Smuggling of Gold a White Collar Crime

“Smugglers, hoarders and black marketers have no country, caste or nation of their own. Their only ‘God’ and concern is the yellow metal ‘Gold’.”

White collar crimes are defined as non-violent crimes, generally committed by businessmen and government professionals. In simple words, crimes committed by people who acquire important positions in a company are called white collar crimes. India is a developing country and white collar crimes are becoming a major cause for its under development along with poverty, health, etc. The trend of white collar crimes in India poses a threat to the economic development of the country. These crimes require immediate intervention by the government by not only making strict laws but also ensuring its proper implementation. Recently, there is a case occurred in Kerala in which diplomats, politicians alleged to had involvement in smuggling of gold. This case has made headlines in all the newspaper and news channels.

In Kerala the local people migrate themselves in foreign countries like United Arab Emirates (UAE) for the purpose of job. 70% of Indians in UAE are Keralites and 35.5 per cent of Keralite expatriates are in UAE.In October 2016 the first consulate of United Arab Emirates (UAE) in South India, was opened in Thiruvananthapuram the motive was to increase the higher education and tourism sector to be increased.

On Sunday 5th of July 2020 the Custom and Preventive Department had clutched 30 kg of Gold from Thiruvananthapuram International Airport which is worth of Rs. 15 crore. It was an air cargo diplomatic consignment was send from United Arab Emirates (UAE) to Trivandrum International Airport in which the gold bars and sticks were hidden inside some of the household equipment to avoid detection. 

As there was an involvement of Consulate of United Arab Emirates (UAE) the custom department was unable to raid them directly, they obtained permission from Ministry of External Affairs, as per the Vienna Convention the consignments to diplomatic mission enjoys immunity. When the permission was granted from Ministry Of External affairs officers of United Arab Emirates (UAE) was called in the presence of them the consignment was unwrapped.

The consignment was in the name of Sarith Kumar who has been previously working has a Public Relation Officer of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) consulate General Office was arrested on 6th July 2020 remanded for 14 days. Sarith Kumar confessed to be in cahoots with Swapna Suresh on the crime. The custom department has accused Swapna Suresh as the mastermind behind trying to smuggle about 30kg gold.

Who is Swapna Suresh ?

She was a consultant to one of the offices under the State Government’s Information Technology ministry. She worked as the marketing liaison officer of the Space Park under the Kerala State Information Technology (KSITIL). After the Customs department intensified its search for her, state government terminated her contract with the IT department with immediate effect. Swapna Suresh and Sandeep Nair who was also involved in the attempt of gold smuggling was detained by the National Investigation Agency (NIA) as on 12th July 2020

However, this is not the first case against Swapna Suresh in 2013, when she joined as an HR executive with AISATS, an airport service firm, in Thiruvananthapuram. It came to light later that she had conspired with another senior executive at the firm to forge a false complaint of sexual abuse against an airport staff. She had prepared as many as 17 complaints, in many bogus names, against the person, who later complained to the state police seeking a probe into the conspiracy. Suresh was listed as an accused, but the investigation was disrupted, allegedly because of her influence. It was alleged that she has connections with principal secretary to Kerala Chief Minister. There were photos of Swapna Suresh often seen moving in key social, political and bureaucratic circles.

Sapna Suresh filed for anticipatory bail in the Kerala High Court claiming that she had contacted the airport officer regarding the cargo on the alleged directions of top diplomat in the UAE Consulate General office, Rashid Khamis Al Shameli. She also claimed that she was still working with the consulate under ‘work on request basis’.

This things make it clear that she has contacts with powerful people who are involved in such scandalous crime still hiding their faces with mask on it. They are the big sharks of the ocean who train the small fishes push them to fight on their behalf and hide themselves. When the small fishes die on the battleground they start searching for another fish.

What United Arab Emirates (UAE) embassy has to say?

The embassy in his statement told they utterly condemns the attempted misuse of diplomatic channels by an individual engaged in smuggling activity. They rejected such acts unequivocally affirms that mission and its diplomatic staff had no role in this matter.

Anti-Terror Law

The home minster ordered a probe by National Investigation Agency (NIA) into the case. According to NIA an FIR is registered under Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 2004 sections which are as follows :

Section 15- Terrorist Act (what all includes and define terrorist act)

Section 16- Punishment for Terrorist act

if such act has resulted in the death of any person, be punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine

 in any other case, be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Section 17-Punishment for raising funds for terrorist act.

Whoever, in India or in a foreign country, directly or indirectly, raises or provides funds or collects funds, whether from a legitimate or illegitimate source, from any person or persons or attempts to provide to, or raises or collects funds for any person or persons, knowing that such funds are likely to be used, in full or in part by such person or persons or by a terrorist organisation or by a terrorist gang or by an individual terrorist to commit a terrorist act, notwithstanding whether such funds were actually used or not for commission of such act, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Section 18. Punishment for conspiracy, etc.

Whoever conspires or attempts to commit, or advocates, abets, advises or 3 [incites, directly or knowingly facilitates] the commission of, a terrorist act or any act preparatory to the commission of a terrorist act, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than five years but which may extend to imprisonment for life, and shall also be liable to fine.

Enforcement Directorate

After customs, NIA, the Enforcement Directorate has also joined the probe in the case. Enforcement Directorate zonal officer in Kochi has launched a preliminary enquiry into the matter under Section 3 of the Foreign Exchange management act which says about Dealing in Foreign exchange, etc.

There has been gold smuggling in our country as the rates of gold in India is expensive as compared in UAE also there is invasion in tax. Kerala is been their favourite designation for bringing the smuggled gold as in Kerala they can easily find customers. This case also light up the racket which brings high officials, diplomats under one roof as using the diplomatic channel to smuggle the gold one should need strong connections to make the smuggling successful. There would be a needs of strong connections in the right corridors of power enforcement officials normally do not lay hands on consignments tagged ‘diplomatic’ as these are highly sensitive and if a search fails to yield results, the officer concerned will be held answerable for straining diplomatic relations between two countries.

As per the law of Torts the law is settled that a master is vicariously liable for the acts of his servant acting in the course of his employment. Unless the act is done in the course of employment, the servant’s act does not make the employer liable. In other words, for the master’s liability to rise, the act must be a wrongful act authorised by the master or a wrongful and unauthorised mode of doing some act authorised by the master.  Similarly, in this case the racket is deep rooted the main influences is still hiding what we see is just a half reality if we have to eradicate such crimes we need to reach the deep roots from where it is all started.


Each sword picks its lord”. For an author, the pen is a sword. Improving anything doesn’t mean creation/building/finding another thing. It just methods working on, discovering blunders, re-trying, or learning new procedures to improve quality. Predetermination is genuine and we as a whole will undoubtedly play an special Dramatis personae. Subsequently before upgrading our aptitude in any regard ensure it is worth to us and we are satisfied with it despite all the troubles. Composing abilities is the thing that an individual has and in this way improving it, implies developing ourselves.

With regards to composing nothing is more remarkable than having a “Dream”. An essayist without a dream proportionate to a body without a spirit can perform yet ,won’t feel the quintessence. Consequently we should have a dream but then we can improve our composing aptitude.We should feel the vibe of composing, composing expertise can be improved when we can see what society wants. Continuously interface ourselves with others so we can have the option to compose something worth perusing or would accomplish something worth composition. Continuously attempt to have a forthcoming composing aptitude don’t compose what past is yet gain from past and manifest a future what it would be similar. Composing ability is dynamic process, therefore it should change with time. Make the composing, expertise adaptable enough to oblige changes. We feel invigorated on the grounds that time is reality, write in present, and be prepared to get by later on. Finally, be upbeat and welcome recommendations. The psyche is the one which can turn hellfire out of paradise and paradise out of damnation. All aptitudes need due regard to sharpen it.



Russia Successfully complete trial of first COVID-19 Vaccine.

In MOSCOW state of clinical trail of vaccine which is produced by Russian institute of Epidemiology and microbiology on 18th June. The university has completed test and it was world first vaccine against by the coronvirus .

The director of the MOSCOW university of Medical Parasitology, Tropical and Vector- Borne Diseases at sechenov, the objective of the stage of the way to the vaccine’s safety for human health, which was the successfully done. “The vaccine is confirmed. Lukashev told to sputnik for the safety of those vaccine that are in market. The vaccine development situation with the possibility of scaling up production.

The pandemic situation acted as only the institution but as a scientific and research technology center is the creation must important and complex produce as a drug. Vaccine is starting preclinical studies and protocol development, and clinical trial are currently underway.

The first trial of first group of 18 volunteers group of 23 volunteers. All volunteers, who were between ages of 18 to 65, has the spend 28 days in isolation, in the prevent them from of contracting to other infections. They are will be monitored for 6 months of their discharge as well.

VACCINE AND TREATMENT FOR COVID -19. Vaccine The world Health Organization is lists of the Russian vaccine in their are three phases in 1 of the clinical trial and any vaccine get approved of large scale production, undergo of three human trials.

The 9 Lakh marks in India and highly contagious virus which is a already claimed more than 23000 thousand of people lives.As the 8 May, two medications Trusted source had received emergency use authorization (EUA) from the food and Drug Administration (FDA). The remdesivir and a drug used to sedate people on a ventilator.

The EUA March for the antimalarial drugs chloro quine and hydrocholoro quine, but later revoked it Trusted Source after studies showed that they are unlikely be effective in treatment for COVID-19. An EUA allows doctor use to the drugs to treatment people with COVID-19 even before the medication have through the formal FDA approval process.

These drugs are still the beings tested trials to see the whether they are effective COVID – 19. This steps is needed to make the sure the medications are safe for this particular use and what proper dosses should be. It could be month before treatment area available that are known against COVID- 19. It could be even longer for the vaccine.

EIDD – 2801 This drug was creat by scientists at a nonprofit biotech owned by the Emory university. Research in mice has shown that it can reduce replication of multiple corona virus. Pharmaceutical company Merck and Ridge back Bioterapeutics LP signed an agreement in may to develop this drug. It already being tested in a clinical trial in the united kingdom. Unlike remdesivir, EIDD-2801 can be taken orally, which would, make it available to a larger number of people.


This drugs are development by the Viral Clear Pharmaceutical. has been shown by previously to have antiviral and immune- suppressing effects. It was tested against hepatits C but had only modest effects

The company is running a phase II trial of this drug. People with their will be randomized to receiver either by the merimepodib with placebo. The company hope have to result by late summer of this year.

Video Games

Photo by from Pexels

Video games are played on computers and laptops, handheld devices, game consoles – and with increasing frequency – on phones and tablets. Some games are purchased and installed on devices, others are downloaded from the web , and a few are played exclusively online.

Video games are popular among all ages and sexes: While older women top the use of simple single player games; young men are the heaviest users of “war games.” The massively multiplayer games attract users from 8-80. Some games are educational; others are horrifically violent and include graphic sexuality. Yet many games are found out to be played with friends or family within the same room and lots of of those games are an excellent way for families to interact and spend time together.

In addition to being fun, playing video games can reduce stress, lighten depression, increase vision, improve the power to multi-task and improve decision-making skills. Online gaming is additionally linked to obesity, increasing depression, poor grades, addictive behavior and increased aggressive or violent behavior.

Games that are immersive and need strategy and problem-solving skills to win, require players to recollect and absorb tons of data . Regularly playing these sorts of games can help improve children’s short and long term memory and help the brain process information quicker.

Also, games capture players’ imagination helping them to remain focused on certain tasks and builds their perseverance to realize a goal.Multiplayer games allow children to require on variety of roles that allow them to find out the way to manage a team if they’re the leader or negotiate ways to win as a part of a gaggle . The shared experience are often an excellent thanks to collaborate and learn from one another to create children confidence.

Gaming may be a fun and sociable thanks to spend time, encouraging teamwork and developing skills. All great things , but there are a couple of belongings you got to remember of:
1. Some games let children play and chat with anyone within the world. This suggests they could encounter offensive language and bullying.
2. Not everyone online is who they assert they’re . Children should avoid giving out personal details that would identify them or their location
3. Some games encourage players to shop for extra elements during the sport – children are known to run up large bills without realizing.
4. In extreme cases bullying, also referred to as ‘griefing’, are often used as a tactic to win games.
5. Get involved by checking out what sort of games your child enjoys and ensuring they’re appropriate for his or her age.

OLD AGE HOME (a horror story for parents…)

An old age home describes its story by its name……there are not enough “words” in a bottle of ink to pen the words to write about the old age homes, Old age homes which are designed to give shelter and provide a place to live, for those old ones’ whom no one has to care about but today people are making it as their tradition where the people leave their parents in an old age home, where the two generations never stay under one roof and from them, one has to bow down for leaving that family and those are always older aged parents. Where more and more people are thinking about and many are opting to put their aged parents in old age homes. Where the presence of old age parents at home becomes too much of a trouble and there is no room for them as they need constant need of care. Where it becomes impossible to bring friends at home because their parents can be a source of embarrassment for children, it is becoming a shameful thing to introduce their parents to their friends. So, for avoiding these kinds of embarrassment and shameful things the old aged parents are being hit by this drastic detachment from their children at the age when they need a lot of care, when they start losing their memories. They might have grown old by outside but from inside they become those little kids who could never grow up again. ”People say old age is the recoiling of childhood” and it is true that old aged people need attention correspondingly as a young child. Parents, who brought up their children in spite of having different difficult problems, but the children…

Children can definitely learn many good things from their parents by living with them. It is said that “The death of an old man is like a library set ablaze” these words express the important role given to old aged people. Old age is humanity’s greatest invention, and on an even deeper level, it invented us. Those old aged people are responsible for what we are today; those old aged people are the responsibility of their children. The children have to keep in mind that life is a circle and one day roles will be switched, today they – old aged people, need their children but a day will come when those children need their children when they grow old. So it is better eradicating this growing tradition once and for all, as “It’s never too late – never too late to start over, never too late to be happy……..”

Profitable Business Ideas: Start These Latest Businesses & Get Full Government Support under Start-up India Scheme

Many people have become unemployed due to Coronavirus pandemic and lockdown. However, this lockdown has given many of us a lot of free time, in which one could think about self-grooming and improving our career. Becoming self-sufficient is want everyone wants. It is also trending on social media nowadays. Thus, in such a situation, you too can start your own business. In this article we will inform you about some new and profitable business ideas. These ideas can be started by people from villagesas well as cities. Even women can opt for these profitable business ideas that can be started easily with less capital.

Latest Profitable Business Ideas

1. Fabric Painting & Shoes Design Business with fabric painting

If you are thinking of doing something new, then you can start this business. Such products are very much liked by women. You can make these products according to the customer’s order. With this, you can provide home delivery service. There is also a demand for products made with such designs in the market also. In this case, this business will give you very good profits.

2. Wooden Jewellery Business

You can also start the business of making jewellery from wooden bits. Everyone knows how much women love jewellery. In such a situation, you can prepare wooden jewellery according to their choice. You can take help of digital marketing for this business. Apart from this, you can also explore your business in the shops of cities. You can get very good profits from this.

Startup India scheme will help

If you want to start a business, then the Startup India scheme of the Central Government will fully support it. Its main objective is to increase employment and job opportunities in the country. The Government of India has allocated 10,000 crores for this scheme. Under this, you can register your business. After this, the government will help you fully.


Poverty is when someone cannot afford the basic necessities of life like food, clothing, shelter and education. It can lead to other problems like poor literacy, unemployment, malnutrition. Poor people are not able to get education due to lack of money and remains unemployed. Unemployed people cannot afford enough and nutritious food for their families and their health declines. A weak person lacks the energy required for the job. A jobless person remains poor only. We can say that Poverty is the root cause of other problems.

United Nations have devised 2 measures to measure Poverty – Absolute poverty and Relative poverty. Absolute Poverty is used to measure poverty in developing countries like India. Relative poverty is used to measure poverty in developed countries like U.S.A. In absolute poverty, a line based on the minimum level of income has been created & is called a poverty line.  If per day income of a family is below this level, then it is poor or below the poverty line. If per day income of a family is above this level, then it is non-poor or above the poverty line. In India, the new poverty line is  Rs 32 in rural areas and Rs 47 in urban areas.

