The Evil of Human Trafficking

One of the greatest evils that we face in the 21st century is the phenomenon of Human Trafficking. It is considered to be modern-day slavery with around 24.9 million victims trapped in it. According to a 2017 report by the International Labor Organization (ILO) and Walk Free Foundation, of the 24.9 million victims caught in trafficking rackets, around 64% were exploited for labour (16 million people), 19% exploited sexually (4.8 million), and 17% exploited in state-imposed labor (4.1 million). According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, ‘Human Trafficking’ is defined as, “The Act of recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.” More than half of the victims are women, another 20% are men, and the rest are children. Victims are either abducted, threatened or forced, or they or someone in charge of them is promised money and other material benefits. Many people get trapped in trafficking units since they are promised a job offer and an escape from their poverty, inability to provide for themselves, and their vulnerability. But they find that they have been tricked once they follow through the offer and then are unable to get out, usually isolated from their culture and unable to contact anyone they know.

close up photo of padlock hanging on chain link fence
Photo by William Eickler on Pexels.com

Human trafficking can be transnational, which means that the victims are sent abroad to the place where they are exploited, or it could even be domestic, where the victims are not forced to travel as much but still exploited within their own country or community. Those who organize and execute such trafficking chains make huge amounts of money from these exploits of dehumanization which is one reason why it continues to grow. And most often, these people are never caught and get away with the illegal exploitation of thousands of people. The seemingly lax methods by which prosecution of traffickers are done and the fact that most of them never face any punishment or consequences are appalling and point to a need for more stringency in our systems of law. The fact that this is an exponentially growing industry in an age when we claim ourselves to be more civilized than ever before points to an ethical hollowness underneath our many jargons of progress.

Trafficking being such a pervasive global phenomenon means that you will probably come across a trafficker or a victim in your life. It is the need of the hour that we know how to respond to situations of crisis as well as be knowledgeable about these issues. Here are some practical things that can be done to fight human trafficking:

  • Advocate for better laws and swifter actions on traffickers. Try to highlight the gravity of the issue in any way you can. Work with organizations that support this cause (like International Justice Mission, Apne Aap, Hope for Justice, Oasis India, Stop the traffik)
  • Spread awareness about trafficking. Be informed and encourage others to do the same. Discourage people from accepting job offers whose sources seem obscure and unverifiable.
  • Support organizations working towards finding and freeing those caught in trafficking. Ensure that these victims are protected and able to provide for themselves once they are back. Give them jobs and means to build a life, actively work against any stigma that may be surrounding them. Be considerate of their mental health since many of them will be severely traumatized by their experiences.
  • Learn to identify signs that an individual might be in distress, particularly while traveling or in public spaces. A few of the things we can do is to look for signs of abuse or injury, if they are avoiding eye contact with most people, if they seem anxious about security checks or of anyone who approaches them, if they seem malnourished and uncomfortable but remains silent.

Human trafficking can be fought on multiple levels but it will only end when the masses are freed and the traffickers are vanquished. For that, we have to do much more than wheat we are doing now. We need to realize the importance of the issue and take it up on a global level, and we need to stop being silent on these issues by assuming that it will never happen to us. The day we stop being complicit to these acts by our silence will be the day change will begin.

 

BIGGEST TWITTER HACK IN US

Some of the hackers, who cheat people and earn money always try to find ways to use the internet and social media platforms for their benefit. The earlier such hacks have been through online games, phishing, malware, smishing, insecure networks, physical security threats, etc. We all are aware of the very famous Ransom virus which affected a very large population. Over time, hackers change their ways to attack people and steal money.

The recent news is the twitter hack in the US of some billionaires. The Twitter accounts of Joe Biden, Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos, Kanye West were among the tens of high-profile accounts that were hijacked last night. These accounts were then used to spread bitcoin scams and fool people into donating money through a link. Billionaires Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos and Bill Gates are among many prominent US figures targeted by hackers on Twitter in an apparent Bitcoin scam. The official accounts of Barack Obama, Joe Biden, and Kanye West also requested donations in the cryptocurrency. “Everyone is asking me to give back,” a tweet from Mr. Gates’ account said. “You send $1,000, I send you back $2,000.”

“We’re looking into what other malicious activity they may have conducted or information they may have accessed and will share more here as we have it,” the company tweeted. Twitter said that once they became aware of what happened, they “immediately locked down” hacked accounts and removed the tweets sent on their behalf. Twitter also limited functionality for all verified accounts, including those that showed no evidence of being compromised, while they investigated the issue. “We have locked accounts that were compromised and will restore access to the original account owner only when we are certain we can do so securely,” Twitter said. “Internally, we’ve taken significant steps to limit access to internal systems and tools while our investigation is ongoing. More updates to come as our investigation continues.”

Twitter also acknowledged that the hacks were a coordinated social engineering attack by people who successfully “targeted some of our employees with access to internal systems and tools.” Screenshots of the panel being posted by users are being taken down as a violation of Twitter policies. “As per our rules, we’re taking action on any private, personal information shared in Tweets,” said a Twitter spokesperson.

Some leading cryptocurrency sites were also compromised on Wednesday. Cryptocurrency platforms like Coinbase and Gemini falsely “announced” they had partnered up with an organization called CryptoForHealth, through their Twitter accounts. They claimed that the organization was going to provide people with bitcoin as long as they sent some to an address first. Other prominent Twitter accounts that were hacked were that of President Barack Obama, Kim Kardashian West, Warren Buffett, Jeff Bezos, and Mike Bloomberg. Official accounts of Uber and Apple tweeted out a post that was a spam message. The spam message directed readers to invest bitcoin in the wallet address that was provided in the tweets and claimed that they would get double the money they spend.

 

OPTIMISTIC THINKING

Building up an inspirational mentality can help in a bigger number of ways than we may understand. At the point when you think positive musings, we don’t permit our brain (cognizant or subliminal) to engage any negative contemplation or questions.

After figuring out how to think positive, we will see astounding changes surrounding us. The mind will really start to work in a condition of free-streaming feel-great hormones called endorphins, which will cause to feel lighter and more joyful. We’ll additionally see a significant lift in certainty and will feel increasingly equipped for taking on new tasks and difficulties that may have recently been outside your customary range of familiarity.

By lessening self-constraining convictions, we will adequately discharge your brakes and experience development like never envisioned. Basically, we can change as long as you can remember essentially by bridling the intensity of positive reasoning.

Much thanks for perusing my blog about the intensity of positive reasoning and building up an inspirational disposition. I trust , it will motivate you to see the positive qualities in others and help you to improve your life.

In The Pursuit of Happiness

Photo by David Orsborne from Pexels

If there’s one thing which will be said about happiness, it’s that it’s wholly and utterly subjective. What makes one person happy — picking flowers on a sunny day, perhaps — may make another person decidedly unhappy. John Locke, however, believed that happiness is the wild of humanity. As Locke wrote on the topic, humans “are drawn by the forces of delight and repulsed by pain” Exactly what gives that pleasure, again, varies widely. Researchers believe that the buildup of wealth may be a major source of delight. Material gain within the sorts of money, property, and private possessions is not the only way most people pursue happiness, however.

In the same poll, people that were married — regardless of what their income level was — were happier than single people. Although we may sometimes neglect to cultivate our happiness, feeling happy is intrinsically important. If we are happy it’s added play effects and benefits. These include us becoming more compassionate and feeling healthier both physically and emotionally. We become more creative, witty, energetic, and fun to be around and it also can lead us to become more financially successful. Very few folks live our lives in complete isolation. We will have partners, families, friends, and work colleagues with whom we interact on a day to day so if we’re happy, then it’s likely to mean that they’ll feel happier too. Therefore, through our happiness, we are giving something to people too, and enabling them to feel happy also.

For happiness to be attained, it’s important to be open and willing to the concept that it is often attained. For us to try to do this, we’d like to rid ourselves of the negative energies which occur in our lives daily and which cause us to feel unhappy or at the best, make us feel as if we are simply existing or drifting through life. Remember, it’s a natural state to feel happy. We are all programmed to feel happy because of the norm. It’s what we let get within the way that alters our programming for the worst. Therefore, by ridding ourselves of negative thoughts, self-doubts, rationalizing problems and seeing them as challenges to be overcome, we get obviate feelings like depression, fear, worry, dissatisfaction, boredom, and grief then, by ridding ourselves of those, all that’s left is happiness, contentment, and peace of mind.

Some will wonder how we will do that when numerous negative things happen to us. In answer thereto, it’s because we LET this stuff. After all, us to possess negative reactions. For example, we’ll have all gone to figure and had a nasty day and are available away carping to a colleague, “The boss got my copy today”. However, he only did that because YOU let him have that effect on you.

In truth, nobody can ever make someone feel anything. Outside behaviors and influences have the facility to trigger negative thoughts but which will only happen if you permit it to. Change the way you answer those triggers and consequently they will haven’t any effect on inflicting any quite misery upon you. This won’t encounter as being a simple thing to try to but if you consciously make the trouble and tell yourself that you simply are getting to be happy and that no-one has the proper to form you are feeling unhappy or can take those feelings away, then you’re in sole control of your feelings of happiness and it’s an incontrovertible fact that by placing happiness at the cornerstone of your very existence, then you’ll be far more effective at creating the type of world you would like.

Science and God

“Science” and “God”, the two words which are often seen as separate entities. These words seem conflicting to most of us and are often a topic of debate. Science seems to question the existence of God and believers of God often question why we are unable to explain the entire universe completely by science to date, a question on the success of science. We can often come across debates on televisions, radio, magazines, etc where people try to prove one as superior over the other. But, are they really two different things? Are they conflicting terms? Or are they same?

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A deeper thought over it can clear our confusion. If we deep dig, we find that indeed both are the same. We really don’t need to choose between them. Science and God, are superior powers. The differences arise when we start associating God with some particular religion and Science with the only education. In reality, science is the process of thinking God’s thought after him. “An equation is really nothing unless it expresses a thought of God”, according to Ramanujan. They both actually merge at the spiritual level.

When we talk of science, it is the theories, the fundamental laws that very well explains the nature around us. It offers an explanation of all the natural phenomena in a very beautiful way and at a very basic level. It helped us understand how to converse in the language of nature, i.e in mathematics. It gives human power. The more we as humans understand science, the more powerful we become. Visit the days when humans started to understand science to get to know about the secrets of nature, the things they imagined then are now a reality. The gadgets they considered as their dreams are now in our hands. The technology we imagine today will also become a reality pretty soon. Science gave a power to humans to achieve the impossible.

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God, on the other hand, is another superiority. There has been no proper evidence of someone seeing a God. We have not seen God, but we all believe in a “power” that is superior to all of us and many refer to this superior power as “God”. God gives humans the strength and power by making us understand the language of love and humanity. Spirituality is the heart of a human being and through God, we reach here. God helps us understand our potential and make us believe in our strengths. It changes our perception and makes the world a very beautiful and peaceful place for us. The world is incomplete without God.

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We can thus conclude,  that both Science and God are a source of immense power to human beings and both are tied together. Both speak the same language. The more faith we develop in God, the more we get close to science, the more we understand science, our belief in the existence of God becomes stronger. Louis Pasteur rightly said that “a bit of science can distance us from God, but more of it nears one to him”, and that is for sure. Diving deep into them will give us immense power and peace.

India’s population may peak in year 2047

According to the assessment conducted by the United nations development programme and according to the study published at Lancet -the popular science journal India’s population is set to peak in the year 2047. At its peak India is to arise its population around 1.61 Billion and after hitting this peak population is set to decline .By the end of this century (Around 2100) India’s population is expected to fall and become around 1.03 Billion. The study also goes on to say that if India manages to achieve all its sustainable Development goal Targets , then its population could fall to as low as 929 Million But still India would have worlds largest population by the end of this century.

