoy with the scare of a deadly virus. All the long drives, eating out, the office runs, and whatnot. But what I do not miss is the pollution, long traffic jams, all the noise, and unnecessary honking. The lockdown made us realize that going out unnecessarily could be avoided and we can stay home on weekends as well, that we can work from home too without contributing to the traffic by going to the office. But the only thing which shakes my head is that it took a pandemic for us to realize that we can control pollution and contribute to saving the environment.

Photo by Anna Shvets from Pexels

Pre-COVID we brought home groceries and placed them in the selves without hesitation, purchased different goods, and used them with ease, but now after bringing in stuff we thoroughly sterilize them as soon as we get them home and only then we use or store them. But now things have changed we clean and sterilize everything as soon as we bring anything home. Isn’t it something which we should have been doing always? Making sure anything that we bring home from outside to be sanitized thoroughly before using? Well, it took a pandemic to make us realize that everything carries germs and should be sanitized properly before use.

Oh and remember how earlier we used to just casually wash our hands and it took a pandemic to teach people how to wash hands properly, that a proper handwash is an 11 step process, and should take at least 20 seconds.

How do I wash my hands properly?

Washing your hands properly takes about as long as singing “Happy Birthday” twice,
using the images below.

Steps of washing hand-Courtesy WHO

There is no doubt that Corona times are crazy and COVID-19 has changed our lives in a way that we wouldn’t have ever imagined, there is no doubt that we are more cautious and disciplined now and the only question that we need to ask ourselves is why it took a pandemic to teach us discipline, to teach us proper sanitization, and a simple habit of proper handwash.


Faced with an ongoing lack of protective equipment and testing supplies, medical professionals have been seeking alternatives to accurately diagnose cases of COVID-19, a pandemic that has caused more than 11 million cases and more than 530,000 deaths worldwide. Supplies of nasopharyngeal swabs were some of the first testing materials to run low in mid-March, prompting a pivot to nasal swabs. More recently, saliva-based testing has come forward as an attractive, low-cost alternative.

The first spit tests are already being sold to consumers, with more poised to apply for emergency use authorization from the US Food and Drug Administration soon. While saliva can be a crude sample for diagnosing disease using traditional PCR, it pairs well with a cheap PCR alternative known as loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), previously used to detect outbreaks of Zika and Ebola in resource-poor countries. Propelled by a global pandemic, researchers in the US and the UK are now modifying LAMP and assessing its utility as a diagnostic tool for COVID-19.

“By diversifying the possible choice of assay, you diversify the supply chain as well,” says Robert Meagher, a chemical engineer at the Sandia National Laboratories who develops tools for diagnosing emerging diseases. Making additional testing options available to healthcare workers will help mitigate backlogs if one reagent or material runs low. 

Saliva-based testing also offers an improvement over the standard nasopharyngeal swab because people can collect their own samples with minimal discomfort—simply spit into a sterile tube and mail it to a lab for processing. And due to an emergency use authorization given to Rutgers University in May, some tests can now be carried out by patients in their own homes, allowing personnel and protective equipment to be saved for when they are most needed. Andrew Brooks, the director of technology development at RUCDR Infinite Biologics, the Rutgers-affiliated biorepository that developed the test, says the use of in-home testing “completely mitigates the risk of contracting the disease while you’re getting a test,” and requires only gloves. 

Several companies are selling Rutgers’s kits directly to consumers through online orders, although all tests must be sent back to its lab in New Jersey for processing. Positive results are reported to local health officials, and individuals are advised on how to respond.

Universities and clinicians alike are now planning to incorporate saliva-based sampling into their workflow for diagnosing COVID-19. The UK government recently partnered with the molecular diagnostics company Optigene to develop a pilot study involving more than 14,000 people to test the efficacy of its saliva test. In the US, the University of Chicago will use spit tests to clear patients prior to elective surgeries in its hospital for the next several years, Evgeny Izumchenko, a UChicago oncologist who helped develop the university’s test, tells The Scientist.

In another screening application, University of Illinois chemist Martin Burke laid out plans to use a new test designed by himself and colleagues on more than 50,000 students as they return to campus in the fall. “We imagine this will be just part of their orientation,” Burke said during a webinar on June 16. “So you get your housing information, your dining card, your ID card, and you also submit your saliva sample.” 

Despite the ease of sampling, saliva is not without its challenges. For PCR, the virus’s RNA must first be reverse transcribed into DNA, and saliva contains enzymes that chew up nucleic acids and inhibitors that interfere with the DNA amplification process used to detect the virus. As a result, saliva must often be purified before the DNA can be amplified. “It’s kind of a dogma . . . that you have to start with absolutely pure DNA or RNA,” Meagher says.

LAMP in the spotlight

While quantitative reverse transcription PCR remains the most-used method to diagnose COVID-19 regardless of how the sample is collected, many of the bottlenecks in the pipeline stem from the high cost and low scalability of the approach, says Meagher. A single benchtop thermal cycler, the machine that controls the temperature changes during the PCR, typically costs around $25,000 and can usually only run between 96 and 384 samples at a time.

To address these challenges, a team of researchers at Columbia University recently modified a LAMP protocol used by their fertility clinic to identify abnormalities in chromosome numbers in human embryos. Rather than count chromosomes, the tool now detects the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva in as little as half an hour, changing the color of the sample from red to yellow when the virus is present.The team’s new test is one of several using LAMP. Unlike PCR, which creates new copies of DNA through cyclical temperature changes, LAMP reactions take place at a consistent 63°C, eliminating the need for complex machinery. The chemicals used in the reaction are also more robust against the enzymes and inhibitors in saliva, doing away with the need to purify each sample.LAMP has traditionally been deployed in resource poor countries because it requires less power and equipment than PCR. But under the current pandemic, the whole world has become somewhat resource limited, and Meagher stresses that LAMP can be just as useful in diagnosing emerging diseases in first-world nations such as the US.

The plague

the plague is an a ancient diseases that was occurring in North Africa and the middle East. and this diseases is behind several historic pandemic,Pestis of the teeth of the Neolithic farmers in sweden dated to roughly 4,900 year ago. The plague of the London of the 1664-66 caused between of the 75000 and 100,000 deaths in a populations is established at 460,000.

During of the 18th and the early part of the 19th century, plague continues to prevail in Turkey, North Africa, Egypt, Syria and the Greece. But during of the 19th century it the afflicted more than that the one district of the India, in 1815 Gujarat, in 1815 Sind, in the 1823 the Himalayan foothills, and in 1836 Rajasthan.

What year his plague start – The bubonic plague was active in the Europe from 1347 the beginning of black death of the black death, until 1750. A devasating global epidemic of bubonic that struck that Europe and Asia in the mid – 1300 s. When 12 of ships from the black sea docked at the sicilian port of the Messina.

how did has the plague? It has the caused bacteria, yersinia pestis. Humans usually get by the plague after being the bitten by flea that is carrying out the plague bacterium or by the handling and the It is caused by the bacterium an handling an animal infected with plague. and the plague is infamous for the killing millions of the people in Europe of during the middle ages of peoples.  

As this plague has been responsiblities are the widespread pandemic throughout history, include the so called black death that was caused by the over 50 million peoples are death, The Europe countries for the fourteen century, it can be easily treated with antibiotics and use of the standard measure. the plague was found by the all continents except by the Oceania but the human cases

Although plague has been responsible for widespread pandemics throughout history, including the so-called Black Death that caused over 50 million deaths in Europe during the fourteenth century, today it can be easily treated with antibiotics and the use of standard preventative measures.

Plague is found on all continents except Oceania but most human cases since the 1990 s have occurred in Africa. Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar and Peru are the three most endemic countries.And the in India their was the 693 suspected cases and 56 deaths were from the affected by the Indian sates as well as the Union Territory of the Delhi. These cases were from of Maharashtra which is 488 cases, Gujarat in 77 cases, Karnataka 46 cases, Uttar Pradesh which is 10 cases, Madhya Pradesh 4 cases and the New Delhi their are 68 cases. There are no reported of cases being exported to other countries.

The plague is transmitted between animals and human by the bite of infected fleas, and it directly contact to the eyes and with the infected tissues, inhalation of respiratory droplets. The plague case is fatality ratio of the 30% to the 60% for the bubonic types and it is always for the pneumonic kind of left untreated. The antibiotic treatment is effective plague bacteria, so early diagnosis treatment can be save the lives. From the 2010 to the 2015 their will be 3248 cases reported of worldwide, including by the 584 deaths in India.

‘Oxford of the East’

India’s first Prime Minister, the late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, gave Pune the sobriquet of ‘Oxford of the East’ during a visit to the city in the late 1950s. So impressed was Nehru with the wide array of fine educational and research institutes in Pune that he felt compelled to give the city this label.

More than six decades later, Pune continues to live up to its rich legacy. The high quality educational institutions in Pune attract thousands of students from across India and even abroad every year.

Just to give you a sense of exactly how popular Pune is as an education destination, the current enrollment at the University of Pune, which is the mainstay of higher education in the city, stands at a whopping five lakhs students .

With 811 affiliated colleges covering more than 400 course programs in different disciplines, it has emerged as the second largest varsity in the country surpassing the much older Mumbai University.

It’s not just the University of Pune (now referred to as Savitribai Phule Pune University) that attracts students to its fold. The city has a number of other deemed varsities and private institutions of higher education that are extremely popular among Indian as well as international students.

Why Pune?

The question is ‘Why not Pune?’ Pune has everything that a prospective student would want when looking for higher education. Here are some reasons that make Pune the major student hub that it is:

1. Options galore: From undergraduate to postgraduate colleges; from research institutes to interdisciplinary centers; from language training to vocational courses – there is no dearth of educational options in the city. Pune is home to some of the leading institutions in the country that offer a whole gamut of academic options between them.  Whether you want to pursue engineering or film and television studies, whether its astrophysics you want to learn or Japanese – Pune’s topnotch educational institutions will not disappoint.

2. Affordable education: One of the unique things about higher education in India, true even more so for Pune, is its affordability. Students in Pune don’t have to worry about spending pots of money or taking out huge educational loans for their academic pursuits. What makes education in Pune more affordable is the relatively lower associated costs like boarding and lodging when compared to metros like Delhi and Mumbai.

3. Steeped in culture, yet modern: Pune has always been the cultural capital of Maharashtra. The city is steeped in tradition and has a strong connect with local music, theater, art, and literature. Yet, it has embraced modernity with open arms and has chosen to move forward with times. It has been more than receptive to global influences and provides the right mix of tradition and modernity that offers students an enriched environment to flourish.

4. Academic fervor: As established earlier on in the post, the city of Pune has always been at the forefront of education and academic research in the country. The city has an undeniable academic vibe and an educational culture that promotes open thought and debate. It’s safe to say that the educational environment in Pune is among the most conducive in the country for intellectual development of students.