The government of India also took several measures to eradicate poverty from India. Some of them are – creating employment opportunities, controlling population, etc. In India, about 60% of the population is still dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. Government has taken certain measures to promote agriculture in India. The government constructed certain dams & canals in our country to provide easy availability of water for irrigation. Government has also taken steps for the cheap availability of seeds & farming equipments to promote agriculture. Government is also promoting farming of cash crops like cotton, instead of food crops. In cities, the government is promoting industrialization to create more jobs. Government has also opened  ‘Ration shops’. Other measures include providing free & compulsory education for children up to 14 years of age, scholarship to deserving students from a poor background, providing subsidized houses to poor people, etc.

Poverty is a social evil, we can also contribute to control it. For example- we can simply donate old clothes to poor people, we can also sponsor the education of a poor child or we can utilize our free time by teaching poor students. Remember before wasting food, somebody is still sleeping hungry.

Iran -China increasing strategic closeness

A couple of days ago , Reported by The New york times that Iran and China have come very close to sign a land mark agreement that involves a massive economic and strategic partnership between the two countries.As per this proposed agreement China is expected to invest Billions of dollars in the Iranian economy specially in Oil and energy sector and the port and Infra sector which has been the hardest hit because of the American sanctions .

So this economic partnership between the Iran and china promises to dilute the American sanctions on the key sector of the Iranian economy .China has the capability to deliver on this commitments , since it has the capacity to bypass American sanctions Iran might be looking to handover strategic infra structure projects such as the chabahar port project and the chabahar railway project to china .This could possibly explain as to why Iran has decided to drop India out of the project .It not just the chinese factor which led to this developments but its also the result of India’s failure to protect its national interest. Apart from massive economic partnership ,china has offered close military and strategic partnership to Iran under which both the countries are expected to take up joint training , joint exercises between the two armed forces. China has even proposed joint research and development to the defence sector as well as intelligent sharing which could help Iran to counter terror groups that are hostile to it and also to counter countries such as United states and Israel which are hostile towards Iran .So within days after the proposed economic and strategic partnership between Iran and china ,India has been dropped out by Iran from the chabahar railway project and there could be very well connection between this two developments.

Boeing Crisis

The Boeing company is an American multinational corporation which is among the largest global aerospace manufactures.

In march 2019, Boeing 737 Max planes were grounded due to two plane crashing within the span of 5 months.  These crashes led to the death of 346 people which urged the authorities to open up multiple investigations. The crashes were mainly credited to the faulty automated system present. The pilots have claimed that they had no information related to this system. Boeing’s philosophy relies on the belief that more control should be provided to the pilots rather than automated systems. However, the crisis is one of the ironies.

The first plane crash took place in Indonesia on October 28 killing around 189 people on board. This led to concerns among pilots since they weren’t aware of the newly installed automated system. This was a severe case of misinformation or lack of information.  After looking into the matter, Boeing assured that the planes were safe enough to fly but then 5 months later, another plane crash occurred in Ethiopia which killed 157 people on board. Investigations brought out the fact that malfunctions in MCAS-Maneuvering Characteristics Augmentation System made them inoperable by pilots. This built apprehension towards flying in these planes even when they returned back to sky.

As a consequence, Boeing had to pay fines and deal with lawsuits from families, airlines and pilots. They even received public backlash. The existing CEO was fired in response to the backlash and a new CEO was appointed, David Calhoun who is now met with responsibility to get the planes re-certified.

MATLAB for beginners

Similar to Python , MATLAB is a mathematical and graphical software package used for mathematical computation, analysis and visualization . It can be used in modeling of different kinds of Systems , Simulation of complex objects etc. It helps in presenting the Scientific and engineering graphics . It facilitates in the algorithm and Application development, including Graphical User Interface building.
MATLAB can be expanded as MATrix Laboratory . MATLAB is a programming language developed by Math Works. Let us see its features in a greater detail.
MATLAB features
MATLAB is an interactive programming environment. The basic data element is an array that does not require mentioning the dimension details. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems in less than a fraction of the time to write a program in a scalar non-interactive language such as C or FORTRAN. It can be used for the following tasks.

Computing support : To work with vectors ,matrices and polynomials as vectors and variables using statistical or math-oriented packages.
Programming capabilities : To use and to write scripts ,classes and functions for programming using external language and library interfaces, including Java, C, C++, .NET, and Web services. MATLAB has object oriented capabilities that can be implemented with m-script . It can be used to write interactive programs .It can be run both under interactive sessions and as a batch job.
App Building : It is used to develop apps interactively using App Designer, or programmatically using MATLAB functions.

Software Development Tools : It facilitates debugging and testing, organizing large projects, source control integration, toolbox packaging etc.

Graphs and plots : It is used to plot graphics and save them in PDF and jpg formats . You can run your analyses on larger data sets, and scale up to clusters and clouds. It supports plotting, printing, graphing etc and widely used for the below types of plotting.

• Two- and three-dimensional Plots ,images ,animation etc
• Polar Plot
• Semilogx or Semilogy
• Log log
• Bode Plot
• Nichols Plot
• Nyquist Plot
Tool Boxes : MATLAB features a family of application-specific solutions called toolboxes. In version 7 , there are a lot of toolboxes.
Symbolic Toolbox
Image Processing Toolbox
MATLAB Compiler
Legacy Toolboxes
GUIDE (allows the creation of interactive user interfaces).
Simulink (for modeling, simulating and analyzing systems).
Psychtoolbox (set of tools that aid in vision research).
The Distributed computing toolbox (set of tools that aid in distributing models over a cluster).
The optimization toolbox (includes various algorithms for minimization).
Other areas in which toolboxes are available include signal processing, control systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, wavelets and many others.

MATLAB code can be integrated with other languages, enabling you to deploy algorithms and applications within web, enterprise, and production systems.

MATLAB is supported on Unix, Macintosh, and Windows environments. MATLAB is available for a number of environments: Sun/Apollo/VAX station/HP workstations, VAX, Micro VAX, Gould, PC and AT compatibles, 80386 and 80486 computers, Apple Macintosh, and several parallel machines.For many students in mathematics, physical sciences, engineering, economics, and other fields with a heavy numeric component, MATLAB is their first introduction to programming or scientific computing in general.
Summing up
Python is designed as a general purpose programming language and it supports numerical computing, graphics etc using standard libraries . Whereas , Mat Lab is a numerical computing environment.MATLAB is a proprietary tool and it is very expensive outside the academic setting , for teaching and research. Fortunately, many alternative open-sources like GNU Octave , NumPy (library in Python) ,Sci-lab and Sage are available to address this issue and perform the various functions.

Unsound Silence

As defined by the oxford dictionary, “War is a situation or a period of fighting between countries or groups of people, which involves the use of weapons, a military organization and soldiers.” In the world of today we see that the superpowers of the sphere are always in a tiff, and callings of war is very routinely and very normalized. War is romanticized and viewed as a call of heroism. The individuals involved in it, are whooped as martyrs or jingoist of the nation, but people fail to look at the horrors of the war. The sufferings, sorrows, loss of innocent lives, brunt of devastation, are somethings which no mankind can desert upon. War only shows man’s failure as a thinking animal.

One such work by Bob Dylan, in his poem “John Brown,” talks about a young man who proudly went off to war expecting glory and winning medals, but later returned all shot up, with a disfigured face and disabled body. Blathering his mother, the horrible experience in the battlefield and how he was just a puppet in the play. The poem ends by dropping the medals in his mothers’ hand. This shows us the fatality of war, and the false glory in winning. His mother could thus decorate the walls with all the medals but she had lost her son, likewise war is a failure to humanity, as in war nobody wins, everyone loses.

Second is an anecdote which describes us about the terror of World war II by a young girl in her chronicle, “The diary of Anne Frank,” where she had to shift to the Secret Annex and concentrated camps from her home. As Nazi’s were making life very confining to the Jewish people in Germany. The innocent souls had to go in hidings or would be mercilessly killed. Her diary describes us about, how racism was at its peak, the fears of isolation and homicide just because they were Semite. Thus, showing us monsters are real, ghosts are real too, they live inside us, but not each and every one of you. Just like her, what was the fault of hers and people who were like her? Showing War was also partial it always favored parties.

Third, the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was a wondrous pause to the whole society. It swiped away the whole generation of that region with no signs of growth for many years to come. It was tremendously terrible, callous and futile to the whole nation. This was just a part of war, the stories that were planned no one knows till date. There were so many cases of people dying after months from radiation sickness, injuries, illness and malnutrition. An utter example of how War could destroy the whole humankind by a human itself.

The sufferings and dejection caused by the disgusting and destructive ‘War’ is inevitable and unavoidable.  The notions like “All is fair in love and war,” is baseless and fabricated. No war is good and all war’s leads to demolition and advert loss. War is monstrous, it’s stupid, its brutal, it’s an excuse of an amateur who could not use their intelligence to solve problems. War is thus a necessary evil in society as nobody wins in war, everyone loses. As John F Kennedy, rightly said “Mankind must put an end to war, before war puts an end to mankind.”

Baishali Gurung

Literacy Vs. Education

What is literacy? One is literate when they can read and write. One does not need to write long essays to be literate. Reading and writing short sentences is enough. Being literate means one can solve simple mathematical problems. 

Whereas education is a wider term. Educated people are not only literate but they but they know a lot about the world. In a nutshell educated are always literate but not everyone who is literate, educated. Education, in layman’s language means someone who has knowledge. Someone who not only knows information but also applies them in real life is educated. Being a literate doesn’t necessarily make you an educated person.

Sometimes people holding top degrees don’t know basic things about life. And sometimes, the person might not even be able to read properly but knows his ways around. S/He knows basic skills and is willing to learn more information regardless of their age or ‘status’. You might even notice them being more humble than anyone else.

Although one can always be educated without being literate. What is must though is for that person to be aware. You may have noticed that sometimes people, even though don’t hold a very respectable degree have tremendous knowledge. So much so, that even the people who are top positions career wise go to them for advice. Educated people are always ready to learn. They never back down from a challenge or leave something in between.

Education is also something that we learn from experience. That is mainly why our teachers teach us to respect all senior citizens and everyone who is older than us. They have seen and been through a lot more than we have. Which is why they have more knowledge.

India, now coming under the bracket of developed country, has a high literacy rate in the present scenario. But, is there also the growth in education??Unfortunately, ”NO”. The education rate is simultaneously dwindling. India, giving birth to N number of  skillful people, graduates, managers who lack in ethics, broadened vision and “skills” in real sense.

We  can see many people who are at the top of the hierarchy getting involved in unethical practices, their leadership skills takes the shape of arrogance, they hardly use there “ literacy”  in a right way and hence, according to me, are called ”UNEDUCATED LITERATES”.

Now it’s our choice. Do we only want to be literate and follow the herd, or do we want to be knowledgeable and never lose the thirst of learning.

Social and religious harmony to bring world peace

Religion is a basic piece of human presence. In the event that a man likes to have true serenity, at that point he should likewise develop protections of harmony as far as he could tell. The world can’t have tranquility till nations and individuals start to diminish their narrow minded wants for an ever increasing number of material belongings. Contrasts in strict convictions and practices ought not ruin the advancement of individuals working for world harmony. They should work in amicability and collaboration in the genuine sprit of administration.
India is a nation of more than one billion individuals, most of whom are Hindus. However, we likewise have huge populaces of minorities, with around 150 million Muslims, making this the second biggest Muslim populace on the planet, after Indonesia. There are likewise a huge number of Christians, Sikhs, Jains and Buddhists. In ongoing decades, the contention between strict networks (alluded to as communalism in India) have developed significantly and a great many individuals have been executed in these strict clashes. The fate of India is depressing if strict clashes tear the vote based texture away and make states of common war.
Indian culture is pluralistic in nature. The assorted variety that exists in India regarding religion, culture and dialects is exceptionally special. We don’t see such a decent variety anyplace on the planet. Notwithstanding this assorted variety, the individuals of this nation have been living in harmony and agreement from days of yore. We are each of the one.
We have numerous religions, yet our nation is one. Leave us alone glad for it.
Over and over, it has been brought up by our older folks that fundamental prerequisite for harmony is to make a mentality to consider this world as a God’s interesting creation to live in harmony and congruity with each other. No religion lectures viciousness. Islam implies harmony procured by presenting your will to God. Love and harmony are focal in Christian plan of things.
Compassion or Sympathy holds a significant situation in Buddhism and ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbukam’ (The entire world is a family) is one among the notable cardinal standards of Hinduism. Heavenly Quran says, “Goodness humankind, we have made you from guys and females. Create feeling of fraternity.” Prophet Muhammad showed his adherents to make harmony and not to hurt the strict assessments of others. Swamy Vivekananda stated, “We accept in widespread lenience, however we acknowledge all religions as evident”. Tibetan otherworldly pioneer Dalai Lama says that there will be no harmony among religions without dialogue. Therefore, strict pioneers, political pioneers and scholastic foundations should assume a main job in keeping up harmony and congruity in the general public. Between confidence discourse has gigantic importance in limiting contrasts among clashing gatherings.
Some Steps To Bring World Peace
Start by getting rid of rejection
Proof shows that contention occurs in places where individuals can’t confide in the police or gain admittance to equity, and their possibilities for an OK life are taken by degenerate elites

Achieve true and equal balance among ladies and men
The bigger a nation’s sexual orientation hole, the more probable it is to be associated with brutal clash.

Offer out riches reasonably
As indicated by a World Bank study, 40 percent of the individuals who join rebel bunches do so in light of an absence of monetary chances. Relative neediness is similarly as significant, with progressively equivalent social orders set apart by elevated levels of trust and low degrees of savagery. Financial decency with regards to open assets, tax collection and tax avoidance is likewise key. The orderly exchange of riches from rich to poor – rather than the other route round – improves security for everybody

Show less hubris, make more approach change
A gander at the reputation of counter-psychological warfare, the ‘war on drugs’, adjustment and state-building endeavors and pioneer wars ‘shows an example of to a great extent calming disappointment’ says Saferworld’s Larry Attree. Quietude and readiness to give penance for past animosity on the worldwide stage is basic – similar to a conclusion to oneself serving and counter-beneficial strategy in the Middle East.

Fabricate an incorporated harmony development
Transient enemy of war developments have replaced dynamic and lasting harmony developments. We have to advance peaceful other options and victories; harmony campaigner Phyllis Bennis accepts harmony must be woven into other social developments.
Search inside

World peace, or tranquility on Earth, is the idea of a perfect condition of satisfaction, opportunity and harmony inside and among all individuals and countries on Planet Earth. This thought of world peacefulness is one inspiration for individuals and countries to look participate, either intentionally or by righteousness of an arrangement of administration that has this goal. Various societies, religions, ways of thinking, and associations have fluctuating ideas on how such a state would occur.

Different strict and common associations have the expressed point of accomplishing world harmony through tending to human rights, innovation, training, designing, medication or strategy utilized as a conclusion to all types of battling.
Harmony begins with you. Conventional residents can have any kind of effect. When’s the last time you said sorry? Consider who loses when you win. Are the individuals around you heard and regarded or minimized, disregarded and forgotten about? Settle on a choice to think about what befalls them. Start a productive discussion with somebody you can’t help contradicting. Challenge ‘them-and-us’ speculation in yourself just as in others. All of us can decide to make society all the more just and quiet, or increasingly treacherous and warlike.
Religious Harmony in India is an idea that shows that there is love, love in the middle of various religions in India. The Indian constitution bolsters and energizes strict amicability. In India, each resident has an option to pick and practice any religion. There are instances of Muslims and Sikhs building sanctuaries. In India, distinctive strict conventions live agreeably. Diviners of religions call for strict concordance in India.
In India, each resident has an option to pick and practice any religion. There are instances of Muslims and Sikhs building sanctuaries. In India, diverse strict conventions live agreeably. Soothsayers of religions call for strict amicability in India. For well known film stars in India like Salman Khan, celebrations of Hindus and Muslims are equivalent. As indicated by Dalai Lama, India is a model for strict agreement. He specifies that “In the last 2000-3000 years, distinctive strict customs, including Jainism, prospered here.”