As per various population estimates India is set to overtake china very soon and it is expected to hit its peak by 2047 and here onward its population is set to decline and it will set to settle around 1 Billion at the end of this century.These estimates are based on the assumption that all woman will have access to contraception and sex education which will directly have an impact on reducing the current fertility rate .Total fertility rate is a Key metric indicator that is used in Human geography in order to project a countries population growth .TFR by definition means average number of children that a woman will have over her lifetime .If the TFR rate stands at 2.1 , the a country is set to witness a decline in population because a TFR of 2.1 helps in replenishing the population and hence this fertility level is referred as replacement level fertility .At TFR level of 2.1 the population stabilizes and its provides the replacing the deaths with newer births. So a TFR below 2.1 the population is set to decline whereas at TFR above 2.1 population is set to expand. Countries like North America,Europe and South east Asia TFR stands just at 1.75 which is way below the replacement level fertility so this regions are witnessing a decline in population.

A countries TFR is a factor of its development status , In developed countries where there is better access to contraception ,sex education and socio-economic factors is above average we find that TFR factor is always below 2.1 .Whereas in under developed and developing countries with a weak economic profile we always find that TFR rate is always above 2.1 .Same concept is applied within a county as well , TFR exposes the regional development divide .If you look within India the developed states that are located in the south and the west such as Maharashtra, Gujrat ,Tamil nadu and Karnataka, they register a lower TFR as compared to the states in North and east such as UP, Bihar , orissa etc .The study has also suggested that the global population will hit its peak in 2061 at around 9.73 Billion and from this peak the global population is set to fall around 8.79 Billion at the end of century.At the end of this century India is set to be the most populous country.

The fertilizer pattern by using farmers

The purpose of this type is to evaluate the pattern of fertilizer consumption, production trend in India and suggest the sustainable fertilizer based on requirement of various crop, aggro climate zones, soil, and climate. The data for major for fertilizer consuming based on zones and state helps us to understand consumption pattern in our country. During the period of 2007-2011 it was observed the west zone consumption 31,116,73 kiloton’s of fertilizer which was the highest among the four one and was also having highest total annual compound growth rate percentage of 9.68 Among major consuming state of the india Uttar Pradesh was found to be consuming maximum fertilizer, that are 16,621,29 kiloton’s Rice and wheat are the major crops which are consuming 37% and 24% of the fertilizer consumed in india among various crops Climate factor, like rainfall pattern have a very crucial role in this the consumption of fertilizer of as demand increase area of the irrigated.

Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in almost all the developing countries and also in India. Fertile soil is important for increasing agricultural production. Excess usage of chemical fertilizers is one of the reasons for decline in soil fertility. Public policy plays an important role in influencing the behavior of the farmers. The present chapter reviews the research studies relating to public policy and its impact on agricultural sector. Several researchers have made attempts to evaluate the impact of Agricultural policy on the Soil Fertility Management Practices (SFM). Agricultural policy has been analyzed focusing on its impact on production, prices, exports etc. Similarly, studies on SFM are focused on the documentation of SFM practices under different agronomic conditions and factors influencing SFM.

EMPIRICAL STUDIES

               Empirical literature on impact of agricultural policies has been classified into three sections focusing on the following issues:

 1. The studies related to Agriculture, Agricultural policy and Cropping Pattern.

2. The studies on Fertilizer policy and Fertilizer consumption.

3. The studies about Soil fertility management practices.

             Various data mining techniques are implemented on the input data to assess the best performance yielding method. The present work used data mining techniques PAM, CLARA and DBSCAN to obtain the optimal climate requirement of wheat like optimal range of best temperature, worst temperature and rain fall to achieve higher production of wheat crop. Clustering methods are compared using quality metrics. According to the analyses of clustering quality metrics, DBSCAN gives the better clustering quality than PAM and CLARA, CLARA gives the better clustering quality than the PAM. The proposed work can also be extended to analyze the soil and other factors for the crop and to increase the crop production under the different climatic conditions.

The paper also aims to recommend that fertilizers should be used in a balanced manner through integrated management of nutrient involving the use of chemical fertilizers, bio fertilizers, compost and vermicompost. Balanced use of fertilizers will reduce harmful effects of chemical fertilizers on the environment and will help in making our agriculture sustainable. It also increases water and nutrients use efficiency, improve grain quality, soil health and give better economic returns to farmers and helps in sustainability. So, for sustainable growth in agriculture sector, it is imperative to reduce demand of chemical fertilizers without hampering food production.

Finding inner PEACE through spirituality


Spirituality can be defined broadly as a sense of connection to something higher than ourselves. Many people search for meaning in their lives in the realization phase . The seeking of answer to the questions – “Who am I ?” ,” The meaning and purpose of my life”. Ofcourse , spirituality gives a convincing answer to these questions. It definitely helps us to find the means and purpose in a rapidly changing world.The spirituality guides you on the way towards enlightenment. In simple terms , it is a journey to our personal awareness using our sixth sense.
Spirituality can be considered as a sacred dimension and to be more precise , the “inner dimension”. It is really the “deepest values and meanings by which people live” , such as a belief in a supernatural (beyond the known and observable) realm religious experience etc. It is the quality or the feeling of being concerned with the human spirit or soul as opposed to material or physical things. This implies , that spirituality has to do with the spirit, as in the essence of being human — your soul or your inner life. Religions usually have defined beliefs, rituals etc; spirituality is more specific at an individual level.

Seeking a meaningful connection with something bigger than yourself can result in increased positive emotions. Transcendent moments are filled with peace, awe, and contentment—fusion of emotional and spiritual wellbeing , like most aspects of wellbeing. Other emotions related to transcendent moments are compassion , gratitude ,appreciation ,inspiration ,admiration, elevation and love. These emotions have a particular capability of bonding individuals together and are linked gradually with the higher levels of spirituality.
Spirituality is universally connective in the realization that suffering is a part of human existence. Religion also promotes human virtues such as honesty, forgiveness, gratefulness, patience, and dependability, which help to maintain and enhance social relationships. The practice of these human virtues may also directly increase positive emotions and neutralize negative ones.

SPIRITUALITY Benefits : It reaps many benefits for stress relief and overall mental health. It provides you with a
Feeling of a sense of purpose : Cultivating your spirituality may help uncover what’s most meaningful in your life. By clarifying what’s most important, you can focus less on the unimportant things and eliminate stress.
Connection to the world : The more you feel you have a purpose in the world, the less solitary you may feel — even when you’re alone. This can lead to a valuable inner peace during difficult times.
Release of authority : When you feel part of a greater whole, you may realize that you aren’t responsible for everything that happens in life and become stress-free.
• Higher levels of psychological resilience, positive emotions, and improved immune response have all been linked with spirituality.
• It enables us to have the most productive days of your life! Also , it increases the motivation and live every day with joy, passion and excitement.
• It provides us with the long lasting energy that keeps us moving even , when faced with setbacks.
The final words…
This global pandemic cause more uncertainties and fear among us and we all turn to religion and spirituality for support. Humans all over the world are desperate to make sense of the tragedy and psychological pain that is being experienced. Many of our religious and spiritual traditions have been poised to respond to times of crisis since time immemorial.
Staying connected to your inner spirit and the lives of those around you can enhance your quality of life, both mentally and physically. The complete wisdom of spirituality is attained depending on the maturity level , age and life experiences . Spirituality forms the basis of your well-being, helps you cope up with stressors and affirms your purpose in life.With appreciation, love, self-compassion, gratitude, and kindness, we might have a chance to shift into a state of improved wellbeing. We ought to be responsible with your thoughts and your emotions. Also , we need to be responsible in the way you treat others and to find ways to limit your intake of things that can disturb your peace.

Please check the following Wiki link to know further about the spiritual practices and other web sources

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirituality

Communication Skills

Communication is the medium through which people convey their opinions, feelings and emotions. It is the key to build a relationship but sometimes ineffective communication ways may create more barriers. That is why it becomes necessary to possess good communication skills.

Effective communication is more than just relaying the message to the listener. The one on the receiving end should be able to comprehend the message as well as the speaker’s intentions clearly with the said words. If not done correctly, this can create misunderstandings and spoil relationships. For some, communication may come easily while others may have to struggle with their words. Nevertheless, one can improve their communication skills by practicing or adopting certain tactics:

Being an active listener:

Good communication involves the active participants of both the speaker and the listener. Keep focus on what the person is saying and trying to tell you. If you will be able to understand the message clearly, you will also be able to respond appropriately. Not only pay attention to the words but also on the non-verbal clues. A person’s body language tells a lot and may make it easier to understand the tone as well as the nature of the conversation.

Avoid interrupting:

Try not to interrupt the speaker and wait for your turn.

Show genuine interest:

If you are disinterested, it will show on your face and the speaker may notice it. Try to encourage the speaker by saying short verbal comments in between.

Try not to be biased:

One doesn’t have to agree with every idea or opinion of the person but it is necessary to keep aside the criticism and try to understand from the other person’s perspective.

Pay attention to your own non-verbal clues:

Your non-verbal signals should align with what you are speaking. Otherwise, the other person may feel confused. Refrain from spreading around any kind of negative body energy. Be assertive with your speech and try to set the tone of the conversation as neutral. All the parties involved should get the chance to voice their opinions and not feel threatened to do so. Direct and clear dialogue should be maintained for an effective communication.

Communication can be an effective medium to build relationships, both personal as well as professional. If done effectively, it builds mutual trust and can deepen the connections.

Unemployment

Unemployment is a very serious issue not only in India but in the whole world. There are hundreds and thousands of people out there who do not have employment. Besides, the problems of unemployment are very severe in India because of the growing population and demand for jobs. Moreover, if we neglect this problem then it will be going to become the reason for the doom of the nation.

Unemployment refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented people wanted to do a job. But cannot find a proper job due to several reasons.

Now we know what is unemployment but unemployment does not only mean that the person does not have a job. Likewise, unemployment also includes people working in areas out of their expertise.

The various types of unemployment include disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, structural unemployment. Besides, some other unemployment is cyclic unemployment, educated unemployment, underemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment, and casual unemployment. Above all, seasonal unemployment, under unemployment, and disguised unemployment are the most common unemployment that is found in India.

Above all, seasonal unemployment, under unemployment, and disguised unemployment are the most common unemployment that is found in India.

In a country like India, there is much reason for a large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth. seasonal occupation, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.

Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. Also, the situation has become so drastic that highly educated people are ready to do the job of a sweeper. Besides, the government is not doing his work seriously.

Apart from all these, a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.

In addition, the biggest reason of unemployment in India is its vast population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide.

If things will go on like the current scenario then unemployment will become a major issue. Apart from this, the following things happen in an economy which is an increase in poverty, an increase in crime rate, exploitation of labor, political instability, mental health, and loss of skills. As a result, all this will eventually lead to the demise of the nation.

Initiative by Government

The government has taken the problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment. Some of these schemes includes IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), DPAP (Drought Prone Area Programme), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, NRY (Nehru Rozgar Yojana), Training for self-Employment, PMIUPEP (Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program), employment exchange, Employment Guarantee Scheme, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, employment in forging countries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana and few more.

Besides, these schemes the government also make some rules flexible, so that employment can be created in the private sector also.

To conclude, we can say that the problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage. But, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce unemployment. Also, to completely solve the issue of unemployment we have to tackle the main issue of unemployment that is the vast population of India.

Signs You Should Not Ignore

There are moments in many people’s life where out of nowhere we suddenly feel negative and sad, and emotionally vulnerable. We think that this is just momentary and as a result ignore these signs. When in fact we should really pay attention to small details as this could be a sign of something deeper. Some unresolved issues or a trauma which we have not had a closure with yet.

Now one might wonder what these signs are. Generally they would go unnoticed by others. We ourselves ignore them many a times. Let’s now see what are these mental illness signs are. They may be subtle, but they are important.