5. Safety: Children in India spend a good part of their life in extremely protected environment. Making the switch from living with their family to moving to another city for higher education can be tough on both parents and their children. The fact that Pune is regarded as one of the safest cities in the country goes a long way in making the transition somewhat easier.

6. Cosmopolitan nature: In spite of being rooted in culture and tradition, Pune is unmistakably cosmopolitan in its outlook. People from different parts of the country have made the city their home and you will see a healthy mix of demographics anywhere you go. A cosmopolitan environment encourages people from outside to come to Pune for academic and professional pursuits. Such is the vibe in Pune that the city attracts more global students than anywhere else in India.

7. Facilities for students: Last, but not the least, easy access to facilities for students makes Pune the jewel in the crown of higher education in India. From accommodation specifically designed for students to student-centric eateries, from shopping malls to open spaces; from libraries to museums – Pune offers all this and more to its young population.

Top Educational Institutions in Pune

Now that we know what makes Pune the epicenter of higher education, let’s take a look at some of the city’s esteemed institutions:

1. University of Pune: Established in 1949, the varsity is home to 46 academic departments and 811 affiliated colleges. Prominent affiliated colleges include the College of Engineering, Pune, established in 1854.

2. Fergusson College: Founded in 1885 by the Deccan Education Society, FC was the first privately governed college in India.

3. Bharati Vidyapeeth University: Established in 1996, this university offers more than 250 courses and covers all major streams of education.

4. Symbiosis International University: A private co-educational, multi-institutional university with 19 academic institutions spread over 9 campuses in Pune, Nashik, and Bengaluru.

5. Indian Institute for Science Education and Research: Established in 2006 to promote excellence in research and teaching in the basic sciences.

6. National Defence Academy: Located at Khadakwasla, just outside the city, the NDA is a joint services institution for training young cadets as future officers of the Defence Services.

7. Armed Forces Medical College: Set up in 1948 in the immediate post-world war period, AFMC is responsible for training of medical undergraduates and post-graduates, dental postgraduates, nursing cadets and paramedical staff.

8. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics: An autonomous institution set up by the University Grants Commission to promote nucleation and growth of active groups in astronomy and astrophysics in Indian universities.

9. Film and Television Institute of India:An autonomous institute set up under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India in 1960, FTII is India’s premier film and television institute offering post-graduate courses in film direction, editing, cinematography and audiography, acting, art direction, computer graphics and animation, feature film scriptwriting, etc.

10. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing: C-DAC operates India’s most powerful supercomputers PARAM and Padma.

Turning unhappiness into happiness

People struggle to find happiness in life. They usually search for happiness in the outside world and thus causing major unhappiness. However it is worth noting that real happiness is internal.

Reason that cause unhappiness

• Lack of self-confidence in yourself: Happiness comes with self confidence. Unless an individual is confident of their own self, they cannot be in a happy place. People usually lack the ability to believe in themselves and what they can do. Unless an individual has the courage and confidence to quit the job or relationship that they are not satisfied with, they can never be happy in true sense. Though it is not true for everyone, but majority of the people’s happiness is hindered by their inability to say “I can do it”.

• Focusing on negativity: We have a natural tendency to lean more towards negativity. We focus more on the worst possible outcomes of a situation, than thinking about the best. We tend to be over critical about ourselves. We tend to focus more on your negative traits, rather than focusing on the positivity within us. All this negative thinking weakens our self esteem, thus leading to long term unhappiness.

• Inability to cut off toxic people: Toxicity of an individual can show in their actions or words. If the action and words of someone hurt you physically or psychologically and thus hindering you from attaining your happiness, at the same time make you think negatively of yourself, then chances are you are dealing with individuals who are toxic for you. Cutting off such people from life is of utmost importance, or else your happiness would never be achieved.

Approach towards happiness

Though there is no rules or guide to be happy, but certain tips and approaches can help you be more happier in life .

• Self Acceptance: The key to happiness is acceptance. We usually crib about the things or traits that we do not possess, rather than accepting it. Though we might not be in our best versions, but we do have to accept our current state. Unless we accept ourselves, we cannot be happy in the truest sense. Unless we acknowledge what we do not have, we cannot work towards achieving it and will never be happy.

• Practice Gratitude: Happiness is usually related to how meaningful we think our life is. It is extremely important to generate genuine meaning and appreciation each day. We usually take people, things and opportunities for granted. Appreciation of good things in life is a way to achieving happiness. Take out a few minutes each day and pen down the things you are blessed to have. Practicing gratitude gives you a happiness from within and helps you to be sane.

• Pamper yourself: Cater to your needs the way you cater to others. Taking out time for a nice massage, hot bath or beauty session at a local salon every ones in a while is important. Pampering yourself every now and then is important for being happy.

• Calm your mind: Though it is quite difficult to calm your mind in this hectic schedule, but it is very important. Meditation is a good way to calm the mind and connect to your inner self and discover it’s desires. Taking out time to practice meditation regularly is highly recommended.

• Show love: One of the most positive emotion is love. Doing small acts of kindness without expecting anything in return, making someone smile, forgiving are some acts that foster positivity. By creating positive atmosphere around you, you create happy momentum for yourself too.

• Surrounding yourself with uplifting people: Surrounding yourself with a good social support network always helps. Being around people who see and inspire the best in you does help your well-being. Optimistic, like minded and supportive social circle are key for a happy and contented life.

Interesting Psychological facts you wouldn’t want to miss

Psychology is the science of mind that includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thoughts and feelings. It helps to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior.

Here are some interesting psychology facts that you wouldn’t want to miss:

  • The type of music you listen to affects the way one perceives the world.
  • Convincing yourself that you have slept well tricks your brain into believing it.
  • While it is true that money can buy happiness, studies show that after 49 lakhs per anum, the income does little in one’s happiness.
  • Being with happy and positive people keeps you happy.
  • 90% of people say things in the text that they can’t say face-to-face.
  • Decisions of a person are more rational when thought in other languages.
  • Smarter people tend to underestimate themselves while ignorant people think they are brilliant.
  • People from 18 to 33 are the most stressed out. After 33 years, stress reduces.
  • Singing reduces the feeling of anxiety and depression.
  • The feeling of ignored by someone causes the same pain as that of an injury.
  • Some of us are too scared to be happy as they believe something tragic might happen after that.
  • Psychology says it only takes 4 minutes to fall in love with someone.
  • The more you hide your feelings for someone, the more you fall for them.
  • 90% of times when someone says they have to ask you a question, you recall all the bad things that you have recently done.
  • No one born blind has ever developed the schizophrenic disorder.
  • Funny people or comedians are more depressed than others.
  • Whenever you cry in pain, the first tear always comes from the left eye, and in happiness, from the right.
  • People who oversleep tend to crave for it more.
  • When you’re single, all you’ll see are happy couples, and when in a relationship, all you’ll see are happy singles.
  • Closing eyes helps to remember things faster.
  • 70% of your dreams carry secret messages that have more meaning and weight than our conscious thoughts
  • People who understand sarcasm well are good at reading people’s minds.
  • The way one dresses up often links to someone’s mood. Dressing well keeps a person happy and stable.
  • Pretending to not care is generally the habit of someone who cares the most.
  • Women with higher IQs have a hard time finding a partner.
  • A person with low self-esteem is the one more likely to criticize others.
  • Acting as you own something makes you more probable to buy it.
  • Good liars are better than detecting the lies of other people.
  • People who swear a lot are better friends, loyal, and upfront.
  • The more you spend on others, the more you feel happy.
  • Men are not funnier than women, they simply joke more than women.
  • An intelligent person tends to have fewer friends than the average person. The smarter the person, the more selective they are.

Aren’t these facts interesting and enlightening? These facts are a clear indication of why things happen to us, why we behave a certain way, and justify our reactions for the same.




Whole Brain Teaching

WBT Basics provides a simple starting point for teachers new to Whole Brain Teaching. Whole Brain Teaching is a type of teaching that uses the whole brain to engage students in learning. 

Whole brain teaching is a philosophy of teaching and learning that aims to activate students’ brains for maximal involvement in the learning process. Whole brain teaching relies on precepts from neuroscience, or the study of brain anatomy in order to understand how best to reach children over the course of the school day. Overall, whole brain teaching asks that students and teachers work in synch and very actively all the time. The classroom that uses whole brain teaching is an engaged, synchronized, collaborative classroom. It might initially appear more structured than other contemporary classrooms because each aspect of structure and routine is aimed at appealing to a neurological, cognitive need. Whole brain teaching can reach difficult students as well as those who are already strong.

First developed in 1999, Whole Brain Teaching promotes a high-energy, hyper-focused method where teachers use game-like challenges, key words, and motivational methods, while eliciting continuous spoken responses from their students to keep them fully engaged every minute.

The Pros of Whole Brain Teaching Strategies

WBT classes are fast-paced. Students don’t know when the Class-Yes, Teach-OK, Mirror, or Scoreboard Game activities will require them to engage actively, so they constantly pay attention.

When you enter a class, you’ll feel the energy and enthusiasm as students become active participants in instruction. You might even think they’re playing games and having fun at the expense of learning. They are having fun, and it’s building a love of learning.

In a study that sought to evaluate the impact of Whole Brain Teaching on the behaviours of challenging students, nine types of student behaviours were evaluated with fifth grade students. The results of this study indicated a 50 percent decrease in student negative behaviours from the pre-observations to the post-observations after implementing Whole Brain Teaching (Palasigue, 2009). These results support student engagement theories that state that the more a student is engaged in the lesson, the less likely the student will engage in disruptive behaviours (Scott, Hirn, & Alter, 2014).

The Cons of Whole Brain Teaching Strategies

If you watch a WBT video and don’t recognize the WBT strategy, you could confuse the parroting with old-school memorization. It’s not, but teachers must know how to make that differentiation for this approach to work in their classes. In truth, if WBT is not delivered correctly, it seems like it could become rote drills. Teacher training, personal attitude, and direction to students can fix this.

Students are encouraged to respond in preprogrammed phrases and words rather than independently thinking out responses. The teacher must make it clear when responses are required and when higher-order thinking is what’s called for.

Shy students or those who are more reserved may be uncomfortable with so many hand and body gestures and the need to interact so often with classmates. Mostly this passes, but be aware of those students who have difficulty.

There are excellent training programs in Whole Brain Teaching. Take advantage of these to get teachers excited about this effective, unique learning strategy. Don’t be afraid to unpack WBT slowly if you’d like, as students get used to it.

Quenching wanderlust during quarantine

This lockdown has put a halt on many people’s travel plans. Pro-travellers are suffering the most. These people may have been so accustomed to spending their lives travelling that they may not have a clue about how to deal with the situation anymore. The only travel they may be able to experience is from one room to another within their houses.