Hospice Telephone support

Hospice care is the care designed to give to people who are suffering from a terminal illness and are in the last phase of it. The aim of this support center is not to provide cure for the illness, rather to supply emotional and psychological support that the patients may need during the difficult phase to prevent the feelings of isolation and loneliness. A team of skilled professionals is made available to provide counselling to the people. This team includes occupational therapists, nurses and therapy assistants.

The setting up of a helpline number is a confidential and safe space for people to lay down their grievances and seek support for it.

The main objectives of this helpline are to improve the quality of lives of the grieving and their family members as well as providing support to the professionals responsible for the care.

This stands for a social responsibility and adds public value. Palliative care and hospice team identify and try to treat distress causing symptoms that may increase medical complications in future. It is also required that they remain in contact of the family members of the patients and design appropriate and realistic goals.

In this sector, human resource plays crucial role i.e., the care givers. It will depend on how efficient these people are and how the overall service proves beneficial. It is important to set up an office, or any infrastructural site which can house a large number of employees. These employees should be made equipped with appropriate and fast communication systems. Moreover, the public should be made aware of the fact that there is a service which may benefit them.

This can be initiated through a connection or a collaboration with any hospital or health care centers. It will also help in cases where any professional expertise may be required.

The base work mainly comprises of data of the patients in need of such care, their information, registration forms and consent forms. Getting patients registered with this facility can be mediated by a practitioner indulged in similar kind of service.

Moreover, the nurses or the care-givers should be trained well to deal with such situations. Providing counselling can be difficult over telephone since lack of physical clues may make it hard for both the parties involved to understand the situation. A report of the patient’s situation should also be provided to the care giver member of the family.

The hospice telephone helpline can be a benefit and turn out to be profitable if there is a proper dialogue maintained between the authorities or the managers, the task force, the patients and their families. By starting this initiative, wishes of the terminally ill people can be granted. They can get to spend their remaining time with their families and using this facility will also help the family care givers to better understand the grievances of the patient and help them through it.

In the end, the core motive behind this support facility is to take up social responsibility and make an effort to add a little more to people’s lives.

OLD AGE HOME (a horror story for parents)……..

An old age home describes its story by its name……there are not enough “words” in a bottle of ink to pen the words to write about the old age homes, Old age homes which are designed to give shelter and provide a place to live, for those old ones’ whom no one has to care about but today people are making it as their tradition where the people leave their parents in an old age home, where the two generations never stay under one roof and from them, one has to bow down for leaving that family and those are always older aged parents. Where more and more people are thinking about and many are opting to put their aged parents in old age homes. Where the presence of old age parents at home becomes too much of a trouble and there is no room for them as they need constant need of care. Where it becomes impossible to bring friends at home because their parents can be a source of embarrassment for children, it is becoming a shameful thing to introduce their parents to their friends. So, for avoiding these kinds of embarrassment and shameful things the old aged parents are being hit by this drastic detachment from their children at the age when they need a lot of care, when they start losing their memories. They might have grown old by outside but from inside they become those little kids who could never grow up again. ”People say old age is the recoiling of childhood” and it is true that old aged people need attention correspondingly as a young child. Parents, who brought up their children in spite of having different difficult problems, but the children… Children can definitely learn many good things from their parents by living with them. It is said that “The death of an old man is like a library set ablaze” these words express the important role given to old aged people. Old age is humanity’s greatest invention, and on an even deeper level, it invented us. Those old aged people are responsible for what we are today; those old aged people are the responsibility of their children. The children have to keep in mind that life is a circle and one day roles will be switched, today they – old aged people, need their children but a day will come when those children need their children when they grow old. So it is better eradicating this growing tradition once and for all, as “It’s never too late – never too late to start over, never too late to be happy……..”


“Acquiring the right talent is the most important key to growth. Hiring was – and still is – the most important thing we do.”

By Marc Bennioff

Recruitment is the most important aspect of Human Resource Management. Recruitment is the process of searching for potential applicants or employee and stimulating them to apply for the job in an organisation. Recruitment is the discovery of potential applicants for actual or anticipated vacancies. Recruitment is the first stage of the process of selection and is completed with placement. Recruitment is a positive and a simple process. Recruitment helps in creating a pool of suitable candidates, out of which few are selected for the future selection process. The main objective of recruitment is to invite more and more candidates to apply for the vacant post. The recruitment process is one of the most critical aspect of running a successful business as the performance of every organisation depends on the quality of work there employees do. Managers can save a large amount of time and energy by placing the right person in the right job. As we know, recruitment is the first step for selection of right employee so the organisation publishes vacancies through newspaper advertisement, online job portal, consultancy services, etc so that more and more potential candidates can apply for the job in that particular organisation. Recruitment is a managerial and a continuous process it is not a single act or event. It helps to ensure continuous improvement of the organisational structure. Recruitment act as a linking activity as it brings employer and employee together. As all the organisation has to engage in recruiting activity according to their needs, size, nature, etc so this shows that recruitment is a pervasive function. Recruitment is a complex job as it is affected by too many factors. It is a two-way process and it takes into account employer and employee or recruiter and recruitee both. So, recruitment has many importance for an organisation they are –

  • Determines Requirements – Recruitment is very important for each and every organisation. It helps in determining the present and future requirements of employees in an organisation. It also helps in identifying and attracting the potential candidates.
  • Increases Pool of Candidates – Recruitment helps in creating a talent pool of applicants and helps in selection of best candidate for the organisation. It helps in increasing the pool of job candidates at the minimum post cost.
  • Increases Rate of Selection – Recruitment helps in increasing the success rate of the selection process. But, processing applicants’s resume or application can be very expensive as it requires staff, time, materials and physical facilities. It is also very costly as there are a pool of candidates which includes both qualified and unqualified or suitable and unsuitable. The money spent on evaluating unsuitable candidates is wasted.
  • Meets Organisation’s Obligation – Recruitment helps in meeting organisation’s legal and social obligation both.
  • Increases and Evaluates Effectiveness – Recruitment increases organisational and individual effectiveness. It also helps in reducing turnover of employees.

Recruitment faces some problems and challenges too they are –

  • Image of Organisation – There are some candidates who are not willing to or interested in applying in a particular organisation due to some reason like poor image of the organisation.
  • Lack of Qualified Candidates – The next problem is lack of qualified candidates. The shortage of talent is a big challenge in today’s scenario.
  • Costly – Recruitment of candidates from outside or through external sources requires money. So, if an organisation has limited budget so they may not carry out the expenses of recruitment for a longer period.
  • Lack of Efficiency – It is also one of the challenges faced by the recruiter during recruitment process. As we know a large number of candidates apply for the job which includes both suitable and unsuitable candidates and in this way the recruiter waste their valuable time by working on unnecessary and ineffective things.

Last But Not the Least

Recruitment is one of the main and most important aspect of Human Resource Management as it place the right candidate to the right job.

what is more valuable ?

A debate which is going don’t know from how many years…on topic “what is more valuable marks or knowledge?”

marks are just like a pass by which you can enter in the job but you can remain permanent there just by your knowledge/skills….wherever you may go you will not carry your mark sheets or report cards there.. but you will carry your mind….

you will carry your problem solving skills …

you will carry your analysis power….

you will carry your experience……


A movie “3 idiots” which has proved that if you even become a topper by cramming and you think that you have achieved something big then my friend you are wrong…..completely wrong..a parrot can also repeat the words by cramming them but that doesn’t mean he is skilled!!!!! he has knowledge about that language in which he is speaking!!!!!

If you have good marks and you have achieved it, by learning that subject than ,it is called an achievement not then when you have 91 marks out of 100 and you don’t know about that subject……a night before study for exam can’t give you knowledge it can only provide you passing marks and you know what ??? even now many students thinking about it…….IT REQUIRES A CHANGE..


Many college students want CERTIFICATES they just participate in any event just for the sake of so called CERTIFICATES….they just don’t care about learning from events all they want just a 8.5 x 11 inches size certificate..

And why not may be they have seen that a bundle of certificates help them in getting placed in companies that’s why they first look towards certificates and then for skills..

In current scenario we see that every student is running behind job everybody wants a job which provide handsome salary..and why not?

we usually see if we have proof of our gained knowledge then we may have chance to get placed otherwise……

I must say if students are running towards marks and certificates then here is not only their fault… the whole society , the companies are forcing them to do so…THE FAULT IS NOT ONLY OF STUDENTS… IN THIS THOSE PEOPLE MATTERS WHO HAVE MADE THESE TERMS& CONDITIONS ….THIS SYSTEM HAS TO BE CHANGE FOR A BETTER CHANGE….

I again say that marks are just a key to get entered in the job field it doesn’t provide guarantee that you will remain permanent there…but in this whole scenario the knowledge… the skills.. that you have gain, provides you guarantee that not only in job rather wherever you go you will not have to beg….you will succeed… you will succeed…



The Competition Act, 2002 follows the philosophy of modern competition laws and aim at fostering competition and at protecting Indian markets against anti-competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations with a view to ensure that there is no adverse effect on competition in India.

What is Dominance?

The Competition Act, 2002 defines dominant position in terms of a position of strength enjoyed by an enterprise, in the relevant market in India, which enables to:

  • Operate independently of the competitive forces prevailing in the relevant market; or
  • affect its competitors or consumers or the relevant market in its favour.

It is the ability of the enterprise to behave/act independently of the market forces that determines its dominant position. In a recent case, Fast Track Call Pvt. Ltd. & Menu Travel Solutions Pvt. Ltd. v. ANI Technologies Pvt. Ltd., CCI elaborated the concept of dominant position and started dominant position as a economic strength enjoyed by the enterprise in the relevant market, which enables it to operate independently of competitive forces prevailing in the relevant market or affect its competition or consumer or the relevant market in its favour.

Relevant Market (Section-2(r))

Dominance has significance for competition only when the relevant market has been defined. The relevant market means “the market that may be determined by the commission with reference to the relevant product market or with reference to both the markets”. The act lays down several factors of which any one or all shall be taken into account by the commission while defining the relevant market.

In its order Maharashtra State Power Generation Ltd. v. Coal India Ltd. & Ors., the CCI noted that defining a global market as the relevant market was contrary to the express provisions of the Act. Since the Act indicated that a ‘dominant position’ is a position of strength enjoyed by an enterprise in the relevant market in India.

Factors to determine Dominant Position (Section-19(4))

Dominance has been traditionally defined in terms of market share of the enterprise or group of enterprise concerned. However, a number of other factors play a role in determining the influence of an enterprise or a group of enterprise in the market. these includes:

  • Market Share
  • The size and resources of the enterprise
  • Size and importance of the competitors
  • Economic power of the enterprise
  • Vertical integration
  • Dependence of consumers on the enterprise
  • Market structure and size of the market
  • Extent of entry and exit barriers in the market; countervailing buying power
  • Source of dominant position viz. whether obtained due to statute etc.
  • Social costs and obligations and contribution of enterprise enjoying dominant position to economic development.

The commission is also authorised to take into account any other factor which it may consider relevant for determination of dominance.

Abuse of Dominance

Dominance is not considered bad per se but its abuse is. Abuse is stated to occur when an enterprise or a group of enterprises uses its dominant position in the relevant market in an exclusionary or/and an exploitative manner. The Act gives an exhaustive list of practices that shall constitute abuse of dominant position and, therefore, are prohibited. Such practices shall constitute abuse only when adopted by an enterprise enjoying dominant position in the relevant market in India.
Abuse of dominance is judged in terms of the specified types of acts committed by a dominant enterprise. Such acts are prohibited under the law. Any abuse of the type specified in clauses (a) to (e) of sub section (2) of Section 4 by a dominant firm shall stand prohibited.

Section 4 (2) of the Act specifies the following practices by a dominant enterprises or group of enterprises as abuses:

  1. directly or indirectly imposing unfair or discriminatory condition in purchase or sale of goods or service;
  2. directly or indirectly imposing unfair or discriminatory price in purchase or sale (including predatory price) of goods or service;
  3. limiting or restricting production of goods or provision of services or market;
  4. limiting or restricting technical or scientific development relating to goods or services to the prejudice of consumers;
  5. denying market access in any manner;
  6. making conclusion of contracts subject to acceptance by other parties of supplementary obligations which, by their nature or according to commercial usage, have no connection with the subject of such contracts;
  7. using its dominant position in one relevant market to enter into, or protect, other relevant market.

Tattooing tradition among BAIGAS

The Baigas tribes are counted among Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups. They primarily belong from Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh. Customarily, the Baiga people lived a semi-nomadic life and followed slash and burn cultivation. Nowadays, they are principally reliant on forest produce for their living. The tribe practice shifting cultivation. They also believe to never plow the earth because it would be akin to scratching the breast of their mother earth. “Mother Earth would have become weakened if they ask their mother to produce food from the same patch of earth time and time again”. They also saw themselves as people of the forest, who could only live on the produce of the forest. It was below the dignity for them to become a laborer.

Baiga is one of the tribes for whom tattooing is an essential part of their existence. This tribe inhabits the dense hilly forests in the eastern part of the Satpuras, in Shahdol, Bilaspur, Rajandgaon, Mandla and Balaghat districts. The Baigas are of Dravidian stock and are one of eight prime tribes of Madhya Pradesh. It is believed that this tribe is an offshoot of the Bhuiya tribe of Chhota Nagpur. A distinguishing feature of the Baiga tribe is that their women are famous for crafting tattoos of countless varieties on practically all portions of their bodies. The women who work as tattooing artistes belong to Qjha. They are tremendously experienced about the diverse kinds of tattoos fancied by several tribes. Their mother customarily passes on this wisdom to them. Tattooing among the family begins with the approach of winter and resumes until summer.

Conspiracy Theories & Chill

Let’s get illuminaughty

False Flag Theorists

False flag theorists see darker forces behind whatever sinister world events are taking place. They believe events such as gun massacres and terror attacks are staged to make it appear as if some other group designed and carried out the event – in effect planting a false flag at the scene. The “false flag” concept can be virtually applied to just about any world event – the 9/11 attacks, so some believe, weren’t carried out by al-Qaeda but the Bush administration as an excuse for war in the Middle East.

Bilderberg Group

The Bilderberg group is an annual meeting of ‘elite intellectuals’ from across the world to discuss — well, no-one really knows. No minutes are published of the meetings, which take place behind closed doors amid tight security. The group has been accused of everything from plotting the rise and fall of world leaders to trying to form a New World Order, made up of the top figures in banks, corporations and countries.

The Mandela Effect

It is a phenomenon where a group of people collectively misremember a fact or an event. The term was coined by the paranormal enthusiast Fiona Broome. She along with many other people, remember Nelson Mandela dying in prison in the 1980s rather than from illness in 2013. Some of them even claim they remember his funeral being broadcasted on TV, like do you remember the Monopoly Man wearing a monocle? You’re not the only one. However, if you look at him carefully, you’ll realize he’s not wearing a monocle. He never has. While the famous Snow White quote you’ve probably heard others say and repeated yourself is “Mirror, mirror on the wall,” it turns out the correct line is “Magic mirror on the wall” Some people also remember the second part of that quote being “Who is the fairest of them all?” but apparently it’s “Who is the fairest one of all?

Britney Spears Was an Instrument of the Bush Administration

What if Britney Spears’s public meltdown, a series of bizarre events and public outburst— the head shaving incident which ultimately resulted in her receiving a conservatorship and losing custody of her children to ex-hubby Kevin Federline— wasn’t the result of her own personal issues? There are theories that say Britney was being paid by the Bush administration to grab headlines away from the corrupt and incompetent White House. 


 The Illuminati is real, lizard people are also real, and the Earth is hollow with a colony of people living inside the middle, just kidding (maybe). But there are way crazier, way more coherent truths out there waiting to be seen.