Before we proceed though, keep in mind that this article might be triggering. Please be careful.

1. Feelings of sadness or depression for more than 2 weeks. People generally causally use the term ‘depression’ to express their mood for the day. It is usually recommended not to do so. But if you feel sad, or worthless and helpless for more than two weeks this might be alarming. This means that the activities that once brought joy to your heart aren’t doing so anymore.

2. Extreme mood swings. When you randomly go from one extreme behaviour say, sadness to another extreme behaviour say, excitement for no reason in a very short time, that is when we say it’s a mood swing. When the frequency of this happening increases at an alarming high rate, one should pay attention and think about consulting a professional as it can be sign of bipolar disorder.

3. You worry and anxiety is out of control. Some times even though we have written in our examination well we feel extremely anxiousabout the results. So much so that even our body reacts by sweating too much or having a digestive issues or even catching the flu. This is can be a sign of an anxiety disorder. Some people feel anxious and are worried for literally no reason. This is also a sign of a mental illness. We face trouble sleeping, can’t relax easily and overthink all the time.

4. Self isolation. All of us need a little ‘me’ time. Time where we are alone and don’t have any social obligation to follow. But when someone suddenly takes a lot of this ‘me’ time, to the extent that they totally avoid talking to people, it is an alarming sign of mental illness. It is actually important to spend some time alone but when you start totally withdrawing yourself from everyone one must think of approaching a mental health professional.

5. Delusions and/or hallucinations. Delusions refer to false beliefs or perception that we hold about a particular thing or a person. Now this usually goes unnoticed by the person suffering from delusions. But it is noticeable by people around them. For example, one might think that someone tried to sabotage their school project by throwing it off the table when in reality they themselves by mistake pushed it over the table. It is important for the people around them to take this seriously if it happens more than once.

6. Difficulty in dealing with normal life situation. Most of the time people are capable enough of dealing with their normal lives. But when you are unable to deal with the most normal situation like driving (assuming you have been driving for a long time) this gets serious. This maybe a sign of a mental illness and one must consult a mental health professional.

7. Disturbed sleeping pattern. This means you are either sleeping too much or too little. We know that on an average a person should sleep for about 7 hours. Considering that you generally sleep this much, when you are suddenly not able to sleep at all or you are sleeping too much it can be a sign of depression or an anxiety disorder. This maybe a sign of bipolar disorder too. In such a case try to meditate and have a healthy balanced meal. But if this doesn’t help either, it’s best you reach out to a mental health professional.

8. Anger issues. You maybe a calm and peaceful person. But when you suddenly start losing our patience or are ticked off quicker than usual this can be a sign of mental illness. When someone suddenly start feeling angry for no reason and feel like it is practically impossible to control it is most probably warning you about your stress level and unresolved grief or trauma.

There are many more signs that we can look out for but these are the primary ones which are generally most noticeable in someone. If you know someone who has any similarity to the signs mentioned above, they must seek professional help. Remember, your mental health is most important and social stigma regarding mental health must be removed at all costs. Never shy away from asking for help and their is always a out of this. Self harm is not a solution. It is really much easier than that.

Fathima Beevi – A True Inspiration

Right to Education is the Fundamental Right given by our Indian Constitution. Is this right is effectively used in our society? No, many of the children are deprived of education. The ratio of girls are more as compared to boys. As per our Indian mentality what is the need to educate girls? They should learn doing household works and be at home. In earlier days, it was a story of every other family. But some stories are different so their stories become an inspiration for others. One such story is of The First Lady Judge of Supreme Court she is Fathima Beevi. She was also the first Muslim woman in Higher Judiciary and the first woman to become a Supreme Court Justice in an Asian country. Fathima Beevi was born to Annaveettil Meerasahib and mother Khadeeja Beevi. They had six daughters and two sons. Out of the eight children, Fathima was the eldest. In a society where women were not given access to education, her parents encouraged the kids to pursue their education and career.

Initially, she completed her graduation in Bachelor of Science, later she completed her Law Degree from the prestigious Govt. Law College in Trivandrum, Kerala. She was inspired by Ms. Anna Chandy, who was the First Female Judge in India who happened to be from her hometown. She passed her law with a gold medal being one of the five women students in a class, upholding values taught by her parents. In 1950, she enrolled as an advocate in a district court at Kollam, the same year Honourable Supreme Court was established.

After eight years of legal practice at Kollam District Court, she cleared the public exam to become a Munsif. In the year 1972, she rose to the rank of Chief Judicial Magistrate, later in 1974 got promoted as District Sessions Judge. In 1983 she was appointed as the High Court Judge of Kerala. Finally, in 1989 she was inducted as the First Female Judge in the Supreme Court, owing to her excellent caliber and expertise in the legal profession. After her retirement, she served as a member of the National Human Rights Commission for four years.

On the 25th of January 1997, she was appointed as the Governor of Tamil Nadu by the then President of India, Shankar Dayal Sharma. A major decision she took as the governor was rejecting the mercy petitions filed by the four condemned prisoners in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case. In 2001 she invited AIADMK General Secretary J Jayalalitha to take oath as the chief minister, a decision that was criticised because even though Jayalalitha’s party had received the simple majority Jaylalitha had been barred from contesting in the elections because of her conviction in a corruption case. However, Fatima Beevi maintains that it was not a spontaneous decision, she had consulted the then sitting judges of the Supreme Court, including the Chief Justice of India. Jaylalitha had been acquitted and had no conviction when appointed by Justice Beevi. Following this, the Union Cabinet decided to recommend the President to recall the Governor for having failed to discharge her constitutional obligation. Justice Fatima Beevi decided to resign, thus her eventful term as the Governor of Tamil Nadu came to a controversial end in 2001. Eventually, the Supreme Court of India overturned Fatima Beevi’s decision to appoint Jayalalithaa as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. 

After her retirement from the Supreme Court in 1992 Beevi served as a member of the National Human Rights Commission (1993)  and the Chairman of Kerala Commission for Backward Classes(1993). She received Hon. D Litt and Mahila Shiromani Award in 1990. She was also awarded the  Bharat Jyoti Award and the US-India Business Council (USIBC) Life Time Achievement Award. As the Governor of Tami Nadu, she also served as the Chancellor of Madras University. In 2002, the left parties discussed the nomination of Fathima Beevi as the President of India, however, the NDA Government proposed the name of Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam.

Representation of women in higher Judiciary is quite nominal even till date. The country has only a little over 10% of women in the judicial field at that time when women were not given an equal chance to be part of the Judiciary. She is an advocate of gender equality and has mentioned that there was a need to elevate the representation of women to judgeships. She has always been vocal about the unequal treatment women have to face in the Judiciary.  Fathima Beevi continues to be a role model for every woman aspiring to enter the historically male dominated space of the courtroom, and let us hope to see a significant increase in women’s representation in higher judiciary in future.

Barriers to education

Each and every individual of the world is entitled to education yet there are many children who can’t access this basic amenity. This is mainly caused due to financial and economic issues. If the accessibility can be improved, a huge global impact can be created.

The most common cause for missing out on educational opportunities is poverty. People from economically backward backgrounds find it hard to get a proper education. Many remote villages don’t even have the facility of schools. This is mainly due to lack of funding. Even if there are schools established, some children have to walk to school for as much as three hours, which is very inconvenient. Most of their time is spent travelling on foot which is just tiring. Another issue that comes up is the availability of teachers and professors, either there are no teachers or they are untrained.

After establishing a school and even hiring professionals for teaching, there are lack of resources. Students aren’t provided with learning materials and often have to end up working out with outdated text-books. Some children suffering with certain abilities are denied access. There are not enough institutions that are ready to accommodate them. This makes them feel left out and ultimately, they are not able to complete their education.

Some minorities may also be deprived of education. Bias on the basis of gender can also be one of the barriers to education. Due to poverty, only a selected few can afford to go to school and generally, parents may prefer that their boys go to school rather than girls. Incidents of natural disasters also put a halt on education for many as it leads to a lot of destruction and brings about economic crisis.

Many children end up being the targets of many of the reasons above, having no fault of their own. Certain organizations and volunteer groups are trying hard to make education accessible to all. Through donations and local funding, the situation is progressing towards betterment and hopefully, with the collective efforts of all, the goal will be finally achieved.

COVID -19 PANDEMIC (an opportunity!!!!…..)

As we are seeing the current scenario in which the covid -19 has made a very big impact either it is on business/industry or lives everyone and everything has affected by it, not a single person is there who has not yet get disturbed in this pandemic.

The Covid-19 pandemic has affected over 150 countries, and has disrupted international trade, its economies as well as the lives of its citizens. The governments have been quick to respond to deal with this unprecedented crisis by. Closing down its borders, imposing nationwide lock downs, ramping up testing and healthcare infrastructure and announcing fiscal stimulus/relief packages which are of unimaginable proportions. The response from the Indian Government was no different. India is under a strict nation-wide lock down for more than 70 days, followed by a relief package to the tune of 10 per cent of the country’s GDP, that is, Rs 20 lakh crore to kick start economic activity.

As we have heard that that a pandemic occurs once in 100 years and we are the generation who have faced it and also fighting with this.

Our frontiers fighters are our doctors and nurses in this pandemic …..This pandemic has changed everything …like every religious place was closed and still on today’s date some of the religious places are close because of physical distancing… In this whole process have you noticed one thing? I tell you… every one is saying that DOCTORS ARE THE REAL GOD in current ongoing situation….everyone is believing that THE HEALTH IS THE BIGGEST WEALTH……

Now the question is this pandemic is a tragedy or an opportunity!!!! so for this discussion let’s look forward….

 In this pandemic if someone got huge loss in his business then the owner can start with a new vision as we see that during lock down when there was not working like regular basis then everyone had time to think that,

Where they stand,  

Where they have come,

What they have achieved,  

What they really want,

What literally matters to them….

This pandemic has changed-

The view of thinking,

The view of observing the things,

The view of understanding,

The view of looking towards the things….

But if we see that EVERY ENDING HAS A NEW BEGINNING….. As our honorable prime minister   Mr. Narendra Modi said in his speech that we should make an ATAMNIRBHAR BHARAT.

If we don’t have opportunity then we have to create them by our own;

There are various fields where we can start a new venture; some of them are as follows –

  • STARTUPS-  We are seeing that happen across the ecosystem—many start-ups have created Covid-related products by innovating for the emerging needs: ventilators, sanitizers ,PPEs, etc. They have become front runners in the fight against Covid-19 and are also in the race to grab market share, and also there are a lot of opportunities which just require a creative mind for starting a business.
  • TECHNOLOGY- The lock down and social distancing have shown that technology not only saved the day for many businesses during the Covid tunnel, it is also the driver of the future. The world has not only gone digital and virtual, it is fast enabling the new world. Tech has now become completely horizontal: It is enabling innovation across all sectors, be it manufacturing, textiles, agriculture, healthcare, retail, fashion, water or clean energy. And India, with its huge tech talent, is extremely well placed to grab the leadership spot and build not world-class products, but state-of-the-products of top quality, and at competitive prices. This is atmanirbhar at its best. And this positions ‘Made in India’ products extremely well for global markets.
  • MSMEs- The Government e-Marketplace (GeM) has already been set up to boost MSMEs’ share in government procurement of goods and services. The MSMEs have benefited with orders worth Rs 20,000 crore since the inception of GeM. Along with the PM’s call for ‘self-reliant India’, the current face-off between Indian and China has led to an increased demand for locally manufactured goods, unleashing new opportunities for Indian MSMEs. We believe MSME businesses which are willing to re imagine their businesses and evolve with the changing times will be poised to leapfrog on the back of this unique opportunity.

 MSMEs can also foster product as well as process innovations by partnering with knowledge partners, that is, academic institutions, tech startups, and students.