Not getting a chance to travel can be inconvenient but there are activities that can be done to make up for one’s long lost love.

Reading books:

People generally resort to travel guides while planning when they go out but since the option is not available for a certain period, a good alternative will be to switch to storybooks. The different genres of books that one comes across is unlimited. The biggest advantages attached is that most of the books are easily accessible on the internet. Kindle becomes a bundle of joy in these times. Books that narrate a travel journey carries you along with them to new lands. Audio versions are also available if one doesn’t like reading a lot.

Movie time

Documentaries, movies or even TV shows can be a great pass-time activity. They do a great job in making the viewer travel the world along with the characters. This is an activity that has something for everyone. One need not be a movie buff to enjoy them. Documentaries can even be informative. You may find various interesting topics about nature. People who like to spend their time interacting with the mother planet can benefit a lot. Netflix has a lot of content to offer in this case. The number of TV series can’t be forgotten either. Netflix originals have got everyone hooked to them. Binge-watching has become everyone’s favourite hobby now and all they believe in is “Netflix and chill.” 

Social media/ travel blogs

There are many bloggers on social media who post photos or blog about their travel experiences. Following such travellers can provide you with fresh photos of many otherworldly locations that you have yet to visit. One advantage is to have your feed filled with photos of the most beautiful locations on the planet. You can even search up your favourite destination and read various articles about those places.

Document your own experiences

If you get inspired, you can create your travel blog. As a traveller, one may tend to have a collection of many untold stories waiting to be spread around. If one is a writer, photographer and a blogger along with being a traveller, they can be a great storyteller to do. Maybe they can connect their experiences with their other interests and put out something worth reading. Relive your travel videos. Nothing can be more peaceful than remembering your own time in the blanket of wilderness. 

Learning languages of the countries you want to visit

Whenever you travel across countries, you will be exposed to a plethora of cultures, some of them being very different from your own. The language also constitutes an important part of the culture. You will find yourself trying to pick up new words from the places you visit. Maybe you can prepare for this well in advance. This can make your experience easier as it will help you in connecting well with the people there.

You can turn to YouTube to take you on a virtual tour with the millions of videos it has to offer on travelling. Vloggers put out eye-catching content and make the experience interactive as well as fun.

Virtual tours

For a virtual 4-D experience, there may be some technology that can make the experience better. But since everyone can’t resort to spending money on it, it is best to make use of the resources at hand. There is nothing that can amount to the same level of excitement or adventure that travelling on your foot provides but having a personalized experience for yourself sitting within the walls of your home does not lag behind either.

This doesn’t mean that people give up on their dreams of travelling. It’s just basically putting them on hold till this global pandemic comes to an end. Meanwhile, you can start planning your future trips. Start journaling the name of the cities you want to visit in future and make a bucket list for yourself. You can also read about travel hacks to make your next experiences better than your past ones. This time can be put to good use if you engage yourself in learning many activities that can eventually help you with your future experiences.

Child Labour

An innocent child, whose age is to enjoy the best days of his childhood, He/she should see big dreams about his/her future, should be learning new things and grow freely and play carefreely, should be going to school everyday. Is going to work everyday whose shoulders should be carrying a School bag but instead of carrying school bag carrying heavy burden of responsibility. That burden is spoiling his mental and physical health and opportunity to build a better future.

Child labours are exploited, exposed to hazardous work conditions and paid a pittance for their long hours of work. Child labour is very common in many developing countries due to severe poverty and poor schooling. High rate of child labour is still more than 50 percent in which children of 5 to 14 years are working in developing countries. Child lobour are cheap and easily available in developing countries, that’s why they are preferable which is an offence, under Child labour (prohibition and regulation) Act 1986.

The Constitution says that :- a) No child below the age of 14 shall be employed to work in any hazardous employment (Article 24) b) Childhood and youth are to be protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment (Article 39 (f)) c) The State shall endeavour to provide within a period of 10 year from the commencement of Constitution free and compulsory education for all children until they have completed the age of 14 years (Article 45)

Child labour is becoming a big social issue in India which should be resolved on regular basis. This is not only the responsibility of the government, but it also be reconciled by all the social organizations, bosses and guardians. This issue is for everyone which needs to be sorted out personally because it can be with any child of anybody.

How To Get Rid Of Negative Emotions

We know emotions play an important role in our lives. You might have noticed that sometimes for some or no reason, you just don’t enjoy doing the daily activities, you are sad and might even cry. Even the things you usually find interesting, don’t pump up your mood. This is when you feel, ‘depressed’. It doesn’t necessarily mean that you are actually depressed. We call them the bad days.

There are a lot of negative emotions that we experience. Sadness, jealousy, anger, frustration, and hate are few to name some. One negative event can bring down our entire enthusiasm for the day. For example, even though you have been in the company for more time, one day, you get to know that the person who is junior to you got the promotion that you thought you were going to get. Now because of this event, you will be frustrated the entire day, and might even take out this frustration on your family and friends.

Now instead of doing this, let’s analyse why your junior got the promotion that you thought you deserved. Yes, you have been in the company for a longer time. But isn’t it possible that your junior made a leap by bringing more profit than ever? Or maybe he was more sincere and hardworking than you were? I am not saying that you didn’t put in any efforts for the sake of your company. What I am saying is that maybe, s/he went two steps ahead and worked twice as hard than anyone else.

Negative emotions not only affect you but also those who are generally around you. For example, maybe because of the frustration, you get into a fight at home with your spouse or your sibling. They won’t know why you were in such a bad mood, but now they are frustrated. This is a classic example of displacement. Displacement is a defense mechanism according to which you direct strong emotions and frustrations toward a person or object that doesn’t feel threatening. In this case, your family member.

Now it is quite clear that this behavior is toxic and harms not only your mental peace but also those around you. Before such kind of behavior becomes a common occurrence in your life, it is important to learn to get negative emotions out of your system in a healthy and positive way. And even if you are stuck in this cycle, there is always a way out.

Ways to Cope with Negative Emotions

1. Acceptance. Accepting that you are going through negative emotions and that this is affecting everbody around you is the first step. Yes, I am frustrated. Yes, I am sad. Yes, I feel jealous. Yes, I feel angry. Yes, I am having a bad day.

2. Finding the cause. Sometimes, we get into a bad mood for ‘no reason’. I say, there is always a reason for you to feel negative emotions. This may not be something that happened to you just now. It can be something that happened to you a long time ago. You just haven’t realized that. The thing is, our mind naturally tries to protect us from negative emotions. These are our natural defenses. One of these, is repression. When we feel threatened by a situation, we try to repress it. You put the painful memories or a trauma in the very back of your mind, in hopes of completely forgetting that it ever happened. We must become brave and face the negative emotions head on. If we don’t sort our emotions then and there, we suddenly one day feel sad for ‘no reason’.

3. Talk. Talking about your emotions with someone you trust helps to a huge extent. Sometimes, hearing someone else’s opinion helps us to sort out our own emotions. They help us look through another perspective. Talking is majorly underrated. Parents, friends, siblings, and sometimes even strangers play an important role in making us feel healthy and positive again. If there is no one who you trust or feel like you need professional help never think twice before approaching a therapist. They will definitely help you to sort things out.

4. Developing a hobby. Get a hobby. Or if you have one, cherish it. Writing, singing, dancing, painting, drawing, exercising and many more; can help us to take our negative energy and convert it into a positive one.

Just remember, nothing is permanent. All the pain, sadness, and negativity can go away if you want it to go away. No matter what your situation is, there is always a positive manner to deal with it!

How to Be Happy

Behavioral scientists have spent a lot of time studying what makes us happy (and what doesn’t). We know happiness can predict health and longevity, and happiness scales can be used to measure social progress and the success of public policies. But happiness isn’t something that just happens to you. Everyone has the power to make small changes in our behavior, our surroundings and our relationships that can help set us on course for a happier life.


Happiness often comes from within. Learn how to tame negative thoughts and approach every day with optimism.

Conquer Negative Thinking

All humans have a tendency to be a bit more like Eeyore than Tigger, to ruminate more on bad experiences than positive ones. It’s an evolutionary adaptation — over-learning from the dangerous or hurtful situations we encounter through life (bullying, trauma, betrayal) helps us avoid them in the future and react quickly in a crisis.

But that means you have to work a little harder to train your brain to conquer negative thoughts. Here’s how:

Don’t try to stop negative thoughts. Telling yourself “I have to stop thinking about this,” only makes you think about it more. Instead, own your worries. When you are in a negative cycle, acknowledge it. “I’m worrying about money.” “I’m obsessing about problems at work.”

Treat yourself like a friend. When you are feeling negative about yourself, ask yourself what advice would you give a friend who was down on herself. Now try to apply that advice to you.

Challenge your negative thoughts. Socratic questioning is the process of challenging and changing irrational thoughts. Studies show that this method can reduce depression symptoms. The goal is to get you from a negative mindset (“I’m a failure.”) to a more positive one (“I’ve had a lot of success in my career. This is just one setback that doesn’t reflect on me. I can learn from it and be better.”) Here are some examples of questions you can ask yourself to challenge negative thinking.

First, write down your negative thought, such as “I’m having problems at work and am questioning my abilities.”

  • Then ask yourself: “What is the evidence for this thought?”
  • “Am I basing this on facts? Or feelings?”
  • “Could I be misinterpreting the situation?”
  • “How might other people view the situation differently?
  • “How might I view this situation if it happened to someone else?”

The bottom line: Negative thinking happens to all of us, but if we recognize it and challenge that thinking, we are taking a big step toward a happier life.

Controlled Breathing

Science is just beginning to provide evidence that the benefits of this ancient practice are real. Studies have found, for example, that breathing practices can help reduce symptoms associated with anxiety, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and attention deficit disorder. For centuries yogis have used breath control, or pranayama, to promote concentration and improve vitality. Buddha advocated breath-meditation as a way to reach enlightenment.

Imposter syndrome : Is it real?

Have you ever felt that you don’t deserve an award you’ve won ? Like you don’t belong somewhere? Like people might discover that you are a fraud , and that you don’t deserve the position you’re in ? Then this is called ‘ THE IMPOSTER SYNDROME’. It’s a psychological pattern in which a person doubts […]

Imposter syndrome : Is it real?