So for all you conspiracy theory lovers, here are some shows and documentaries you would want to watch-  


Impact of COVID-19 on the Supply chain of the Manufacturing sector

A roadmap for manufacturing: These five steps can power an ...

The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Apart from the substantial deaths and chaos, Pandemics can have severe implications on the economic and social landscapes of the world. The manufacturing sectors of various countries have taken a huge hit as they are labour intensive, and the current pandemic situation has called for nation-wide lockdowns and several restrictions all over the world. This has caused stagnancy in operations conducted in numerous manufacturing plants.

Today, the world is more connected than ever due to incredible technologies and globalisation. Hence, disruption in just one of the manufacturing hubs is more than enough to cause anomalies throughout the enormous supply chains spread across countries. For example, Greenland has 11 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and all of them have recovered. However, it relies on imports and supply of raw materials which are spread across Europe. 

 To understand the impact on the supply chain of the manufacturing sectors, lets first identify the key drivers of manufacturing. The primary factor is demand in the economy. Only if there is substantial demand for a commodity, it will be manufactured. After manufacturing, the commodity is required to be delivered to the customer/consumer. It is in this stage that the pandemic has had an adverse effect. Due to lockdowns and restrictions the logistics are in vain. Hence, the manufactured goods are not reaching the customers.

The Indian manufacturers have significant dependency on China for the supply of raw materials. The current situation has made supply difficult due to complications in logistics. Operations in manufacturing plants are incredibly difficult to carry out due to social distancing norms and lockdown restrictions that are essential to follow. This has minimized the use of human resources which is vital for carrying out operations. The demand for essential goods has skyrocketed in contrast to non-essential goods which has taken a hit due to inaccessibility. Considering this scenario, industries which manufacture essential goods have been able to continue with connections to e-commerce sites like Amazon and Flipkart. However, the automobile industry has been stagnant due to overwhelming inefficiency in the supply chain caused by the pandemic.

This pandemic has provided India an opportunity to be independent with regards to supply and imports. Realizing the Indian potential for raw materials would have a ripple effect in the future economy and reduce dependency tension. To stimulate the manufacturing sector and operations, logistics must be made more efficient. This could be done by eliminating/reducing the entities of supply chains. This would ensure minimal human involvement which is essential in the current situation. E-commerce websites could implement grouping of delivery to ensure efficiency. The government could take precautionary measures and incentivise demand for non-essential goods. This could stimulate the manufacturing industries of non-essential goods which have been stagnant.

5 Main Aims of Government for Economy Development

1. Full Employment:

Most governments try to achieve full employment. This means that people who are willing and able to work can find employment. Of course, not everyone wants to work or is able to work. These people are not in the labour force. They are said to be economically inactive and are dependent on those in the labour force.

They include children, the retired, those engaged in full time education, home makers and those who are too sick or disabled to work. Those who are in work or are unemployed but actively seeking work, form the labour force and are said to be economically active.

The unemployment rate is calculated as a percentage of the labour force, i.e.:

Unemployed / Labour force X 100

So if 5 million people are unemployed out of a labour force of 40 million, the unemployment rate is:

5m / 40m X 100 = 12.5%

Most economists think that full employment is not actually 0% unemployed. They usually put the figure at approximately 3%. This is because they think that even in a strong economy with demand for labour equalling the supply of labour, there will always be some workers changing jobs and being unemployed for short periods.

2. Price Stability:

Governments aim for price stability because it ensures greater economic certainty and prevents the country’s products from losing international competitiveness. If firms, households and workers have an idea. About future level of prices, they can plan with greater confidence. It also means that they will not act in a way that will cause prices to rise in the future.

Firms will not raise their prices because they expect their costs to be higher, households will not bring forward purchases for fear that items will be more expensive in the future and workers will not press for wage increases just to maintain their real disposable income.

In seeking to achieve price stability, most governments are not aiming for a zero percentage change in price. A common target is a stable inflation rate of 2%. They do not aim for unchanged prices, for two main reasons. One is that measures of inflation tend to overstate rises in prices.

A price index , for instance, might indicate that the general price level has risen by 1% but in practice, prices might not have changed and might have even fallen slightly. Some of the prices paid by people are lower than those appearing in the official price level indices, as people buy some products at reduced prices in sales and also make second hand purchases.

Price rises can also hide the improvements in products. A car may cost $100 more this year than last year, but it may incorporate a number of new features such as satellite navigation. So the question arises, is the car actually more expensive or is it a different car?

A second reason is that a slight rise in prices can provide some benefits. It can encourage producers to increase their output, as they may think that higher prices will lead to higher profits. It can also enable firms to cut their wage costs by not raising wages in line with inflation. The alternative to such a move might be a cut in employment.

3. Economic Growth:

When an economy experiences economic growth, there is an increase in its output in the short run. This is sometimes referred to as actual economic growth. In the long run, for an economy to sustain its growth, the productive potential of the economy has to be increased. Such an increase can be achieved as a result of a rise in the quantity and/or quality of factors of production.

The difference between actual and potential economic growth can be shown on a production possibility curve. On Fig, the movement from point A to point B represents actual economic growth – more capital and consumer goods are made. The shift outwards of the production possibility curve from YY to ZZ represents potential economic growth – the economy is capable of producing more.

Actual and Potential Economics Growth

In analyzing economic growth and other macroeconomic issues, economists also make use of aggregate demand and aggregate supply diagrams. Aggregate demand (AD) is the total demand for an economy’s products and consists of consumption (C), investment (I), government expenditure (G) and exports minus imports (X-M).

Aggregate supply is the total output of producers in an economy. Aggregate supply is perfectly elastic if the economy has a significant number of unemployed resources, as then more can be produced without a contingent rise in costs of production and prices.

The curve becomes more inelastic as the economy approaches full employment since then the firms will be competing for resources and this will push up their costs and, as a result, the price level. At full employment of resources, aggregate supply becomes perfectly inelastic, since at this point further increase in output is not possible.

Fig. 2 shows actual economic growth. The rise in AD has resulted in a rise in the country’s output (see unit 40 on real GDP) and a small rise in the price level.

Actual Economic Growth

Fig. 3 shows potential economic growth. The maximum amount, that the economy can produce, has increased.

Potential Economic Growth

In this case, the rise in the quantity and/or quality of resources has no impact on output. If, however, an increase in productive potential occurs when an economy is operating close to full employment, it can cause a rise in the country’s output and a fall in the price level as shown in Fig. 4.

Potential Economic Growth Causing a Rise in National Output

Governments want to achieve economic growth because producing more goods and services can raise people’s living standards. Economic growth can indeed transform people’s lives and enable them to live longer because of better nutrition, housing and health care.

The determinant of a country’s possible economic growth rate is its level of output, in relation to its current maximum possible output and its growth in productive capacity.

If, for instance, an economy is growing at 2% below its maximum possible output and its productive capacity is expected to increase by 3% this year, it’s possible economic growth rate is 5%. Most governments would like their economies to be working at full capacity and their actual economic growth rate to coincide with their potential economic growth rate.

4. Redistribution of Income:

A government may seek to redistribute income from the rich to the poor. The more money someone has, the less they tend to appreciate each unit. A rich person with an income of $10,000 a week is unlikely to miss $100 but that sum would make a huge difference to someone currently struggling on $20 a week.

Governments redistribute income by taxing and spending. The rich are taxed more than the poor. Some of the money raised is spent directly on the poor by means of benefits such as housing benefit and unemployment benefit. Other forms of government expenditure, such as that on education and health, particularly benefit the poor

Without the government providing these services free of cost or at subsidized prices, the poor may not find them accessible. Governments are unlikely to aim for a perfectly equal distribution of income. This is because taxing the rich too heavily and providing too generous benefits may act as a disincentive to effort and enterprise.

5. Balance of Payments Stability:

Over the long run, most governments want the value of their exports to equal the value of their imports. If expenditure on imports exceeds revenue from exports for a long period of time, the country will be living beyond its means and will get into debt. If export revenue is greater than import expenditure, the inhabitants of the country will not be enjoying as many products as possible.

Governments also seek to avoid sudden changes in other parts of the balance of payments. This is because they can prove to be disruptive for the economy. For instance, there may be a sudden and unexpected movement of money out of the country’s financial institutions into financial institutions of other countries. Such a movement can have an adverse effect not only on the banks of a country but also on the country’s exchange rate and eventually on the price of the country’s imports.

Mobile App ‘eBloodServices’

These days when all of us are dealing with pandemic COVID-19, it has been a very hard time for all of us and we all are contributing our parts to come out of this difficult situation. All of us are doing great as fighters. With the coming of problems, we all are thinking innovative and creative to come up with solution to it. One such step was to launch mobile app ‘eBloodServices’.Union Health Minister Dr Harsh Vardhan on launched the eBlood Services Mobile Application, in partnership with the New Delhi based Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS), on 25 June 2020 for easy access to blood to fight with the critical time of coronavirus pandemic.


This application is developed by the E-Raktkosh team of Centre for Development of Advanced Computing under the Digital India scheme launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2015. The application will bring transparency and facilitate single-window access to blood services of the Indian Red Cross Society, officials said. This initiative would help the people to get the blood on time just by registering on the application. Also, people can demand up to four units of blood. Blood-related services are required by many people in the country as they face certain medical conditions in their families. With the help of eBlood Services App, four units of blood can be requisitioned at a time. Blood Bank will wait for as long as 12 hours for the person to collect it. The app will make it easy for those in need to request for blood units at IRCS NHQ.

Speaking on the occasion, the Minister said, “People who need blood can get registered on this app and know from where they will get blood.” Vardhan said, “In the last few months, I received several complaints from people facing difficulties in accessing safe blood. Many people require blood-related services regularly because of certain medical conditions in their families. Through this app, four units of blood can be requisitioned at a time and the blood bank will wait for 12 hours for the person to collect it.” At a time when the country is going through a pandemic, the mobile app will provide succour to all those who are in dire need of blood,” the health minister said. Users with this app can know the live status of blood availability at the national headquarters of the Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS) blood bank in Delhi. He appealed to people to come forward to donate blood as their contribution is required more than ever now.


All 89 IRCS blood banks and 1,100 branches across the country have collected more than 1,00,000 units of blood through in-house donations and from around 2,000 donation camps organized during the lockdown. Also, more than 38,000 blood donors registered with NHQ Blood Bank have been contacted and motivated to donate blood. The NHQ Blood Bank conducted 55 blood donation camps collecting 2,896 units of blood. Blood has been issued to 7,113 patients which include 2,923 thalassaemic patients as well as to the government hospitals like Lady Hardinge (624 units) and AIIMS, Delhi (378 Units).The IRCS has served more than 3,00,00,000 cooked meals and provided ration to more than 11,00,000 families.




Objectives of Marketing Management

Management is the process of getting things done through other people. Following are the five key objectives of marketing management:-

Generate customer base

The responsibility of the marketing manager is to attract new customers and retain old customers for the business enterprise. Thus, to create product awareness among people many promotional activities viz. advertisement, distribution of samples, display of goods, etc. are carried out, which in turn increase sell of goods and services and generate profit for the firm.

Customer Satisfaction

The basic priority of the modern marketing is the satisfaction of the customer (or consumer). Thus, the marketing manager scientifically studies the needs and demands of the customers before offering them any goods or services.  Here, satisfying customers does not simply mean matching products with customers’ needs. It also requires regular supply of goods and services of reasonable quality at fair prices.

Market Share

The purpose of business activity is to increase its market share i.e. the ratio of its sales to the total sales in the economy. For this, companies may adopt all means of sales promotion viz. discounts, sales promotion, gifts, gift coupons, etc. to create awareness of its product in the market.

Profit Maximization

Without earning profit, no firm can survive in the market. Thus, profits are also needed for the growth and diversification of the firm. Hence, for maximization of profit, the marketing manager tries to satisfy the needs and wants of customer and maintains the regular supply of goods and services at fair prices.

Earn goodwill for the business

To build up the public image of the firm, the marketing management provides good quality products to the customers at reasonable rates and thus creates its positive image among the customers. The role of marketing manager is to sustain and raise the goodwill of the business through sales promotion, publicity, advertisement, high quality and reasonable prices of products, convenient distribution outlets, etc. If a firm enjoys goodwill in the market, it would increase the morale of its’ sales-force, which in turn increases profit.

Increases living standard among people

The marketing management attempts to increase the quality of life of the people by providing them better goods and services at reasonable rates. It facilitates production and distribution of a wide variety of goods and services for use by the customer.


Every single item we order does not have equal value. Some parts cost more. Some are used more frequently. Some are both. ABC inventory analysis helps categorize those items so we can understand which ones should receive our full attention.

As the name suggests, this inventory categorization technique groups your inventory in three buckets: A, B, & C.

  • A’ items are the most important to an organization. This material should receive your full focus due to its high usage rate or a high price (or both).
  • B’ items have a lower dollar volume and are thus less important than ‘As’.
  • Finally, ‘C’ items are the low rung on the ladder. Out of the three groups, you’ll have the highest number of ‘C’ items, but they will account for the lowest portion for your inventory value.

The pareto principle states that 80% of your inventory costs comes from just 20% of your inventory. This is known as the 80/20 rule and it helps shape the results of your ABC Analysis. LeanDNA recommends the following breakdown as the optimal way to determine the three categories:

  • ‘A’ items – 80% of the annual inventory value of your items (likely made up of just 20% of your items)
  • ‘B’ items – 15% of the annual inventory value of your items (likely made up of 30% of your items)
  • ‘C’ items – 5% of the annual inventory value of your items (likely made up of 50% of your items)

ABC analysis has a lot of similarities to RRS analysis – “Runner, Repeater, Stranger analysis,” that is. Runners are your ‘A’ items, Repeaters are your ‘B’ items, and Strangers are your ‘C’ items.

In order to determine which parts fall into which categories, use the following steps:

  1. Determine inventory value by multiplying the price of an item by the consumption volume of that item in a year period. Simply put, item cost * annual consumption = inventory value.
  2. Repeat step 1 for all items to calculate total inventory value.
  3. Sort your parts from highest inventory value to lowest.
  4. Calculate each item’s percentage of total inventory value. That item’s inventory value / sum of all inventory values = item % of total inventory value.
  5. Group the parts that account for the highest 80% of your total inventory and allocate them as ‘A’ items. Group the parts that account for the next 15% and allocate them as ‘B’ items. Group all remaining items as ‘C’.


Let us delve deeper into the 4 main objectives of sales management

1) Achieving Sales volume

Achieving sales volume is the first objective of Sales. The word “volume” is critical because whenever a product sales start, the market is supposed to be a virgin market. Thus there needs to be optimum penetration so that the product reaches all corners of the region targeted. Ultimately, penetration levels can be decided on the basis of sales volume achieved.

2) Contribution to profit

Sales brings turnover for the company and this turnover results in profits. Naturally, sales has a major contribution to profit and it is categorized as a profit function in several organizations. But there is one more aspect to the contribution of profit by sales.

The objective of sales management is to sell the product at the optimum price. Some companies might target a premium pricing for a product to make it premium in the market. But if the sales team drops the price, then the objectives are not being met and the profit is dropping. This has to be kept in check by seniors as price drops directly affect the margin of the product.

3) Continuous growth

A company cannot remain stagnant. There are salaries to be paid, costs have been incurred and there are shareholders to be answered. So a company cannot survive without continuous growth. If there is no innovation at the product level or at the company level, then the company has to be blamed. But if the products are good, and still the penetration is not happening, then it is the fault of sales manager and sales executives.

It is the job of marketing to take feedback and bring new products in the market. But if the sales team does not provide the appropriate feedback of “Why the product is not selling”, then growth becomes impossible. This is why, more penetration and more growth is in the hand of sales people.

4) Sales Management and financial results

Financial Results are another objective of sales management and are closely related and therefore sales management has financial implications as well.

Sales – Cost of Sales = Gross Profit

Gross Margin – Expenses = Net profit.

Thus the variation in Sales will directly affect the Net profit of a company. Hence maintaining and managing sales is important to keep the product / service / organization financially viable.