Technology adoption is another factor that can help MSMEs to improve process efficiency, reduce cost, information visibility, and enhance worker safety. With the advent of cloud and cloud-based technologies, they can easily create elastic and flexible IT infrastructure compared to its large enterprise counterparts to support digitization.

  • CYBER SECURITY- A recent study reveals that 86 percent of CIOs consider security to be their #1 priority. With ‘remote working’ becoming the norm post-COVID, company data is even more at risk. With people relying more on personal or less secure Wi-Fi networks, the threat levels have increased. As cyber security becomes more critical, we will see a much greater demand for security architects and ethical hackers.
  • DIGITAL MARKETING- With more people consuming information online, digital marketing has become a lifeline for CMOs as they seek to reduce marketing spends, drive greater ROI from their marketing dollars, and follow their customers online. In turn, this will result in greater demand for PPC practitioners, digital brand managers, content & SEO experts, CRM, and email marketing specialists.
  • DATA ANALYST- In today’s scenario data is the very important part of everyone’s life either it is of a student, employee, company, government. As we know that every country wants to provide best service to its customers for this they have to know about the customer’ priorities, choices…. for collecting this data and to manage this data and providing it when need data analysts play a vital role.

Therefore, if we see, we find that we got a chance to REBUILD, REFORM….. We should see positive side of everything… Start with something new, if it is small in starting then it is ok because if we want to reach on the top then we have to take up stairs and go step by step through it and if we skip any step then we can fell down..…there is no lift in hard work…so KEEP DREAMING, KEEP WORKING AND KEEP SHINING……..

Performance Appraisal

“A Performance Appraisal that is conducted effectively leads to greater employee morale, higher productivity, creating a positive culture and improved overall performance and effectiveness of an organisation.”

– Kumar Parakala

As we are human beings we love to get recognition, rewards and appreciation. Everyone loves appreciation and want to get appreciated from someone. This is what we call as Performance Appraisal in Human Resource Management. Performance Appraisal is a method of evaluating the behaviour and performance of employees and to understand the present job capabilities, abilities and potential of a person for further growth and development. Performance Appraisal is also known as performance evaluation or performance review. Performance Appraisal is a systematic process. The performance of an employee can be observed by immediate supervisor, subordinate, self-appraisal and customers served. Performance Appraisal is an evaluating process as it tries to find out that how well the employee is performing the job. It is a periodic process as it is carried out periodically according to a set definite plan. Performance Appraisal is a future – oriented activity and not a past- oriented. It helps in determining the employees potentialities which refers to that how well an employee is doing his task which is assigned to him. It helps in development of employees as it forces the managers to become coach of employee rather than judges. Performance Appraisal can be formal or informal depending on the organisation. Informal evaluation is more subjective while formal evaluation is likely to be more fair and objective, as it is done in a systematic manner. Formal performance appraisal reduces the chances of biasedness but it is based to yield better results. The Performance Appraisal system should be simple and understandable so that the employees don’t find any complications in understanding the system. If it has any complication, the organisation should take some measure inorder to avoid this. It helps to create the atmosphere of mutual understanding and confidence. Performance Appraisal system should be fair and equitable justice should be provided to all employees. The main purpose of performance appraisal is to fulfill their desired goals by providing promotion, placement, increment and transfer to employees according to their performance. Special training should be provided to all the employees inorder to win their trust and to motivate them to achieve the goals. Performance Appraisal also helps in identifying the weakness and strength of employees, providing them training according to needs and aspirations, making them feel that everyone is there to support them and helping them in their career planning. Some of the objective of performance appraisal are –

  • Feedback – Providing feedback to the employee regarding their work and performance is the most important justification for an organisation to have a performance appraisal system. As this shows that whether they have met the expectation of their boss or superior or not.
  • Encouraging Coaching and Mentoring – Managers are expected to be good coaches to their employees rather than judges. They should mentor there employees.
  • Setting and Measuring Goals – Performance Appraisal helps in ensuring that every member or employee of the organisation set and achieve their goals effectively and efficiently.
  • Improving Performance – It is the most important reason for any organisation to have a performance appraisal system as this system only helps in achieving the overall organisational goals and performance of an organisation. This system helps the organisation to communicate the expectation and goals to each and every employee and to ensure that they do the same to achieve it.
  • Promotion and Motivation – Performance Appraisal helps an employee to get a promotion if he do the assigned work according to the expectation of his superiors. And if an employee gets a promotion definitely he will get motivated to do such task again.

Last But Not the Least

So, Performance Appraisal is very important and crucial for both employer and employee as it helps in achieving goals of both the parties.

Merger of companies

Merger refers to two or more companies come together and form a new company. Merger is the corporate restructuring strategy to increase the profitability by reducing the cost, Mergers will help the companies to reduce the operating cost. In merger new entity will come in to existence.Merger may be of similar operating industry or from different industry according to the benefit companies will do the merger.By merging many companies supplychain will be utilized properly for the both the companies so the coat will be reduced.

Types of merger:

Horizontal merger: in this type Both the companies are from the similar operating industry.this type of merger will help in reducing the cost of production. Synergy will be high.

Verticle merger: Inthis type of merger companies are merged are from the different level of same industry.both companies are working in same industry but they are working in different level. One companies out put may be input for another company.

Conglamarate merger: In this type of merger companies which are working in different industry will come together and form new business. This will help in increase the brand value.

Benifits

Merger will help the companies to get Synergy,where cost of production will comedown. Cost of supply will be reduced.by merger company can enter in to other industry also.it will help companies to increase the market share.

Mergers are aimed to reduce the cost of production and cost of supply chain. Also to increase the market share of the company.

PERIOD POVERTY


According to UNICEF records, 26% of the world’s female population is in the reproductive age yet menstruation or any other topic related to it is shamed and ostracized in many parts of the world. In India, only 12% of menstruators have any access to proper menstruation products and 88 % have zero to little access to any proper menstruation products. This is the most practical explanation of the term period of poverty. Period poverty is the lack of access to menstrual products and menstrual hygiene education due to financial constraints or cultural misconceptions about menstruation. Period poverty doesn’t stop at menstruation products but it also includes the safe waste disposal of menstrual products and clean washing facilities. In India, there is clear discrimination on menstruating women due to religious myths and taboos about periods. While talking about period poverty it is also important to acknowledge that all women do not menstruate and not all menstruators are women. Many women suffer from medical conditions which renders them unable to menstruate.
Menstruation continues to be one of the main reasons why girls drop out of school in India. Lack of proper toilet facilities, lack of menstrual products, and the absence of education or awareness of menstruation and its hygiene practices are stated as the reasons as to why girls drop out of schools. India has exempted menstrual products is a good move but seeing that only 12% of the menstruating population has access to them.

LACK OF AWARENESS
The absence of logical awareness of periods is a major problem in India. A study by NGO Dasra in 2014 stated that 70 percent of mothers consider that menstruation as dirty and 71 of the girls had no awareness about menstruation before they experience it themselves. With no knowledge about periods or proper products to use, women and young girls resort to using rag clothes and old clothes which are unhygienic and have many physical health risks and UTIs. Schools were also not very helpful in raising awareness about periods because it is still considered as a taboo to speak about it. Schools usually refrain from talking about menstrual hygiene to their students. An average of 40 percent of girls misses out on school on account of menstruation due to no proper period products or washing facilities. Because talks about menstruation are shunned by society due to religious myths and taboos many girls refrain from talking about it or educating themselves about it.


LACK OF SANITARY PRODUCTS –
Out of 355 million female populations in India, only 12 percent have access to menstrual products. Since in rural areas the concept of menstruation is hardly talked about, sanitary pads or tampons are not found easily. Because menstruation products are not considered essential products and the social stigma which causes the lack of demand shops in rural India do not have period products. Due to the lack of sanitary pads or napkins women use old cloths or rags or old socks and other methods to absorb period blood which is unhygienic and could put a women’s health at risk. Many problems related to unhygienic menstruation include cervical cancer, UTIs and anemia could be avoided with the use of proper period products.


GOVERNMENT SCHEMES FOR MENSTRUAL
The first such measure taken by the government of India was-Freeday Pad Scheme in 2010 to provide sanitary pads at low rates (RS.6 per pack) for rural girls, it was launched in 20 states. In 2011 the government launched the SABLA scheme which along with pads at subsidized rates it also provided girls education of menstrual health. In 2014, Rashtriya Kishor Swasthya Karyakram was launched as a sanitation program for 243 million students and menstrual hygiene was a main part of the program. The Swachh Bharat Abhiyan allocated funds to improve menstrual hygiene and raising awareness in rural India.


Conditions for menstruating women can only increase when menstruation is commonly conversed about and its social stigma is banished. India’s first option is to spread awareness about menstrual hygiene and its importance. Many of the problems that women face during menstruation can be avoided by using period products. Simultaneously with awareness, sanitary napkins must be made available to women in rural areas that encompass over 300 million women. By normalizing menstruation and by educating women and men about it will bring down the stigma about periods and will help reducing period poverty

Civil services – dream of every student

 

To become an IAS, IPS officer is the dream of every indian student, but to grab this opportunity students have to work harder more than his ability.

The Civil Services Examination (CSE) is a nationwide competitive examination in India conducted by the union public service commission for recruitment to various civil services of the government of India, including the Indian administrative services (IAS), Indian foreign services (IFS), and Indian police services (IPS). Also simply referred to as the UPSC examination, it is conducted in three phases – a preliminary examination consisting of two objective-type papers (General Studies Paper I and General Studies Paper II also popularly known as Civil Service Aptitude Test or CSAT), and a main examination consisting of nine papers of conventional (essay) type, in which two papers are qualifying and only marks of seven are counted followed by a personality test (interview).

Nationality

  • For the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, the candidate must be a citizen of India.
  • For other services, the candidate must be one of the following:
  • A citizen of India.
  • A citizen of Nepal or a subject of Bhutan.
  • A Tibetan refugee who settled permanently in India before 1 January 1962.

Educational qualification

All candidates must have as a minimum one of the following educational qualifications:

  • A degree from a Central, State or a Deemed university
  • A degree received through correspondence or distance education
  • A degree from an open university
  • A qualification recognized by the Government of India as being equivalent to one of the above

The following candidates are also eligible, but must submit proof of their eligibility from a competent authority at their institute/university at the time of the main examination, failing which they will not be allowed to attend the exam.

  • Candidates who have appeared in an examination the passing of which would render them educationally qualified enough to satisfy one of the above points.
  • Candidates who have passed the final exam of the mbbs degree but have not yet completed an internship.
  • Candidates who have passed the final exam of ICAI, ICSI and ICWAI.
  • A degree from a private university.
  • A degree from any foreign university recognized by the association of Indian universities.

 Age

The candidate must have attained the age of 21 years and must not have attained the age of 32 years (for the General category candidate) on 1 August of the year of examination. Prescribed age limits vary with respect to caste reservations.

Number of attempts

The number of times a candidate can appear for the exam are given below.

  • General category candidates – 6
  • OBC category candidates – 9
  • SC/ST candidates – unlimited attempts till 37 years of age.

Appearing to attempt one of the papers in the preliminary examination is counted as an attempt, including disqualification/ cancellation of candidature. However, applying to sit the exam but failing to attend is not counted as an attempt.

After ,accomplishing all this eligibility criteria students have to ready for preparing the entrances, as all we know this exam conduct in three variations,

First: preliminary exams

Second: mains exam

Third: interview –personality test

Students have to clear all this rounds, after completing all this rounds students have to go for eleven months physical training in Hyderabad.

Hope if you are dreaming to become an IAS, IPS officer so you will accomplish it, this services just need your hardwork and smart work.

Startup India

Startup India is an employment programme of India, this program is the opportunity for new entrepreneur In India. Startup India was a campaign which was first addressed by the PM Narendra Modi on 15th August 2015 at Red Fort, New Delhi. This campaign was introduced under the Government of India as an initiative to develop over 75 startup support hubs in the country.