“Communication – the human connection – is the key to personal and career success.”. – Paul J. Meyer

The above quote is very true. Communication is the basic thing which is required for existence and survival of humans as well as an organisation. Really personal and organisational and career oriented goals cannot be achieved without communication. Communication means conveying or exchanging of ideas, knowledge, information or opinions from one place, person or group to another by speech, writing or signs. Business Communication is exchanging or conveying of information or opinions to promote an organisation’s goals and objectives. Communication helps people to have access to knowledge, experience and expertise as these are the essential things which are necessary for achieving growth and development. Communication takes place in all living things. It is a part of our life without which we can’t survive. Communication involves sending messages and being more precise, sending meaningful messages from one person to another. The messages may be in the form of oral or written. The communication can be by means of seeing, hearing, touching, etc. The purpose of communication is to obtain some results, response or feedback. One single person can’t communicate so communication involves plurality of person which means at least two persons are involved in every communication. In which one will be a sender. A sender is a person who sends his ideas, information or opinions. And the second person will be a receiver. A receiver is a person who receives the ideas, information or opinions send by the sender and give back some response or feedback. Communication is a continuous and a two-way process. The primary purpose of communication is to motivate a response. Communication can motivate employees by clarifying to them what is to be done and if they do the things correctly and his superiors appreciate him for the same it will motivate them to work more harder. Communication is always existing and an unavoidable phenomenon. It is a universal and a social process. As we all are a social animals and we can satisfy our basic needs and desires through written, spoken or non-verbal message. And all the living beings whether it is humans, animals, insects or birds communicate through their own symbols and signs. So, the importance of communication are –

  • Smooth Running of the Enterprise- Communication helps in smooth and unrestricted running of an enterprise. Whether the organisation is big or small, public or private sector communication plays a major role in each and every organisation.
  • Quick Decisions and Implementation- Communication helps the organisation to take vital decision. So an effective communication can help in taking quick and systematic implementation of the management decision.
  • Proper Planning and Coordination- Communication helps a lot in proper planning and coordination. The widest possible participation in planning is a pre-condition for getting the task done and this can be done only through a media of communication.
  • Morale Building- Communication helps in resolving grievances and problems that are faced by employees and thus this helps in increasing the morale of the employees.
  • Improve Public Relation- A good communication system helps in ensuring free-flow of information between the organisation and various other components of the society like customers, suppliers, bankers and public at large. Communication also helps in building a good image in the mind of the public.

Last But Not the Least

Communication is important not only in professional life but in personal life too. As it is a tool which either makes or breaks any relation. So think hundred times before saying anything.


Did you ever involve yourself in something very trivial , when you had an important assignment submission or work? Did you ever regret not doing the job right?. If yes , then that’s what we call procrastination. Procrastination is the act of delaying or postponing something that needs to be accomplished within a given period […]


Education and Success

Education and success are two parameters of life that typically distinguish an individual. Being successful and being educated are two determinants that might be identified with each other.

There is a good percentage of the population that believes that success only comes to the ones who are well educated, who have attained their degrees from prestigious institutes, while the uneducated or he less educated ones can not succeed in their lives. These people fail to understand one fact about life that success has no boundaries and it comes without the obligation of getting a degree from IITs, IIMs, Ivy leagues or Harvard, success requires hard work and passion about your field of work.

One can become successful if they are well informed and passionate about the field of their choice. Being educated one becomes more intellectual and hence accepted by various firms and organizations regarding jobs of their choices. But education is a label to a person’s intellect.

We have examples like Steve Jobs, who just attended one semester of college and with Steve Wozniak founded Apple Inc.; Bill Gates, who dropped out after two years of attending the prestigious Harvard University to work on his passion which turns out to be the giant company Microsoft; Mark Zuckerburg, who after his second year at Harvard dropped out and worked hard for the giant company we have today: Facebook; Michael Dell, who dropped out of the University of Texas in his very first year there to work for his passion and formed the company, Dell. There are many more examples of such extra-ordinary people who did not complete a college degree but followed their passion and worked hard on it to succeed in what they felt was good for them.

Success is all about attaining your aim and achieving your goals. Education is no doubt important but education is not the only factor that leads to success, you can succeed if you set achievable goals for yourself and are focused enough to get what you want.

The Rwandan genocide

The year 1994 marks the occurrence of one of the most horrifying incidents to ever happen to humanity.  The Rwandan genocide was a systematic killing of the people of Tutsi ethnic minority by the members of the Hutu ethnic majority in Rwanda.  The main agenda of the mass killings that were instigated by the Hutu government was to kill all of the members of the Tutsi community in the country… About 800,000 to 1 million Tutsi were massacred by the Hutu government, their militia and ordinary citizens who were trained by the government. The genocide was halted when the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) took control of the country through military tactics.

 Racial tensions in the country between the Tutsis and the Hutus served as fuel to the genocide. During the colonization of Rwanda by the Belgians and the Germans, the Tutsis ethnic minority was favored and the Hutus ethnic majority was discriminated against. The Belgians and the Germans supported the Tutsi monarchy and decreed that all local chiefs must be Tutsis. A Hutu revolution in 1959 forced more the 300,000 Tutsis to leave the country in fear of their lives and 1662 the Hutus captured and exiled the Tutsi monarch and declared that Rwanda is a republic country. Belgium granted Rwanda independence in July 1962. Post-independence with the majority of the population being Hutu, a resolutely Hutu government came to power. The leader of the new Hutu government was Habyarimana who founded a new party and the only party in the country called the national revolutionary movement for development. Now with the Hutu government violence against the Tutsis became the new normal.

In 1990- 1993, the Hutu government fought wars with the RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front).  The RPF was mainly Rwandan refugees from Uganda. These actions of the government and the RPF started the civil war in Rwanda. Seeing, how both parties were running a loss, the Arusha accords were signed. The Arusha accords were the peace agreement between the government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandan patriotic front to end the three-year-long civil war that battered the country in 1993. But the Rwandan genocide was not an ordinary war crime, it was predetermined and a carefully planned massacre of the Tutsi people. The Hutu ruling government had members of the party who were against Habyarimana and believed that a final killing of all the Tutsi people will solve the problem of the country. The Hutu power wing trained and armed youth militia groups such as the Interahamwe and the impuzamugambi. The youth militia youth had already been actively killing Tutsi people across the country. In 1990, the government armed civilians and trained them with the pretense of self-defense against the RPF. But the peace agreement fell through when presidents Habyarimana plane was shot down. Who was responsible for the shooting down the plane is still unclear but this incident catalyzed the genocide. On April 7th, the genocide started with the murder of moderate Hutu the Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana. This created a power vacuum in the country where the country had no clear leader. An intermediate government was formed with Hutu power leaders was formed.

The genocide started on 7th April of 1994, mass killings in Kigali started with the killing of moderate leaders and liberal journalists in the capital. The extremely efficient militia and the trained ordinary citizens proceeded to slaughter all Tutsi insight. In the capital city of Kigali, the military set up roadblocks where they would check a person’s identity card, if the card classified them as Tutsi then they were murdered. Ordinary citizens were prompted to kill the neighboring Tutsi. In the rural areas where everyone knew each other, it was relatively easier to identify and kill Tutsi people.  Within months 800’00 to 1 million people had been killed. The Hutu military also used other disgraceful methods in the genocide.  The military supported group Interahamwe used rape as an instrument to hurt the moderate Hutu and Tutsi women. Not only did the Interahamwe but the soldiers of the army of the liberation of Rwanda, the presidential guard, and Hutu civilians also engaged in sexual violence against Tutsi women. The Interahamwe used men who were HIV positive and formed them into rape squads. Every day around 800 Tutsis were killed.  Only in July of 1994 did the genocide end. The genocide ended when the RPF took control of the country and the capital. The remaining Hutu population fled to the country of Zaire (now the democratic republic of Congo) in fear that the army would retaliate for the genocide.

The genocide had many repercussions, due to sexual violation; many female survivors had a long list of sexually transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies, and self-isolation. The genocide had left many buildings inhabitable and the economy of the country was in a deplorable state. The country since then has bounced back. The country has adopted a new constitution, the ethnic classification on the Rwandan identity cards were removed. The economy of the country has grown at a rate of 8 percent making Rwanda one of the most invest able countries in Africa.


All Indian Bar Examination is the National Level Examination conducted twice in every year by the Bar Council of India. The objective of conducting this exam is to examine the advocates basic knowledge of law, analytical thinking, understanding the concept of law from those who are willing to practice in this profession. AIBE exam is an open book exam. The candidate who pass the exam will receive ‘Certificate of Practice’ by the Bar Council of India. AIBE exam will be conducted across 40 cities in India. Candidate can choose the medium of language from 11 different languages.

Who are eligible?

Eligible persons having a recognized law degree (3 years or 5 years) and they should be admitted as advocates on State Bar Council. In simple language the eligible person should have ‘Sanad’ which is the ID card given by State Bar Council. The Advocates Act 1961 empowers State Bar Council to frame their own rules for on enrolments of advocates.


AIBE exam forms are available on the official website of AIBE i.e The candidate should carry their own study material in the exam hall. The exam will be in offline mode. The questions will be in MCQ format. The candidate had cleared his LL.B exam then to some candidate gets difficulty in clearing this exam. But, if the candidate have had studied all the subjects well during his/her law school days then this exam can be cleared easily.

Who are eligible?

Eligible persons having a recognized law degree (3 years or 5 years) and they should be admitted as advocates on State Bar Council. In simple language the eligible person should have ‘Sanad’ which is the ID card given by State Bar Council. The Advocates Act 1961 empowers State Bar Council to frame their own rules for on enrolments of advocates.


AIBE exam forms are available on the official website of AIBE i.e The candidate should carry their own study material in the exam hall. The exam will be in offline mode. The questions will be in MCQ format. The candidate had cleared his LL.B exam then to some candidate gets difficulty in clearing this exam. But, if the candidate have had studied all the subjects well during his/her law school days then this exam can be cleared easily.


These subjects below cover the high weightage if the candidate studied these subjects thoroughly then the chances of passing of that candidate is higher :

1.  Constitutional Law                                             10 marks

2.  I.P.C (Indian Penal Code)                                  8 marks

3.  Cr.P.C (Criminal Procedure Code)                   10 marks

4.  C.P.C (Code of Civil Procedure)                      10 marks

5.  Evidence Act                                                     8 marks

6. Law of Contract, Specific Relief,

Property Laws, Negotiable Instrument Act            8 marks

7. Family Law                                                        8 marks

Whereas, these subjects are low in weightage which are mentioned below :

8.  Alternative Dispute Redressal

including Arbitration Act                                       4 marks

9. Public Interest Litigation                                    4 marks

10. Administrative Law                                           3 marks

11. Professional Ethics &

Cases of Professional Misconduct

under BCI rules                                                        4 marks

12.  Company Law                                                   2 marks

13. Environmental Law                                           2 marks

14. Cyber Law                                                       2 marks

15. Labour & Industrial Laws                               4 marks

16. Law of Tort, including

Motor Vehicle Act and

Consumer Protection Law                                        5 marks

17. Law related to Taxation                                      4 marks

18. Land Acquisition Act                                          2 marks

19. Intellectual Property Laws                               2 marks

How to prepare for the AIBE Exam

  • Bare Acts

The candidate should go through the Bare acts of all the Subjects. Reading the Index is very important the candidate can stick sticky notes on the important sections and definitions. The candidate should avoid mugging up the sections and should focus on reading it as much you could as it an open book exam

  • Question Papers

The candidate should solve the last years question papers which is available in book stores or online stores too. Reading the question paper the candidate will get an idea about what type of question was asked in earlier exams. It is a time based examination where the candidate will get 3hr 30 min to answer 100 questions. The candidate should practice to solve the questions in the same time span. 