The Objectives of sales are therefore decided on the basis of where the organization stands and where it wants to reach. It is a collaborated effort from the top management along with the marketing managers and sales managers to provide with a targeted estimate.


Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) are public research institutes of India. These are the premier institutes of India. The institutes were established by the Government of India through the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) to provide quality college education in basic sciences coupled with a taste research at the undergraduate level itself. The institutes were formally established by the Parliament of India through the National Institutes of Technology, Science Education and Research (Amendment) Act, 2010 (an amendment to the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007). Seven IISERs have been established across the country, namely IISER Kolkata in West Bengal, IISER Pune in Maharashtra, IISER Mohali in Punjab, IISER Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh, IISER Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala, IISER Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh, and IISER Berhampur in Odisha. The basic idea behind establishment of IISERs was to promote research-oriented training and to promote basic sciences. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore and National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar has already been established to promote natural sciences but were not enough for a large country like India with enormous number of students having the potential to go ahead with research. All IISERs were declared as Institutes of National Importance by the Parliament of India in 2012, to promote them as leading institutions in the country in the field of basic sciences along with its sister institutes mentioned above.


The main degree provided by IISERs are BS-MS in any natural science stream. Since the institutes are new in India and so is the degree provided by them, many people in India, even the educated ones are not aware of what does this degree means and often mix it with BSc and Msc. The degree has already been offered in foreign countries like US, Germany, etc but was introduced in India after establishment of IISERs. BS-MS (Bachelor of Science – Master of Science) is a five year dual degree program. The program focuses to train students to pursue a career in academia, R&D institutes and science based industries. They are introduced with the idea of how to carry with the research and build up a career. The motivation is the reason why IISERs are equipped with world-class lab facilities and highly exceptional researches are carried out in these labs.


Besides the BS-MS in natural sciences, as the institute is growing and establishing new departments, some of the IISERs are offering only BS (4 years )as well, not only in natural science stream but in engineering sciences and economics as well. IISER Bhopal is the one offering BS in Engineering Sciences (Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Chemical Engineerning) and BS in economics. IISERs are said to be on the same level for research as IITs are for engineering. Now, recently, IITs have also started offering BS-MS degrees. IISERs provide a great opportunity for young, innovative and bright minds to excel in science and research. IISERs have collaborated with many foreign universities, research institutes and industries and is rapidly gaining recognition due to the work done by its student members and faculty members. The institute is expected to excel exponentially and become a very great opportunity to students.

Tour To Jharkhand

The Jharkhand state has a rich cultural heritage and endowed with bio-diversity and moderate climate. If you are willing to visit a new place then Jharkhand could be one of them. We all are aware; tourism is an important industry for any country or state for revenue generation. Jharkhand is one of the states of India which have taken new initiatives and innovative measures such as rural tourism, adventure tourism, heritage tourism, etc.

So, today let’s see some of the best places to visit in Jharkhand.

Johna Waterfall: It is located in the hilly and forested areas 40 km away from the main city Ranchi. Water falling from the height of 40m makes the place thrilling.

Johna Fall

Hirni Waterfall: It is situated at a distance of 70 km from the Birsa Munda Airport. Here the scenery is breathtaking, waterfalls from the height of 120 m.

Hirni Fall

Hundru Waterfall: The waterfall is situated 45 km away from the main city, where the river Suvarnrekha falls from a height of 320 ft. Shootings of many films are done at this place, most of the time you will meet celebrities shooting.

Hundru Fall

Panchdhara Waterfall: Captivating landscape, having five waterfalls in a row. If you are in Ranchi and you have not visited the place then it’s a big mistake.

Pangura Waterfall: It is situated in a dense forest of Pangura village. Here the river forms two waterfalls. Water falling from 250 feet height is enchanting.

Sun temple: It is situated near Tamara valley. 50 km away from the main city Ranchi. Covered in a highly dense forest full of hilly ranges in Pradhan Nagar. The whole temple is made of white marble and is historical from the time of Lord Ram.

Parasnath: Parasnath 1365-meter-high is the highest mountain in Jharkhand. This place is mostly famous among Jain and is called “Sammed Shikhar”.

Email Etiquettes For Students

Simple rules to send a respectful email that won’t get you on your professor’s bad side. 

Rule 1 – Answer swiftly

 Anyone who sends you an email they’ll want quick responses. The golden rule for email is to reply within 24 hours, and preferably within the same day itself. If your response email is complicated, just send an email confirming receipt and letting them know that you will get back to them. This will ease the senders mind! 

Rule 2 – Use a meaningful subject line

 When filling the subject line, make sure that you mention what the email is for or in regards to. You don’t want it to seem like a randomly generated subject and end up in your professor’s spam folder. It also makes it easier to search for old emails when the subject line is relevant and specific to the content of the email. 

Rule 3 – Read your email before you send it 

Prior to sending your email, be sure that you proofread your message. You shouldn’t write your email as though you are texting your friend. Make sure it’s got full sentences, proper grammar, and real spelling. Look out for potential misunderstandings, the tone, and inappropriate comments. 

Rule 4 – Abbreviations & emoticons 

Be careful using email abbreviations such as BTW (by the way) and LOL (laugh out loud) in formal emails. Even today, some people still don’t know what they mean, so it’s better to drop them. 

Rule 5 – Be concise

 Be succinct and keep your message short and to the point. Your professor is going to have probably hundreds of email messages to wade through each day. Just get to the point and politely, respectfully, ask your request.  If it has to be long, consider including a synopsis at the top of the email. Make sure you are as clear as possible about what it is you need to ask of your professor without writing a novel. 

Rule 6 – Do not write in CAPITALS 

IF YOU WRITE IN CAPITALS IT SEEMS AS IF YOU ARE SHOUTING!! Therefore, try not to send email text in capitals. 

Rule 7 – Use a professional email address

 This marks the message as legitimate and not spam. You should always have an email address that conveys your name so that the professor an idea of who’s sending the message. Never use email addresses, perhaps remnants of your grade-school days, that are not appropriate for use in a formal setting, such as “supergirlrocks@…” or “pizzalover@…”.

Rule 8 – Use professional salutations 

Don’t use laid-back, colloquial expressions like, ‘Hi’ or ‘Yo’. Address your professor directly; don’t just launch straight into a request. Examples: ‘Respected Dr. Kapoor’, ‘Dear, Ms. Gupta’, ‘Dr. Sharma, I hope this email finds you well…’. 

Rule 9 – Be polite

Don’t make demands, don’t accuse, remember to write please and thank you. Close your email with something polite like ‘Thanks’, ‘Thanks for your time’, ‘See you in class Wednesday’, ‘regards’, etc. Then re-type your first name 

                     Our Common Goal: Let Nature Heal with Flow


Environment is healing, its healing fast. But has it really healed or is it just a myth revolving around? Well, in my opinion the deterioration of environment has happened so much over the past few decades that this healing isn’t enough. And as we all think we are healing, the fact is another new problem has emerged out. The problem of Medical waste concerns, the disposal of masks, etc. is the real big problem now. With the rising number of coronavirus cases in the world, the rise in the number of medical waste has raised a major problem in the whole world. People weren’t at all aware of what was going to hit the world in the start of the new decade, the pandemic which changed the whole world, and is still changing. With the rise in the masks and other medical waste and with people not aware about what to do with this waste, they dump it with the other wastes and then there’s whole lot of problems prevailing.

Now, let’s talk about the real situation prevailing in the world. People have taken nature and environment for granted. I meet people often wasting water and when I ask them why are you wasting water, around 98% of the people say that by them wasting water will not impact anybody. Well, they are in some ways right. It will not impact anybody, but themselves only in the near future and their future generations. Well, with the inhuman activities going on in the world, people don’t even think of their own generation, let alone the future one’s. Through this article, I want to make people aware of what could happen to them only, if they don’t respect and care for the nature and environment they are living in. See, the fact is that the nature is now what we say in sporting terms ‘on a roll’ and that too for many years now but the people weren’t able to see it or we can say ignored the fact. Be it the fire in Amazon Forest and the Australian Bush fires or floods and earthquakes whose frequency increased in the past few years. The below graph would actually help you understand the fact that how these natural disasters which aren’t natural for me, because I feel they are human disasters have increased over the years:

Look at the above graph, see how the disasters have risen from 2007 to 2020, this shows the plight people have faced from nature but it’s their own fault. But the people kept on ignoring it and now when the world is being hit by a pandemic, people are saying its nature healing. Well irony and irony, nothing else can be said. The pandemic is another major attack by mother nature on humans who have continued to destroy environment on and on. My question to the readers of this article is why don’t people know the importance of nature. Because of greed for money, we are destroying nature where we want to live. Don’t people understand playing with nature could result in devastation. According to a survey, in the year 2050, most of the coastal areas around the world would be submerged. Do we want this situation to ever arise? No, we don’t. So, why not protect nature rather than just destroying it.

Now, my opinion is that people should be told to not do things which they have become habitual of. This will be very difficult, but the governments need to implement these changes. The 1st thing is letting people know that wastage of water could result in devastation at a large scale. Building illegal or maybe legal swimming pools should be banned. Because people die because they don’t receive one single drop of water, families of many people die because they don’t receive one drop of water and here people are wasting water as if water will be available to them for their whole life. Mind you when nature strikes back and time changes, nobody knows it and nobody has ever known it. The next step is the less use of air conditioners in homes, offices and when its not necessary. People must be aware of the fact that air conditioners produce greenhouse gases which in turn is damaging the ozone layer resulting in devastation on earth. 

I’ve seen people turning on their air conditioners even when they aren’t in their rooms and that is the worst one can do. Not only its contributing to the increase in greenhouse gases but also the wastage of electricity is done. I can’t understand why people want to use air conditioners. Didn’t our ancestors live without air conditioners? Okay I understand that time was different in the fact that earth’s temperature wasn’t that high, but why has the earth’s temperature increased? Its because of the rise in greenhouse gases. So, use of air conditioners is because we used air conditioners over and above how much we should’ve used. In the end I want to say that, yes, we’ve deteriorated the nature very much but still we have a little hope left. I would urge people to aware other people of how we can save nature, and also with the current situation learn how medical waste can be dumped and not let this pandemic emerge another problem of disposal of medical waste.

Education and Values

Indian culture has always placed great emphasis on values and morals in education. From a young age, we are taught how to give respect and to speak honestly. Most of our schools have moral education sessions or classes where values are taught through stories or folk tales, especially to younger children. We have fables that always end with morals and tales passed on from one generation to the next which talk about such values that one must never forget. These have gone a long way in shaping the ethos and spirit of our culture and character. Alongside formal education in school, imbibing values have also been considered important in the past.

However, with the advancements of science and technology and greater emphasis being put on what is written down in the textbooks and equations, we see a natural decline in the importance given to value education. Parents are around their children less since they have to work long days at the office and kids often grow up in front of the TV without much human interaction. They usually are given what they ask for and situations of conflict are not common. At school, they are asked to excel in the subjects and make scoring high their ultimate goal. Such an enormous weightage is given to marks that students will go to any lengths to gain approval by scoring well, even if it means breaking the rules. With the rise of the notions of western secularism and morality itself coming to be considered a construct, moral science as it was once called is often deemed unnecessary. This, however, is terribly unhelpful and detrimental to our progress as a human race precisely because man has become more intelligent but also willing to use his intelligence to hurt others. We need to ask whether it isn’t a direct result of devaluing morals that we have an alarming increase in the number of social atrocities, murders, rapes, even discriminations we thought we would not need to fight anymore. Why is it that even with greater progress than any other time in history being made in all fields that we still find ourselves fighting for equality and we keep designing weapons potent enough to destroy the planet?

Knowledge is useful and essential. But imparting only technical and scientific knowledge leads to that very knowledge being used to destroy others. In an age when we have become increasingly intolerant of others who might disagree with us even if it is a trivial matter, a culture that prioritizes one’s own self over all others, knowledge is often weaponized. It itself becomes political and is used as a method of exclusion. As C.S. Lewis succinctly put it, “Education without values, as useful as it is, seems rather to make man a more clever devil.” Has value education always been able to solve all our cultural problems? Of course not. But it did inculcate certain morals and work ethics at a young age that consciously or otherwise underlined our motivations and actions. Teaching it in school as a subject has never been the only solution. But ensuring that the student is always guided to think better, to be empathetic, and to exercise compassion goes a long way, even if it is conveyed as a prep talk at the end of a mathematics class and if they see it in action. Only education that takes values with it alongside can make our society better in all aspects and lead to students wanting to effect a change for the better in the lives of their communities.



Euthanasia: Is it promoting Right to Death

Euthanasia has been one major debatable topic overtime. It has many issues to be considered like moral and ethical values of doctors, human rights issues, various legal procedures and various other issues.Every person in this universe will die some or the other day but the way he dies may differ.The expectations everyone has before they die is to live a happy and fruitful life. Some deaths of them can just be natural death which is usually due to age, as there is a principle that the older you become the weaker you get. Some deaths may arise out of acts like killing oneself and ending their lives forcefully  due to various reasons which is termed as “suicide”. But when a person kills another or ends the life of the deceased on the request of the deceased this is called by the name “euthanasia” or mercy killing in local language. Euthanasia is usually conducted by medical professionals for giving the output of the so called “happy death” or also called death to be relieved from the pain and suffering. Ironically death was always meant to be sad but this transforms it into good death. There are five different types of euthanasia. There are arguments that if a person has the right to life, he should be guaranteed the right to die also, and a person is said to have the right to choose and this should be applicable to what he wants to do with his own life. This also raises an issue related to human rights whether it is favouring it or not. Right to life does not only mean to live but it has a wider concept to live with dignity so there comes a question whether the right to die exists and if it does,  then why shouldn’t one die with dignity without suffering and pain. There are broadly two categories in which euthanasia can be classified, the first one is how the death is caused i.e., passive (death is caused by removing the life supporting system he/she is depending on) or active (death is caused by injecting something

lethal or dangerous) and the second one the acceptance for death or request (consent) for it whether it is voluntary, involuntary and non voluntary. Euthanasia can also be called a privileged murder, but however it is not exception to a murder in some places, it means that this is legal in some places and not in some. Hence it depends on the place it takes place. India has legalised passive euthanasia in the Aruna Shanbaug case, ironically she was’nt given the permission for passive euthanasia however this case laid down the rules and specification where passive euthanasia could be conducted. Personally, I feel that passive euthanasia should not be confused with any other types of euthanasia and should be merely considered as a means to relieve a person from an is an incurable disease and the person exists only because of the life saving equipment and its removal can cause death, and only this should be legalised and not the other types. Euthanasia should be legal in India and other countries with strict rules and regulation, and with proper committees taking care of its implementations, ther has to be adequate safeguards and follow up actions regarding the laws as only then its loopholes are revealed and then correction can be done, there has to be harsher punishments and penalties if invoked. India is one of the nations which has the strongest laws and regulations, we frame them with so much care including each intrinsic detail, but we tend to have a very weak follow up action on our laws, hence it is misused. I would like to bring the topic of doctors and if they are going against the Hippocratic Oath, yes, they are going against it but this is done for the well being of the patient. Many may think that can doctors misuse this whole legislation, we should understand one thing here i.e. we are believing the judge and letting him give a death sentence to the criminals and in the same way we should trust the doctor and put hope in them that whatever they do is for the welfare of the patient, hence when it comes to the decision of granting death we should assume that they would do the best for the patient. Stronger the legislation, lesser the problems regarding it. At a conclusion there are always two sides to anything, in the same way some may think that euthanasia is morally justified as it is to free someone from the suffering and unbearable pain, on the other side some tell that the sanctity of life cannot be justified if death is not natural and one does not go through the hard times, therefore this is a non-ending debate.

Gandhi preach us more!

Have you at any point longed for world with harmony and thriving for all mankind- a world where we love and care for each other notwithstanding the differences in our way of life, religion and lifestyle?