Startup India scheme is an important government scheme which was launched on 16th January 2016 with an aim to promote and support the start-ups in India by providing bank finances. It was inaugurated by the former finance minister, Arun jaitley.

Organized by the Department for promotion of industry and internal trade, the major objective of Startup India is to discard some of the restrictive States Government policies which include:

  1. License Raj
  2. Land Permissions
  3. Foreign Investment Proposals
  4. Environmental Clearance

Startup India is a Government of India flagship initiative to build Startups and nurture innovation. Through this initiative, the Government plans to empower Startup ventures to boost entrepreneurship, economic growth and employment across India.

The Government’s Action Plan will help accelerate the growth of Startups throughout India, across all important sectors – in Tier 1, 2 and 3 cities, including semi-urban and rural areas – and includes promoting entrepreneurship among SCs/STs and women communities.

Definition of a Startup (for the purpose of Government Schemes only)

A Startup means an entity:

  • incorporated or registered in India not prior to five years
  • with an annual turnover not exceeding INR 25 crore in any preceding financial year
  • working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property

The entity shall cease to be a Startup if:

  • it is formed by splitting up, or reconstruction, of a business already in existence
  • its turnover for the previous financial years has exceeded INR 25 crore
  • it has completed 5 years from the date of incorporation/registration

Further, the Startup shall be eligible for tax benefits only after it has obtained certification from the Inter-Ministerial Board, set up for such purpose.

Eligibility Criteria for Startup India Scheme

  • The start-up must be registered as a Private Company, LLP or Partnership Firm: …
  • The start-up must not be a product of restructuring: …
  • The Startup must not be older than 5 years: …
  • Annual turnover of the start-up must not be more Rest. …
  • The business must be involved in a new product or service.

Four major steps to register a company/ startup in India:

  • Step 1: Acquire Digital Signature Certificate (DSC)
  • Step 2: Acquire Director Identification Number (DIN)
  • Step 3: Create an account on MCA portal- New user registration @ mca.gov.in.
  • Step 4: Incorporate or Apply for the company to be registered.

Under the Startup India programmed, startups were defined and redefined. For instance, the startups’ age was also increased from 5 to 7 years (10 in the case of biotech). The government has taken various initiatives to boost the growing startup culture in the country such as fast-tracking of startup patent applications, income tax exemption, and self-certification.

This is the plan which is released by the government of India to enhance the employment and encouragement for Indian people.

     EDUCATION v EXAMINATION- The Blame Game Needs to Stop

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

Is it the education system to be blamed or the examination system? The blame will go on and on. But who’s suffering? It’s the students and their careers. The student life in India mostly revolves around the number of marks or percentages they get in their exams, especially in their higher classes exams. But seeing the capability of a student on the basis of marks they receive or percentages they receive is right? I think its partially right and partially wrong. Exams are the way through which students understanding capability can be checked, but not their intelligence. According to me, there are many factors which influence one’s performance in exams. It clearly doesn’t mean that the person hasn’t studied and that’s why they didn’t perform well in the exams. Yes, obviously there are few students who don’t do well in exams because they themselves don’t study, but their ratio is very less.

What I want to focus on in this article is the fact that exams shouldn’t be the only criteria for which the students should be made ready. What if a person scoring 99% marks doesn’t know the basics but just through cramming got those marks. The education system should focus on skill development rather than cramming development. Look, yes exams are key and nobody should run away from them, but they can’t be the only criteria. Maybe a person would’ve been unwell before an exam and couldn’t perform well, or maybe due to any emergency, he/she wasn’t able to write the exams properly, that doesn’t mean they performed below par or aren’t good in studies. Situational causes are very much there when students write exams, but nothing of this sort is mentioned in the report cards, when provided to the students. Why don’t the educational institutes in India understands that students shouldn’t be pressurised to score well in exams and if they don’t, don’t provide them with opportunities.

We’ve seen many a times that major educational institutes like colleges and universities provide admissions to students while keeping a base percentage as one of the selection criteria. But what about those individuals or students having less percentage? Why can’t they sit for the selection process for admissions in these so-called big colleges or educational institutes. In my view great colleges or universities are those which can convert a below average student into a great student. Why colleges call themselves top colleges if they only want students with high percentages and marks, so that they don’t have to teach them very hard, just make them know the concept and they would understand easily. My point only is why not give all the students opportunity rather than fixing a percentage criteria? Is only percentage and marks that matter? I think that shouldn’t be, as I’ve explained earlier, percentages are affected by a multiplicity of causes, not just preparation and intelligence.

The thing I want to state is that education system in India needs a change, a change very quickly. Why can’t educational institutes evaluate or judge students on the basis of other criteria’s. It could be some kind of educational projects, live projects, which not only provides students with marks but also knowledge. Now let’s assume, students study a subject of marketing. Now, rather than taking their written or viva exam, tell students to build a project by giving them a live situation. Give them some product and tell them to use all their knowledge they gained from this subject to market that product. Isn’t it a great way to evaluate a student’s understanding of the concept.

Through this article in the end I want to urge the government to look at the education system in our country and change for the betterment of the students. No always are grades and marks based on written examination a true evaluation of a student’s capability. The future generations of India shouldn’t be deprived of quality education just because they don’t do well in their written examinations. Change is needed and its high time change is implemented.

#STAND FOR CHANGE  

Open University : A new way of empowering higher education in India?

Education should be limitless, it should not be limited by various restrictions. It should be available to people coming from all walks of life. The government tried out various different methods, to educate the underprivileged and deserving candidates in our country. Open University is a university which opts for an open door academic policy. This policy has no or very minimal requirements for their entry. The university offers a distance mode of studying , so students will not have to travel to a particular location of the university. The important aspect of this mode of studying , is that  it offers everyone an equal opportunity to study,  and improve their abilities to the maximum. 

History and development of open universities in India 

Earlier the education system in India was very formal and rigid. The only way of teaching and learning was the “Gurukul” system , in this system the students stayed in the teachers home and studied, the drawback of this system was that  it only permitted  the Brahmins and Kshatriyas to study. Later open learning was introduced and Eklavya was its first learner. The advent of Buddhism and Jainism brought about a new wave in our education system. J.C Stobart , a historian and Educationist advocated the “Wireless University” and the first ever open University was opened in the year 1969 in UK, and India was one of the first countries to follow UK and on 26th August 1982,  the government of Andhra Pradesh opened India’s very first open University called the Andhra Pradesh Open University . This University was later renamed as Dr. B. R Ambedkar Open University. There are at present 13 open universities in our country. This University provides equal opportunity to all the students who were not able to pursue regular courses provided. The government of India had started a national open University in the year 1985 and was called as ‘ Indira Gandhi National Open University’. 

Advantages of distance learning:

  • The admission requirements are zero to minimum, previous academic marks are not required. This is because they follow open door academic policy.
  • They do not follow classroom mode of teaching so it’s a lot more affordable and easy. 
  • Their fee is very affordable, so people who are rich, poor , working or non-working will be able to avail this opportunity.
  • There is no age limit in these universities, so people from all walks of life can pursue their education.
  • Open Universities come under UGC, so all their certificates and degrees are approved by UGC.
  • The study centres act as storehouses of knowledge, and are located at a location convenient to the student.
  • The students can also use radios, TVs and computers in addition to books.

Conclusion:

Open University is like a blessing,  to students who haven’t been able to attend regular classes due to various reasons, to students who have scored less marks in their previous academic year, to students who find travelling difficult, due to the location of the university, and to students who would like to pick up from where they left. These universities are very flexible when it comes to their academic matters. Students who have been to Open universities in our country, have fared very well and have raised their intellectual tone in today’s society. Open Universities have become an important instrument, in fulfilling the desires and wishes of the less fortunate.

References:

Vipra Shrivastava, What is an Open University? 

https://www.shiksha.com/humanities-social-sciences/articles/what-is-an-open-university-blogId-14031

Fashion is an art, and everyone not an artist.

Coco Chanel once said, “I don’t do fashion. I am fashion.” as defined by the Cambridge dictionary fashion is a style that is popular at a particular time, especially in clothes, hair, make-up, etc. Fashion has greatly changed over the years, when in the olden times clothes were all about providing warmth and covering your body, now it’s much more, there are trends and series of pattern in each generation and every year is a mark of new fashion styles. Fashion is now a self-expression of who you are and the reflection of your self-image. Everyone has their own unique attire and their different style Fashion trend, alters at a very dynamic rate and have a great impact on the society and the individual. Fashion thus is an Armour that helps us survive in this judgmental universe.

The youth of today are a crazy worshiper of the fashion industry. These are the people who have taken this area to a new horizon and have revolutionized the traditional ideologies. The younger s fashion taste has been influenced by the environment, they try to imitate their role models and celebrities in their clothing, peer group, society or media. From the traditional straight ‘A-line’ jeans to the new ‘ripped baggy boyfriend’ jeans everything has been transformed and modified. As the patterns and trend in fashion keeps on changing, people try to keep up with it, and as far as it may sound interesting, it’s a crazy idea as they mostly spend too much of money and energy in it, there is a huge amount of wastage of resources and time. Therefore, fashion is such a beautiful way of taking out the artist in you, but not in the cost of losing your own identity. 

In India, there are people of different creed and caste, being a very diversified area, every part of this region is different and unique not only in their culture but also in the way they look or dress up. The north-eastern is a home to a whole bunch of people, it is a small diverse region in itself. Being in the outskirts of the Indian mainland their clothing is mostly influenced by the other western lands. They try to imitate the look of the foreigner’s as; they are a major hub for tourism. They wear shirts with a wrapper along shawl, with light makeup. Being in the temperate region, climate also play a huge role in their way of clothing and mostly changes over seasons.

Whereas, the people of north are simple dressed, as most of their time is focused on work and duty. They have a very sharp traditional attire and they like to dress up heavy in the period of puja’s and festival. Being in the tropic region, hot weather prevails and they mostly wear light summer clothes. In this area people are more resistant to change.

Thus, we can see how the fashion industry has evolved in India with increase in fashion designers and job offers in this industry, no doubt India will occupy a new horizon in this area. Fashion should take out the artist in you and should help you grow, because as Edith Head said, “You can have anything you want in life if you dress for it.”

Baishali Gurung

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)Also called: food stamps

n the United States, the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), formerly yet still commonly known as the Food Stamp Program, is a federal program that provides food-purchasing assistance for low- and no-income people. It is a federal aid program, administered by the United States Department of Agriculture under the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), though benefits are distributed by specific departments of U.S. states (e.g. Division of Social Services, Department of Health and Human Services, etc.).

SNAP benefits supplied roughly 40 million Americans in 2018, at an expenditure of $57.1 billion. Approximately 9.2% of American households obtained SNAP benefits at some point during 2017, with approximately 16.7% of all children living in households with SNAP benefits. Beneficiaries and costs increased sharply with the Great Recession, peaked in 2013 and have declined through 2017 as the economy recovered. It is the largest nutrition program of the 15 administered by FNS and is a key component of the social safety net for low-income Americans.

The amount of SNAP benefits received by a household depends on the household’s size, income, and expenses. For most of its history, the program used paper-denominated “stamps” or coupons – worth $1 (brown), $5 (blue), and $10 (green) – bound into booklets of various denominations, to be torn out individually and used in single-use exchange. Because of their 1:1 value ratio with actual currency, the coupons were printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Their rectangular shape resembled a U.S. dollar bill (although about one-half the size), including intaglio printing on high-quality paper with watermarks. In the late 1990s, the Food Stamp Program was revamped, with some states phasing out actual stamps in favor of a specialized debit card system known as Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT), provided by private contractors. EBT has been implemented in all states since June 2004. Each month, SNAP benefits are directly deposited into the household’s EBT card account. Households may use EBT to pay for food at supermarkets, convenience stores, and other food retailers, including certain farmers’ markets.