  • Legal Maxims/One Liners

The candidate can get a printout of all the important Legal maxims and one liners and can carry with themselves on the examination day. The candidate can get some of the legal maxims in Legal Language subject book. 

  • Commentary Books

The candidate can carry commentary book of the respective subjects for Judgements. There is a case index in every commentary book so it will be very helpful to find a case and answer the questions related to it.

  • All India Bar Examination Books

There are books available in the book stores or online website where there are subject wise MCQs given and also last year question papers with answers.

  • Strategy of Cracking the Exam

The candidate should read the question paper thoroughly the candidate can divide the question paper in three category they are as follows :

  1. Solvable
  2. Confusion
  3. Unsolvable

When a candidate read the question paper he/she can understand in which category he/she can place the given question if the category choose by the candidate is solvable then he/she should mark the answer of the question in the OMR sheet. If the candidate is confused regarding the answer what the answer is, he/she can mark the answer with certain symbol which indicate it is in confusion category. Later on, when he/she finished up answering all the solvable question then he/she can search the correct answer of the confusable question from the books he/she has got. Last but not the least the candidate should try to find the answer of the questions which he/she kept in unsolvable category. The candidate should use the time very effectively. The candidate should keep in mind there is no negative marking so the candidate must answer all the questions.


Lockdown is not a legal term but it has been framed by the society and government as a situation where there is restriction in movement, only with a single exception that basic necessities should operate. Some law enthusiasts may say that the lockdown is unconstitutional, violating our fundamental right of movement stated under article 19(1), but they tend to forget that as per article 19 (2) the government has the right to put reasonable restrictions on the above stated right. The government also supported the action of the lockdown by the following legislations:

Provisions from the constitution i.e., article 256 and 257 which gave the central government power over the laws implemented by the parliament, it states that the Centre can direct on how to implement the laws, and it can use it in a manner it doesn’t impede the power of the executive. Article 39 (Directive principle Of State policy) which puts a duty on the state to look after the survival and livelihood of its people in the situation.

Section 2, 3, 4 of Epidemics Diseases Act, 1897, S.2 and 2A gives the government  power to make rules and regulations to stop the spread of a disease for the welfare of the people and the nation, S.3 states the penalties for disobeying the rules that are made by the government (Under S.2 and 2A).

Section 2(d) of the Disaster Management Act defines a disaster as “A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes, or by accident or negligence which results in substantial loss of life or human suffering or damage to, and destruction of, property, or damage to, or degradation of, environment, and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of the affected area.” The Ministry of Home Affairs declared the spread of COVID-19 as a “notified disaster” .Section 8 and 9 of Disaster Management Act, 2005 were also followed  and accordingly a lockdown was initiated with an official public notification.

Other provisions in the Indian Penal Code, like S.188 which states punishment if one disobeys the order that is passed by the public servant.  Section 269 of Indian Penal Code which states “Negligent act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life.” The term of imprisonment can extend up to six months. Section 270 of Indian Penal Code which states  “Malignant act likely to spread infection of disease dangerous to life. The term of imprisonment can extend up to two years.” Section 271 of Indian Penal Code stating “Disobedience to quarantine rule. The term of imprisonment can extend up to six months.” All the above provisions can be invokes so that the cromes specified are not committed

Keeping in mind the situation of Covid-19 and the ways it can spread, S.144 of Criminal Procedural Code was followed, which imposes a curfew on everyone either restricting individuals from moving out of their houses or prohibiting people from going in crowds. The restrictions are usually imposed as per the order that is passed by the magistrate. The provisions stated under the CrPC and IPC are general provisions which have to be followed.

Now, after understanding the legality and validity, a question may arise that why is the lockdown useful, its utility and importance, to answer this there is a theory which was proposed by Jeremy Bentham, he states that we humans give more importance to self happiness and personal gain than anything else, therefore, the thought of the pain that is caused by the virus becomes more important than the thought of restriction on movement. Hence, the lockdown becomes a vital step taken to control the pandemic and to stop the spread of pain caused due to it.

At a conclusion we can understand that the Centre and the government used a combination of all laws as only a mixture of all can lead to a lockdown and this can lead to a relaxation in the current situation prevailing in India. Law is always the same in every case but it reveals its true colors only if it is interpreted and analyzed in the right manner. I believe that “Necessity needs no law”, we have seen many such situations in the past where all these were tackled even when there was no legislation, necessity brings everyone together and make them collectively think for solutions, so even in the present situation the government played an important role in analyzing the laws properly, and this will eventually lead to the welfare and well-being of the nation. Everyone should keep the societal interest in mind in order to gain individual happiness and success.

COVID-19 and domestic abuse and violence

Movement restrictions aimed to stop the spread of the corona virus may be making violence in homes more frequent, more severe and more dangerous.

Domestic violence has been defined as encompassing any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationships. It is a major social and public health problem with significant costs on individuals, families, communities and the society.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines violence as ‘the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual against oneself, another person, or against a group or community that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation’.

Under the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act (2005) of India, domestic violence is defined as ‘any act, omission or commission or conduct of the respondent in case it—(a) harms or injures or endangers the health, safety, life, limb or well-being, whether mental or physical, of the aggrieved person or tends to do so and includes causing physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal and emotional abuse and economic abuse; or (b) harasses, harms, injures or endangers the aggrieved person with a view to coerce her or any other person related to her to meet any unlawful demand for any dowry or other property or valuable security; or (c) has the effect of threatening the aggrieved person or any person related to her by any conduct mentioned in clause (a) or clause (b); or (d) otherwise injures or causes harm, whether physical or mental, to the aggrieved person.

According to the Crime in India Report 2018, published by the National Crimes Research Bureau (NCRB), every 1.7 minutes a crime was recorded against women in India, every 16 minutes a rape was committed and every 4.4 minutes a girl is subjected to domestic violence.

Factors influencing domestic violence

It is quite apparent that domestic violence does not constitute an occasional, rare incident. In fact, it is a regular, systemic and structural manifestation of social control. No single factor can alone explain the reasons of domestic violence. Rather, there are several complex and interrelated factors such as institutionalized social and cultural factors, family institution, including fear of and control over female sexuality, belief in the inherent superiority of males, and independent legal and social status. According to the World Health Organisation, one in every three women across the globe experience physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner or sexual violence by any perpetrators in their lifetime: at least 30% of all women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner.

Factors Outcomes
Sociocultural Gender-specific socialization
 Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles
 Expectations of roles within relationships
 Belief in the inherent superiority of males
 Values that give men proprietary rights over women and girls
 Notion of the family as the private sphere and being under male dominance
 Customs of marriage (bride price/dowry)
 Acceptability of violence as a means to resolve conflict
EconomicWomen’s economic dependence on men
 Limited access to cash and credit
 Discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands and maintenance after divorce or widowhood
 Limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors
 Limited access to education and training for women
LegalLesser legal status of women either by written law and/or by practice
 Laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance
 Legal definitions of rape and domestic abuse
 Low levels of legal literacy among women
 Insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and the judiciary
PoliticalUnderrepresentation of women in power, politics, media, and legal and medical professions
 Domestic violence not taken seriously
 Notions of family being private and beyond control of the state
 Risk of challenge to status quo/religious laws
 Limited organization of women as a political force
 Limited participation of women in organized political system

Increase in domestic violence cases

Domestic abuse is being reported all over the world such as China, Argentina, Germany Turkey, South Africa, UK, USA, France, Malaysia, Lebanon to name a few. UN chief Antonio Guterres has called for global `ceasefire’ because of horrific global surge violence directed towards women and girls linked to lockdown imposed globally in response to the pandemic. It is expected that millions of cases of violence, child marriage, female genital mutilation and unintended pregnancies may occur during crisis causing devastation

Before COVID-19 broke-out the statistics reveal that every third woman in the world has faced violence at least once in her lifetime. The mandatory lockdown being imposed in wake of COVID-19 is leading to increase in number of incidents of domestic violence. In 2020, between March 25 and May 31, 1,477 complaints of domestic violence were made by women. This 68-day period recorded more complaints than those received between March and May in the previous 10 years. The National Commission for Women has reported a rise of 94 percent in complaint cases where women have been abused in their homes during lockdown.

Laws on domestic violence in India

Although women may be victims of any of the crimes such as ‘murder’, ‘rape’, ‘robbery’, ‘cheating’, etc., the crimes that are directed specifically against women are characterized as ‘Crimes Against Women’. These are broadly classified under two categories:

  1. Crimes identified under the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and
  2. Crimes identified under the Special Laws.

The crimes identified under the IPC include: rape (Sec. 376); kidnapping and abduction for different purposes (Sec. 363/373); homicide for dowry, dowry deaths or their attempts (Sec. 302/304-B); torture—both mental and physical (Sec. 498-A); molestation (Sec. 354); sexual harassment—referred to in the past as eve-teasing (IPC Sec. 509); and importation of girls (up to 21 years of age) (Sec. 366-B).

The crimes identified under the Special Laws include those specified under the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956; the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961; the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986; the Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986; the Commission of Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987; the National Commission for Women Act, 1990; the PC & PNDT Act, 1994; the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005; the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006; the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012; and the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013.

Key Constitutional Rights conferred to women in India

Article14Confers on men and women equal rights and opportunities in the political, economic and social spheres
Article15Prohibits discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, etc.
Article15(3)Makes a special provision enabling the State to make affirmative discrimination in favour of women Article 16 Provides for equality of opportunities in matter of public appointments for all citizens
Article 21Protection of life and personal liberty—No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law
Article39(a)State shall direct its policy towards securing to all citizens, men and women, equally, the right to means of livelihood
Article39(c)Ensures equal pay for equal work
Article 42State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief
Article 47Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health
Article51(A)(e)Imposes a fundamental duty on every citizen to renounce practices derogatory to dignity of women

The National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16 highlighted that 30% women in India in the age group of 15-49 experienced physical violence since the age of 15. The report suggested that among married women experiencing physical, sexual or emotional violence, an alarming 83% claimed that their husbands were the main perpetrators of such forms of abuse, followed by abuse from the mothers (56%), fathers 33% and siblings 27% of the husbands. The major crimes reported by women in India are — cruelty by husband or relatives 32.6%, assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty — 25%, kidnapping and abductions 19% and rape 11.5%.