I frequently feel vulnerable when I see the world in disturbance, an after effect of contrast between our goals. Mahatma Gandhi was the man who inspired the world with Ahimsa, his faith in peace, and non- animosity. His life was a message – a message of harmony overpower, of discovering approaches to accommodate our disparities and of living in amicability with difference and love notwithstanding for our adversary. His message was as clear to his enemies as it was to his followers. He believed we can resolve best our issues if we set out to have a constructive discussion with our enemy. “Be the change you wish to see in the world ” was the statement he gave. We frequently like to complain about the system that we need to follow. But before changing the system it’s significant that we see inside ourselves and try to fix our faults. Self- realization is one of the ways to achieve success. Pour out love and respect for every individual you come across, and don’t form biases based on their background. Each simple act matters. We are responsible for our future, whatever actions we do in present determine our future. Be a life long learner, learn as if you were to live forever.

Gandhi and our nation have suffered a lot under British, but instead of taking up arms against them, he chose the path of non-violence. See how we enjoy our freedom now. He taught us revenge is never a solution, it doesn’t lead to peace or happiness. One needs to learn to forgive.It is important to be true to yourself, no matter whatever the consequences are. Stand up for what you feel is right, even if it displeases a lot of people.

Gandhi’s musings can play a tremendous role in taking the human culture forward, towards the ideal objective. His lessons and analyses are more legitimate today than any time in recent memory, particularly when we are attempting to discover answers for overall greed, corruption, violence, and runaway which are putting a heavy burden on
the world. We as a nation continue to fail him. But like for every other thing, here is also hope. We can bring harmony to our world by spreading love and peace. Although the task is daunting, Gandhi has shown us how a fragile man can achieve incredible magnitude with a staunch belief to practice peace and harmony.
Will you take the pledge to become the change you want to see in the world?

Stop animal cruelty

The use of animals to entertain human beings is wrong from the welfare point of view because: … it involves the animal in performances that are foreign to their natural behavior. It may involve cruelty during the show (e.g. bullfighting, rodeos) it may involve cruelty in training the animal.

cruelty in circuses

The wild animals commonly abused in circuses are extremely stressed by circus conditions. The loud noise of the music, the cheers of the crowd and the dizzying lights all disorientate and cause stress to wild animals. Over prolonged periods this can result in abnormal behaviors and health problems related to anxiety.

Animals do not want to perform painful, confusing and demeaning tricks, but animals in circuses have no choice. Trainers use abusive tools, including whips and electric prods, to force them to perform.

Not only are elephants, horses, hippopotamuses, birds, dogs, camels and other animals often beaten by trainers, but they also suffer from loneliness, boredom and frustration from being locked in cramped cages or chained for months on end as they travel from city to city. Instead of being loaded and unloaded like furniture into trucks and warehouses, these animals should be in their natural habitats – exploring, seeking mates and raising families.

In a research found that, an elephant age has been minimize due to lock under the cages.

A couple of cases of cruelty towards animals have come to light in the past few weeks which have enraged many and made one ponder as to whether the laws in existence are sufficient enough to protect animals. The most recent of all incidents of cruelty that have taken place this year, are that of killing of a pregnant elephant from kerela, a pregnant cow from Himachal Pradesh and a jackal from Tamil Nadu. I state these incidents together as these have the same method used to seriously injure/kill them. In all three cases, the poor animals were fed explosives covered with some kind of edibles.

 In 2019 an incident came to light where in Uttar Pradesh a tigress was brutally beaten with sticks, under a protected zone of the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve. Another inhumane incident saw the light of the day in September 2019 when a video of a nilgai (antelope) being pushed into a pit in Bihar and buried alive got viral. It is unimaginable to think that New Delhi has its very own ‘Serial dog killer’ who allegedly beat, stabbed and killed three dogs and a puppy.

Cruelty in zoos

 The process of segregating animals from a group according to desired or undesired characteristics; the process often ends with the segregated animal being killed. Several reasons are given for culling in zoos, including a lack of space, the genes of the culled animals are over-represented in the zoo population, the (young) animal might be attacked or killed, or the culled animals have contracted a disease.

Because animals in zoos are killed for many reasons, such as old age or disease, just as pet animals are often euthanized because of health problems, it is beyond the scope of this list to identify every case where an animal is killed in a zoo.

There is more to treating animals in an appropriate way than keeping them healthy: It’s possible (and used to be common) for zoos to keep animals in perfect physical shape, but in conditions that cause the animals to display serious behavioral problems.

These are the reasons, Many of the animals lost their ages under the cages of zoos , and we think they are entertaining us, we go in a zoos and purchase tickets not for the entrainment but we purchase those  tickets for giving more enhancement of cruelty on animals not even in zoos but also on circuses.

Law against this cruelty

The Supreme Court in 2014, in a case titled – Animal Welfare Board of India v. Nagraja&Ors., recognized the Right to Life as enshrined under Article 21 of the COI, to extend to animals as well.NGOs and animal rights activists condemn these brazen killings and inhumane acts however there is now an immediate need to make stricter laws.

Stop animal cruelty

Now, the time we should understand that animals are not entertainers for us ,they also have a rights to live out of cages without any interference of humans ,humans also don’t like interference of anybody so why they interfere in the animals life

These all things written above shows the cruelty of human beings on, it’s the time stop animal cruelty not even in India but all over the world .

Animals just need your love and care don’t harm them for your business and entertainment ,stop doing these things stop animal cruelty

8 habits on how one can be more productive

We all know some or the other person who is a do-er, always getting things done. They know how to do their tasks effectively and on time. The one who manages to finish 2 hours task in just 30 minutes. You could even describe them as robots because no one can work the way they do.

Ever realized what makes them so different? How come they are so productive? Well, one can’t be that in one night, it will require building certain habits.

Habits of Highly productive people

  • Always do the most important task first: No matter how difficult an important task is, always make sure to do it first. This will help in reducing your procrastination level and help you in time-management. It’s easy to spend the whole day ticking off the small tasks from your to-do lists, but it won’t help. As you might cross the deadline of the tasks that were supposed to be done urgently.
  • Be away from distractions: It is not necessary to pick every phone call. Your friends can wait but your work can’t. Make sure to cut off from social media when you are working. Turn off all the notifications if you think it can disturb you.
  • Know your work habits: Are you more capable of doing things alone? Are you more efficient in working during the night instead of the day? How much break you need in a day? Analyze it, figure things out, and do the tasks accordingly.
  • Get bored: You must have never thought in dreams that being bored can also come out as a productive habit. Being comfortable with boredom is necessary. Get more comfortable doing nothing or sit idle. This period can be helpful in thinking- can be an idea, situation, or anything. Be at ease during this time.
  • Use 80/20 rule: 80% of the results will come from 20% of the efforts. This rule is been followed by most entrepreneurs and businessmen. Highly productive people identify 20% of the most important task that they have to do in a day in increasing efficiency. Then, they look for ways to cut down the rest 80% of the task or schedule it for later, to find more time for things that make a bigger impact.
  • Break tasks into smaller pieces: Break your large to-dos into smaller ones. Set more small goals for every task. This becomes more specific, will give you the best results, and reduce your stress.
  • Work before you get inspired: There are a lot of people who come across saying they need the motivation to do the work. Highly productive people instead focus on getting the work started, no matter they are inspired or not. Taking action is what leads to motivation. Start working and the motivation will follow.
  • Don’t be a multi-tasker: When you multitask, you aren’t doing multiple tasks at once, instead, you’re switching your focus between things. Every time you switch the task, you have to refocus on others. Although multitasking is ok sometimes, try to avoid it most of the time.



Pradhan mantra Garib Kalyan Yojana

The Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana (PMGKY) was launched in the year 2016 by PM Narendra Modi along with the other provisions of Taxation Laws (Second Amendment) Act, 2016. It came into effect from 17th December 2016 under the Ministry of Finance. 

The Union Finance Minister has announced Rs1.70 lakh crore relief package under the newly framed Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana for the poor to help them fight the battle against CoronaVirus (COVID-19).

  • As part of the lockdown to stem the spread of the deadly virus, the government has stopped public transport, airlines and construction work, bringing to a halt most economic activities and leaving millions of workers in the informal economy without a livelihood.
  • The central government’s package comes a week after Kerala first announced a Rs 20,000-crore support for its people. Many states including Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Punjab, Telangana and Rajasthan followed suit.

Benefits of PM Garib Kalyan Package

To reduce the loss caused by the outbreak of Covid-19 in India, the Finance Minister launched the PM Garib Kalyan Package on March 26th 2020 for the BPL families. 

Some of the benefits provided by the PM Garib Kalyan Package are as follows:

  • An Insurance Cover of Rs. 50 Lakh
  • Free Pulses for the next 3 months under PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana
  • Benefit to farmers
  • Free LPG cylinders to the BPL families
  • To help the low wage earners in organised sectors

The latest announcement on PMGKY was made on 29th June 2020. Earlier on 26th March 2020, the government took an initiative towards the loss caused by the outbreak. The lockdown in the nation due to Coronavirus expected to cost the Indian Economy a cost of around 9 lakh crores.

Announcements made by the Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman on 26th March 2020 are mentioned below:

  • To provide an insurance cover of Rs 50 lakhs per health worker affected by COVID-19. 
  • To provide free resources of 5 kg wheat or rice and 1 kg of preferred pulses for 80 crore poor people for the next three months under the PM Garib Kalyan Ann Yojana.
  • 20 crore Women Jan Dhan account holders will be provided Rs 500 per month for next three months. 
  • There will be an increase in MNREGA wage to Rs 202 per day to benefit 13.62 crore families.

The Central Government has given orders to State Governments to use the Building and Construction Workers Welfare Fund to provide relief to Construction Workers.

PM Modi in his speech on 30th June 2020 mentioned the extension of the PM Garib Kalyan Yojana till the end of November 2020. He also mentioned that in the last 3 months, Rs. 31,000 crore deposited in bank accounts of 20 crore poor families.

  • Over 80 crore poor people are to be provided free food grains till November 2020 – 5kg of wheat/rice and 1 Kg of pulses per family.
  • The extension of PMGKY  is going to cost Rs.90,000 crore.
  • Due to the outbreak of Covid-19 in India, the Finance Minister, on 26th March 2020, had announced a ₹1.7 lakh crore Gareeb Kalyan package to mitigate the loss faced by the poor due to the coronavirus lockdown.
  • Earlier, the scheme was valid from December 16, 2016, to March 31, 2017, and later was extended till June 2020.
  • The PMGKY provided an opportunity to declare the unaccounted wealth and black money in a confidential manner and avoid prosecution after paying a fine of 50% on the undisclosed income. An additional 25% of the undisclosed income is invested in the scheme which can be refunded after four years, without any interest.

Globally, many countries had announced stimulus packages involving 10-12% fiscal expansions. In comparison, this package is only about 0.75% of India’s GDP, which is marginal.

The Government should now turn its focus towards businesses that are running out of cash and may soon default on even salaries and statutory commitments if relief is not given.

Is Covid -19 Air Borne?

New evidence finds that the virus that causes Covid -19 can be spread through microscopic respiratory droplets up to several meters in enclosed indoor spaces. The risk of infection is higher indoors. Outdoors, the aerosols evaporate and disperse much more quickly. The current guidance from the WHO does not address the fact that the novel coronavirus can be transmitted through minuscule aerosols. It only states that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is primarily spread from person to person through large respiratory droplets, which are expelled into the air when a person coughs or sneezes. While that remains true, subsequent evidence has suggested that SARS-CoV-2 also spreads readily through much smaller particles that can hang in the air for hours and be inhaled.

How Covid -19 Spreads Through Aerosols?
Research has found that people with the virus can expel pieces of it when they exhale, talk, or cough. Those tiny viral pieces, called micro droplets, can be so small that they are able to float in the air and potentially travel a distance of multiple meters. Some micro droplets can travel across an entire room. People can then inhale those minuscule viral particles, then contract COVID-19 and get sick. Originally, it was thought that the major way that the virus was transmitted was from person to person by large particle droplets, which basically only travel about 6 feet or so and fall to the ground very quickly. Newer research strongly suggests that airborne transmission plays a bigger role than previously thought. “Small particle aerosols may actually be as important to even more important than these large particle droplets in terms of transmitting the virus.”
The risk is greatest in indoor environments — think crowded bars and restaurants — where there’s limited exchange of air and these small particle aerosols can stay aloft in the air for a significant period of time.

How To Protect Yourself From Airborne Transmission ?
Hand washing, physical distancing, and donning a face mask are key safety measures to protect yourself from COVID-19. Face masks are critical in reducing the risk of spreading or being exposed to the virus via aerosols.
“Since aerosolized droplets (containing viral particles) may remain in poorly ventilated rooms for minutes to several hours, the importance of wearing a mask while indoors should strongly be considered.” Mask wearing has become common, even required in some states, over the past few weeks, but people need to consider wearing them anytime they are indoors with people outside their household. The face coverings protect not only yourself, but those around you, too, in the event you’re asymptomatic and contagious.

We must take the necessary precautions to protect ourselves and our families as through airborne transmission constitute a major mode of transmission.

People Experiencing Homelessness

This article examines how people experiencing homelessness view their interactions with service providers. Drawing on a database of more than 500 transcribed interviews with people experiencing homelessness we find that descriptions of interactions with staff and providers were predominantly expressed in sharply negative terms, with experiences of objectification and infantilization being commonplace. In response to these experiences, nearly all were angry, and many simply opted out of the social service system in order to maintain a sense of dignity and self-respect. We argue that these responses should not simply be analysed as an individual psychological or cognitive response, but rather as a result of the power relations and social inequities in the provider-client relationship. This suggests that the perpetuation of homelessness is not internal to the homeless individual as many claim, but rather may be embedded in the service industry itself, which subjects both clients and providers to bureaucratic forms of authority and experiences of disrespect. These negative descriptions are juxtaposed with positive comments, which offer potential solutions from homeless individuals themselves. We conclude that qualitative research, in contrast to a reliance on statistics and best practice assessments, is an important tool in developing socially just policies and programs serving those in need.

Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed.We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement.All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health.

Negative perceptions of homelessness contribute to deficit models of practice, false notions of homogeneity, and marginalization. Wellbeing is a state of satisfaction with material, social, and human aspects of life and can be measured both objectively and subjectively. The study explored the meaning and experience of wellbeing in the everyday lives of 20 homeless participants through fieldwork and interviews. This study revealed that health contributed little to their overall perception of wellbeing. Keeping safe, being positive and feeling good, connecting with others, and the ability to participate in “normal” life were the key contributors of subjective wellbeing. The authors demonstrate that social exclusion experienced in homelessness has a negative effect on subjective wellbeing. Services that provide opportunities to experience social inclusion and develop community and cultural connections will improve the wellbeing of homeless persons.

People who are homeless are at risk of COVID-19.

Homeless services are often provided in congregate settings, which could facilitate the spread of infection. Because many people who are homeless are older adults or have underlying medical conditions, they may also be at higher risk for severe disease.

Health departments and healthcare facilities should be aware that people who are homeless are a particularly vulnerable group. If possible, identifying non-congregate settings where those at highest risk can stay may help protect them from COVID-19.

How people experiencing homelessness can protect themselves

Many of the recommendations to prevent COVID-19 may be difficult for a person experiencing homelessness to do. Although it may not be possible to avoid certain crowded locations (such as shelters), people who are homeless should:

  • Try to avoid other crowded public settings.
  • If using public transportation, follow the CDC guidance on how to protect yourself when using transportation, try to travel during less busy times, and clean your hands as soon as possible after their trip.
  • If possible, use take-away options for food.
  • Maintain a distance of 6 feet (about two arms’ length) from other people.
  • Wash their hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds as often as possible, and cover their coughs and sneezes.

Donations of food and clothing to homeless service providers

Homeless service providers can accept donations of food and clothing during community spread of COVID-19, but general infection control precautions should be taken. Request that donors not donate if they are sick.

  • Set up donation drop-off points to encourage social distancing between shelter workers and those donating.
  • Launder donated clothing, sheets, towels, or other fabrics on high heat settings, and disinfect items that are nonporous, such as items made of plastic.
  • Food donations should be shelf-stable, and shelter staff should take usual food-related infection prevention precautions.