Eligibility

SNAP is a means-tested program, recipients must meet all eligibility criteria in order to receive benefits. There are income and resource requirements for SNAP, as well as specific requirements for immigrants, elderly persons and persons with disabilities.

Applying for SNAP benefits

To apply for SNAP benefits, an applicant must first fill out a program application and return it to the state or local SNAP office. Each state has a different application, which is usually available online. There is more information about various state applications processes, including locations of SNAP offices in various state, displayed on an interactive Outreach Map found on the FNS website.Individuals who believe they may be eligible for P.O.SNAP benefits may use the Food and Nutrition Services’ SNAP Screening Tool, which can help gauge eligibility.

Eligible food items under SNAP

As per USDA rules, households can use SNAP benefits to purchase:

  • Foods for the household to eat, such as:
    • fruits and vegetables;
    • breads and cereals;
    • dairy products;
    • meats, fish and;
    • poultry
  • Plants and seeds which are fit for household consumption.

Additionally, restaurants operating in certain areas may be permitted to accept SNAP benefits from eligible candidates like elderly, homeless or disabled people in return for affordable meals.

However, the USDA is clear that households cannot use SNAP benefits to purchase the following:

  • Wine, beer, liquor, cigarettes or tobacco
  • Certain nonfood items like:
    • hygiene (soaps, deodorant, menstrual care)
    • paper products, household supplies, and
    • pet foods
  • Hot foods
  • Food items that are consumable in the store
  • Vitamins and medicines

Soft drinks, candy, cookies, snack crackers, and ice cream are classified as food items and are therefore eligible items. Seafood, steak, and bakery cakes are also food items and are therefore eligible items.

Energy drinks which have a nutrition facts label are eligible foods, but energy drinks which have a supplement facts label are classified by the FDA as supplements, and are therefore not eligible.

Live animals and birds may not be purchased; but live fish and shellfish are eligible foods. Pumpkins are eligible, but inedible gourds and solely ornamental pumpkins are not.

Gift baskets containing both food and non-food items “are not eligible for purchase with SNAP benefits if the value of the non-food items exceeds 50 percent of the purchase price. Items such as birthday and other special occasion cakes are eligible as long as the value of non-edible decorations does not exceed 50 percent of the price

Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism has been happening for countless centuries, however the amount of it has drastically increased in volume since the post-war era, mainly as a result of refugee’s and issues that came along with the cold war. Since the first Iraq war, and general the modern period after the cold war, many minorities from non-European backgrounds have been moving slowly west in an attempt to get away from extremist beliefs and collapsed cities which have now become warzones. This is especially true in nations previously in conflict with Russia, such as Afghanistan. This essay aims to look at the reasons why there is a clash between ethnic minorities across western civilizations.

That acknowledgment can take the forms of recognition of contributions to the cultural life of the political community as a whole, a demand for special protection under the law for certain cultural groups, or autonomous rights of governance for certain cultures. Multiculturalism is both a response to the fact of cultural pluralism in modern democracies and a way of compensating cultural groups for past exclusion, discrimination, and oppression. Most modern democracies comprise members with diverse cultural viewpoints, practices, and contributions. Many minority cultural groups have experienced exclusion or the denigration of their contributions and identities in the past. Multiculturalism seeks the inclusion of the views and contributions of diverse members of society while maintaining respect for their differences and withholding the demand for their assimilation into the dominant culture.

Multiculturalism’s Impact On Education

Some examples of how multiculturalism has affected the social and political spheres are found in revisions of curricula, particularly in Europe and North America, and the expansion of the Western literary and other canons that began during the last quarter of the 20th century. Curricula from the elementary to the university levels were revised and expanded to include the contributions of minority and neglected cultural groups. That revision was designed to correct what is perceived to be a falsely Eurocentric perspective that overemphasizes the contributions of white European colonial powers and underemphasizes the contributions made by indigenous people and people of colour. In addition to that correction, the contributions that cultural groups have made in a variety of fields have been added to curricula to give special recognition for contributions that were previously ignored. The establishment of African American HistoryMonth and National Hispanic Heritage Month in the United States is an example of the movement. The addition of works by members of minority cultural groups to the canons of literary, historical, philosophical, and artistic works further reflects the desire to recognize and include multicultural contributions to the broader culture as a whole.

Ahistorical example of multiculturalism was the Habsburg monarchy, which had broken up in 1918 and under whose roof many different ethnic, linguistic and religious groups lived together.

Cultural diversity has been present in societies for a very long time. In Ancient Greece, there were various small regions with different costumes, traditions, dialects and identities, for example, those from Aetolia, Locris, Doris and Epirus. In the Ottoman Empire, Muslims were the majority, but there were also Christians, Jews, pagan Arabs, and other religious groups. In the 21st century, societies remain culturally diverse, with most countries having a mixture of individuals from different races, linguistic backgrounds, religious affiliations, and so forth. Contemporary political theorists have labeled this phenomenon of the coexistence of different cultures in the same geographical space multiculturalism. That is, one of the meanings of multiculturalism is the coexistence of different cultures.

The term ‘multiculturalism’, however, has not been used only to describe a culturally diverse society, but also to refer to a kind of policy that aims at protecting cultural diversity. Although multiculturalism is a phenomenon with a long history and there have been countries historically that did adopt multicultural policies, like the Ottoman Empire, the systematic study of multiculturalism in philosophy has only flourished in the late twentieth century, when it began to receive special attention, especially from liberal philosophers. The philosophers who initially dedicated more time to the topic were mainly Canadian, but in the 21st century it is a widespread topic in contemporary political philosophy. Before multiculturalism became a topic in political philosophy, most literature in this area focused on topics related to the fair redistribution of resources; conversely, the topic of multiculturalism in the realm of political philosophy highlights the idea that cultural identities are also normatively relevant and that policies ought to take these identities into consideration.

ACCIDENTS DO NOT HAPPEN, BUT ARE MADE

Accidents do happen almost daily in one part of the country or the other just because we don’t care or just start worrying about it only after the inevitable has overtaken us. It may be a boat tragedy in Bihar, or a collision between a speeding train and a bus at an unmanned level crossing, or hundreds of road accidents happening in cities or the countryside, or the occasional train accidents, or air crashes, or the deluge triggered when a check dam gives way sweeping away habitations, or infernos in schools, cinema halls, marriage pandals, or fire in high rise buildings. The list of such accidents could be endless. When such things happen, we blame everything else except ourselves.

Take road accidents. A rough estimate long ago put the number of deaths on the roads in India at around a lakh every year. It must be more now with lakhs of vehicles of different descriptions entering our highways, city streets and village roads. None knows the number of injured and those incapacitated for life. Speed kills, especially, when the man behind the wheel goes beyond the legally permissible limits in certain zones of the city. You court disaster when you lose your sense of judgment and start driving after fully drunk at a dinner in a part or a hotel. Often you come across the hoarding. “Don’t mix driving with drinking”.

On Highways between Delhi and Jaipur or other cities like Chandigarh and Ludhiana or Chennai and Trichy, one would daily notice a goods carrier overturned with the voluminous contents of the vehicle scattered on the road. Here are drivers who work for prolonged hours for their living and they wouldn’t know when they fall asleep. Fatigue and overwork take their toll. A brake failure or a mechanical defect, all caused by failure by the vehicle owners to get their vehicles checked up or serviced periodically.

In several instances of road accidents, the government turns out to be the number one villain. Speed breakers or humps are not properly marked with the result riders of two wheelers coming at high speeds, can easily be thrown off their seats and can cause fatal accidents. Roads are in bad shape in many cities in several States. Different departments – the Electricity Department, the Telephone Department, Sewerage Wing and the Water Department – working with the least coordination among themselves, dig up the sideways of the roads or across the road by turn and leave them in awful condition creating the right conditions for accidents. And nobody takes any responsibility if any mishap happens.

Boat accidents create small news inside cover pages. Road accidents are routine even though they kill 1,00,000 people in the country every year. A rail accident or air crash is a good subject for banner headlines or for the channels to “break news”. But wherever an enquiry is conducted, one would find human error as the underlying factor. Accidents are bound to happen when a boat carries more than the capacity it is supposed to take. Vehicles collide with a speeding train at an unmanned rail crossing as the driver of the vehicle commits a fatal mistake and has to pay a dear price because of his error of judgement.

Now the situation has been changed due to Covid 19 pandemic. The accidents has decreased.There is no traffic jam. People are not busy with their work so the main streets are clean without waste and noise. An invisible virus is now able to control humanity which restricts the movement and actions where the law failed.

Is Cyberbullying Real?

Unless and until our society recognizes cyberbullying for what it is, the suffering of thousands of silent victims will continue.

Facebook, Instagram and Twitter may be the main social networks used to keep in touch with friends, but, worryingly, they are also the main sites used for cyberbullying and internet trolling.

Cyberbullying has been emerging as a growing concern for quite some years now. With the power of anonymity, people can verbally attack others over social networking sites, most often going after students with low self-esteem or a low circle of friends. These are not exclusive targets, but there’s a general consensus that these are the groups that are most affected by cyberbullying. Anybody can be a victim- although it’s the young teens that are most vulnerable.

Cyberbullying can affect its victims in more ways than you can imagine. Besides bringing down self esteem, it alienates you from social crowds, and in some cases, it may push people to severe depression and suicide. And, no it’s not as simple as ‘just turning the computer off’ or ‘simply looking away’. Think of it this way: if someone hurts your feelings on the phone, is stepping away from the phone going to magically fix it? No, because the issue lies with the person and the interaction, not the phone itself. Similarly, cyberbullying doesn’t end when you turn off the computer. Our real lives are so intertwined with social networks now that if you poison someone’s network, it will poison his or her real life. Besides, asking the bullied victim to not use the computer or advising them to refrain from going online is a rather harsh demand for obvious reasons. The focus should be on fixing the bully issue, not putting the onus on the victims. It’s even worse when the bullies wear the shroud of anonymity. After all, how do you deal with a bully when you don’t even know who he or she is. Cyberbullying is visceral too. Bullies can go out of their way to post unflattering pictures of you or paint you in a negative light in ways that they can’t do face-to-face.

What’s worse it that there’s not much that can be done about it. Cyberbullying is still protected by freedom of speech, and as long as a bully isn’t crossing over into obvious libel territory, they can’t really be touched. Even then, if you had a libel case, it is costly, expensive, and hard to prove.

So, why do people cyberbully? Is it out of jealousy or hatred? Or is it just the law of the jungle that the strong bullies the weak?

It is a myth that the strong bully the weak. It is those who cannot handle their stress with grace, who attack the gentle natured. The most clear, and psychological aspect is that they feel tough behind a computer screen, and believe that anything they say won’t affect them negatively in the grand scheme. It is a sort of thought process that most people employ when cyberbullying. Think of it this way. How much more likely are you to argue or even insult someone online than you are to do in person? You would probably feel “safer” attacking someone online as opposed to in-person, and understandably so. They could do it to feel better about themselves. A lot of bullying cases, IRL or online are usually fed by insecurity or hatred towards oneself. Again, most bullies have some underlying problem which they believe can be quelled by being aggressive online. It’s also much easier since they don’t have to worry about other factors and feel they are safe from consequence. Lastly, they could just be looking for attention. It is evident that most cyberbullies attack others for the sake of attention, and the ability to instigate a response out of a victim.

So, if you ever encounter a cyberbully, Know that it’s not your fault and Don’t respond or retaliate. Sometimes a reaction is exactly what aggressors are looking for because they think it gives them power over you, and you don’t want to empower a bully. Further, you should save the evidence and Use available tech tools to either block the person and/or report the person to the service.

Lets never forget that words impact people emotionally, and how you feel emotionally affects how you are physically. Pulling someone down will never help you reach the top.

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A keyboard away doesn’t make it okay.

What is Sustainable Development?