Therefore it is necessary to protect oppressed women in India with the help of stringent laws, appropriate schemes, rules and regulations. Such protection shall be provided not only on the grounds of fundamental rights violations but also on humanitarian, social and economic grounds.

Benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar

What is apple cider vinegar?  

Apple cider vinegar, also known as ACV is produced during fermentation of apple cider. The sugar present in the apple is fermented by yeast/bacteria which first turns it into alcohol. Further the alcohol is fermented to turn into acetic acid. Apple cider vinegar contains 4-5% of acetic acid, to which many health benefits can be attributed to. Not all apple cider vinegar is created the same, the key is to look for organic, unfiltered, raw apple cider vinegar with “mother” which indicates that it contains probiotics. 

What are the health benefits of apple cider vinegar?

It is almost magical what apple cider vinegar can do for your health.  Let’s start with a list of benefits first and then get into details. 

  1. It can improve digestion
  2. It lowers blood sugar levels
  3. It improves insulin sensitivity
  4. It reduces belly fat
  5. It helps lowers cholesterol
  6. It helps sooth sore throat
  7. It lowers blood pressure and improves heart health
  8. It prevents and decreases the risk of getting cancer and slows down the growth of cancer cells
  9. It helps people to lose weight and increases satiety

Apple cider vinegar is also packed with nutrition. Let’s take a look at its nutritional composition to see what makes apple cider vinegar so special. Apple cider vinegar contains:

  • Magnesium
  • amino acids
  • antioxidants
  • iron
  • manganese
  • phosphorus
  • only three (3) calories per tablespoon

1. Improves Digestion– Drinking apple cider vinegar everyday can help regulate the amount of acid present in your stomach, which will lead to easier digestion. Like any other fermented food, unfiltered apple cider vinegar contains healthy bacteria that helps to keep your digestive system functioning properly. 

2. Lowers blood sugar levels and helps fight Diabetes– Apple cider vinegar has the ability to improve insulin sensitivity and it also helps lower the blood sugar levels. According to a research published by American Diabetes Association, taking two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar before going to bed can reduce fasting blood sugars. 

3. Detoxifies the Liver– Apple cider vinegar increasing energy levels and improves its natural blood filtration processes by flushing the liver.                                                                                                                                                                                                    

4. Helps You Lose Weight– Apple cider vinegar also helps with weight loss as it increases satiety, feeling of being full, which can help prevent cravings.

5. Inhibits the growth of Cancer Cells.  Many studies show that apple cider vinegar has some anti-cancer benefits to it as it is an alkalizing food that restores the acid balance of the body which is important because cancer cells thrive in an acidic environment.

6.) Strengthens the bones – Apple cider vinegar aids in the process of  absorption of calcium, which is essential to building strong bones.

8.) Lowers Cholesterol– Studies show that apple cider vinegar reduces the bad cholesterol- LDL and in turn increases the good cholesterol- HDL due to the natural antioxidants present in it.

How to incorporate apple cider vinegar into your diet?  

The best way to incorporate apple cider vinegar into your diet is to use it for salad dressings or dilute it in water and drink it as a beverage. 1–2 tablespoons (15–30 ml) mixed in a large glass of water and consumed daily.

Refer to this article for detailed consumption patterns for different uses- Apple Cider Vinegar Dosage: How Much Should You Drink per Day?

It’s best to start with small doses of apple cider, avoid taking large amounts because too much of vinegar can cause harmful side effects.

Does patriarchy impact men?

When we talk about patriarchy, we usually mean male superiority. Most of us relate ill effects of patriarchy to the way it treats women and rightly so. However, patriarchy does effect the so called superior gender too.

Patriarchy sets definitions of masculinity and femininity, and gives each gender rigid rules to follow. It enforces the idea that gender exists in binary. Needless to say patriarchy effects the entire spectrum of sexuality.

Though in lay men’s term patriarchy only impacts women, but if we dive a little deeper we would understand that it does impact the one holding power, that is, straight cis-men. Patriarchy puts men in a box. Thus men too need feminism to break the flawed structure of patriarchy.

Refusing emotional literacy to men

Patriarchy in its very essence sets certain stereotypes for men. Men should be physically strong, should not show emotions when sad, should be sex- hungry, they should be the bread earners of their family and so much more. This puts an excessive amount of pressure on men to satisfy their norms and abide by these stereotypes.

A million times young boys are told to “man up” , “be a man”, “man do not cry”, thus enforcing in their minds that they must behave in a particular way to be a man. It wrongly portrait that men are stronger and showing emotion is a sign of weakness.

Over time it has lead to lack of emotional literacy in men, as well as, lack of support to show their true emotions. This in long term creates a great vulnerability to mental health issues, ranging from anxiety, depression to even suicidal tendencies.

Restricts men’s choices

Patriarchy restricts almost every choice that a man makes, be it a serious career choice or a much simpler clothing choice. There are unsaid rules that men should choose manly stuffs. If they make choices that are even slightly feminine according to the traditional patriarchal notion then are often ridiculed and are subjected to a lot of bullying.

We as a society have set norms which restricts men from making certain dressing choices, certain career decisions and even having certain hobbies. “Man don’t wear pink”, “no floral prints for men” are some common sentences each and every man has heard in some point of their life.

Patriarchy usually do not welcome straight cis-man in certain professions, such as fashion designing or makeup artist. It also looks down upon men who takes interest in activities like cooking, clearing, grooming, applying makeup and so much more. Such patriarchy narrows down the playing field of men too.

Men getting raped

Patriarchy turns a blind eye towards men’s issues, such as men being subjected to physical or sexual assault. Patriarchy explicitly asserts that it is men’s right to dominate women. However men exposing weak and vulnerability is highly condemned by patriarchal norms.

It is clearly portrait by mass media and literary works that women are damsels in distress and men have to be the macho saviours. A lot of times we totally discount the fact that men too can be raped. Our pre- established notion that men are some kind of sexual predators who are always up for action stops us from believing that men too can be victims.

In fact media often usually the serious issues of men being subjected to assault as a comical instance. Which is not only wrong but also extremely gross. Maximum men don’t even come out with their assault stories in the fear of being ridiculed and consider less manly.

The nuances of patriarchy is so ingrained in each one of us that we don’t even realise the ways we ourselves promote the stereotypes. We have started considering all this as normal, though it is not.
We as a society should take a step towards gender equality. Yes patriarchy has direct impact on women, but it’s effect on men can not be discounted. We should collectively promote feminism and realise that feminism is not only about women, but it includes the entire spectrum. Equality is what we should strive for.


Menopause occurs when a woman hasn’t menstruated in 12 consecutive months and can no longer become pregnant naturally. It usually begins between the ages of 45 and 55, but can develop before or after this range. Menopause can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as hot flashes and weight gain.

When does Menopause begin and how long does it last?
Most women first begin developing menopause symptoms about four years before their last period. Symptoms often continue until about four years after a woman’s last period. There are many factors that help determine when a woman will begin menopause, including genetics and ovary health. Perimenopause occurs before menopause. Perimenopause is a time when hormones begin to change in preparation for menopause. It can last anywhere from a few months to several years. Many women begin perimenopause after their mid 40s. Other women skip perimenopause and enter menopause suddenly.

Perimenopause Vs. Menopause Vs. Post menopause
During perimenopause, menstrual periods become irregular. Periods may occur late or may complete vanish for about two months. Menstrual flow may also become heavier or lighter. Menopause is defined as a lack of menstruation for one whole year.
Post menopause refers to the years after menopause has occurred.

What are the symptoms of menopause?
Every woman’s menopause experience is unique. Symptoms are usually more severe when menopause occurs suddenly or over a shorter period of time.
Conditions that impact the health of the ovary, like cancer, or certain lifestyle choices, like smoking, tend to increase the severity and duration of symptoms.

Aside from menstruation changes, the symptoms of perimenopause, menopause, and post menopause are generally the same. The most common early signs of perimenopause are:
• less frequent menstruation
• heavier or lighter periods than normally experienced
• vasomotor symptoms, including hot flashes , night sweats, and flushing

Why does menopause occur?
Menopause is a natural process that occurs as the ovaries age and produce less reproductive hormones. The body begins to undergo several changes in response to lower levels of :
• Estrogen
• Progesterone
One of the most notable changes is the loss of active ovarian follicles. Ovarian follicles are the structures that produce and release eggs from the ovary wall, allowing menstruation and fertility. Most women first notice the frequency of their period becoming less consistent, as the flow becomes heavier and longer. This usually occurs at some point in the mid-to-late 40s.

Some women undergo treatment if symptoms of menopause are severe or affecting the quality of life. Hormone therapy may be an effective treatment in women under the age of 60, or within 10 years of menopause onset, for the reduction or management of:
• hot flashes
• night sweats
• flushing
• vaginal atrophy
• osteoporosis
Other medications may be used to treat more specific menopause symptoms, like hair loss and vaginal dryness.

PlayerUnknowns Battleground

We can’t negate the reality of PUBG being a sensation or a phenomenon in the history of games. Based on the Data analysis firm Sensor Tower, the report says in May 2020 that PUBG became the highest revenue grossing mobile game worldwide. This new graphic is a monetary advantage for the company’s progress but what about the “player’s grown addiction”. After its release in 2017, irrefutably it became the supreme (king) of all popular games in the world. Today we are in 2020, two years are gone still the goosebumps which it creates in the gaming market is astonishing. The game isn’t confirming any premonitions of dropping its player base in the coming year, and PUBG obsession is mounting high.

There are numerous cases that come across our minds when we think of the addiction carried by PUBG. Recently, in news, there was a 15-year-old boy who stole $700 from his father’s account for unlocking the “loot boxes”. This is not new, there is much news flooded with suicide, thieve and etc. World Health Organization (WHO) had many times reflected their views over these accidents. They have correspondingly established undeniable conditions as cautionary signals for custodians and parents.

Impaired control- When the player has become so obsessed that he/she is unable to control his/her cravings of playing. Unable to limit their gameplay.

Loss of interest- Player showing disinterest in doing other things and his/her mind is always getting diverted. It generates a lack of concentration in other activities.

Continuing to play despite negative impact- Gaming is instigating noteworthy destruction to their school results, employment activities, or any relationships.

What do you think of banning and restriction? Do you think restricting players after 6 hours of usage will put a stoppage to their obsession? Seeing the rising cases, Company took a necessary step and made a move to safeguard players. The game has begun to apparently lock the players who play the game for too long. The modification, primarily noticed by a few users on Twitter discloses that the game now displays a ‘health reminder’ that locks users out of the game after a certain hour played on the app. The move is good but it’s not still applied to every user.