Why We Need the Arts

Art has been central to human expression since time immemorial. We have come a long way from the cave paintings of our earliest ancestors to stop motion animation. But connecting all modes of artistic expression is the representation of the human, his thoughts, feelings, and aspirations. The power of art has only become stronger with time and remains as spectacular as ever. Even when we have progressed far ahead in science and technology, art has never been and never will be something that is non-essential. While everything else is poised towards our pursuit of knowledge, the arts itself is a way of knowing and representing the seeker himself.

In this time of the COVID-19 pandemic, with almost the entire global having to shut-down and face an unprecedented crisis, humanity is desperate for hope. This pandemic has not only led to a health crisis but a global economic and political crisis as well. While we battle against the odds as best as we can with all the knowledge and expertise that we have accumulated over the years, we have also come to see the importance of things that make us hopeful and optimistic.

couple love sitting evening
Photo by cottonbro on

The arts have proved their value yet again in this situation by offering us the respite we need from the daily inflow of depressing news and uncertainty of the future. In the months of lockdown, music and cinema have been constant companions to many. With the cinema closed and live music becoming temporarily non-existent, it is a blessing that we can still access the arts through technology. Art often allows us to distract ourselves for a little while and thus maintain a balance, not getting fully sucked into any kind of despair. From stand-up comedians to big-screen movies, from mural art to simple tunes, the arts have helped us get through many a day and have reminded us who we are. It lets us remember better days and also leaves space for hope. It allows us to imagine and expands our perspectives on life. Art has been proven to concretely influence our physical health and well-being. Art also provides a platform from which we can interact with other cultures and other styles of expression. It is also a tool for political awareness and self-assertion as well as the creation of identities. It adds meaning, curates safe spaces, and tells our story.

While we praise the arts often in public, one has to wonder whether we had placed it as being lesser useful than the sciences. In many households in India, children are actively told to pursue science or professional courses which will land them a steady income and security in life. This is because an industrially-driven culture that focuses only on profit places a lesser value on endeavors that might not seem to have any specific tangible profit. This has led to artists struggling to make a living and many being forced to leave their passions to pursue other ‘safer’ options to survive. Artists are regularly underpaid and underappreciated. This has also led to many small-town and emerging artists struggling to make a living during this lockdown. This pandemic ought to make us see this practice that has been so ingrained in our society and move us to re-instate the arts as equal, if not more valuable, than all other pursuits. This needs to be a systemic change and has to be prioritized, keeping in mind how much art has enriched our lives. We need to understand how it is intrinsic to our humanity and that at the end of the day, we need more than just medicine for the body but also healing for the soul, a way to process our emotions, and a reminder of our shared humanity.

Why HRD(Human Resource Development) is important in achieving organisational goals?


M M Khan explains that “Human resource development concept is the across of increasing knowledge, capabilities and positive work attitudes of all people working at all levels in a business undertaking.”

Employees feel the need of knowledge, skills attitudes and values to perform the task efficiently. We call these competencies. Higher degree of competencies is required for higher degree and quality of job performance. Hence to achieve the goals in the changing situation, it is necessary to develop competencies continuously in an organisation.

In the present competitive situation to survive, grow and excel, the competent and motivated employees are essential. To maintain the growth level over a period of time, competencies of employees need to be sharpened or developed as organisation operates in the changing environment.

The organisations are interested to develop their business though products or services. They want to bring effectiveness in the organisation through cost reduction, delay reduction, better customer satisfaction, service promptness and better quality. Hence for these, the organisation needs to develop its human resource competencies to perform better.

Concept of HRD

Human resource development in the organisation context is a process by which the employees of an organisation are helped, in a continuous and planned way to:

  1. Acquire or sharpen capabilities required to perform various functions associated with their present or expected future roles;
  2. Develop their general capabilities as individuals and discover and exploit their own inner potentials for their own and/or organisational development purposes; and
  3. Develop an organisational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationships, teamwork and collaboration among sub-units are strong and contribute to the professional well being, motivation and pride of employees.

This definition of HRD is limited to the organisational context. In the context of a state or nation it would differ.

HRD is a process, not merely a set of mechanisms and techniques. The mechanisms and techniques such as performance appraisal, counselling, training, and organization development interventions are used to initiate, facilitate, and promote this process in a continuous way. Because the process has no limit, the mechanisms may need to be examined periodically to see whether they are promoting or hindering the process. Organisations can facilitate this process of development by planning for it, by allocating organisational resources for the purpose, and by exemplifying an HRD philosophy that values human beings and promotes their development.

The objectives of HRD are:

i. To prepare the employee to meet the present and changing future job requirements.

ii. To prevent employee obsolescence.

iii. To develop creative abilities and talents.

iv. To prepare employees for higher level jobs.

v. To impart new entrants with basic HRD skills and knowledge.

vi. To develop the potentialities of people for the next level job.

vii. To aid total quality management.

viii. To promote individual and collective morale, a sense of responsibility, co-operative attitudes and good relationships.

ix. To broaden the minds of senior managers by providing them with opportunities for an interchange of experiences within and outside.

x. To ensure smooth and efficient working of the organisation.

xi. To provide comprehensive framework for HRD.

xii. To enhance organisational capabilities.

Human resources development is important because it is an investment in one’s employees that will ultimately result in a stronger and more effective workforce. When an organization develops their employees, they are strengthening their assets and making these employees even more valuable.

Benefits of HRD

Human resource development now a days is considered as the key to higher productivity, better relations and greater profitability for any organisation. Appropriate HRD provides unlimited benefits to the concerned organisation. Some of the important benefits are being given here:

  • HRD (Human Resource Development) makes people more competent. HRD develops new skill, knowledge and attitude of the people in the concern organisations.
  • With appropriate HRD programme, people become more committed to their jobs. People are assessed on the basis of their performance by having a acceptable performance appraisal system.
  • An environment of trust and respect can be created with the help of human resource development.
  • Acceptability toward change can be created with the help of HRD. Employees found themselves better equipped with problem-solving capabilities.
  • It improves the all round growth of the employees. HRD also improves team spirit in the organisation. They become more open in their behaviour. Thus, new values can be generated.
  • It also helps to create the efficiency culture In the organisation. It leads to greater organisational effectiveness. Resources are properly utilised and goals are achieved in a better way.


Plagiarism is considered a form of intellectual theft and fraud. It involves using someone else’s words or ideas and passing them off as your own by not providing credit, either deliberately or accidentally. However, it can also involve reusing your own work from a previous course, and passing it off as new work.

Plagiarism can include:

  • Copying and pasting from a source without enclosing the text in quotation marks and providing a citation.
  • Summarizing or rewording someone else’s ideas without providing a citation.
  • Reusing an assignment you submitted for a previous course.This is called self-plagiarism.
  • Submitting an assignment completed by someone else.
  • Collaborating on an assignment with a classmate or friend on an assignment meant to be completed individually.
  • Writing a paper that strings together quote after quote or paraphrases, even if cited correctly. Your work must include your own original expression of ideas. To add originality to your assignment, include your own critical analysis, interpretation, and examples.
  • Incorrect paraphrasing. When a paraphrase too closely resembles the original it is considered patchwriting. 

Plagiarism can be:

  • Accidental -Accidental plagiarism happens when you are not sure when to cite, paraphrase or quote. This tutorial is meant to help you understand when you need to cite! 
  • Blatant – This type of plagiarism happens when you purposefully use another person’s words and try to pass them off as your own.
  • Self – Self plagiarism occurs when you reuse a paper you wrote in a previous semester for a different course. You must submit original, new work for each course! 

So, there are several basic factors to consider when evaluating a case of possible plagiarism:

  1. Amount or quantity (full paper, a section of a paper, a page, a paragraph, a sentence, phrases)
  2. Use of quotation marks for all copied text.
  3. Appropriate placement of credit notices.
  4. Improper paraphrasing.

Follow these four steps to ensure your paper is free from plagiarism:

  1. Keep track of the sources you consult in your research.
  2. Paraphrase or quote from your sources (and add your own ideas).
  3. Credit the original author in an in-text citation and reference list.
  4. Use a plagiarism checker before you submit.

Examples of plagiarism

  • A writer decides that he wants to create an Internet website to generate ad revenue. Instead of writing his own articles, he visits twenty other websites that have articles on the topic in which he is interested. He copies each of the articles, changes the titles and the authors’ names to his name and posts the articles on his own website.
  • An academic is expected to publish papers but he doesn’t have time to research because of family obligations. He looks through old professional journals in another country and he copies a 10-year-old article from someone else in the field. He submits the article as his own and hopes that no one finds the article from which he copied.
  • A student is expected to write a book report about a book that his teacher has assigned. The student doesn’t want to read the book and is bored with the subject. He visits websites that provide reviews and book reports and he copies from each of the different book reports to create one report of his own.

Bluetooth Technology

Hey Readers. Every now and then, people talk about the use of automation in diverse processes of business, technology, developments and day-to-day activities. As our world has grown increasingly connected, we’ve adopted a number of technologies to help us stay in contact with our friends, acquaintances and family.


As it is a dynamic world, many technologies have come and stayed, but many have disappeared very soon. Today, we will consider the one that has stayed from a ling time: “Bluetooth Technology”. It is a wireless connectivity standard using radio signals and has become one of the most commonly used protocols. This wireless technology connects mice and keyboards to our computers. It also connects our phones to speaker, mics, headphones and various other technical devices to make our life easy and convenient.

How does Bluetooth work?

The Bluetooth RF transceiver (or physical layer) operates in the unlicensed ISM band centered at 2.4 gigahertz (the same range of frequencies used by microwaves and Wi-Fi). The core system employs a frequency-hopping transceiver to combat interference and fading.

Bluetooth devices are managed using an RF topology known as a “star topology.” A group of devices synchronized in this fashion forms a piconet, which may contain one master and up to seven active slaves, with additional slaves that are not actively participating in the network. (A given device may also be part of one or more piconets, either as a master or as a slave.) In a piconet, the physical radio channel is shared by a group of devices that are synchronized to a common clock and frequency-hopping pattern, with the master device providing the synchronization references. (Source:

An integral part of the industrial IoT expansion, Bluetooth® technology helps manufacturers achieve new levels of productivity and safety. The improved location accuracy and robustness of the technology help drive down implementation and maintenance costs, enhance operational efficiency, and support commercial and industrial solutions that strive to increase workplace safety and security in environments like chemical plants. (Source:

Bluetooth is a PAN technology. It offers fast and reliable transmission for both voice and data communication. It also suports both packet-switching and circuit-switching. Mainly one device is a master (phone or lapy for instance) and other devices are connected to it. Two or more piconets are interconnected to form a scatter net.

What you don't know about Bluetooth 5 technology - Samma3a Tech


  • Wireless
  • No setup needed
  • No need of internet connectivity
  • Low power consumption
  • Industry Wide support


  • Short range
  • Cant interfere with wireless LAN
  • A bit expensive to put

Bluetooth has a bright future as it is being used with AI and other latest technology as a fusion to create disruption in the industry.

  • Bluetooth asset tracking tags are helping more commercial and industrial environments track and manage critical assets to improve the operational efficiency, leading to 4.2x growth in annual shipment of Bluetooth asset tracking tags by 2024
  • Bluetooth technology plays a key role in workplace safety and security and that 60% of those surveyed are currently testing or deploying workplace management solutions
  • 4x range improvement helps drive reliable connections in harsh environments and can support predictive maintenance across a variety of complex industrial and commercial spaces.


India has a long history behind it, though as an independent nation it is still a rich. India is rich in almost every aspect of human activity. This richness is not of the recent past but dates back to thousands of years. We, living today, are heirs to a rich, healthy heritage which is the envy and admiration of the rest of the world. Our culture is one of the best and oldest. The nations which are highly developed and which hold an important place today in the comity of nations, were little known at a time when the glory of India was widespread. Many things have contributed to the proud heritage that has been handed over to us by our forefathers.

Evidence of our heritage and culture can be got from the excavations made in Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The Indus Valley Civilisation is one of the oldest and offers proof of a great culture that existed in the distant past. The Vedas and the Upanishads, the oldest of literatures are rich in pearls of wisdom. Spiritual and moral ‘tenets’ and guidance are got in plenty from these. They transcend boundaries of nations or creeds or religions, but apply to the whole world. Among the greatest epics of the world are the Ramayana and the Mahabaratha. The Bhagavat Gita is a Universal Document of Wisdom and Truth, holding a rich store of knowledge in various aspects of life. One who is an avid reader and follower of the Gita will get its truth instilled into one’s nature and such a one will be looked upon with love, respect and admiration by others, such is the value of the classic.undefined

Kings and Emperors in ancient days were patrons of art and literature. They have had counsellors who gave them valuable guidance and advice not only religious matters but also on the economic, social and political aspects of life. There were also men of genius who entertained the kings and the people with their poetic skill and imagination. There is no subject left untouched or unadorned by our ancients. Great men like kalidasa and kautilya will live as long as human beings inhabit this world. “Shakunthalam” and “Meghadoot” of Kalidasa and “The Arthasastra” of Kautilya are immortal. The latter is a treatise on political philosophy of the highest order.

Art, architecture, painting and sculpture, weaving, music and dance…. there is no field left undistinguished by our ancients. Artists of every description were patronised by great Emperors and Kings some of whom were themselves eminent in the arts and music.Temples are repositories of architectural beauty and monumental proof of the artistic skills of people of the past. Many examples of beautiful temples can be found. The Brihadeeswara Temple at Thanjavur in Tamil Nadu is a standing testimony to the technological protection that was the hallmark of such structures. It offers proof for the technical proficiency of the builders who did not have any of the advantages that modern technology offers to builders.

Arts and architecture of the ancients were developed later by others and even foreign rulers of India admired them and made them blend with other cultures. Bharatanatyam, Kathakali, Kathak and Manipuri among dances, the Kushan, Gandhara and Guptha forms among art forms, were revelations to the innumerable foreign travelers who visited India at various times in the past. Painting was not far behind these, as is evident from the Ajantha paintings. A modern marvel of art and architecture that had its roots in the past and which is a fine legacy left to us in Mamallapuram or better known as Mahabalipuram near Chennai.

Considering all these facts, it may be said that our heritage is one of the valuable treasures handed over to us by our forefathers. Western education, adoption of Western modes of dress and ways of life, faith in rationality, disbelief in religious tenets and truths tend to undermine the value of our heritage. It is the bounden duty of everyone, every Indian worth his salt, to preserve the ancient heritage handed over to us, so that we would be in a position to pass on this wealth of wisdom to posterity. We have to see to it that divisive tendencies do not destroy the cultural heritage that has come down to us through the centuries. India and culture should ever be an inseparable combination that should act as a model and a beacon light to the rest of the world.

Don’t Bully the Bully

End bullying before it ends another life.

The news of tragic demise of Sushant Singh Rajput has shaken up the entire film industry to the core and people are filled with understandable grief and outrage, but unfortunately, the whole situation has turned ugly as the people who’re rightfully filled with anger have become so blinded by it that they think that there are no consequences to abusing on the internet and they think that their actions are justified. They want to take out their frustration, so where do they go? Of course, the Internet. On social media, the initial outpouring of grief and conversations about mental health rapidly gave way to conspiracy theories, allegations of dark plots, and soon enough, some “villains” had been zeroed in upon – recognisable faces on which to pin blame, and then mercilessly, relentlessly abuse.

So far, it’s Sushant’s close associates and the “star kids”, in the recent turn of events, have been bearing the brunt of all the outpouring rage. Of late, people have been invading Ankita Lokhande’s fiancé Vicky Jain’s Instagram handle with hate comments for him. While some asked Vicky to leave Ankita, some accused him of ruining Sushant and Ankita’s relationship. Vicky has even now limited the comments to his Instagram posts to avoid the negativity. Actress Sonam Kapoor Ahuja too has been receiving several hate messages where people have slammed her and wished death for her future children.