Our planet is currently facing grave dangers in the form of climate change and global warming. Resources are depleting at a rapid rate and mass extinctions of species are on the rise. This is one among the, if not the foremost global issue of our times. We cannot underestimate its importance since what we do now about this crisis will decide the fate of our future generations and the existence of life itself on our planet.

It is in this context that sustainable development is propounded as a measure that can greatly better the quality of all human life as well as ensures better protection for the planet. Sustainable development refers to principles for development that we can follow to ensure that our current needs are met without us compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. It places great importance on healthy sustenance of the natural systems and ecological conditions that we have which ensures the prosperity of humankind as well. Without them, our societies would not be able to survive as they currently are.

low angle photo of airplane
Photo by Sam Willis on Pexels.com

This is absolutely essential because we have come dangerously close to irreversibly depleting the resources that we take from nature. With the industrial revolution and Capitalism taking a stronghold of our cultures in the last century, our focus was generally bent on mass production and profit. Materialism and consumer culture greatly encouraged and solidified this move. The need for progress, the development of cities that were built without proper planning, the rise of the use-and-throw culture, the large scale production of materials that do not naturally decompose, and poor waste management plans all led to a situation where nature was suffering from being indiscriminately exploited. Large scale mining, unprecedented deforestation that clears up entire woodlands, using up of non-renewable resources that cannot be replaced in the same quantity simultaneously at the rate of consumption are all situations where human intervention is disrupting the natural equilibrium. These states of harmony and equilibrium are vital for sustenance of all kinds of life and man cannot hope to progress as a species at the cost of using up every resource available. This will only lead to his extinction as well.

The United Nations Development Programme announced 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015. This includes goals such as eradication of poverty and hunger, gender equality, good health, and gender equality, while also aiming at better protection of natural resources on land and in water, climate action, clean water, responsible consumption and production, sustainable communities, etc. This was done to create a better environment and living conditions for all of humanity by 2030, fast-tracking progress for the communities who were behind. SDGs are for all the countries in the world.

A developmental method by which man and nature can co-exist well is the need of the hour, and sustainable development moves ahead with these goals. It seeks to redeem much of what has been lost and protect what we have now so that our existence will not be threatened, but also for the sake of the flora, fauna and the resources and ecosystems surrounding us. If we are to have a future where we do not need to pay for water and buy air, where lives can be led in ways not threatening to nature, we are to work towards more sustainable modes of progress and development.

The Visibly Invisible

Hijras are a sexual minority that’s very visible, and yet they are treated by the society as if they’re invisible.

When Lord Rama was exiled from Ayodhya and his entire kingdom began to follow him into the forest, he told his disciples: “Men and women, please wipe your tears and go away.” So they left. Still, a group of people stayed behind, at the edge of the forest, because they were neither men nor women. They were hijras, which in Urdu means something like eunuchs. Those people waited in the woods for 14 years until Lord Rama returned, which won them a special place in Hindu mythology.

At a traffic signal on a busy day, the slight tapping on my car’s window by a transgender would often unnerve me. They are persistent, and there is a common notion that they will cause you embarrassment if you don’t hand them money. At other times, one might find them in the trains badgering the passengers for money, often to point that even the bystanders feel uncomfortable.But is that all there is to their identity? What is it like to be a hijra in India?

I can only guess. One must be fighting a constant battle with the rest of one’s nation to be taken seriously, to be accepted, to be respected, to be spared a laugh, to feel secure about their sexuality and to be understood, among so many other things. We can only guess.However, we can at the very least attempt to understand their plight. Imagine you’re thrown out of your house. What would you do? You’d go to your friend’s place? Or you’d go find some work and make your living? Imagine you don’t have any friends. And even if you did have any, they wouldn’t let you anywhere near their houses. What would you do now? Obviously you’d get some petty job and start earning for your own expenses. Now, imagine this. People aren’t even willing to give you a job. Everywhere you go, they just shoo you away, wanting to get rid of you from those places as quickly as possible. What’s next? You can’t go back home since your family has deserted you. You might want to try to talk to someone. Then, imagine no one even wants to lift their eyes and look at you when you approach them. You’re someone most people don’t even want to see. That’s the daily life of a transgender or a hijra.

Today hijras, who include transgender and intersex people are really hard to miss. Dressed in glittering saris, their faces heavily coated in cheap makeup, they sashay through crowded intersections and crash fancy weddings and birth ceremonies, singing bawdy songs and leaving with fistfuls of rupees. Behind the theatrics, however, are often sad stories — of the sex trade and exploitation, cruel and dangerous castrations, being cast out and constantly humiliated. Within India’s L.G.B.T. community, the hijras maintain their own somewhat secretive subculture.

Hijra communities face several sexual health issues including HIV, and since most hijras are from lower socioeconomic status and have low literacy levels, there are several barriers stand in their way of seeking health care. Mental health needs of hijras too are barely addressed in the current HIV programs. Some of
the mental health issues reported in these communities include depression and suicidal tendencies, possibly secondary to societal stigma, lack of social support, HIV status. There’s also the need to address alcohol and substance use among the hijra communities, a significant proportion of which consume alcohol possibly to forget stress and depression that they face in their daily life.

One might argue that since they’re able-bodied, they should just get a job job and provide for themselves. Yes, they absolutely should. Except for two words – social stigma. Most people would know the Kochi Metro recruited many transwomen when it started operations. Almost all of them have since quit. Why? Because while the job paid them 9–10,000 rupees a month, nobody would rent them accommodation, so they had to end up in lodges which cost hundreds daily. Ergo, they spent more than what they earned. In that instance, the government tried, and so did they. But society didn’t. The media also outed some women who were living secretly, away from family. The result? Threats of death if they came back home. In India, lakhs of male engineers are struggling to find gainful employment. What chance do these uneducated transwomen stand? They are not eunuchs by choice, they were born like that. We fail to create an environment for them in which they feel equal to us (which they are), in which they can lead a respectful and decent life by earning a living and not by begging, the least we can do is to help them by giving them these small amount of money, which hardly makes any difference to us.

Thus, the next time you meet a transgender, be polite, behave in a humble manner because what we see is the reflection of what we as a society have done to them. Tackle them with empathy and kindness, and be eternally grateful that you are not struggling with your gender, thrust on you by society. It could’ve easily been any one of us in their place. Even if you don’t give them money, at least don’t look at them with disgust.

At the end of the day, they’re normal people but it’s the world that makes them feel different.

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The visibly invisible community.

 

How to Help !

If You really want to help someone believe me you don’t need to help them ,yes this is a fact that if you help someone or you can help someone then don’t do so please! Don’t do so because it’s worthless but if you help someone in a different way like :you can encourage them to work on there on so that they can earn their livelihood so if you can help in this manner then it would be great full for all , what was tge motive arround it? The main motive is to make our youth more worthy and not only youth it’s all about our whole indian population and it’s totally up on us …., So would you like to help ?

The wisdom of crowdsourcing

Nestle’s Maggi is one of the most loved food brands in India. Maggi has to turn into the beloved and utmost enjoyed food of all ages. Perceiving the enthusiasm, Nestle in 2011 presented the “Guess the Taste” scheme. They requested supporters to estimate the taste of new, unidentified taste of veggie noodles and name the noodles for the company in India. Theses mystery-flavored noodles are being vended across India in package striking with a unique question mark. In the process, Nestle received more than 45000 consumers entries with their recommended names for the taste. “Guess the taste” scheme follows other fruitful endeavors by Nestle’s Maggi brand to identify and advance its long and prosperous relationship with consumers in India.
This example summaries the usage of crowdsourcing for market concepts and resolutions, comprising a name for a freshly improved taste.When industries crowdsource, they request the community for opinions, knowledge, and views to aid them to produce improved products and services. By crowdsourcing, businesses can tap into a vast group of people’s knowledge and expertise, guaranteeing a variety of concepts, advanced creation, and cost-cutting, from the time when they don’t require to hire new, in-house employees. Companies who crowdsource generally decode gigantic missions into individual errands, which permits them to assign hundreds of thousands of people small jobs that they can work on by themselves. In publicizing, companies use crowdsourcing to create marketing materials such as a logo, jingle, or ad. Furthermore, crowdsourced marketing campaigns frequently include the customers submitting and voting on materials.
When the UK labor party developed its first Advertisement for the general election campaign in April 2010, they used the talents of their supporters to design the advertisement. The party’s advertising agency, Saatchi invited supporters to respond to an online brief to design their first election billboard poster and received around 1000 responses.

Epidemic Disease Disaster

On 31st December 2019, Wuhan reported a number of pneumonia cases that eventually lead to the identification of the novel Coronavirus. In no time, this disease found its way to different parts of the world. It was responsible for a record number of positive cases and multiple deaths. The lack of a vaccine, resulted in a huge impact on a global level, World Health Organization (WHO) declared it as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Coronavirus was officially declared as a pandemic worldwide.
India remained untouched from the virus in spite it being a close neighbor of China until the students who had just returned from Wuhan were tested positive. It started testing passengers flying in from different parts of the world only after fourteen Italians in Jaipur were tested positive. Most reported cases were of people who had returned from foreign travel. A couple of positive cases resulted in a domino effect. The situation became much worse, such, that a traditional colonial legislation was brought to the limelight. Its application highlighted the defects of the act. In this article, I’ll throw light on the many defects the act has and amendments that need to be incorporated. India was completely unprepared for its fight with coronavirus. Many states have enforced the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 to contain the spread of the virus.
History of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
The Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 carries a colonial baggage. It was introduced during a time when Colonial India witnessed over 10 million deaths due to the disease that had its birth in Hong Kong.3 Western medicine proved to be largely inefficient against the Bubonic Plague of 1896. The neglect of the Colonial Government cost them hundreds of lives each day. The Plague’s mortality rate of 60 percent made it obligatory for the Government to not only find a cure, but also control the spread of the disease.

Looking at the magnitude of damage, a Plague Committee was constituted under the chairmanship of Prof. T.R. Frasor, Professor of Materia Medica at the University of Edinburgh.4 They made a report that documented the effect of the disease and the means to curtail transmission. The report concluded that the disease was highly contagious and recognized human transmission as a means of spread. The commission recommended necessary preventive measures to disinfect and evacuate infected places, to put a control over mass transit, and to improve sanitary conditions. The commission also suggested strengthening of public health services and development of laboratories. It was John Woodburn who first introduced the Epidemic Diseases Bill to the Governor General and the Council. The Governor and the Council hastily passed the bill in February 1897 to have better control over the situation. The executive of the presidency towns had discretion to adopt any measures that could aid in limiting the transmission. The extraordinary nature of the act was considered well suited to the extraordinary situation at hand. Various researches were conducted, Plague Research Committees were formed. Their findings showed that the chief cause of the spread was lack of hygiene and poor sanitation across the country. Plague Research Laboratory was also set up in Bombay, to find a vaccine for the plague.
The Present Scenario
According to the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897, the act is enforced to control and prevent an epidemic. The silence of the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897 speaks volumes about its defects. The most basic defect is that there is no definition of the word ’epidemic’. What constitutes as an epidemic? A definition is essential to show exactly when the act is applicable. For example, the Disaster Management Act, 2005 includes the provisions for how and when the act will be applicable. Further, an epidemic and a pandemic have different meanings. An epidemic is defined as “an outbreak of a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects an exceptionally high proportion of the population.” The term pandemic relates to geographic spread and is used