Another news of suicide during Lockdown came in which a wife hanged herself to death because her husband continued to play PUBG regularly for ten hours and started neglecting her and their daughter. She also blamed him for turning aggressive and violent entirely. Many scholars believe PUBG has the ability to produce “Problematic Mental Disorder” in the users. “It’s a user in a shrinking battlefield”.

CBSE Class 10, 12 results 2020: Timeline of what has happened so far

CBSE Class 10, 12 results 2020: The COVID-19 outbreak not only hampered this year’s academic schedule of the board, but also of the coming year as the board was compelled to reduce the syllabus.

CBSE Class 10, 12 results 2020: In what seems to be a first, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) recently cancelled the board examinations, taking note of the situation prevailing due to the coronavirus pandemic. The CBSE class 10, 12 students will now get their results by July 15, under a special scheme.

The COVID-19 outbreak not only hampered this year’s academic schedule but also had an impact on the coming academic year. With schools shut and lesser instructional hours for teachers, the board has reduced the syllabus for the 2021 batch.

June: CBSE cancels pending 10th, 12th exams

Deviating slightly from its earlier stance, CBSE decided against conducting the class 10 board exams, while class 12 students were to have an option to appear for the pending exams later. The students who thought they were disadvantaged by the internal assessment system were given a chance to opt for improvement exams at a later date. The date is yet to be announced.

HRD minister Ramesh Pokhriyal discusses CBSE exam result

HRD Minister Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank on Tuesday, July 7 held a meeting with officials of the ministry and Delhi University regarding a synchronised calendar for varsity admission and board exam results.

Bilingual Education: Dual Language immersion

Bilingual education involves teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model.

Need for Bilingual Education

At the beginning of the twenty-first century, proficiency in only one language is not enough for economic, societal, and educational success. Global interdependence and mass communication often require the ability to function in more than one language. According to the 2000 U.S. Census, more than 9.7 million children ages five to seventeen–one of every six school-age children–spoke a language other than English at home. These language-minority children are the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. school-age population. Between 1990 and 2000, the population of language-minority children increased by 55 percent, while the population of children living in homes where only English is spoken grew by only 11 percent.

Language-minority students in U.S. schools speak virtually all of the world’s languages, including more than a hundred that are indigenous to the United States. Language-minority students may be monolingual in their native language, bilingual in their native language and English, or monolingual in English but from a home where a language other than English is spoken. Those who have not yet developed sufficient proficiency in English to learn content material in all-English-medium classrooms are known as limited English proficient (LEP) or English language learners (ELLs). Reliable estimates place the number of LEP students in American schools at close to four million.


A large amount of research is being done to discover how being exposed to a bilingual education benefits individuals as they grow up.


Evidence from recent research is beginning to show that if you are exposed to a bilingual education and grow up with a high degree of literacy in both languages, you are more likely to develop better cognitive skills that provide advantages for learning and progress in later life. Although many parents worry about their child ending up with weaker skills in both languages and feeling confused, according to the New York Times, the conflict caused by learning two languages early on is actually a good thing:

“This interference, researchers are finding out, isn’t so much a handicap as a blessing in disguise. It forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, giving the mind a workout that strengthens its cognitive muscles.”

Pre-school children learning in a bilingual environment tend to be more flexible in their cognitive behaviour and begin to understand more deeply at an early age the subtleties of how language works. This is thought to be one of the reasons why those exposed to a bilingual education develop better mental acuity early on, growing the tools to solve complex mental puzzles. Other research suggests that bilingual students are better at processing sound and therefore are much more likely to pay attention in class, whatever the subject.


There are, of course, many cultural benefits to having a bilingual education. Moving between two different worlds means children come into contact and identify with the traditions and identities of each one. This is particularly the case with immigrant families and expat communities, where children may grow up with dual cultural identities.
The added level of communication skills and the necessity of developing keen listening skills can also lead to improved social competence that can help bilinguals to adapt more easily to different multi-cultural environments, as well as making them more attuned to subtle cultural sensitivities.


Being able to speak proficiently in two or more languages has always been hugely beneficial across different professions, but is increasingly so in the modern, “globalised” world that we hear so much about.
The ability to adapt to and absorb different cultures is in itself a precious commodity to companies operating across multiple countries, with clients in different locations. Within these global companies, employees with multiple languages are likely to be valued more, and often paid more. In these huge companies, there are often opportunities to work in their offices in around the world, usually an incredibly rewarding experience.
Even if the corporate world is not for them, with two languages, they will rarely be out of a job. From the creative industries to the charity world, companies want employees with an innate sensitivity to cultural trends, to be comfortable interacting with a variety of people, and to have great communication skills. They can also feel safe in the knowledge that they can always support themselves through translation work.


You would expect those with a bilingual education to be higher academic achievers than their monolingual peers, on average. Research at Cambridge University adds to the evidence that bilinguals have the edge in cognitive ability, social interaction and communication skills. It is no wonder then, that universities themselves prize language skills highly in those applying.


There is a growing body of research into how the cognitive benefits of bilingualism extend to fighting off neurological diseases. For example, researchers in Wales are looking at whether being educated in both English and Welsh can help delay dementia and even Parkinson’s disease in later life.
Wales is not the only place where research into bilingualism and long-term mental health is of interest. Research in California found that, as well as earning more money, on average.

Collaborative Learning: Learn something Together

Collaborative learning is a situation in which two or more people learn or attempt to learn something together. Unlike individual learning, people engaged in collaborative learning capitalise on one another’s resources and skills.

Collaborative learning can occur peer-to-peer or in larger groups. Peer learning, or peer instruction, is a type of collaborative learning that involves students working in pairs or small groups to discuss concepts or find solutions to problems. Similar to the idea that two or three heads are better than one, educational researchers have found that through peer instruction, students teach each other by addressing misunderstandings and clarifying misconceptions.

The organisational benefits of collaborative learning:

1. Develops self-management and leadership skills

When individuals are tasked with working together to achieve a common goal, they are being given the opportunity to develop high-level skills.

While having to organize, assign, and teach, they are learning how to manage both themselves and others while leading in a productive fashion.

2. Increases employee skills and knowledge

When employees participate in collaborative learning, they are developing a wide range of skills and knowledge. Not only will they strengthen their existing skills by having to teach others, they in turn will learn new skills from other employees.

This reduces the need for formal training while encouraging employees to continually upskill in known concepts and engage with new concepts.

3. Improves relationships across teams and departments

When individuals have limited contact across teams, it is difficult to foster connections and teamwork. Collaborative learning across teams forces individuals to develop new connections and find ways to work together.

This can be especially beneficial for organisations that depend on remote workers, as fostering strong connections among distant workers can be difficult.

4. Improves knowledge acquisition and retention

Studies have shown that utilizing collaborative learning may lead to increased involvement and better retention of knowledge.

The process of collaborative learning allows participants to achieve higher levels of thought and the information is retained much longer than when learned in a non-collaborative setting.

5. Improves employee retention and promotes workplace engagement

Employees that are given the opportunity to learn new skills tend to be more satisfied in their work, and are less likely to seek out other opportunities.

Satisfied employees are more productive and will engage in their work, leading to increased efficiency and output.

Virtual Education: New face of Learning

It’s always been a tough time for parents when they have to decide what education they should choose for their children; education that is both right and appealing to them as well. Each child has different kind of educational needs and preferences and depending on that, education should be imparted to them. One of the most highly remarkable innovation of the age is the virtual education, the best alternative to traditional educational module. This kind of education through the world of internet is especially helpful to kids who find it difficult to cope with the concept of actual school. In fact, virtual school has been hailed as the next big solution in education that is surely going to change the way education is delivered to its recipients. Read this article to know why virtual education is such a great beginning in the world of education.

Virtual education refers to instruction in a learning environment where teacher and student are separated by time or space, or both, and the teacher provides course content through course management applications, multimedia resources, the Internet, videoconferencing, etc.

Virtual education is not similar to the kind of education available in traditional classes. The best part about this kind of education is that it allows students and parents to go through proper counseling to know what will work best for each student, based on his strength and weaknesses. Customized education can bring out the best in each student as it helps to ignite the willingness to learn. Besides, the flexibility that is allowed to students in virtual schooling is what attracts more and more parents. The reason is the fact that it facilitates students to learn and not mere learning that is forced at a particular time. It has been proved through research that students tend to learn more when it is convenient to them, rather than making studies a mere everyday fixed routine.

Likewise, the rising cost of attending courses in colleges and other educational institutions has already forced many students to go for virtual education. The education costs involved in virtual schooling is pretty less as it does not include the immense course fees and resource expenses among a whole lot of others that just go unnoticed sometimes. But with virtual schools, the education delivered does not require such high investments and it is an advantage to students with fewer privileges who are unable to attend well known campuses. The cost involved in this kind of education via internet is way less than the face-to-face method.

Now, if we think beyond the student’s point view, we can also find how virtual education is a great boon to the environment as well. Just think how many trees you are saving by reducing the use of paper. The amount of paper you need while attending a classroom lecture is huge and most of the paper used always end up in the dustbin. While virtual education does help you save the environment and keep your data safe in your computer.

The advantages of virtual education are great in number and these are just few of them. We must always remember one thing that the benefits of virtual education vary from person to person depending on individual needs and requirements. The huge number of students enrolling for virtual schools itself stands as a witness to the ever increasing demand of virtual education.


Jurisprudence is the philosophy of law. In other words, it seeks to explain what law is about in the most general way. Etymologically, the word ‘jurisprudence’ is the English derivation of the Latin word ‘jurisprudentia’ which means the study, knowledge or skill with regards to the law. It discusses law in the most general way e.g. what is law, what is its purpose, how it originated, how does it develop, what are its basic concepts and structure, what is its relation with other social phenomena like the economy, the social system, etc. 

The study of jurisprudence as separate branch of knowledge started with the Romans. For them, jurisprudence meant ‘knowledge of law’. But in modern sense this meaning is too vague and general. Though the Romans in practice never confused law with morality or religion, in theory this distinction is hardly found to be in existence in earlier times. The definition and concept of jurisprudence by Roman jurists may appear to be vague and inadequate in the modern sense of the term, but the credit of recognizing jurisprudence as an independent branch of legal science for the first time goes to the Roman legal philosophers, which eventually paved way to development of the subject in the present form.

The Indian jurisprudence is as old as humanity itself; there is no founder of it other than the Creator itself. It owes its origin to ancient concept of Dharma which was considered to be best way to discipline one’s mind. The practice of Dharma enabled citizens to inculcate the sense of discipline in conducting themselves in the society. This eventually brought about peace and prosperity in the society. According to Dr. Kane, the concept of dharma passed through several transitions over the years and in the modern context it signifies privileges, duties and obligations of a man, his standard of conduct as a member of the society.