It’s high time that we realize that cyber bullying is a crime. It’s in a way ironical that Sushant Singh Rajput lost his life due to bullying, lookism and nepotism, but now we are doing the same thing. Bullying the bully won’t cut it. Tragic as it is, Rajput’s suicide only highlights the stress faced by those in Bollywood. But issues such as nepotism, insider-outsider biases, sexism, discrimination are also part of other industry. By blaming and shaming Karan Johar or other so- called “nepotists” like Bhatt, Ranveer Singh, Varun Dhawan among others, many on so social media seemed to lose the real focus of the discourse which should be on improving mental health awareness, preparedness and infrastructure to help people cope with stress in all environments.

Toxicity cannot be reduced with further toxicity and cyberbullying is not the best practice when the end-goal is improving mental health.

Sending death threats and calling people ugly is definitely not the way to pay tribute to his legacy. If you want to pay a tribute to SSR, then the best thing is to be kind and never fear from struggle. We should remember him for his acting and his talent. Sushant Singh Rajput was struggling with mental health. The worst way to disgrace his memory is to subject others to bullying and mental harassment. Nepotism in Bollywood is real and rampant. The industry is largely run by a few clans, promoting their kin at the cost of talented outsiders, who are robbed audience, which is robbed of quality content. All these problems need to be acknowledged and discussed. None of these problems can be solved by heaping abuses on individual actors and subjecting them to vile trolling. This incident has also caused a much-needed debate regarding India’s mental health awareness and preparedness.

Everyone you meet is fighting a battle that you know nothing about. Be kind. Always.

#BlackLivesMatter Vs. #AllLivesMatter

Saying that black lives matter doesn’t mean that other lives do not.

The tragic death of George Floyd at the hands of Minneapolis police has sparked intense debate over the question of racism in USA and triggered the Black Lives Matter movement. The protests have also sparked wide-ranging conversations about the responsibility industries and organizations — including the media — have to address institutional racism. To be clear, for much of its seven-year existence, the Black Lives Matter movement has been seen by many Americans as a divisive, even radical force. It’s very name enraged it’s foes, who countered with the slogans “Blue Lives Matter” and “White Lives Matter.” The tragedy, however, dramatically sparked a wave of protests sparked and enabled the Black Lives Matter movement to go has gone mainstream. The struggle is no longer confined to the national borders of the United States. However, soon enough, #AllLivesMatter became a slogan that has come to be associated with criticism of the Black Lives Matter movement. However, saying #AllLivesMatter completely missed the point of the Black Lives Matter.

Imagine that you’re sitting down to dinner with your family, and while everyone else gets a serving of the meal, you don’t get any. So you say “I should get my fair share.” And as a direct response to this, your dad corrects you, saying, “everyone should get their fair share.” Now, that’s a wonderful sentiment – indeed, everyone should, and that was kind of your point in the first place: that you should be a part of everyone, and you should get your fair share also. However, dad’s smart-ass comment just dismissed you and didn’t solve the problem that you still haven’t gotten any! The problem is that the statement “I should get my fair share” had an implicit “too” at the end: “I should get my fair share, too, just like everyone else.” But your dad’s response treated your statement as though you meant “only I should get my fair share”, which clearly was not your intention. As a result, his statement that “everyone should get their fair share,” while true, only served to ignore the problem you were trying to point out. That’s the situation of the “black lives matter” movement. Culture, laws, the arts, religion, and everyone else repeatedly suggest that all lives should matter. Clearly, that message already abounds in our society.

Just like asking dad for your fair share, the phrase “black lives matter” also has an implicit “too” at the end: it’s saying that black lives should also matter. But responding to this by saying “all lives matter” is willfully going back to ignoring the problem. It’s a way of dismissing the statement by falsely suggesting that it means “only black lives matter,” when that is obviously not the case. And so saying “all lives matter” as a direct response to “black lives matter” is essentially saying that we should just go back to ignoring the problem. The phrase “Black lives matter” carries an implicit “too” at the end; it’s saying that black lives should also matter. Saying “all lives matter” is dismissing the very problems that the phrase is trying to draw attention to.
Needless to say, dialogue matters and the George Floyd uprising has brought us hope for change. Now we must turn protest to policy.

All lives can’t matter until Black Lives Matter.

What you need from your Customers: Loyalty

3 Ways to Build Customer Loyalty at Your Restaurant

Customer loyalty is an important part of any type of business. Loyal customers are more likely to come back and purchase more of your company’s goods or services and thus increase the profits of the company in the long-term. Customers who are given the chance to participate in loyalty programs are also known to be more likely to recommend goods and services to friends and family as they begin to feel loyal towards the company. However, gaining and maintaining customer loyalty can be a challenge especially depending on the type of business and the strategic goals that the company wants to achieve in the future.

One way that a company can attempt to gain the loyalty of their customers is through loyalty programs. The term loyalty program refers to the use of a special gift or incentive being used after a repeated action by the customer. An example of this would be if a cake shop decided to give their customers a free cake for every nine cakes that they had already purchased. This incentive encourages customers to spend their money at the store because there is a special reward for giving the company their business. Aside from this, there are two main reasons why companies should consider using this method of customer service to improve their customer loyalty. One of these reasons includes the fact that loyalty programs have a positive effect on the relationship quality between the customer and the business and that these types of programs make the customer feel entitled towards their reward from the company because of the business that the customer gives them.

A loyalty program “gives the customer a sense of superior status relative to the other, “ordinary” customers” (Steinhoff & Palmatier, 2014). This, in turn, makes the customer feel more valued and is more likely to bring them back to your business instead of someone else’s business the next time they want to purchase a good or service. The other reason is that there is the principle of reciprocity once the customer receives that reward from the company. They will feel like they need to reciprocate or give back to the company for the reward that they received. This is a principle that is taken from studies done on human behaviour and the factors that motivate human beings. This principle can be used to benefit companies through the loyalty programs, because as stated above, once the customer receives their rewards they will feel as though they have an obligation to pay the company back by giving their loyalty to that business. This can increase profits for the company as loyal customers will continually purchase their goods and services.

Overall, companies can greatly increase their long-term profits and sales if they implement customer service practices such as loyalty programs since loyal customers have been proven to repeatedly revisit the company and repurchase goods and services that are offered. Loyal customers are also more likely to recommend the business and thus companies are receiving positive benefits yet again. All of this is because customers not only begin to feel more special to the company because of the rewards they receive but because they also feel a need to reciprocate for those rewards as well. If a company is willing to invest in creating a loyalty program for their customers then they will directly see the positive effects that it could have on their business and customer relationships.


Ma, B., Li, X. and Zhang, L. (2018), “The effects of loyalty programs in services – a double-edged sword?”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 32 No. 3, pp. 300-310.

Steinhoff, L., Palmatier, R.W. Understanding loyalty program effectiveness: managing target and bystander effects. J. of the Acad. Mark. Sci. 44, 88–107 (2016).


Abortion is defined as the deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy in the English dictionary. India has gone on a long journey to stay true to this definition. India on its policy and laws on abortion have always been towards to shield and preserve women’s rights. Its laws have reflected the international principles of the women committees that the country is a part of. The abortion laws have invariably been revised now and again understanding the transitional and fluid ways of the changing times. The MTP Act has been in place in India for almost four decades. From the MTP Act of 1971, MTP Amendments of 2002, MTP Rules 2003, MTP Amendments of 2014, and MTP Amendments of 2020 show a clear step towards making women’s rights to safe abortion care and services. In the recent amendment of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, the cabinet ministers of the union government have decided to amend the abortion laws to suit the changing times and have modified the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act to increase the time for the termination of pregnancy from 12 to 24 weeks. This amendment also has altered the usage of the term “only married women and her husband “to “any women and their partners“.

MTP Act in India was passed in 1971  that was amended in 2020 allows women to seek an abortion under certain conditions. The conditions being (a) if there is an injury to the mother’s physical health or mental health should she continuing the pregnancy, (b) or if there is a risk of mental or physical abnormalities to the fetus which would leave the fetus with abnormalities  (c) if the pregnancy is the result of rape in which termination of pregnancy is allowed as the mental trauma to the women is considered as a grave injury to her mental health(d) if the resultant pregnancy is due to the failure of a contraceptive used by the couple to limit the number of children they have.  The MTP Act also mentions the place where an abortion should be done. Abortion must be done in a hospital sanctioned by the government or a place, for the time being, is approved by the government to do the act. The MTP must also be done by a registered medical professional. When the length of pregnancy exceeds more than 12 weeks, the abortion must be done with the consultation and approval of two registered medical professionals. The act also provides legal security to the medical professional performing the procedure. Anyone who violates the of the article is punishable by law. A person who is not a medical professional is found to be performing or has performed termination of pregnancy is punishable with rigorous imprisonment of a term of 2 years which may be extended to 7 years as it violates Act 19 of the Pre- Conception, and Pre – Diagnostic Techniques Act,1994. If the procedure of termination of pregnancy is done at a place that is not legally approved by the government then the person owing the place is punishable by rigorous imprisonment for 2 years as it is a clear infringement of the provisions of act 19 of the  Pre- Conception, and Pre – Diagnostic Techniques Act,1994.  The place which is legally sanctioned should display its certificate in a manner that is easily seen by the persons visiting the place. If the place has failed to do this action, It is fined with an amount of one thousand rupees as it is in breach of rule 5(7) of the Pre- Conception, and Pre – Diagnostic Techniques Act,1994.

The women undergoing an abortion should fill a Consent form. The Consent form is a requirement to show that abortion was voluntary and informed abortion 18 hours before the process of abortion to the patient. The place where the procedure is done has to fill out the RMP Opinion form, Monthly  Reporting Form, and the Admission Register of case records. The RMP Opinion Form is for the registered medical practitioner to state their credentials, certification, and their good faith towards the procedure done to the patient. The Monthly Reporting Form and the Admission Register of case records are for the hospital/place to track the number of abortion cases in the hospital/place over a month. Thus it is seen that there are many rules and regulations to follow when a woman wants to undergo an abortion. The new abortion laws in India are more progressive and pioneering a new path for the public healthcare system in India. All these laws regarding abortion in India are based to protect women who have been raped or sexually violated and as a measure of population control.

A Life Less Ordinary

Many of us wonder what the Army does in peacetime when there is no war on. Some people believe that they live a life of luxury, drink a lot and generally waste their time in playing golf or card games or hunting. This is far from the truth. As you know our army is deployed all along the Himalayan borders with China, and along the LoC in J&K. Most of these borders are inhospitable, uncongenial in climate, lacking in normal facilities. Even drinking water is not available in some areas. 

The army formations not deployed on the borders have been busy combating insurgencies in J&K and the Northeast. It is evident that only a small portion of the army gets a chance to stay in a peacetime cantonment, that too for short periods.

This chapter deals with army activities in fields and peace areas, to enable the reader to fully visualize the lifestyle of our solider and officers and their daily activities in peace and field stations.

Life in a Peacetime Location

A military station is called a Cantonment. Here a number of units are billeted in peacetime. A cantonment is a separate township under a cantonment board which is like a town committee or municipal board. It has some elected civilian members and others nominated by the station HQ. The cantonment board runs all the civic services like a municipal board. Most cantonments have normal bazaars and civil population like any small town or locality. The rules and regulations in a cantonment are however strictly enforced. Therefore, you generally find good roads and greater cleanliness in a cantonment as compared to other civil localities. A number of units are located in a cantonment depending upon the availability of accommodation. These units are generally grouped under a brigade or a sub-area (Static HQ). The station HQ is responsible for general administration, allotment of houses and barracks along with allied facilities.A unit, i.e. a battalion or a regiment, stays together in what is known as unit lines. These lines generally have a group of living barracks for troops, playground, armoury for weapons and unit office buildings. The JCOs’ and NCOs’ clubs and Jawans’ langars (community dining rooms) are also located here along with the unit canteen, recreation room, unit clothing stores, transport park and light vehicle repair sections etc. Barbers, washermen and safaiwalas (sweepers), carpenters, blacksmiths etc. posted to a unit also stay here. The family lines of a unit are located nearby where jawans can stay with their families for limited periods. The officers’ messes and living quarters are located slightly away from the unit lines. Married officers live in small bungalows allotted to them in the cantonment area. Bachelors are allotted single rooms near the officers’ messes.

There is no restriction in going in and out of a cantonment area for civilians but they cannot enter a unit line without prior permission from the authorities.

A Normal Working Day

In a peacetime cantonment the normal day of a jawan starts before sunrise. Once the Reveille bugle is sounded, jawans ‘fall in’ (assemble in rank and file) in sports kit. By now every jawan has shaved and washed and is ready for physical training (PT). His platoon commander –a JCO, normally inspects him to make sure that he is properly shaved and well turned out. He inspects his dress to ensure that it is clean and well ironed. Now the jawans are moved ‘on the double’ (running) or marched off briskly to the unit parade or PT ground. In this assembly the whole unit is together. Here the JCOs and then the officers join the parade. The PT, which is the first parade, involves vigorous exercise and running. After the PT, every one disperses for breakfast and assembles for various other training, parades or tasks after an hour’s break. Weapons training, firing, driving training and education classes, as applicable, are carried out till about 12’o clock. At this hour jawans are marched off to clean their weapons and return the weapons and equipment. After this, jawans proceed to the langars for lunch. Officers and JCOs now go to attend the office or administrative work as required.



India is a diverse country, a fact that is visibly prominent in its people, culture and climate. From the eternal snows of the Himalayas to the cultivated peninsula of far South, from the deserts of the West to the humid deltas of the East, from the dry heat and cold of the Central Plateau to the cool forest foothills, Indian lifestyles clearly glorify the geography. The food, clothing and habits of an Indian differ in accordance to the place of origin.

The Indian culture varies like its vast geography. People speak in different languages, dress differently, follow different religions, eat different food but are of the same temperament. So whether it is a joyous occasion or a moment of grief, people participate whole-heartedly, feeling the happiness or pain. A festival or a celebration is never constrained to a family or a home. The whole community or neighbourhood is involved in bringing liveliness to an occasion. Likewise, an Indian wedding is a celebration of union, not only of the bride and groom, but also of two families, maybe cultures or religion too! Similarly, in times of sorrow, neighbours and friends play an important part in easing out the grief.

The global image of India is that of an upcoming and progressive nation. True, India has leaped many boundaries in all sectors- commerce, technology and development etc in the recent past, yet she has not neglected her other creative genius. Wondering what it is? Well, it the alternative science that has been continuously practiced in India since times immemorial. Ayurveda, is a distinct form of medicine made purely of herbs and natural weeds, that can cure any ailment of the world. Ayurveda has also been mentioned in the Ancient Indian epics like Ramayana. Even today, when the western concept of medicine has reached its zenith, there are people looking for alternative methods of treatment for its multifarious qualities.

With increasing complexities in one’s lives these days, people are perpetually looking for a medium through which they get some peace of mind. This is where another science, that of meditation and spirituality comes into the scene. Meditation and Yoga are synonymous with India and Indian spirituality. Meditation is one of the most important components of Yoga, which is a mind-body therapy involving a series of exercises. The word ‘meditation’ covers many disparate practices from visualizing situations, focusing on objects or images, thinking through a complex idea, or even getting lost in a provocative book, all qualifying as meditation in the broad sense. However in Yoga, meditation generally refers to the more formal practice of focusing the mind and observing oneself in the moment. Many people from India and abroad are resorting to yoga and meditation to de-stress and rejuvenate their mind.

Another widely followed phenomena in India is the Doctrine of Karma that preaches that every person should behave justly as every act or deed comes back in full circle in one of the births of an individual.

A very important aspect of India in the recent past is the emergence of the New Age woman. Women in India are predominantly homemakers, though this perspective is changing. In many places, especially metros and other cities, women are the bread earners of the house or are at par with their male counterparts. The increase in the cost of living/economy has also contributed to the rise in this aspect.

The beauty of the Indian people lies in their spirit of tolerance, give-and-take and a composition of cultures that can be compared to a garden of flowers of various colours and shades of which, while maintaining their own entity, lend harmony and beauty to the garden – India!