to describe a disease that affects a whole country or the entire world. This difference must be highlighted in the definition. WHO does recognize several diseases as epidemic or pandemic prone, such as Ebola, Yellow Fever, Plague, Spanish Flu, Cholera, Influenza, SARS, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya etc. However, a developing tropical country like India, can have many diseases that are prone to its geographical nature and the name of such a disease might not find its way on the WHO outbreak website. Thus, a definition cut out for our country is a necessity. The act gives discretionary powers to the government, what if the lack of a definition is misused by our power hungry representatives. The haste of the Colonial Government is very evident in this poorly drafted act because a legislation that is supposed to control epidemic or pandemic having a global impact, only has four sections. Currently, the act is giving both general and specific power to the government to take discretionary measures when the law is insufficient. One such power is segregation of infected people from the healthy. Colonial Government misused this vast power to arrest freedom fighters. What if history repeats itself? There is a never ending political and religious feud going on in the country. Who is to say that the government might not take a page from the books of the Colonial Government?
Every act requires a legal framework that specifies the duties of the government and the rights of the people. An epidemic may be an emergency in its true sense but it’s not an emergency as per the constitution. What happens to the basic rights of the people? Can they be suspended without a declaration of an emergency? The act makes no mention of the people’s rights because it was created by a government that had no regard for the rights of the people. It is a policing act rather than a safeguard. The exact duties of the authorities, the extent of rights available or suspended, modes to enforce or infringed rights ought to be mentioned. Further, the exact method of how and when the act applies needs to be jotted down.
The act is very outdated for this day and age. It has completely neglected the scientific aspect. Smallpox, once an epidemic, is now completely eradicated because of science. Prevention
Ibid. of diseases umbrellas scientific methods to help fight the disease. The act should provide for scientific advancement for disease at hand by setting up special laboratories and form research groups of doctors eager to find a cure. If a disease, prone to a pandemic or an epidemic is communicable, it should be made obligatory for the medical practitioners to notify the government whether it’s a public hospital or a private hospital. A notification benefits in surveillance of the diseased and the potential harm they can cause to ones close to them. All the hospitals in an area might not be equipped to treat a disease, the government must make it their duty to provide aid to as many hospitals as possible so more number of hospitals can provide their expertise and care.
The Supreme Court believes that private laboratories must be philanthropic. While hearing a PIL (Shashank Deo Sudhi v. Union of India & Ors.), a Bench of Justices Ashok Bhushan and Ravindra Bhat of the Supreme Court passed an interim order requiring that all private laboratories conducting COVID-19 tests do so free of cost, similar to the government laboratories.11 This interim order raises the question of the roles played by the court system, how they work and what decision making powers they have during such times. This too remains unexplained.
It’s a great decision that India has taken at the cost of its economy in order to protect the health of its citizens. As good as a step it is, the unorganized sector suffers a lot from such an economic setback. The government should create transparent relief funds that aim to benefit the economically challenged. Currently, the government is allegedly helping the unorganized sector with money and ration but the news coming from these sectors speaks otherwise.Thus, transparency in allocation of such resources should be mandatory especially when the government asks the people to contribute. They have a right to know how their money is being utilized.
National Heath Bill was introduced in 2009. This bill voices the need of a better act with respect to the health of the citizens. It incorporates everything that has been missing in the Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897. The bill recognizes health as a fundamental human right and states that every citizen has a right to the highest attainable standard of health and well-being.12 It lays Avani Bansal, “Free COVID-19 Testing: Does the Supreme Court’s view on ‘Philanthropy’ have a legal basis?”
down the obligations of the government authorities, it calls for respect of the rights of health care providers, and for the establishment of National level and State level Public Health Boards, it provides for a mechanism to monitor the government and many other provisions that are entirely absent in the colonial legislation.
Conclusion
Health is a very important aspect in a man’s life and it shouldn’t be compromised just because the legislature couldn’t create an act for the same. COVID-19 is a wakeup call that illustrates the desperate need for a new and a better legislation. Epidemic Diseases Act doesn’t make a huge difference and thus, I believe that it should be repealed. The amendments and additions that need to be made in the act are all provided in the National Health Bill. Instead of amending the Epidemic Diseases Act and providing for similar provisions in the bill, the act should be repealed and National Health Bill should be passed to form a legislation. What amounts to a pandemic or an epidemic should be well defined. Provisions for proper rights of the people should be mentioned. Rights of the people and those of health care providers must be respected. It should be more of a safeguard for the people than a policing act. The government has taken commendable measures to tackle the problem and such measures should be itemized as duties of the government. I hope to see a tomorrow where India is better equipped with a law that can battle any disease that comes forth. I hope that the government stresses on the National Health Bill and its importance especially after the experience it has with the current disease.

What is Public Relation?

According to Frank Jeffkins- Public Relation Is a planned, deliberate, and sustained effort, to build and promote mutual understanding between an organization and its public to bridge the communication gap. 

The basic purpose of Public Relation is more or less the same in every sector. It is an art and science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill. Effective public relations can win people to a certain cause or a program. It can also motivate people to buy a certain product or service. It can encourage investment from the public. Therefore, the need for public relations is obvious.

There is a success if some ground rules are followed. Therefore, some essential for good Public Relations are-

  1. PR man should have a thorough knowledge of an organization
  2. Well versed in PR techniques
  3. Alert to the public mood and new trends
  4. Creative and knowledgeable
  5. Broad public relations experience is extremely necessary for success.

Public Relations includes a host of things- press relations, advertising, publication, audio-visual and outdoor media, community relations, organization of conferences and seminars, hospitability and entertainment, financial relations, relations with the government, internal communications, etc. More important than all these activities is the projection of the image of the organization in different media-press, radio, and TV.

It is both art and science, has the beauty of art and technique of science. The substance of public relations is to develop understanding among different constituents that deal with the organization. The PR dealings should stress on accuracy, integrity, performance and providing of newsy, timely information, and other material. In any case, the PR man should avoid begging or trying to get pressure publicity through news columns and newscasts by using pressure publicity through news columns and newscasts by using advertising as a weapon. The PR man has to keep all these aspects in mind.

Impact of COVID-19 on the Indian Workforce

How Covid-19 Might Change Indian Feminist Narratives For Eternity

Increasing confirmed cases in India of Coronavirus had caused a drastic disruption in the lives of people. The economy is hit, and a slowdown has been expected. The lockdown has put the life in India to a standstill, and every industry is putting recruitment on hold or laying off workers and making decisions regarding pay cuts. The automotive and IT sectors are suffering the most, as there was a significant dependence on exports and imports. The economy is also being affected by the same, i.e., the supply irregularities due to modifications in international trade policies. We can look for a silver lining in this situation as the Indian industries might emerge as the major suppliers in the areas of pharmaceuticals and textiles. The significant impact is on the people running all these industries. The country is not only facing economic losses but also human resource losses. These are both physical and psychological. This is discussed further by dividing the workforce into three types – a) Daily wage workers, b) Normal Employees, c) Managers/Head of Departments/Companies.

The needs of different workers have been explained using Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory in this article it is assumed that the conditions stated in his theory hold true.

Daily wage workers and urban poor include the people working in the agricultural sector, construction sites, car washers in a typical scenario. But with progress in technologies and companies like Uber, Ola, Zomato, etc. coming up, the delivery boys, cab drivers etc. are also people who might earn a monthly income but are still in a job with little assurance of income. Then there are mechanics, vegetable vendors, etc. with no fixed payment as well. All of the above mentioned and many others have been left with no means to earn a livelihood after the lockdown was imposed to contain COVID-19’s spread in India. The closing hotels and restaurants and little movement on the streets have left many people devoid of income.

For these people, the main aim is to earn a livelihood and secure their income for tomorrow. Their needs can be related to the first and second need defined in the Malow’s need hierarchy, i.e., physiological and safety needs. These people have not moved up and do not crave recognition in the organization as such. Most of them are not even a part of any organization as well. These people will be affected the most since there can be three possible scenarios. First being that they might become too dependent on the government aid being provided to them during the lockdown period. Second, if their locus of control is external, they might end up being depressed and let the suffering take a toll on them. Third, if their locus of control is internal, they might strive to make their situation better after the lockdown period and prepare in advance for any future pandemic.

The people who will breed on government’s aid might become lethargic and lack the motivation to do work again. They will be forced to do work after the conditions normalize, and this will cause them to be dissatisfied because of their mindset of receiving without working. The people who have an external locus of control, which encompasses most of this population because poor people might not always give priority to mindset development, will suffer the most. They will keep blaming the authorities and the external conditions and will let the pandemic disrupt their lives. The people who have an internal locus of control might try to make the best of their current situation while planning for the future.

The normal workers are the ones working in the corporate world and are related to certain organizations and are financially stable. These workers are facing layoff and pay – cut tensions as almost every organization is trying to manage finances with the economy coming

down. Some organizations have decided to not take this path such as DLF limited, which did not take a pay – cut and is not even retrenching the workforce.

Companies outside India like Tesla has decided to do the opposite. It laid off all the non- essential workers till May 4 and even took a pay cut of 10%. Around 3,000 workers were also laid off by Sephora. In India, most of the companies and start-ups are following the same path. Techolution laid off 20 workers in Telangana. Acko, an online insurance firm, laid off 50 employees. Fareportal, a travel firm based in the US, cut off on 500 workers in India.

Bounce, a transportation network company, has decided to take 20-60% pay cuts. All these measures are being taken to ensure that the organizations have finances to run their business when the conditions normalize. Some companies are taking initiatives not to lay off workers and continue working from home, but it is also a challenge only around 5% of their employees have Wi-Fi at their homes.

The people working in these organizations can be classified into three types based on their needs. First are those who still are struggling to fulfil their safety needs in the Maslow need hierarchy. Second, are those who have affiliation and esteem needs that are to be satisfied, and the third category is of those people whose self-actualization needs are too satisfied.

A relation between locus of control and motivation level can be established as people who tend to struggle in fulfilling their safety needs are usually stuck at the external locus of control. Thus, such people will feel unmotivated and distressed during the period of lockdown as their need for security won’t be fulfilled due to the retrenchment process going on in many organizations.

People who require the feeling of belongingness and are out to fulfil their esteem needs might make use of this lockdown period if they have access to the required resources. There can be two categories in these people as well. Some might spend their time leisurely, but the ones with an internal locus of control will try to improve their skillset and use the time productively.

This is also a great opportunity for people who want to satisfy their need for self-actualization as now they can serve the community and do something helpful for society. Some professionals are doing it be it situational or be it out of their sense of duty, for example, the doctors, policeman, etc.

The people who are at managing positions in the organizations have different problems altogether. That set of the workforce is influenced by their type of commitment towards their organization. The people who have an affective commitment towards the firm they work with will be the people who will help these firms to recover after the lockdown. They will be forced to think creatively so that they can sustain their finances and help the company grow. A few examples of such people are Deep Kalra and Rajesh Magow the founders of MakeMyTrip have decided to take 100% pay cut and not affect the salaries of their employees.

Then some people have a normative or continuance commitment towards the organization and might not be willing to put in efforts to contribute to the organization. They would probably plan for their secure future and their savings.

Thus, COVID-19 won’t only be impacting the population physically, but it also has left so many people psychological affected. The organizations like Sephora, are also trying to help their workers by assuring that once the conditions normalize, they might consider taking the laid-off workers back. Bridged is also taking initiatives to help employees during this time of self-isolation by making a service available so that people can talk to someone and share their problems.

There is a strong need to balance out the focus on running the organizations and taking care of the employees. Similar initiatives are required to focus and develop the workforce in India because of it one of the things the country will rely on reviving the economy after the pandemic ends.

Some measures that the organizations can take are that they can host free webinars for their employees and even for the laid-off workers to give an insight into the skills that would be required in the coming times.

There can also be awareness spread about how to take care of their mental health along with physical health. Also, there is a need to let the population staying at home right now know how essential it is to develop their skills. The silver lining in this tough situation is that we might end up with a more skilled workforce. This is because people might choose not to get into jobs for some time and pursue higher education.

The main crux of the situation is that it is necessary to address their needs keeping in mind the feasibility aspect as well because that is the essence of organizational behaviour. Human resource cannot be ignored totally to sustain organizations because even if the companies manage to use finances wisely, there would still be a need for employees to ensure future success.