However, with the passage of time and changes in the socio-political conditions of India due to the influence of Mughals and later British rule, “the ancient Hindu law which at one time governed the entire gamut of human activity-civil, criminal and miscellaneous, was modified, supplemented and finally superseded by various legislative enactments”. Thus the Hindu law which was at one time revealed to have a divine origin being a part of dharma, has now become “man-made” law and therefore has lost its divinity which the religion still retains, though the distortions therein have reduced it to a mere farce and tool for hoodwinking and playing with the sentiments of the masses by those who are the helm of the religious affairs. It is an irony of fate that dharma, which is as old as humanity itself and of which law proper has been only a part and parcel, has lost all its credence and glory and its is now being increasingly used as a means to accomplish the selfish ends of those who are in power rather than as an instrument to secure even-handed justice to the people of India.

However, with the march of time and progress of Indian society, concept of law and therefore, of jurisprudence has changed radically. India is now a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic. Democracy presupposes government of the people, by the people and for the people, and therefore, citizens are expected to be self restrained and self disciplined. They should also be conscious of their rights and duties. Law played a significant role in sustaining a stable social order. India being a welfare state, a new Indian jurisprudence needs to be developed so as to ensure that law becomes an effective instrument of social change in various facet of Indian life. It has to play the functional role of harmonizing the conflicting interest if individuals in the society by maintaining equilibrium between the freedoms of individuals on the one hand and social welfare on the other.

The modern law and legal philosophy does not touch the morality or the religion. But the dharma of the ancient Indian legal system comprised all the three, namely law, morality and religion within its ambit. This is evinced by the fact Sadachar laid greater stress on morality then law. The element of religion was conspicuously present in the dharma because of its emphasis not only in noble feeling or intentions but in both noble motive and action. Thus religion as a part of dharma meant by what is approved by conscience of virtuous men who are free from hatred and worldly temptations. Religion therefore, consisted in both noble motive and action because noble feeling precedes noble action. In other words, former is the cause and the latter is the effect. For example, to help the poor and needy or attending to the sick and diseased persons are no doubt noble but that should be achieved in a noble way either by sacrifice of personal comforts or personal money but if it is done by robbing others or exploiting others, it would be contrary to dharma.  

The modern conception of Indian law is based on the notion of reasonableness. Though morality and reasonableness appear to be identical concepts, all that are reasonable need to be necessarily moral. For example, in the Bearer Bond’s case, the law in question, namely, the Special Bearer Bonds (Immunities & Exemptions) Act, 1981 was challenged on the ground of immortality as it extended immunity to tax-evaders and hoarders of black money but the Supreme Court by majority of 4: 1 upheld the validity of the Act on the ground of reasonability because it was enacted to unearth black money which was an ‘obstinate economic problem’ and other efforts having failed. The Apex court took a positivist view and observed that ‘Law is Law’ and, therefore, immunity to black-money hoarders by itself could not be ground of constitutional challenges under Article 14 of the Constitution.

The study of the evolution of ancient Indian law and jurisprudential philosophy would reveal the conception of justice in the form of Dharma governed the communal life with a view to safeguarding the common interests of the people. As rightly pointed out by S. Vardhachariar, there appears to have been a logical order in the historical evolution of the ancient legal system in which desire for justice and respect for law were greatly influenced by the public opinion. Kohler also believed that the essential element of law in ancient Indian was not that it should lead to objectively right results, but that society should recognize the domain of the law in administration of justice.

As the time advanced, there was a radical change in social conditions and human behavior which resulted in shift of trend and jurisprudence come to be envisaged in a broader perspective.


Dividend is the part of companies profit which is paid to shareholders of company. Dividend is the return which shareholder gets for investing in the company. The dividend amount will be decided by the Management of the company. The company announce dividend Quarterly or Annually according to their practice. Dividend will be calculated on the basis of face value of the share.

Types of Dividend

  1. Divident in form of Cash : company will pay dividend in the form of cash to its shareholders.
  2. Dividend in the form of Share : The company may give additional share on which the shareholder already holds.
  3. Dividend in the form of Property: The company will pay the dividend in the form of Property or assets to its shareholders.
  4. Liquidating dividend: If the company closes it’s operations then company will return the money invested by the shareholder.


Cloning is a process of asexual reproduction by which genetically identical individuals may be produced. The successful cloning of a sheep (Dolly) was reported by scientists from the Roslin Institute, Edinburgh, UK. But, the world’s first cloning of a dog has raised concerns that scientists are one step closer to replicating human beings, despite the breakthrough pointing to treatments per currently – incurable human diseases. A group of scientists from Seol National University has unveiled their furry creation, a black and white Afghan hound name Snuppy that is genetically identical to its three – year old father. undefined

Cloning, which is thought to be one of the latest technological developments as most of the people think, is actually an age-old scientific technique. Humans have knowledge of cloning from before at least 2000 years. Most of the plants we see today are cloned. Unlike animal cloning, plant cloning doesn’t involve any sophistication. Just grafting the cut plant does the job where as animal cloning involves mitosis.

Recombinant DNA technology is important for learning about other related technology such as gene therapy, genetic engineering of organisms, and sequencing genomes. Gene therapy can be used to treat certain genetic conditions by introducing virus vectors that carry corrected copies of faulty genes into the cells of a host organism. Genes from different organisms that improves taste and nutritional value or provide resistance to particular type of disease can be used to genetically engineer food crops.

Scientists hope that one day therapeutic cloning can be used to generate tissues and organs for transplants. To do this, DNA would be extracted from the person in need of a transplant and inserted into an enucleated egg. After the egg containing the patient ‘s DNA starts to divide, the embryonic stem cells that can be transformed into any type of tissue would be harvested. The stem cells would be used to generate an organ or tissue that is a genetic match to the recipient. In theory, the cloned organ could then be transplanted into the patient without the risk of tissue rejection.undefined

There are some risks of cloning too. Reproductive cloning is expensive and highly inefficient. More than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce viable offspring. In addition to low success rates, cloned animals tend to have more compromised immune function and higher rates of infection, tumor growth, and other disorders.

‘Should humans be cloned?’ is the new question of many scientists and physicians. Due to the inefficiency of animal cloning and the lack of understanding about reproductive cloning, many scientists and physicians strongly believe that it would be unethical to attempt to clone humans. Several cloned animals have died prematurely. The same problems would be expected in human cloning too. In addition, scientists do not know how cloning impact mental development. With so many unknown concerning reproductive cloning, the attempt to clone humans at this time is considered potentially dangerous and ethically irresponsible.

Video Games: The Good Side

The State of Online Video Games throughout the World in 2019 ...

A new trend in our society is the issue of how frequent mass shootings are becoming. These events are awful and atrocious, but the ones that truly shock us are the ones that affect our youth. School is the one place where our youth should be allowed to learn in safety and without fear. However, these events are happening more frequently and without a proper solution and our society has started to place blame on things that are not related to the real issue. One main scapegoat for the issue is video games, many sources claiming that they are making younger people unsensitized and violent. However, this claim is simply based on fear and in reality, the use of video games is seen to play a highly positive role in the lives of children and adolescents. Video games can be a learning tool to improve essential skills in children, they can help improve intergroup relationships especially in struggling groups of youth, and they can also help improve grades for students. Video games are an engaging and interactive tool that should be used and integrated into the lives of children and adolescents so that they can gain the skills associated with them.

The use of technology such as video games has been increasing in the last few years as access to technology and electronics also increases. One main fear that people have with this increased use is that children and adolescents are going to become increasingly violent as they age. This is an understandable fear as school shootings are becoming more frequent in our current society. Articles have even been published, appealing to the fear that everyday citizens have. Katherine Kealty, a researcher who conducted a study into the connection between violence and video games, said that “In 2005, the APA issued a statement called the Resolution on Violence in Video Games and Interactive Media that stated that violent media was linked with feelings of aggression and feelings of hostility” (Kealty, 2013). However, in her article she told us that this idea was very misleading, especially for those who did not have the background knowledge on the topic. The same study by Katherine Kealty discovered that “video games caused no increase in aggressive behaviour and in children with ADHD, the video games actually had a decrease in aggressive behaviour” (Kealty, 2013). This study displayed that this fear of children and adolescents becoming violent because of video games was simply a myth and an idea that was appealing to the fear of those who do not have the background knowledge on the topic. Therefore, we should look past the false idea that video games make youth violent and instead focus on the proven results that cause positive change in youth.

Society has also become more and more competitive and the younger generations are needing to become more educated in order to succeed. As the world’s demand for skills and talents become greater, it is important that we change the way we look at learning tools. One main way to engage younger students in their learning process is by including the use of video games. A study completed by Ru-Lan Hsieh, Wen-Chung Lee, Jui-Hsiang L was completed over a four-week period where children with developmental delays played video games. This study showed that the brain released a chemical called endogenous dopamine which is involved in “learning, attention, sensory-motor integration, and behaviour reinforcement” (Hsieh, Lee & Lin, 2016, p. 10). The use of video games in this study showed increases in skills that help boost the abilities that are needed in order to learn new things in the classroom. Therefore, if video games are used with traditional methods of teaching then it could help children and adolescents succeed in school, especially those who struggle with the current educational system.

Overall, video games have been proven to have many positive benefits. They are shown not to increase aggression in younger individuals but to actually decrease aggression in children who have behaviours that tend to be more aggressive than the average child of their age. Video games have also been proven to release chemicals in the brain that promote learning, attention, sensory-motor integration, and behaviour reinforcement within adolescents. Both of these points show exactly how the use of video games in schools and younger individuals could have a major positive impact on the development of skills for children and adolescents. 


Adachi, P.J.C., & Willoughby, T. (2017). The Link Between Playing Video Games and Positive Youth Outcomes. Children Development Perspectives, 11(3), 202-206. doi:

Gonzalez-Bueso, V., Santamaría, J. J., Fernandez, D., Merino, L., Montero, E., & Ribas, J. (2018). Association between internet gaming disorder or pathological video-game use and comorbid psychopathology: A comprehensive review.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(4), 668. doi:

Hsieh, R.L., Lee, W.C., & Lin, J.H. (2016). The Impact of Short-Term Video Games on Performance among Children with Developmental Delays: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS ONE 11(3), 1-16. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149714

Kealty, K. (2013, October 16). Study: Video games, gun violence not related. University Wire.  Retrieved from Sheridan Library Database

Page, Z. E., Barrington, S., Edwards, J., & Barnett, L. M. (2017). Do active video games benefit the motor skill development of non-typically developing children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 20(12), 1087-1100. doi: