HOW LAW HAS AN IMPACT IN YOUR LIFE

The most well-known manner by which individuals portrayed their noteworthy common equity issues is that it’s either misfortune or God’s will for them. … In the event that I think something has simply transpired in my life due to powers beyond my ability to do anything about, I’m most likely not going to go down to the nearby legitimate office and request lawful assistance with an issue that I don’t comprehend is lawful.

Everything to lay it out simply, the law is the thing that keeps a great deal of things running easily and precise. Without law there would be a ton of mayhem. We people can be very awful animals to one another, envision there wasn’t a law set up to oppress murderers,i can wager you there would be much more deaths, on the other hand , Stealing wasn’t a wrongdoing, admirably I’ll let you picture that in your mind. Laws are what guard you, they influence your life in a bigger number of ways than you can even think.

Satisfaction and the law appear to be random, isn’t that right? The law harshly disallows individuals from getting things done and afterward backs up its principles with alarming disciplines. Be that as it may, envision what life would resemble if there were no law. Being burglarized or assaulted could turn into a typical event, and the greater part of the advantages of society we as a whole underestimate would not, at this point be conceivable. At the point when you consider it, the general purpose of having law is to improve our lives.

Great laws assist individuals with carrying on with more joyful lives. So if a nation needs to make great laws, it ought to realize what satisfies individuals. Furthermore, luckily, there’s been an ongoing blast of examination into bliss. In what capacity would that be able to investigate be utilized to improve laws?

Some people are affected more and others less. However, the law and government do affect us all in some common ways. Most importantly, the law and government affect us by allowing us to live in a society where we are not related to most other people and we generally do not even know who they are. Most definitely the so-called “civil law” or, depending on you location, the “common law”. The “law” is a set of rules designed to regulate relations (a) between humans and (b) between humans and objects. What exactly those rules are, and how they operate, varies. Typically, when people think of the “law”, they think of circumstances when the “law” becomes visible, i.e. in exceptional circumstances that are potentially life-changing, i.e. criminal law,or when the state makes it’s presence known, by demanding you pay taxes. However, daily life is usually regulated by a much larger degree by the so-called “zivilrecht”, for lack of a better word, a “law of interpersonal relationships”. You get up in the morning, out of bed? Chances are you bought that bed someplace, so the law of contracts, which governs sales, has something to do with it. The bed is standing in a flat or house, which is either rented → law on lease agreements, or owned → property law. You take a shower → you have a service agreement with your utilities provider, who ensures that there is water in the pipe leading to your domicile. You get dressed → law of contracts concerning how you bought the clothes you wear, → property law concerning you’re allowed to do with them as you please.

You leave house and walk down the street → traffic laws are designed dot make that a safe and convenient experience: and enter a coffee shop. There, you buy a cup of coffee, a bagel, and an newspaper for your breakfast → depending on where in the world you are, you just entered into, and executed, anything between one and nine contracts governing the passage of ownership of coffee, bagel and newspaper to you, reciprocal obligations (“stuff” for “money) concerning the quality, payment of the items you purchased, and them now “belonging” to you, and not to the coffee shop, any more.

If the coffee shop is part of a chain, chances are you will not be contracting with the guy behind the counter, but with a company (f.e, Starbucks?), so laws on representation and agency also apply. In 90% of the cases, if your coffee is cold, you will complain to whoever sold you your coffee if the coffee is too cold → Implied terms, coffee is suitable for human consumption and of a “typically to be expected” quality and temperature.

All of this happens more or less “in plain sight”, but out of mind. It is supposed to happen that way. The law is there, more or less invisible to non-lawyers, but it only becomes visible when things go wrong. y Our everyday lives are typically enmeshed by legal rules, most of them concerning “commercial” transactions in the widest sense. That is the area of law that most of us will find prevalent in our everyday lives. Everything else, Taxes, criminal law, etc., is not nearly as prevalent.

BY GOVIND SAGAR

Turning Point!

Everyone has face situations in their life which they never expected in their path. People have their own hurdles and obstacles to elucidate with. Every person has made certain goals in their life and working towards it so that they can accomplish it. But in the journey of accomplishment one has to face many hitches in which many of them would give up, some of them will get bored of it, some of them will change the goal itself as they find too many hurdles to cross. In all of them there would be some exceptions too. Some of them will wait for a turning point or I would say a kick to continue the run to reach the finishing line.

Turning point in life can be good or bad but it will teach you a life lesson which will be with you throughout your life.  There was a simple girl who loves her family distributing her time equally for sports and studies. She was a National Volley Ball player. She was living her life happily but one incident changed her life. She met with an accident where two chain snatcher tried to snatch her chain when she was in train as she was a sports player giving up was not an option for her she tried hard to push the snatchers but life as other plans for her the snatchers pull her out and thrown her out of the train it doesn’t stop here she hit hard herself from another train coming from the tracks parallel to the first. She fall down between the tracks, no one noticed her. She was not conscious, she knows her life was not same now it was fallen apart her both legs was bleeding she saw her one leg was broken into pieces and other was not at all visible. 48 trains passed by but none of them noticed her she got companions that was rats. Now this was her turning point. Life throw us with situations which we had not expected in our nightmares. But now this is reality she is handicapped. The village people carried her in the nearby hospital, afterwards it was revealed she was a National Volley Ball player then she was shifted to AIIMS Delhi. She was bed ridden, with three spine fractures, one leg was artificial and in other leg a rod was inserted. On that hospital bed she decided to become mountaineer and she also decided to climb Mount Everest. This was shocking, surprising for everyone whoever hears it. No one encourages her for the goal she had in her mind but, she was firm with her goal she just aim herself on top of the Mount Everest. She knows it already it will be a journey where her life was on stake. She is not normal now she doesn’t fit the ideology of normal as per the society. Easy things like climbing, walking will be not easier for her the thing she left with was her will to not give up at any cost. The young girl just wanted to show the world if anybody wants to conquer the world luck is not an essential thing it’s the will, if we have a will the luck will also play its role and the way will be easy to locate and to conquer. Days of training, finding sponsorship, dealing with the society is not that simple as it seems but she survived it all.

Climbing the highest peak of world is visibly not everyone’s cup of tea. She managed to reach the peak of the Mount Everest with minimum oxygen level. When she started the descending journey from the mountains her oxygen was zero and she fell down but as I said if we have a will all the other things will find its way to reach you that’s what happened in this young girl’s story. A British mountaineer on his way down run out to help her, he had two oxygen cylinder with him. This saved the young girl’s life. That how she completed her journey with an artificial leg and other one with rod inserted. She was none other than Mrs. Arunima Sinha she reached the summit of the Mount Everest as on 21st May 2013.

Life give us turning point when we least expect it coming this hard in our path. But if we use this turning point wisely with all our hearts and brains then it will never disappoint us with the results.

“When Life throw lemons on us we should catch them, squeeze them, crush them, add salt, add mint, add soda, and water your lemonade is ready. Complaining about the sour taste of lemon will let you reach nowhere so its better you make your drink in your own way.”

child marriage

The highest number of cases were registered in Tamil Nadu (55), followed by Karnataka at 51. Other states witnessing high number of cases of child marriages were West Bengal (41), Assam (23), Telangana (19), Andhra Pradesh (19), Maharashtra (16), Haryana (14), Gujarat (12). Even Puducherry, which had zero reports of child marriage cases in 2014 and 2015 registered 5 in 2016.

Many brides find themselves alone after getting married. There’s no work to be found in the small villages, so young men often seek their fortune across the giant country. Their wives move in with the in-laws and the newlyweds stay in touch via phone.

“What do you expect a kid who’s 15 to understand about marriage or relationships or managing a house?” asks Khandelwal. “They’re not educated, and that trickles down to their own kids. They already don’t have money, and they’re already too young to have kids. It’s a vicious cycle. Will they ever be able to come out of this?”

After two and a half years spent photographing the child brides of Shravasti, Khandelwal sees signs of young girls forced into marriage across the country, even in the metropolis of New Delhi. She plans to turn her camera’s lens on these communities to show how the practice may be illegal and declining, but in India it’s still flourishing on the sidelines.

she expected tradition and patriarchy to dominate each family’s decision to marry off their daughters. What she found was a practice also rooted in poverty, a lack of education, and the volatility of life.

The interplay of many social, economic and religious factors is responsible for child marriage. Many prefer child or early marriage so that the couple bears the highest number of children possible. In communities with poor law and order enforcement, girl child marriage is seen as a solution to protect the ‘honour’ of the girl child, and as a form of ‘protection’ against rape and kidnapping. So entrenched these customs have become that they continue even after the recent improvement of law and order. This can end faulty belief systems, like early marriage and sex-selective abortion. As per the World Bank, educated, healthy women can “engage in productive activities, find formal sector.

Social Media and Its Impacts       

 

It is not too much of an exaggeration to say that the internet has become an intrinsic part of our daily existence. We turn to the world wide web for answers to all our questions and to access the materials we need. A huge amount of the time we spent in the virtual world is spent on social media platforms. Social media has become a phenomenon of its own, becoming the axis around which many debates, discussions, and even trade occur. New trends are set, news is shared, opinions are written, art is created, and community is built. The number of people using social media has risen steadily over the years and almost half of the entire globe is now virtually present on some platform or the other.

Social media has many benefits and has made our lives richer in many ways. Here are some of them:

  • We have increased awareness of social issues and access to much material to educate ourselves.
  • It has enabled us to connect across distances and remain in touch.
  • It has made global communities of like-minded people possible, and much creative and collaborative work done.
  • It has widened our perspectives and increased our reach.
  • The entertainment industry greatly relies on social media for promotion as well as for profit.
  • It allows for the propagation of ideas, ideologies, and support for those who might be struggling.

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While these are all great things in themselves, it is no secret that social media has also become a cesspool of anger and narcissism. It has made people more disconnected from their immediate spaces and the challenges they face there. Despite the increased connectivity that we have with the world, social media has not helped with loneliness. Rather, it seems to have made the problem worse with the internet being considered one of the loneliest places in the world. Here are some other problems that social media has brought around:

  • Creates a sense of invincibility giving rise to the keyboard warrior culture, where one is extremely bold and loud but only under anonymity and on a screen.
  • Increased sense of isolation; does not aid in mental health issues and depression.
  • Many create false identities by their interactions and project these onto the people around them, even deluding themselves. This causes them to be unable to love who they are once they have to deal with their weaknesses and flaws in real life leading to numerous self-hate and self-perception issues.
  • Social media has not made us more empathetic as some would like to believe but rather has fostered reactionary comments, one-liner retorts designed to hurt, and increased intolerance. Conversational skills and capacity to understand another that comes with extended engagement deteriorates.
  • It has severe effects on our mental faculties, clarity of thought, time-span of attention, time spent with oneself and one’s thoughts, and ability to engage on the ground with those who may oppose us.
  • Encourages a culture of instant gratification where one’s image and identity are built around likes and shares, and where one seeks immediate results. Continued work and perseverance for a cause become boring and illogical when momentary satisfaction is available through virtual means.

It is time for us to truly consider what social media has done for us and how much of it is good. It is becoming increasingly clear that when given a free rein, it can cause an amount of harm that outweighs any good it might do in any way. It is the knowledge of the effects that addiction to a virtual world causes that lead to many wealthy and brilliant men like Steve Jobs putting strict limits on the time his children spend online. With so much of our everyday lives moving online with the pandemic, it is impossible to completely keep away from all online platforms. Yet it is the need of the hour that we find alternate unplugged means of balancing our mental and physical health. Moving away and “detoxing” from social media has become necessary if we are not to lose our grip in life and our ability to have meaningful conversations and relationships in reality.

 

Creativity is Imagination with Responsibility

Human creativity is what drives us forward as a species. It is this unique ability to harness our thoughts and ideas that has been responsible for some of the world’s greatest inventions, from the wheel to the microprocessor.

Despite our incredible capacity for creativity and imagination, many of us actually understand very little about the creative process.

“Creativity involves breaking out of established patterns in order to look at things in a different way.”–. Edward de Bono

The very phrase “creative thinking” gives rise to associations connected with something mysterious and new. How can we define creative thinking? How to improve and develop creative thinking skills? This kind of mental activity is associated with a special brain function – imagination.

Imagination is not part of any of the mental functions (memory, perception, attention). It unites them and becomes a transitional form between all structures of holistic intelligence. What is actually the definition of imagination? What techniques and exercises can we use to develop it? And what benefits can we get?

Generating reality in images is the physical ability of the human brain only. Its peculiarities are that it has a connection with organic, semantic and mental components of thinking and unites them. It is still unknown where the neural structures of the brain responsible for its appearance are located. Therefore, in general, the word “imagination” justifies its mystery and phenomenality, it is the essence of the creative principle. With its help, artistic and cultural masterpieces are created: literature, painting, sculpture. All these achievements are realized by mankind due to this phenomenon.

In the imagination there are hidden opportunities that create unlimited the processes of knowledge in our world. The reflection of reality in the mind with the help of imagination is essential both for the intelligence and for the psyche:

  • a person with the help of imagination plans his further actions and can mentally imagine his behavior, think over the preliminary result of his actions;
  • due to imagination, a person can be transported in time – into the past or the future, randomly evoke long-gone events from memory, relive these feelings, extracting material for creativity from them.
  • in the imagination tasks are solved when the immediate real action in practice is unavailable or is not completely clear; with its help the missing details of the information ca be refined

“Creativity” is not the miraculous road to business growth and affluence that is so abundantly claimed these days. And for the line manager, particularly, it may be more of a millstone than a milestone. Those who extol the liberating virtues of corporate creativity over the somnambulistic vices of corporate conformity may actually be giving advice that in the end will reduce the creative animation of business. This is because they tend to confuse the getting of ideas with their implementation—that is, confuse creativity in the abstract with practical innovation; not understand the operating executive’s day-to-day problems; and underestimate the intricate complexity of business organizations.

The trouble with much of the advice business is getting today about the need to be more vigorously creative is, essentially, that its advocates have generally failed to distinguish between the relatively easy process of being creative in the abstract and the infinitely more difficult process of being innovationist in the concrete. Indeed, they misdefine “creativity” itself. Too often, for them, “creativity” means having great, original ideas. Their emphasis is almost all on the thoughts themselves. Moreover, the ideas are often judged more by their novelty than by their potential usefulness, either to consumers or to the company. In this article, I shall show that in most cases, having a new idea can be “creative” in the abstract but destructive in actual operation, and that often instead of helping a company, it will even hinder it.

Suppose you know two artists. One tells you an idea for a great painting, but he does not paint it. The other has the same idea and paints it. You could easily say the second man is a great creative artist. But could you say the same thing of the first man? Obviously not. He is a talker, not a painter.

That is precisely the problem with so much of today’s pithy praise of creativity in business—with the unending flow of speeches, books, articles, and “creativity workshops” whose purpose is to produce more imaginative and creative managers and companies. My observations of these activities over a number of years lead me firmly to this conclusion. They mistake an idea for a great painting with the great painting itself. They mistake brilliant talk for constructive action.

But, as anybody who knows anything about any organization knows only too well, it is hard enough to get things done at all, let alone to introduce a new way of doing things, no matter how good it may seem. A powerful new idea can kick around unused in a company for years, not because its merits are not recognized but because nobody has assumed the responsibility for converting it from words into action. What is often lacking is not creativity in the idea-creating sense but innovation in the action-producing sense, i.e., putting ideas to work.

Techniques and Applications of AI

Intelligence requires knowledge. Intelligence is the ability to store , retrieve and act on data – efficiently and effectively. Knowledge is a collection of ‘facts’. To manipulate these facts by a program, a suitable representation is required. A good representation facilitates problem solving. Artificial Intelligence enable computers to recognize the knowledge , reason ( questioning it to find out the logic) and act upon it. It is quite difficult to define the characteristics of Knowledge correctly. It differs from data by being organized in a way that corresponds to its application.

Learning is not very different from perception, they both find out about the world based on experience. Perception is the short time scale (where am I?) .Learning is the long time scale (what’s the coefficient of friction?).An AI technique is a method that exploits knowledge and captures generalizations that share properties, are grouped together, rather than being allowed separate representation.AI Techniques tell us how we represent, manipulate and reason with knowledge in order to solve problems. Some of these techniques employ an agent whose job is to use sequences of percepts to estimate the missing details in the world of dynamics.

Different techniques in AI are as follows :

Branch and Bound :

Here, the domain is classified into sections. Knowledge is stored in decision trees . Tree of decisions is formed ( conditions with “yes” or “no” branches). It is a semi-transparent technique. With large problems , it becomes difficult for human interpretation.

Application : Insurance fraud detection & Credit assessment of the loan application for processing bank loans.

Guided search :

It is mainly used in the Optimisation (maximization) problems . Here, the domain is described by a function and optimisation techniques  do not actually produce only local optima.This does not search previously visited point. Therefore , it will not become stuck or get into a loop forever.

Application :Finding the optimal solution with maximum weight , Machine learning applications.

Heuristic search :  

A heuristic is a way of trying to discover an idea. Heuristics are rules of thumb and they do not guarantee a solution to a problem. Heuristic functions are used in some approaches to search or to measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal. Heuristic technique compares two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than the other, i.e. constitutes an advance toward the goal, and may be more useful. These algorithms appear to be really intelligent because they perform better. Heuristic algorithms are more efficient because they take advantage of feedback from the data to direct the search path. This search technique is a weak one but can be effective if applied correctly and  it requires domain specific information. Heuristics are knowledge about domain, which help search and reasoning in its domain. Heuristic is a function that, when applied to a state, returns value as estimated merit of state, with respect to goal.  Heuristic evaluation function estimates likelihood of given state leading to goal state.  Heuristic search function estimates cost from current state to goal, presuming function is efficient.

Inference Engine : This technique uses efficient procedures and rules . It is essential in deducting a correct, flawless solution. In case of knowledge-based ES, the Inference Engine acquires and manipulates the knowledge from the knowledge base to arrive at a particular solution. In case of rule based ES, it −  Applies rules repeatedly to the facts, which are obtained from earlier rule application.  Adds new knowledge into the knowledge base if required.  Resolves rules conflict when multiple rules are applicable to a particular case. To recommend a solution, the Inference Engine uses the following strategies −  Forward & Backward Chaining.

Forward Chaining – It is a strategy of an expert system to answer the question, “What can happen next?” Here, the Inference Engine follows the chain of conditions and derivations and finally deduces the outcome. It considers all the facts and rules, and sorts them before concluding to a solution. This strategy is followed for working on conclusion, result, or effect. For example, prediction of share market status as an effect of changes in interest rates.

Backward Chaining -With this strategy, an expert system finds out the answer to the question, “Why this happened?” On the basis of what has already happened, the Inference Engine tries to find out which conditions could have happened in the past for this result. This strategy is followed for finding out cause or reason. For example, diagnosis of blood cancer in humans.

Genetic programming :  Genetic programming is an automated method for creating a working computer program from a high-level problem statement of a problem. Genetic programming starts from a high-level statement of ‘what needs to be done’ and automatically creates a computer program to solve the problem. Supervised learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function from labeled training data. In supervised learning, each example is a pair consisting of an input object (typically a vector) and the desired output value (also called the supervisory signal ).

Neural Networks – Backward Propagation :

Neural Networks model a brain. Nodes represent neurons .They are linked to other nodes via connections ( representing synapses). Nodes send messages to their output when a threshold from their inputs has been reached. Neural networks typically take a vector of input values and produce a vector of output values. Inside, they train weights of “neurons”. Neural networks use supervised learning, in which inputs and outputs are known and the goal is to build a representation of a function that will approximate the input to output mapping.

This approach is learning by example―given a set of right answers, it learns the general patterns. Reinforcement Learning  learns by experience―given some set of actions and an eventual reward or punishment, it learns which actions are good or bad.It is a “Black Box” technique.

Applications : Modelling of industrial systems , Speech recognition programs.

Expert systems :

It is a transparent technique.It becomes difficult for human interpretation with very large problems – above 1000 rules, the logic chain becomes huge.

Applications : Process monitoring and control in medical fields , chemical industries etc.

Summing up….

An AI technique is a method that exploits knowledge and captures generalizations that share properties and can be grouped together. AI Techniques tell us how we represent, manipulate and reason with knowledge in order to solve problems.These techniques have practical applications in almost every field. It forms the basic foundation of the new revolutionizing technology – Intelligent connectivity.

Kindly check the following link to explore further about the topics :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_intelligence#Tools

Quality v/s Quantity

There is always a big debate going on that what is good QUALITY OR QUANTITY …..Some said that if you have a thing in more quantity then you will win but some said that if you have quality in your work then you will win…… we should listen to whom?????
Actually it depends on situation which is in front of us ….it depends on which topic we are talking about…
So there are some fields in which this confusion has created …these are listed below…..after reading this I hope this confusion just get sort out..

  1. Student life – This dispute always create a confusion specially for students because they are just new comers in the world’s competitive world….
    At student life we all thought if we write so many pages or the full answer copy then we will get more marks, this situation comes specially in board exams and in college exams… they thought so, because maybe they have seen someone who is doing the same and getting the good results … here can be fault of those teachers who check the copy by counting that how many pages a student have filled….
    The students thought so…because there is no one to tell them about this topic…. there is no one who can make understand them that quality matters most.

As they are the new comers and they were at the age where many people get distracted easily ….so they do so…they just flow with everyone….
In this field quality and quantity both matters here quantity doesn’t mean that you are writing a answer which is full of rubbish matter …your content should related to the question.. you should always write quality content…

  1. Politics – In politics quantity is more important ..the more supporters a party have the more powerful the party will be..
    In politics majority matters a lot….

3. Food – we all want food but in quantity???…. the answer is NO… we want food but quality food we make efforts in our whole life just to get quality food , quality life….
In food quality matters.. just think if you have a lot of food but it is rotten then still will you prefer to eat it ???….NO Na ….

4. Business – In business suppose that you are the owner of that, then now think if you have 100 employee but only 50 of them are qualitative , only they are giving best output and other 50 are just increasing the rush…..and for the business it is waste of money by providing them salary….
In business quality matters most…. because if the owner has qualitative workers then the business will grow up…..

5. Children– As we see that in old time a family used to have so many children…they didn’t think that they should focus on quality if they give birth to even a single child and give them the education of values , ethics and make him/her worth to the family, to the society, to the world then it will be more beneficial to all for them as well as the world…..so here quality matters…

6. Social connectivity- In today’s era everyone has social media accounts and have so many friends on it either it is Facebook / Instagram/ twitter and so on…..but a person is all alone in the real world ….now suppose that you have a long friend list in real life but if you can’t trust them and none of them helps you in your tough time then this all long friend list is just waste…..so here also quality matters….

So above are the fields… and here so many field can occur….there is no end of this list …

CONCLUSION OF THIS DISCUSSION IS THAT IT ONLY DEPENDS ON SITUATION OR ON FIELD ….OF WHICH WE ARE TALKING ABOUT …IN SOME FIELDS WE NEED QUANTITY AND SIMILARLY IN SOME FIELDS WE NEED QUALITY….
IT ONLY DEPENDS ON US THAT WHAT WE CHOOSE….SO CHOOSE WISELY….

Dreams

We all have this one thought when we wake up from our sleep. “Whoa.. What a crazy dream.” But then immediately the next moment you try to remember it and think, “What dream?!”

Yes, most of us have been there. So today, let’s talk about these dreams that we have.

Lucid dreaming is quite uncommon. Lucid dreaming is a state where the person is aware that they are dreaming and can even control their dreams. It’s a common phenomenon that we often hear of. But not many people can actually do it. A research suggests that only about 20% of the total population can actually lucid dream.

Dreaming is very important for our health. Through researches it has been found that dreaming is really important for us. We are aware that constant lack of sleep eventually leads to health problems. If we don’t get enough sleep for a long time we may start hallucinating and our concentration power decreases in general. It can also lead to Alzheimer, heart disease, and obesity. Apart from lack of sleep, lack of dreams is also partly responsible for these health hazards. Actually when we are in REM cycle of dreaming it helps us restore our brain and allows us to subconsciously process things.

Dream journals improve how well we remember our dreams. This one is for those who want to be able to remember the dreams that they have when they sleep. It is said that about 95% of all our dreams are quickly forgotten as we wake up. However it is possible that with some skill we can recall our dreams without thinking about it too much. And this skill can be improved through jotting down every detail that we can remember from our dream in a journal. Practicing this on a daily basis can help us remember our dreams in bigger chunks everytime we do it. We just have to be consistent with this one habit.

Dreams become more complex as the night goes on. People who can already remember their dreams might have noticed that as the night grows their dreams become more complex and bizarre. They even become more vivid and emotional. This is likely attributed to the fact that the longer we sleep the deeper sleep we achieve. This allows us to process things work through fears and reorganize memories more intensely.

Not everyone can dream. People who have suffered a traumatic brain injury may find that they no longer can dream. This probably happens because of damage caused on the part of brain that involved emotion, memory and imagination.

We have multiple dreams a night. We usually dream about 4-6 times every night. The time can range from a minute to twenty minutes each. This possible because of the fact that sleep happens in cycles. People usually get to REM sleep, which is required for dreams to haopen about 4-6 times a night. So in an eight-hour sleep period a person might spend two of them dreaming.

So, today when you go to sleep that even though your body will be at rest, your brain won’t! Happy dreaming!

Management Development

“Of course education becomes very very important and that’s for our human resource development.”

– By Abdullah Ahmad Badawi

Today’s scenario is characterised by constant change and dynamism especially in businesses. So, inorder to face this dynamic environment it is very important to change or upgrade yourself according to the need and requirements. Earlier training programmes where conducted in the organisation in order to improve the performance of the employee in a particular job. But now organisations have become more human resource oriented as we know that it is one who plays the main and dominant role in helping the organisation to reach the top and stand apart in the crowd. With the passage of time the role of the managers and executives are becoming complex now it is not as easy as it was earlier. As we know success and growth of an organisation largely depends upon the calibre, capabilities and performance of its managers or executives. So, a manager is the dynamic life-giving element in any organisation. Hence, it becomes important for managers to educate and update themselves regularly about the changes in the management practices. So, it can be said that due to the changes and complexities a new word came into existence and it is Management Development.

Management Development can be defined as a process of utilising a systematic procedure of training by which managerial personnel gain conceptual and theoretical knowledge which he can use to manage the work in their organisation effectively and efficiently. Management Development is a long-term educational process. It involves broader education and its main purpose is long-term development. Management Development is a continuous process as our environment changes continuously so the managers also have to update their knowledge and skills accordingly. As there is always a gap between actual and potential performance. So management development helps in filling these gaps. Management Development programme helps in bridging the gap between the two. This helps in enriching the functional capacity of executives and managers by continuously updating their knowledge and skills through management development programmes. As we know human behaviour is dynamic and it changes from time to time. So in order to ensure better interpersonal skills some properly designed management development programmes should be conducted for attaining managerial success. Management development programmes helps in improving the deficiency of managers and the organisation can derive immediate benefits from these programmes. Management development programmes can be designed by taking into consideration some issues like employee motivation, pattern of conflict, etc as these are the reasons why they cannot show their full potential. And if they receive some quality programmes on these topics this will really help them alot. It also facilitates self-development of managers, as with the help of this programme they can learn new things. The need for management development arises due to the following reasons –

  • Complexity of Jobs – As the current scenario is changing and becoming complicated and more challenging. So in order to cope up this situation the managers and executives need varied skills and proper training to deal with this problem. And this is possible only through management development programmes.
  • Lack of Trained Managers – As we know precious things take time to come infront of us, same goes with employees and managers too. Talented and matured managers and executives are not easily available. We have to find the calibre and talent which is within them and this we have to find out by providing management development.
  • Changes in Technology – As we know rapid changes are taking place in the business world. And to cope up with the change is the main problem. So for this proper training and exposure in computer application and information technology should be provided.
  • Obsolescence – Executive obsolescence occurs due to mental and ageing process. So this can be corrected by offering them some opportunities of self-development and it must continue throughout the career of an executive.

So lastly always provide some or the other opportunities to your managers, executives and employees so that they feel connected with your organisation and can work hard to achieve organisational and individual goals.

Hail Zidane

Zinedine Zidane- A man of inspiration for the upcoming generations. each and every football lover should know his story really well. Zidane can be defined as the Come back king, a True Coach and a perfect man. Probably one of the greatest player of his era. Zidane’s story is an inspirational theory of exactly how sportsman shall be. His victory of La Liga 2019-2020 is very raw and particularly relevant these days, after defeating the arch rival Barcelona indirectly. He never failed to shine in the role of a complete sportsman. Not only just as a player but his hunger for recognition as a coach is commendable. He proved to entire world that a greatest player can be a greatest coach too. To start the story with, Zidane was born on 23rd June 1972. He got his inspiration from the Argentine sportsman Diego Maradona whose techniques “were on another level” for him. Lovingly known as Zizou, he was a French Soccer player who mainly performed as an attacking midfielder. He was an asset for his team, often served as the backbone and has contributed a lot for the enhancement of the football fraternity. Zidane debuted professionally and scored his first goal for Cannes against Nantes. He was devoted to his national team of France where he received a lot of respect. His contribution in Euro Cup 2000, was unforgettable and he also was claimed as the Player of Tournament. He also had a great contribution for FiFA World Cup 2002,2006 and Euro 2004. He was also rewarded as the FIFA World player 1998, 2000 and 2003 also Ballon d’or 1998. He was a one man army who served his team so well and proved himself to be the greatest of all times.

Now lets come to the not-so-famous part, that such a responsible and disciplined person like Zizou, headbutted Marco Materazzi right to his chest, in 2006 World Cup. In the last world cup match of his life, he was shown a Red Card. Seriously was it heroic? or a bizarre act? This shocked the entire world and this was probably one of the worst act for breaking the rules. This drastic step was highly criticized by the media and questions were repeatatively asked to him. This became the most controversial headline. Zidane later accepted his fault and stated that, ” I am not proud of what I did to Materazzi “. Actually, Materazzi revealed that he spoke something worse to Zidane.

An advice for the future fast paced generations is that You have to compete with yourself, your primary competition will be with you and no one else. That very day Zidane had probably taken a vow that it is not okay to lose, or to accept the unfair game. He was of really a challenging nature so he promised to himself that being coward is never an option. you have to show the world your capabilities and what you deserve. Even till now, his aura of an elegant soccer player is still intact. Zidane ruled the Real Madrid club as a star player along with teammates like Cristiano Ronaldo and David Bekham (both supremely stylish players) primarily. Just as a brilliant student evolves to be the Principal. When he returned to Real Madrid as a Coach nobody thought that he is going to flourish so much on the upcoming days, however… He proved his excellence as a manager and was successful on his part. Though some people continued to criticise him whether he deserved to be in the position or not. Zidane was gifted with huge honours namely, Three Champion Leagues, Two European Super Cups, Two Spanish Super Cups also Two Club World Cups. He left his Coaching when he was questioned on whether he was capable of the position or not. The thing was his eligibility was constantly tested in all phases. After that the conditions of Real Madrid coaching really degraded and the previous coach was sacked. Zidane came back again as a King, and for concluding this story… he won the La Liga title after 2017. 34th La Liga Title, 2020 was hoisted by Real Madrid players defeating Villareal, under guidance of Zidane.

“WE WERE A FAMILY WHO HAD COME FROM NOTHING AND NOW WE HAD RESPECT FROM FRENCH PEOPLE OF ALL SORTS’. – Zidane.

REFERENCE: Zinedine Zidane – Wikipedia.

What is Nepotism ?

I think you all are aware about the recent incident about our loss of our gem ,yes you are right I’m talking about” Shushant Singh Rajput “doesn’t you ? If you are then you very well aware about what happened with that beautiful gem you know that was not murder but it is ,why ? Because of our bollywood industry The bollywood castle is totally totally made of paper you know why ? Because there are so many stars who have name and fame but they don’t have any talent or skills and on the other hand our gems exist who have great skills and talent but they unable to get name and fame because they don’t have any background in bollywood that’s why they committed scucide ?

So what do you think ,what we will have to do? support our starkids and dictator of insusry or we’ll have to support our real gems ???

Why we can’t ?

Do you know that most of people fail in their field because of lack of confidence and because of the fear of results , you know this is the most popular fear which can make you uncomfortable , unconscious , undercofidence ,and some time it may be the cause of stress , depression ,unwanted pressureand many more thing , You know many of students deid every single day because of the fear of being failed what do you think about it Tell me please ……

Russia succeed in covid -19 vaccine

Russia becomes first nation to complete clinical trials of Coronavirus vaccine

The results of the human trials showed that the group of volunteers are developing an immunity to COVID-19. 

Russian COVID Vaccine: Russia has become the first nation to successfully complete the human trials of COVID vaccine. Russia’s COVID vaccine has proven to be effective, as per the results of the trials. 

Chief Researcher Elena Smolyarchuk informed on July 12, 2020 that the human trials of Russia’s COVID vaccine have been completed and the volunteers will be discharged soon. Smolyarchuk is the head of Center for Clinical Research on Medications at Russia’s Sechenov University.

The ministry said 18 people had participated in the research and were discharged without “serious adverse events, health complaints, complications or side effects”.

The results of the trials “allow us to speak with confidence about the safety and good tolerability of the vaccine”, it said in a statement.

“Their immunity is working well, antibodies are being created, they are protected against the coronavirus,” researcher Svetlana Volchikhina said in a video released by the defence ministry.

Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu told President Vladimir Putin during the height of the epidemic in Russia in late May that military researchers were developing a vaccine with scientists at the Gamaleya Institute in Moscow.

The volunteers were isolated in the Burdenko military hospital in Moscow on June 18 when the trial vaccine was administered and underwent daily check-ups.

The defence ministry reported that “for 28 days after vaccination, the vital signs of the volunteers remained within normal limits”.

“We now know that we are 100 percent protected,” Yury, a member of the army who participated in the tests, said on leaving the hospital.

A second group of participants who were vaccinated on June 23 are currently in isolation in hospital under medical supervision .The defence ministry has said it expects clinical trials to be fully completed by the end of July .Smolyarchuk confirmed that the research has been completed and it proved that the vaccine was safe. The first group of volunteers is expected to be discharged on July 15, while the second group will be discharged on July 20.

How will long russia covid vaccine avilable in the markets?

Despite the successful human trials of the COVID vaccine, there is no official confirmation on when Russia’s vaccine will enter commercial production stage and be available for local people. 

According to the World Health Organization, there are at least 21 vaccines that are undergoing human trials across the world. India has also begun clinical trials of its two potential vaccine candidates- Bharat Biotech and ICMR’s COVAXIN and Zydus Cadila’s ZyCov-D. The registrations for the human trials of the Indian vaccines began on July 7. 

Russia stands fourth in the world in terms of total confirmed coronavirus cases with 7,27,162 COVID-19 cases including 5,01,061 recoveries and 11,335 deaths, as of July 13, 2020. Globally, around 1,25,52,763 COVID-19 cases have been detected, which includes more than 564,0 00 deaths.

So here we can understand the situation of covid vaccine in world, we can just pray from god that covid 19 vaccine will launch as soon as possible.

Pm mudra yojana scheme

The Government of India launched a flagship scheme called Prime Minister Mudra Yojana (PMMY) on 8th April 2015 to extend affordable loans to the non-corporate, non-farm micro and small enterprises to cater to their funding needs. One of the major aims of MUDRA loans was to bring the target audience into the formal financial fold.

What is MUDRA?

Micro Units Development and Refinance Agency Limited is MUDRA full form created as a refinancing institution providing loans up to Rs. 10 lakhs maximum to the eligible enterprises through the Commercial Banks, RRBS, Cooperative Banks, NBFC and MFI etc. The borrowers can approach the nearby branches of the lending institutions or apply for loans under the MUDRA scheme or apply online.

The genesis of MUDRA:

The largest economic sector of the country after agriculture comprises of non-corporate micro enterprises generating the bulk of the employment opportunities estimated to be approximately ten crores impacting the life of 50 crore Indians. They are mainly engaged in manufacturing, trading, processing and services, and the enterprises are broadly classified as proprietary or Own Account Enterprises (OAE). Understandably, this sector is deemed to be the economic bulwark of the country, yet it is reckoned to be the largest disorganized business eco-systems in the world. The NSSO survey of 2013 places the OAE at 5.77 crore units, which lie out of the ambit of the formal financial sector enjoying no credit facilities whatsoever. The MUDRA scheme under the aegis of the PMMY aims to be this huge sector into the fold of institutional credit, transforming them into a potent instrument of employment and GDP growth.

The mission statement of Pradhan Mantri Mudra Loan is to create an inclusive value based entrepreneurial culture which is sustainable in partnership with financial institutions in achieving financial security and success.

 key benefits of MUDRA loan:

  • Micro and small enterprises engaged in income generation are the prime target for extension of loan facilities.
  • The borrowers are not required to provide any collateral or security to avail of Mudra Loan.
  • There are no processing charges for availing of the loan.
  • The loans are provided for the funded and non-funded category, inducing an element of flexibility in the usage of funds.
  • The loans can be in the form of term loans, overdraft facility, letters of credit or bank guarantees, thus catering to a wide array of requirements.
  • The Mudra loan scheme does not prescribe any minimum amount.

MUDRA Loan Details:

The name of the type of loan facilities under the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Loan is suggestive of the developmental phases of an enterprise and the quantum of loan sanctioned. There are three Categories of the MUDRA loans based on the stated parameters making the business viable.

1. Sishu: This loan is meant for entrepreneurs who are looking to start a business or in the process of establishing one. The maximum loan sanctioned under this category is Rs.50000. The basic norms of the loan are:

  • To provide finance for machinery.
  • Valid quotation and supplier details are essential.

2. Kishor: Under the MUDRA scheme, this category of loan is targeted towards entrepreneurs looking to expand their business through the infusion of fresh funds. Thus, the loan sanctioned under this category is in the range of Rs.50001 to Rs.5 lakhs. The key requirements for availing of this loan are:

  • The existing balance sheet for the previous two years.
  • Bank account statement.
  • Income and sales returns.
  • Estimated balance sheet for the current year.

3.Tarun: The third type of loan under PMMY is for entrepreneurs who are well entrenched and have established themselves in the business and yet looking for further growth or diversification. The loan sanctioned under Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana for this type of loan is in the range of Rs.500001 to Rs.10 lakhs. The amount involved being the highest under the MUDRA Scheme, the requirements are more stringent than the other two loans. Some of the key requirements are:

  • All the requirements listed for Kishor Mudra Loan.
  • Address and Identity proof.
  • Caste certificate, if eligible for reservation.
  • Primarily the loan facilities are extended to non-corporate non-farm enterprises. However, farm sector enterprises involved in allied services like fisheries, food processing and horticulture, to name a few are eligible.

So, if you are thinking to start your own business, you can take benefits of this scheme and contact with your nearby bank branches, check the eligibility of banks and processes and take loan according to your business.

NGOS-THE BACKBONE OF SOCIETY

NGOS are the backbone of poor’s, so, here we can know about how can ngos standardized the livelihoods of poor’s

But ngos not only help poor’s by giving them shelter and fodd but they also help in many way

1 By giving education of many things

Ex (education regarding sanitary, education regarding hygiene, education to children’s)

2 By giving employment to poor’s

Ex (according to their skills which they may suits best)

Going right in the middle of the communities and through insightful research, NGOs can ensure that the poorest of the poor in India get to experience sustainable growth and get an access to education and employment opportunities, and avail essential services.

Now, no’s help the poor to reduce poverty and make their life standardized in many ways but Assessing NGO’s performance in poverty reduction is a difficult task. However, it is worth learning from other observations conducted on NGO performance in alleviating poverty.

Likewise, Although NGO’s are appraised for their tremendous work, other scholars have opined that they do not see their essence due to the fact that many have fallen below expectations. In this Chapter, however, researcher’s task is to review the literature of other scholarly works as it relate to NGO’s roles in poverty alleviation.

NGOs general aim is to alleviate poverty through activities that promote capacity building and self-reliance.

NGOs are praised for promoting community self-reliance and empowerment through supporting community-based groups and relying on participatory processes.

In Sub-Saharan Africa for instance where survival for daily bread is a major hurdle, NGOs have been seen as liberators of human suffering the evidence is in Sierra Leone were sixty percent of citizens survival dependent upon donors.

Sustainable development, on the other hand, has emerged over the past few decades as an important paradigm for poverty alleviation.

In India, Poverty has been a firm and importunate problem. All the way through the independence to decades after that. Role of NGO, especially in a country like India, is very crucial. In fact, according to current statistics, a huge chunk of the Indian population is still below the poverty level. Not to mention, the focus of elections and all other political agendas have been around the concern. Various government subsidies and poverty amelioration mechanisms have been incorporated in the country. However, most of them failed to offer a commendable result.

Throughout the last few decades, role of NGO’s is extremely significant in poverty amelioration mechanism. They have brought about some of the best employment opportunities, livelihood programs, self-help groups and also empowerment programs. Many families both in rural and urban areas have enjoyed some of the most viable and consistent benefits from these NGO’s.

Role of NGO in poverty alleviation

  • NGO’s play a significant role in offering relief and other basic amenities to individuals who are suffering from extreme poverty.
  • These non-governmental organizations have initiated some empowerment programs. These programs empower both men and women, thereby offering some commendable benefits in their lifestyle.
  • NGO’s have brought about some viable and effective, skill based livelihood programs.
  • Various public services are provided by the NGO’s both at Macro and Micro levels.
  • NGO’s have also implemented some viable development programs which are extremely handy for the poverty stricken individuals.

Poverty has been a firm and importunate problem in India, all the way through the independence to decades after that. Role of NGO, especially in a country like India, is very crucial. In fact, according to current statistics, a huge chunk of the Indian population is still below the poverty level. Not to mention, the focus of elections and all other political agendas have been around the concern. Various government subsidies and poverty amelioration mechanisms have been incorporated in the country. However, most of them failed to offer a commendable result.

Throughout the last few decades, role of NGO’s is extremely significant in poverty amelioration mechanism. They have brought about some of the best employment opportunities, livelihood programs, self-help groups and also empowerment programs. Many families both in rural and urban areas have enjoyed some of the most viable and consistent benefits from these NGO’s.

Role of NGO in poverty alleviation

  • NGO’s play a significant role in offering relief and other basic amenities to individuals who are suffering from extreme poverty.
  • These non-governmental organizations have initiated some empowerment programs. These programs empower both men and women, thereby offering some commendable benefits in their lifestyle.
  • NGO’s have brought about some viable and effective, skill based livelihood programs.
  • Various public services are provided by the NGO’s both at Macro and Micro levels.
  • NGO’s have also implemented some viable development programs which are extremely handy for the poverty stricken individuals.

Apart from this, various other strategies are incorporated by the NGO’s to reduce poverty.

Providing resources to the poor

NGO’s offer socio-economic services

Helping to achieve the developmental goals.

NGOs MICROFINANCE ROLE A STRATEGY FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION

Microfinance is another important sector that NGO’s have fully utilized in reaching out to the poor. Their roles in this sector, has immensely contributed to alleviating poverty among the poor. The purpose of using microfinance to alleviate poverty is as a result of what role microfinance can play and what impact it created on the beneficiaries. Microfinance has a very important role to play in development according to proponents of microfinance.

Now, these are the ways we can eliminate and reduce the poverty and improve the lives of poor’s by ngos .through examines the lives of poor’s ,by that properly, we can use microfinance and empowerment programs by all above mentioned activities we can improve the livelihoods of poor’s through NGOS.

BE SMART AND INNOVATE YOUR SELF TO THE FULLEST POWER

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

Well innovation is the need of the hour. But how to get the right innovative idea for the right product/service, is the most important question to answer. See, marketing a product or service is as important as say, giving a life to a product. Without proper marketing techniques, a product or service, be it very very good won’t succeed in a consumer-oriented market, which is in place nowadays. Consumer is the king of the market, whatever he/she demands needs to be provided, if not the consumers can shift from one seller to another in no time. So, now the question arises, how can one be innovative in a right way.

The answer to this question is the fact that marketers should be open to analysing the market in frequent intervals. What I mean by analysing the market is, the marketers need to know about what is the target market for their product or service, how will they manage to get their attention, what’s the best means of communication through which they can communicate about their product to the customer in a very effective way. Innovation comes to play in this area of work for the marketer. Marketer after making sure that he/she has selected the best medium of communication, has to now decide the innovative feature he/she can add to make the advertisement of the product or service stand out among the competitors in the market in the eyes of the consumers.

Now talking about innovation, innovative means are very different for any individual. Some marketers might innovate with the distribution strategy, put into perspective different schemes for their customers to increase sales, some might look for product innovation, creating a unique product for the consumers, which would let them earn higher profits in the future. What marketers can use is the psychological aspect. Psychological aspect in branding can be very well used through the use of colours.

Now let me explain you the use of colours in branding in a very effective way:

            COLOURS        EMOTIONSBRAND (Using this in logo)
BlueStrength, TrustHP, Twitter
GreenPeaceful, HealthMonster
DiversifiedMixed FeelingsMicrosoft, eBay
YellowWarmth, ClarityBest Buy
RedBold, PowerExxon

Now, see this is one of the innovative ways through which various companies can design their logo’s in a very different and attractive way.

The 2nd innovative thing which a company can do is the use of innovative names. According to a survey, the company with the most innovative names in the 21st century is Apple Inc. and the 2nd position is taken by Alphabet company. And look at the performances of these companies, these are the top companies of the world, and one of the factors besides their unique and technology bounded products is the uniqueness of their names. Now, having said so much about marketing and stuff, what about the uniqueness in the advertising displayed through various communication modes.

The 3rd and the most important thing is the innovativeness shown in the advertisements. Advertisements are the one’s which show the product or service to the end consumers. So, if the advertisement is unique, so will the sales ultimately increase. One of the most important aspect in advertisement is the use of emotional aspect in advertisement. If the advertisement is emotionally appealing, them it has the most positive impact on the consumers. This is a kind of mind game which the marketer needs to play and sell his product.

MESNE PROFIT

Section 2(12) CPC states, “‘Mesne Profit’ of property means those profits which the person in wrongful possession of such property actually received or might with ordinary diligence have received therefrom, together with interest on such profits, but shall not include profits due to improvements made by the person in wrongful possession.”

When a person is dispossessed from his immovable property, he has two rights:

  1. He is entitled to receive possession of property;
  2. He is also entitled to receive damages for wrongful dispossession.

The mesne profits are a compensation which are penal in nature.

OBJECT

Every person has a right to possess his property. And when he is deprived of such right by another person, he is not only entitled to restoration of possession of his property, but also damages for wrongful possession from that person. The mense profits are thus a compensation paid to the real owner.

The object of awarding a decree for mense profit is to compensate the person who has been kept out of possession and deprived of enjoyment of his property even though he has entitled to possession thereof.

WHO IS LIABLE FOR MESNE PROFIT?

A person in wrong possession and enjoyment of immovable property is liable to mesne profits because wrongful possession of the defendant is the essence of a claim for mesne profits. Following persons are liable for mesne profit:

  • a trespasser;
  • a person against whom a decree for possession has been passed;
  • a mortgagor in possession of mortgaged property after a decree for foreclosure has been passed against him;
  • a mortgagor in possession of property even after a decree for redemption is passed;
  • a tenant holding over at will after a notice to quit has been served upon him.

Where the plaintiff is dispossessed by several persons, everyone would be liable to pay mesne profit to the plaintiff even though he might not be in actual possession or the profits might not have been received by him. The court in such cases may hold all the trespassers jointly and severely liable, leaving them to have their respective rights adjusted in a separate suit for contribution; or, may ascertain and apportion the liability of each of them. (Fateh Chand v.s Bal Kishan Das,AIR 1963 SC)

ASSESSMENT

In assessing the mesne profits, usually the Court will take into account what the defendant has gained or reasonably might have gained by his wrongful possession of the property. the test is not what the plaintiff has lost by being out of possession but what the defendant gained or might reasonably and with ordinary prudence have gained by such wrongful possession.

PRINCIPLES

The guiding principles for determination of mesne profits are as follow:

  • The profits must be accounted of by the person in wrongful possession.
  • Restoration of status to the decree holder about the possession of the property.
  • Use to which the decree holder would have put the property if he himself was in possession.

RANI LAXMI BAI..[A GREAT WARRIOR]

As we know that we got our independence by sacrificing a lot….
There were some heroes (we call them freedom fighters ) who made the independence possible by their efforts…. today we are free from the chain of restrictions which were applied by the British rulers on that time…..and now we can breathe under the sky of freedom.

India’s history is fully filled by the stories of great people and I am talking about one of them.

Today I want to talk about a queen ,a warrior of our country who made a remarkable image of her in the pages of history… even today’s women are getting inspire with her journey.. With her soul..
I am talking about the RANI LAXMI BAI……..JHANSI KI RANI….

Her remarkable efforts, sacrifices.. Made her immortal…. Let’s start the journey of JHANSI KI RANI…..

The rani Laxmi bai was born to a high-caste prominent Brahmin family in Banaras (now Varanasi) on November 19, 1828. Formally named Manikarnika, she was called “Manu” by her parents. Her mother, Bhagirathi, died when she was 4. Under the care of her father, Moropant Tambe, she grew up. Her father worked for Peshwa Baji Rao II of Bithoor district. The Peshwa called her “Chhabili”, which means “playful”. Her education included horsemanship, fencing and shooting.

Laxmibai contrasted many of the patriarchal cultural expectations for women in India’s society at this time

Manikarnika was married to the king of Jhansi gangadhar rao in 1842 And was afterwards called Laxmibai in honor of the Hindu goddess Laxmi and according to the traditions. She gave birth to a boy, later named Damodar Rao, in 1851, who died after four months. The Maharaja adopted a child called Anand Rao, the son of Gangadhar Rao’s cousin, who was renamed Damodar Rao, on the day before the Maharaja died. The adoption was in the presence of the British political officer who was given a letter from the Maharaja instructing that the child be treated with respect and that the government of Jhansi should be given to his widow for her lifetime.

After the death of the Maharaja in November 1853, because Damodar Rao (born Anand Rao) was an adopted son, the British East India Company, under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting Damodar Rao’s claim to the throne and annexing the state to its territories. When she was informed of this she cried out “I shall not surrender my Jhansi” (Main apni Jhansi nahi doongi). In March 1854, Rani Laxmibai was given an annual pension of Rs. 60,000 and ordered to leave the palace and the fort.

When the entire country was already fighting the first war for Independence, Rani joined the wagon after Sir Hugh Rose demanded the complete surrender of Jhansi.

She was further supported by great warriors like Gulam Gaus Khan, Dost Khan, Khuda Baksh, Sunder-Mundar, Lala Bhau Bakshi, Moti Bai, Deewan Raghunath Singh and Deewan Jawahar Singh among others. To strengthen her defence, Rani also had an army of women. She decamped to Kalpi with a few guards, where she joined additional rebel forces, including Tatya Tope. They occupied the town of Kalpi and prepared to defend it. On 22 May British forces attacked Kalpi; the forces were commanded by the Rani herself and were again defeated.

They came to Gwalior and joined the Indian forces The Rani was unsuccessful in trying to persuade the other rebel leaders to prepare to defend Gwalior against a British attack which she expected would come soon. General Rose’s forces took Morar on 16 June and then made a successful attack on the city.

It is said that she fought the British bravely with her infant son Damodar tied to her back and swords in her hands. After giving a tough fight to the Britishers, she was killed on 17 June 1988, following which troops whisked away her body so that her last wish of not being captured by the British could be fulfilled.

In the British report of this battle, Hugh Rose commented that Rani Laxmibai is “personable, clever and beautiful” and she is “the most dangerous of all Indian leaders”.

Today Rani Jhansi Museum in the Fort of Jhansi is home to some of the weapons used by Rani Laxmibai and her fellow warriors throughout the Rebellion of 1857. The museum houses a collection of archaeological remains of the period between the 9th and 12th centuries AD.

There is a famous poem on JHANSI KI RANI…

BUNDELE HARBOLON KE MUKH HMNE SUNI KAHANI THI
KHOOB LADI MARDAANI WHO TOH JHANSI WALI RANI THI…
….

There are also some poems which are written on the great JHANSI KI RANI…

As we have read above the story of RANI LAXMI BAI we see that how many challenges she faced but she didn’t compromise with her self-respect and she just fought, fought and fought with the British rulers…..

There are a lot of people born daily…. a lot of people die daily… but.. there are only few people who made their remark in history …only few become immortal in history…….we should learn.. form them…

DOWRY SYSTEM

Much has been said about the condition of women in free India. Statesmen, politicians and women who spend their time in social service and women’s Organisations have been talking day in and day out about the appalling state of women in India . There are many evil practices prevailing in India. One of these evils is the dowry system.

When one stops to think how this system must have caught such strong roots in Indian society, one can find it to be born out of convenience. Several explanations are given for the prevalence of the dowry system. Some trace it to the custom followed by many kings of the past and princely chieftains when they gave away their daughters in marriage. It was felt that the life of the daughters should start on a convenient and happy note. So when they were sent to their father- in-law’s house they were given large gifts. The kings or princess or the aristocratic classes wished to give their daughters a gift that would be consistent with their own dignity and status. The motive behind this was to ensure the happiness of the girls in their new homes. This settlement was a revelation of a natural affection of a father towards his daughter. But in later times the practice took a new turn.

It is one of the weakness of human beings to follow what others had done before. Very often they choose from past experiences only what is convenient for them without stopping to think whether it is good or bad. Similarly, when they saw that gifts accompany girls when the latter went to their new home after marriage, some unscrupulous men began to make this practice a convention. They saw in this practice a means of earning some easy money for themselves. The pawn in their game was the helpless girl. Parents of eligible bachelors see in the girls parents a gold mine which has to be exploited to its full capacity. So they began to demand certain things from the girls parents. In this way, what started as a convenience and a matter of personal prestige turned out to be a custom. What was received by the bridegroom’s father as a gift in olden days took on the nature of a ‘demand’ in later times.

What was once a voluntary gift became transformed into a custom known as dowry. A curious explanation is given by some people who demand dowry for their sons. They cite economic conditions as reasons for their demand. Since they have to satisfy many relatives and friends they require large funds and it is this that they expect from the other party. They do not require it is for themselves! This explanation is quietly and conveniently forgotten when they have to give away their daughter in marriage and when such a demand as theirs is made by a boy’s father. In other words, they want to GET but not to GIVE. At such times they forget that economic conditions are the same for all people and are not their own special lot alone. In this manner, the dowry system has come to stay in our society. During the recent past it has become common to all levels of society. Even men with large property and high income demand dowry.

Greed for money and wealth thus perpetuates an evil. To a certain extent the girls themselves are responsible for this. The admirable qualities of obedience, tolerance and patience prove to be disadvantages to them under these conditions. They dare not oppose these practices and refuse to yield to the ‘demands’. In the case of the boys, they plead their helplessness and inability to oppose their father. The very same boys would have protested to their father and even fought for their liberty in matters like getting a scooter and other things.

Today, the dowry system has become a positive evil. Avaricious vultures ill treat their daughter-in-law in many ways. There are a number of what have come to be known as dowry deaths. Girls are tortured and sent back to their parents and are refused readmission into their father – in-law’s house unless they come back with the demands fulfilled.

The remedy, therefore, lies more in the hands of the younger generation. But society cannot wash its hands off the whole affair, leaving the responsibility on the shoulders of the young couple. Voluntary Organisations must come forward to educate the public on the evils of the dowry system and also see to it that those who are intransigent are bought to book. What the machinery of the Government cannot do effectively must be attempted and accomplished by these Organisations and by individuals with a sense of duty and service. The ways may be difficult, but the evil MUST be driven away from life. Unless it is done at the earliest the malady will pass on to the future generations and posterity would inherit this.

Freedom of speech and expression: a ruse?

Humans are categorized as different from animals on the basis of a defining characteristic “self consciousness”. This feature states that we have the ability to be aware of our surroundings and be aware in general about our thoughts, emotions and words. Being in a society that constantly asks for certain order and rules according to which everyone is expected to behave ,our words and thoughts have to be filtered before voicing them out. “Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; the right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek and receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” proclaims the Universal Declaration Of Human Rights (1948).

These rules and regulations have been made part of our constitution. The right to freedom of speech and expression is subject to limitations imposed under Article 19(2). Article 19(1)(a) of Indian Constitution says that all citizens have the right to freedom of speech and expression. Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one’s own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, pictures or any other mode.

Freedom of expression has four broad special purposes to serve:

1) It helps an individual to attain self-fulfillment.

2) It assists in the discovery of truth.

3) It strengthens the capacity of an individual in participating in decision-making.

4) It provides a mechanism by which it would be possible to establish a reasonable balance between stability and social change.

5) All members of society would be able to form their own beliefs and communicate them freely to others

Bearing all this fundamental information about freedom of speech and expression lets talk about the ongoing onslaught on comedians in India. Agrima Joshua, a comedian from Mumbai, faced the online mob who attacked her on social media. Some of the trolling had to do with her political views, some with the religious community to which she belongs.  Joshua took a dig at some of the outlandish claims made about a proposed statue of medieval Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji. The online mob made sure to misrepresent the content of the video, claiming that Joshua was ridiculing Shivaji – rather than simply mocking the absurd claims made by supporters of the statue. The online audience in response decided to step up their game and started posting their own videos involving graphic rape threats and went so far as to vandalize the place the sketch took place in. A series of disappointing events including the siding of the Maharashtra government with the online mob and comedians coming out and apologizing for their videos followed.

All these events are misuse of the right to freedom of expression or not is the main question to ponder on. Is it okay for people to voice their opinions whether wrong or not? On one side artists are encouraged to talk about political and happening topics in the country to generate awareness while on the other when they do they are reprimanded for misusing their freedom of speech. Where is the line drawn? Expressing the online mob’s dislike towards the video could be done in a civilized way rather than giving rape threats. Will females be dragged down by asserting dominance using rape every time they validate their right to freedom and expression. The digging up of religion hurting statements continued for several other comics who came up and apologized for their videos. And yet their personal details (address, mobile number, etc) were circulated online.

 The misuse of freedom of expression has reached to its peak now. Enough for us to question what is right or wrong and what can be voiced out in public and what cannot. The standup comic scene is definitely going to be very different post Covid19 and also every public speaker is going to face more of the online mob hunting. As the youth of the country its our responsibility to exercise our right of freedom of expression and speech in a conscientious manner.

Brand Leadership

Unilever the largest company in the world has its stock prices always mounted high, they are also globally recognized for their innovative power and brand building. In 1947, Unilever entered the Malaysian Market. They were already famous for their effective and efficient manufacturing capacity. What was the reason behind Unilever’s growth in Foreign land? In every article, I found Unilever focuses on Portfolio analysis and they did a thorough study of the depth and breadth of their brand. Conducting intensive research in and out, studying the target audience, keeping themselves updated with the pace of transformation, focus on brand portfolio and PESTLE analysis is what made Unilever a mate of every household in Malaysia.
We all know, Malaysia is a Muslim country. Meeting the local cultural need of the target audience is not an easy task for companies. But Unilever successfully crossed all the barriers and introduced a new brand- Wall’s Ice-cream. The product was Halal certified fulfilling the demand of locals. In a short span, the success of the brand was counted remarkable.

LAW IN INDIA

Law is essential for society to function. The chaotic human nature has proven that laws are guidelines for humanity’s road to harmony. According to Hugo Grotius, perception of law he argued that law arises from the social impulse of humanity. Law is a tool that maintains the balance between those who are victims are those who harm the victims. Law is dynamic and ever-changing. It changes along with the consequential change in human nature. Law has always reflected human nature. The crucial part of the law is that every man regardless of his wealth, gender, community, and color is equal in the eyes of law. Thus the law is an important fragment of human existence.

Law is classified into civil law and criminal law. Criminal law is laws or rules created for the protection of the public against potentially serious crimes. The laws are against acts that are morally, ethically wrong, and threatening to the public welfare of the community thus halting the progress of the society to a harmonious society. Criminal offenses are considered offenses against the public. Criminal cases are punished by ordering fines, imprisonments, or rehabilitation of the guilty or even death sentences. Criminal cases are always filed by the government as it is a crime against the public as a whole. Criminal law in India is governed by the Indian penal code, The Code of Criminal Procedure, and the Evidence Act. The criminal acts are categorized according to the nature of the act as felonies or misdemeanors. Felonies are serious crimes; they are classified into different classes and given different punishments according to the severity of the crime. Felonies are punishable by imprisonment or death. Misdemeanors are violations of law or lesser offenses such as parking violations and are punished for a sentence lesser than a year.

Civil law on the other hand is offenses against individual persons. The party at fault or the guilty person has to pay compensation or obey the laws for a remedy as said by the law. Civil law is practiced to uphold the individual’s private right and find suitable remedies for the violated rights. Civil law aims to solve disputes or disagreements between individuals, families, or companies by providing compensation to the party that is harmed. Civil law is classified into Contract, Tort, and Family Law. Contract law is rules are applied when two or more parties agree to enter into an agreement or contract; all parties in the agreement are required to respect the terms of the agreement. Any parties found to have broken the terms of the contract then they have committed a civil wrong and broken the contract. Contact law in India is based on the English common law of England. Tort Law is applied when there is personal injury or negligence such as trespass. The laws of torts in India in ancient times were the Muslim Sharia laws and the Hindu laws which had a very restricted expansion of the idea of torts. When the British established courts in India which were run as per the English laws, Torts were introduced to the Indian judicial system. Family law is concerned with divorce, inheritance, adoption, marriage annulment, birth certificate, and child custody matters. Since India has a diverse population where different religions are followed, India’s family laws are based on different religions. The Hindus follow the Hindu Marriage act of 1955, the Muslims follow the
Muslim Personal Law Application Act 1936, Christians follow the Indian Christian marriage act of 1936 and the Special Marriage Act 1954 applies to all persons regardless of their religion, the caste of community.

Law is always been dynamic and the crux of the law is that it offers justice to people regardless of his wealth, gender, community, and color is equal in the eyes of law. Law in India is a fairly complex conception of rules. India has grown its roots into the judicial system the British left behind. India did although have the existence of various law systems before which was very restricted. With the introduction of English law systems and the introduction of torts in the Indian judicial system gave the people more chances for aggrieved parties to come to court.

Big Data! How much does it matter in today’s World?

Extracting and analysing information or data sets that are very large and complex to be analysed using traditional methods is very difficult and time consuming. Big data analytics is the use of advanced analytic techniques to do this in a comparatively easy and efficient way.

One must understand that the importance of this vast subject is not in how much data you have, but what you do with the data that you have. We can analyse this data to make smart decision in any work place environment. This is used in many organisations for cost reduction, improving customer experience, enhance online security.

The major industries that use Big Data Analytics:

1). Banking Sector

The banking sector uses big data analytics to detect credit card fraud, pattern in loan payment defaulters, tick analytics, credit risk reporting and risk analysis in case of money laundering and trade analytics among others.

The Securities Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States is using network analytics and natural language processors to detect illegal trade activity in the financial market (stock market).

2).Entertainment Sector

 The Entertainment sector especially online streaming services use Big Data analytics to understand patterns of real time content usage, creation of new content for the audience based on age demographics, culture and language of the region. They also use this to recommend movies and music to the user based on previously watched content.

Have you wondered why YouTube always keeps popping those cooking videos?

3).E-Commerce Industry

From recommending the next product to buy based on previously bough items to items currently in the cart, big data analytics is a major player in the e-commerce industry.

Other than recommending new items to buy, big data analytics is used in this sector to reduce fraud (don’t keep returning items), analysis of inventory, decision of what products to be kept in which region and number of delivery staff to be deployed in an area all depends on the cluster of customer in that region. 

4).Health Care Sector

Big Data analytics is becoming more and more important in the healthcare industry mainly because of the vast amount of information available and increasing healthcare costs.

This is used for efficient staffing in hospitals i.e. how many doctors and nurses needed to be always present in the hospital to provide adequate care to the patient.

Analysing the patient’s record and keeping a check on his/her health always (e.g. blood pressure and glucose testing at home, exercise routine) and informing the patient about the next to visit the doctor. Risk of the same condition passed on to the patient’s descendants. The consulting doctor also gets these alerts. 

 5). Government

The government is by far the biggest user of Big Data analytics. The uses range from health care research, environmental protection, financial market analysis, fraud detection in money laundering and tax payment fraud and finding resources of energy.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) uses Big Data analytics to detect and study patterns of food-related illnesses and diseases. This makes it possible for a faster response, which leads to rapid treatment and to ban the substance that causes life threatening diseases.

Drink Lassi

Smooth, frozen, yogurt drink mixed with fresh seasonal fruits and water is mouthwatering. From salty to sweet there are many varieties of Lassi and it tastes divine when garnished with dry fruits on top. Lassi is a customary drink of Punjab, India. There it is served in a tall glass. Lassi is useful for our body too. It benefits in lessening stored fat from our body, specifically in the abdomen, and also beneficial in an excretory problems. Being rich in calcium, Lassi aids in making our bone stronger. So, make Lassi at home and enjoy it. It’s easily made at home and you don’t need to put the effort into it.

A cup of cold yogurt

Sugar according to your taste/Salt

Half glass of cold water

Seasonal fruits (you prefer)

Blend all the above ingredients in a blender for two-three minutes and pour it in a glass. For garnishing use dry fruits on the top. Enjoy!

“Man is by nature a political animal”. How far is it true in the case of students?

The famous Greek philosopher Aristotle believed and quoted that man is a political being. He always felt so, because man is blessed with the ability to speak and rationalize. No other species on this earth have been blessed with these abilities, hence he feels that we must make best use of it. But how far does it apply to the students? This topic has always been a bone of content in our country. A lot of people feel that it’s in the best interest of the student, if they don’t involve themselves in politics, on the other hand people feel students must involve themselves into politics,  as they are the future of this country. You might as well think about what’s best for the students? There is a clear cut difference between educating yourself about politics, and getting involved in politics. A lot of people feel that the participation of students in politics will weaken their will to study, and educate themselves academically. The people opposing this, have also claimed that, the participation of students in political movements, during the freedom struggle had a great impact on the Britishers. Even during the second World War, a lot of students were actively participating, and helping their respective countries.

Advantages of students not participating in politics:-

  • With the level of corruption prevailing in politics, it’s almost impossible for students to remain honest and sincere. Hence it degenerates their moral character.
  • These students might be used by political parties for their selfish needs.
  • These students become a tool in the hands of the politicians, who achieve their needs through them.
  • These students will ultimately lose their interest in studies, and direct their full potential to politics.
  • These students are also used for the purpose of strike and protest. Hence they end up destroying public property, and they cause damage to themselves.

Advantages of students educating themselves about politics:

  • This will help them concentrate more on their academics, as well as give importance to politics.
  • They get to increase their Political knowledge through various debates and discussions happening in colleges.
  • Since they are completely educated, they can make use of various approaches, to solve an issue arising.
  • Inorder to straighten the democracy,  more educated leaders are required.
  • Educated leaders in future can also possibly remove the rotten system of politics, filled with corruption in our country.
  • Educated leaders are also much more capable of bringing in new reforms that the society requires.

Conclusion:- 

It is good to conclude that politics is inevitably present in every students’ life, and it cannot be ignored. Having immense knowledge about politics is always important as students are the future leaders of our democracy. At the same time it is good to not mix politics into their academics as it will do no good to them. An educated and wise leader is the one people look forward to, and in order to be that, students must work hard in their academics without getting involved completely into politics. But when time comes and this nation is in need of young minds, students mustn’t hesitate to give their all to this country.

Books:A Best Friend in Disguise

Good friends, good books, and a sleepy conscience: this is the ideal life.- Mark Twain

Life is not easy to live without friends. When it involves Books, they will be our greatest friends ever. Good Books enriches our minds with good thoughts and knowledge a bit like an honest friend. We cannot feel alone within the company of books. We can learn many goodies while reading an honest book. Books written by famous and experienced people help us to become a far better person and also teach us the way to serve the society within the absolute best way. When we are alone, we will always devour a book and begin reading to feel relax.

A great book should leave you with many experiences, and slightly exhausted at the end. You live several lives while reading.- William Styron

Books are our greatest friends because they inspire us to try to great things in life and overcome our failures. We learn tons from good books a bit like an honest friend. Books can be good or bad, but it is our responsibility to choose them wisely. Friendship with Good books causes you to person and friendship with Bad books cause you to person. Books will always be there for you in your bad times. Books teach us to have dreams. Books bring positive value to our life.

“Outside of a dog, a book is man’s best friend. Inside of a dog it’s too dark to read.”
― Groucho Marx

Section 193 in The Railways Act, 1989

Section 193 in the railway act 1989 is about notices served by the statuary authority to any person by the railway administration. The railway act was last amended by Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda, Minister of Railways in 2014[1]. The railway act 1989 helps keep the system of the railway industry intact and disciplined. The following rules laid by the legislation are to keep our countries railway line working efficiently and effectively. The above mentioned section is a very important section as it lays down the procedure of notifying railway related information to an individual.

Administration of notice, and so on., by railway organization. — Unless in any case gave in this Act or the principles encircled thereunder, any notification or other report required or approved by this Act to be served on any individual by a railway organization might be served by conveying it to the individual, by leaving it at the standard or last known spot of home of the individual, by enlisted present tended to on the individual at his typical or last known spot of dwelling place.[2]


[1] https://www.prsindia.org/sites/default/files/bill_files/railways_%28A%29_bill%2C_2014.pdf

[2] The Railway act, 1989

Is Religion The Problem?

Humanity’s most vicious ambitions have been carried out in the name of gods no one has ever seen and beliefs followers are not willing to question and investigate. Until humankind learns to more closely examine their beliefs, wars waged in ignorance will continue to plague our species and prevent lasting peace.

If the emotions of one in need are like a hurricane, then religion needs to learn how to create the space a hurricane needs to slow and become calm. Rigid rules to such a person are like trying to nail down a hurricane. Guilt makes the winds blow all the harder. Only in moments of calm, when sought, will advice be of help – any other time it will add de- bris to the winds. There a time to actively help and a time to love quietly, trust yourself to sense the difference.

Religion initially commenced as a solution for the problems existing at that time, say 5000 BC. However, at some point in time, it started appearing as the pebble in the shoe of humanity and it’s progression . The anarchy, unprovoked killings and disorderly social structure needed a system, and religion got itself evolved. While it was evolved many others came forward with their own versions to super implant the existing ones. But their actions only increased the number of religions. We landed up with Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Islam etc. Since more religions came into existence, there were varieties to choose for the people. After having chosen, the people started propagating them. In their enthusiasm, they started negating the existing ones. This resulted in hatred, mistrust and hostility which ended up with problems for the state. Instead of being a solution religion has turned out to be a problem.

Religion is neither the problem nor the solution. The point is, religion was a vessel out from which human curiosity was able to spring, but it is also a tool of social control and thus is opposed to actual progress. It’s about faith and perception of it which is posing as the biggest problem in our country. Every single religion here has it’s own good and bad preachings. If one feels that his or her faith in a religion is far more truthful and look down upon remaining religions is nothing but adult way of showing you are having bigger scoop of ice creams than your friend, like we used to do when we were small kids. This is what happening in our country now, everyone wants to pretend that their faith is much greater than others which has lead to all sorts of quackery and blind modifications of original teachings given in our sacred books. Again by good teachings I meant, the one’s which brings happiness in every living being and doesn’t hurt even a single person at the cost of one’s satisfaction.

One thing most misused after horns in India is religion! Different religions became a problem in India from the day we forgot about our roots. India has always been a diverse nation, and religion accounts for a big diversification. Now you see the problem is, we are not educated. We might be literate but still we are not educated. There’s a big difference between the two! Politicians have always taken advantage of this. And they would continue this until and unless the masses themselves realize the mistake. If we, as the public masses, don’t realize this then soon we’ll be heading towards an authoritarian government which will forcefully assimilates all of the subcultures within it’s polity and create a syncretic identity. Such an orthodoxy that some people dream of would also dissolve the constitution that has given crucial rights to many people. For example, the constitution bans untouchability, which no Dharmashastra did before. The constitution has also given several fundamental rights that the orthodox do not see applicable in their “dharmic” framework. Theocratic societies have several such drawbacks.

So it’s better to focus on more important aspects of life rather than talking about religion at all times. It’s time to let go and rise above the outdated and cruel exploits of our past that we inherited from our ancestors, and realize that our early misinterpretations of our world do not have to define the future of humanity. We have grown. We have reached a time in our history where the misunderstandings of the past must be reconciled and the truth about the origins of our early beliefs must be revealed. It’s time that our world’s religions face the tragic horrors of their past and make honest progression towards love and kindness for all of humanity. Our world, our peace and our growth all depend upon us and our ability to move forward in our understanding. It’s time to embrace our humanity and cultivate the harmonious future we all deserve.

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Is Religion The Problem?

6 Unique Indian Customs & Traditions

Indian culture and traditions are something that has now become renowned all across the planet. We all ask India and its culture as something very diverse and unique. But seldom can we provide a thought to why things are wiped out certain specific ways. Indian culture is filled with several unique customs and traditions, which outsiders might find intriguing. Most of those originate from the traditional Indian scriptures and texts, which have dictated the way of life in India for thousands of years.
Here are 6 fascinating cultures and traditions of India:

  1. Festivals & Religion- India also sees a large number of festivals, mainly because of the prevalence of diverse religions and groups. The Muslims celebrate Eid, the Christians have Christmas and Good Friday, the Sikhs have Baisakhi (harvesting of the crop), and therefore the birthdays of their Gurus and the Hindus have Diwali, Holi, Makar Sakranti, the Jains have Mahavir Jayanti, the Buddhists celebrate the Buddha’s birthday on Buddha Poornima, and quite honestly, the amount is endless. All of those translate to holidays in our book, of course.
  2. Architecture:The Science Behind Temples- Most temples are located along magnetic wave lines of the Earth, which help in maximizing the available positive energy. The copper plate (called Garbhagriha or Moolasthan) buried under the most idol absorbs and resonates this energy to its surroundings. Going to the temple often helps in having a positive mind and garnering positive energies, which successively causes healthier functioning.
  3. Traditions of Treating Guests- In India, the saying ‘Atithi Devo Bhavah’ is also integral. It means ‘the guest is equivalent to god’. It is a Sanskrit verse taken from the Hindu scriptures, which later became a neighborhood of the ‘Code of conduct for Hindu society since the guest has always been of supreme importance in the Culture of India.
  4. Indian Dances- India is a land of ‘unity in diversity’, and our dances are no different. Different sorts of dance(classified as folk or classical) find origin from different parts of the country, and that they are how of representation of the actual culture from which they originate. Eight classical dances, which are classified as Indian classical dances and find a mention within the Hindu Sanskrit text ‘Natyashashtra’, (a text of performing arts) are:
  • Bharatnatyam from Tamil Nadu
  • Kathakali from Kerela
  • Kathak from North, West and Central India
  • Mohiniyattam from Kerela
  • Kuchipudi from Andhra Pradesh
  • Oddisi from Odhisa
  • Manipuri from Manipur
  • Sattriya from Assam

All the dance mentioned above forms are an entire dance drama, wherein a dancer or performer narrates a whole story, almost entirely and exclusively through gestures. Such stories are mostly supported the vast Indian mythology. These performances are mostly based on stories that are orally passed on from one generation to the other. Folk dances mainly trace their importance to the rural areas, where performances depict the day to day life of rural inhabitants.

  1. Cuisine- Indian food and cuisine not only form an integral part of the culture of India but are also one of the critical factors of India’s popularity worldwide. The style of cooking varies from region to region, though unanimously, Indian food features a significant reputation for its extensive use of spices and herbs. Almost every region is understood for a signature dish or ingredient. The staple, however, throughout the state consists mostly of rice, wheat, and Bengal gram (Chana). While vegetarian food is an integral part of Gujrati South Indian and Rajasthani cuisines, non-vegetarian dishes form a central part of Mughlai, Bengali, North Indian and Punjabi cuisine. It is also interesting to note that specific cuisines like that of Kashmir have also been influenced by foreign cooking styles from Central Asia, Persia, and Afghanistan.
  2. Languages- India is socially, culturally, and linguistically very diverse. Hindi and English are widely spoken and recognized for official purposes. Other than than, there are 22 scheduled languages recognized by the constitution of India. However, more than 400 languages and dialects in India are still not known. Dialects change even with a few kilometres of travel in the state. Over the years, about 190 languages became endangered thanks to only a few surviving speakers.

There exist thousands of traditions and culture in India, and quite a few of them would leave outsiders rather curious. But the crux of Indian society and culture has always been to be mannered, polite, respect others, and progress together.

Hello, Hallyu!

It’s a wave that’s swept Indians off their feet, dictating everything from their choice of music and TV shows, right down to beauty and skincare… all of it made entirely in Korea.

Much of the world woke up to K-pop after Psy’s 2012 viral hit Gangnam Style, but the genre dates back to the 1990s, when ‘idol’ groups started making waves in the Korean music scene.

Most people trace the genesis of the ‘idol’ phenomenon to the 1992 debut of Seo Taiji and Boys, a trio that melded American pop, swingbeat and rap with Korean lyrics and musical tropes. Their immense – and unexpected – popularity encouraged Korean entertainment companies to jump on this new trend, and by the mid-90s the Korean music industry was dominated by boy bands such as H.O.T and SechsKies, who quickly built up large, passionate and competitive fandoms. These bands would lay down the template for generations of K-pop groups to follow – music that mixes elements of Korean pop culture with a wide cross-section of contemporary music genres from the West, a focus on over-the-top fashion, and a visual aesthetic that is fully committed to gleeful audiovisual excess. Around the same time, the South Korean Ministry of Culture started investing heavily in the country’s entertainment and pop culture industries in an attempt to stave off the impending influx of Japanese anime, manga and music, which had been banned in the country before 1998.

Recognising the potential of culture as soft power, the government also put into place policies to promote the production and export of Korean pop culture. This was the beginning of Hallyu – the Korean Wave – in which Korean films, TV dramas and K-pop gained rapid popularity across wide swathes of China, Japan and South-East Asia, before the internet allowed it to spread its reach across all the world. And since the late 2000s, K-Pop has been at its forefront.

So, what started the Hallyu Wave?

Winter Sonata, a KDrama, started the Hallyu Wave, in Asia. It was so popular in Japan that matchmakers started advertising that they could hook up Japanese women with Korean husbands.

KPop took a bit longer. BoA was the first Korean singer to make it big in Japan (2001), but she sang in Japanese and people didn’t necessarily know she was Korean. The first KPop group to hit Japan was TVXQ (all five of them) in 2006 – they became known as the Korean Beatles due to their immense fandom in Asia. SS501, Super Junior and SHINee also had great success in Japan, and the Hallyu Wave started lapping at the shores of Australia, New Zealand and California.

Groups started coming over to the US in the late 2000s, and after Gangnam Style went viral on the web, more came. Before BTS made it huge, several other groups had profitable tours, including Got7 and Big Bang (with the MADE Tour doing exceptionally well).

In 2012, KCon started in Los Angeles. This convention, with highlighted artist concerts each night, has grown exponentially since, with KCons in a variety of places around the world (Japan, Australia, Paris) and expanded to NYC as well as LA. 70,000 people attended KCon NY 2019, with the convention held at the Javits Center and the concerts at Madison Square Gardens. KCon LA had 94,000 fans in 2018 (figures aren’t out yet for 2019). Now of course BTS are the world’s biggest boy group, and have just finished a massive worldwide stadium tour that outgrossed most of the acts this year from ANY country.

But India’s first brush with Hallyu had more to do with local politics than it did with soft power diplomacy. In 2000 the Manipur Revolutionary People’s Front, an armed secessionist group, issued a notice banning Hindi films and TV shows – as well as the use of Hindi – in an effort to fight the ‘Indianisation’ of the north-eastern state of Manipur. As theatres and cable operators quickly acceded to the demand, people started looking further east for entertainment. Korean TV channels like Airarang TV and KBS World started being broadcast in Manipur and other north-eastern states, and soon the region was awash with cheap pirated Korean CDs.“The key factor that abets the popularity of Korean Wave is the cultural proximity of Korean and Manipuri societies,”

The fact that people from the region are rarely represented in Indian pop culture – and if they are, it’s usually as an offensive racial stereotype – also made the switch to Korean culture easier. When young people from the region travelled to cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore and Pune for college, they took their love for Korean TV and K-pop with them, seeding K-pop fandoms in their hostels. But it would take until after 2012 for these seeds to start bearing fruit.

The rise of YouTube and social media had already allowed K-pop to make inroads into the United States, Europe and India, but it was K-pop star Psy’s 2012 viral hit that really turned it into a global phenomenon. But why was BTS the band that finally broke through the culture barrier overseas to make significant waves in the US? The answer lies in a combination of factors, and most of them are about change: the changing nature of K-pop’s studio culture and the way “idols” are produced; changing depictions of masculinity in South Korea; changing ranges of acceptable expression in K-pop; and, above all, the approach BTS has taken to building its fan base and interacting with its fans.

It’s this high level of online engagement – as well as the lack of non-Bollywood boy bands or pop music in the country – that has helped K-pop acts build highly dedicated fandoms in India as well. Indian K-pop fans congregate on act-specific Facebook and Twitter pages, like Bangtan India (for BTS fans) and EXO-L India, as well as more general platforms like Destination K-pop India.

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The Korean Wave.

Sentimental Analysis

Sentiment analysis is the interpretation and classification of emotions within text data using text analysis techniques. It bifurcates the data into positive, negative and neutral. Sometimes, there are more emotions that also can be detected using sentimental analysis.
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This analysis tools allow businesses and other decision makers to identify customer  sentiment toward products, brands, campaigns or services in online feedback. It is highly used to check online users attitude using their tweet, texts, reviews and comments. According to Wikipedia, Sentiment analysis refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis, computational linguistics, and bio-metrics to systematically identify, extract, quantify, and study effective states and subjective information. It is a Natural Language Processing and Information Extraction task that aims to obtain writer’s feelings expressed in positive or negative comments, questions and requests, by analyzing a large numbers of documents. 
Uses:
  • Finance field for stock trading companies as sentiment algorithms can detect particular companies who show a positive sentiment in news articles. This can mean a significant financial opportunity, as this may trigger people to buy more of the company’s stock. Having access to this type of data, may give traders the opportunity to make decisions before the market has time to react. (getthematic)
  • Social media posts to know how are customer reacting to a particular topic, concept, reviews and what are their sentiments for the same.
  • Increase customer retention.
  • New product perception.
  • Businesses gain valuable insights using sentimental analysis and can strategize their objectives according to the output of this technique.
  • Also provides company’s to gain competitive advantage.

Sentiment-Analysis

Approach:

  • Using NLP (Natural Language Processing) that allows computers to analyze and understand human language.
  • Using Machine learning concept that uses classifiers such as Naive Baiyes, SVM etc.

 

Working:

  • Collection/ Fetching of data: A large chunk of data is collected for further analysis.
  • Cleaning the data: Since the data collected is unstructured or semi-structured in nature, it has to be cleaned before going for analysis. It is done by removing stop-words, removing punctuation, whitespaces etc.
  • Data Analysis: The inbuilt algorithm process the data and perform sentence splitting.
  • Indexing: Algorithm tags sentences based on their polarity such as positive, negative or neutral.
  • Output: Finally, it provides an output that tells the actual results. It can be in the form of table, graphs, text, word-cloud or figures.

 

Limitations:

  • Latest emerging terms cannot be analysed properly.
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Placement

As we all know Placement is very important in a person’s life and especially for students. In a simple language, Placement refers to placing a right person to a job and especially right job. It is a process of assigning specific job and workplace to the selected candidate. It helps in fitting the right person at the right job or place. Placement is the assignment or re – assignment of an employee to new or different job. Generally, assignment or initial assignment is for new employees and promotion or transfer is for present employees. The placement of an employee is the stage where selection procedure ends. Placement also implies assigning a particular rank and responsibility to an employee according to the requirement of job and his qualifications. It is always said that a well placed employee is an asset for the organisation as the position in which he is placed is according to his qualifications, knowledge and skills and that’s why he can give his 100 percent in his work and thus, he is an asset to the organisation. If an employee is properly placed that is if placement of an employee is done in a right place then this will make the employee happy which will further reduce absenteeism and labour turnover. This will also helps in increasing the morale and efficiency of the employees and the employee will build a good relation with his colleagues and employer. Some signs which shows that an employee is properly placed are they will increase production, improved quality of product, punctuality and regularity in work and attendance. Placement is important for both the organisation as well as the employee. As a properly placed employee will help in achieving organisational goals as well as his personal goals too. It is important for the organisation as a company invests a lot of amount in hiring an employee and if, they place a wrong person this would be a loss for an organisation. Therefore, placement should be done after due consideration of the demands of the job. Placement is not an easy task but a complex one. As it is very difficult for a new employee to adjust in new environment, culture, company and work. So for this reason the employee is generally put on a probation period which ranges from 6 months to 1 year. At the end of the probation period if he shows good performance, he is selected as a regular employee of the organisation. Placement has many importance too and they are –

  • Keep Employees Satisfied – The most important purpose of placement is that the goals of the organisation should be achieved and this is possible only through satisfied employees. So, while assigning the job to new employees the requirement and needs of the organisation as well as employees should be taken into consideration.
  • Improves Efficiency – If an employee is placed in a right position according to his abilities and experience he would be able to show good results. This would further help in keeping his spirits high and will increase the efficiency of both employee and the organisation.
  • Good Relation – Placement also helps in improving the relation between employee and employer as they feel satisfied with there jobs and there will be no reason for disputes.
  • Increases Morale – Employee morale can be increased through proper placement. This can be understood by the behaviour of the employees. If a candidate is able to adjust himself to the job and the organisation and continues to perform excellently this shows that the employee is correctly placed.
  • Gives Motivation and Reduces Turnover – Proper placement keeps employee motivated as the job matches their skills and requirements and this motivation results in better performance. It also helps in reducing labour turnover and absenteeism. If a person don’t like the job he will start making excuses and will remain absent this shows that we have placed wrong employee at wrong place. So, effective placement helps in keeping the absenteeism low.

Last But Not the Least

Placement process is also very important as a well placed employee will be an asset to the organisation.

Street children in India

Intoduction

Firstly, the street life is that persons are directly depended on Street or vacant place for the livelihood. Street life is very challenging to the survival to children or even for youth,men,or any other living creatures. They live in cities but they are unable to take those advantage and comfort of urban lifestyle. According to WHO it defines the “street children “as boys and girls aged under 18 years old, for whom “The Street” including unoccupied places and wasteland has become home or their source of livelihood and are inadequately protected or supervised. It is also important to note that the term “Street Children’ also include individual girls and boys of all ages are found living and working in public places and are visible in the great majority of the world’s urban centers. A “Child of street” having no home but the streets. The family may have abandoned him or her or may have no family members alive. It is a common to find the street children at the Bus Stands, Railway Stations, and Traffic Signals etc. women carrying infants and begging. Nowadays, the under passages of the flyovers, metro corridors have become their dwelling places. Not any of the cities or metropolitan areas are exceptions to it. They found in every part of the world. Street children are among the most physically visible of all children, living and working on the roads and public squares of cities. The exact number street children is impossible to quantify, but it is likely to number in the tens of millions or higher, some estimates place in the figure as high as 100 millions. It is likely that the numbers are increasing as the global population grows and as urbanization continues at a pace. In practice, every city in the world has some street children including the biggest and the richest cities by 2015.
Most of the street children are not orphans. Many are still in contact with their families and work on the streets to augment the household income due to poverty. Many others have run away from their homes because of sexual or physical abuse, domestic violence, homelessness etc.The main reason behind this Are :-
1) Neglected children :- Sec.2 (2) of the Children Act 1960 of India defines a “neglected child” as a child who
(i) is found begging
(ii) or is found without having any home or settled place of abode or any ostensible means of subsistence or is found destitute, whether he is an orphan or not
(iii) or has a parent or guardian who is unfit to exercise or does not exercise proper care and control over the child
(iv) or lives in brothel or with a prostitute.
Thus the neglected children are the example of socio-legal issue, which need to be examined.

2) Unwanted children :- who are born outside the wedlock and who are the products of broken homes or relationship.
3) Poverty :- Poverty is also a main reason behind this. When they have not any fundamental object, so they lived as a street boys. According to a study shows that, for most of the children (83%) and their parents are on street due to poverty.


Constitutional provision for safeguard of street children :-
The street children, who form considerable proportion of the world population, are also human beings so need to be cared and protected by all means.
The Constitution of India guarantees several rights to all children. The Special and Guaranteed Articles are:
Article 21.A : The state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six (6) to fourteen (14) years. Article 21 A has been inserted in the Constitution by the constitutes (86th Amendment / Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010. The Indian Parliament enacted the Rights of Children to free and Education Act 2009
Article 24 : No child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any hazardous employment.
Article 39(e) : The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength.
Article 39(f) : The state shall in, particular, direct its policy towards securing that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment.
Article 45 : Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six (6) years. Article 45 was substituted by the Constitution (86th Amendment) Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010.
Article 51A (K): Fundamental Duties :- It shall be the duty of every citizen of India (k) “who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be ward between the age of six (6) and fourteen (14) years”.
Article 51 A (K) was inserted by the Constitution (86th Amendment/ Act 2002 with effect from 01-04-2010.
Besides the above said articles, some of the Articles of the Constitution provide and guarantee the Rights of the children equally with the citizens of India just as any other adult male or female.

Suggestion to overcome this problem

Street children in India is a socio-legal issue which needs to be tackled carefully. When we met those children we must inform the police, local NGOs, children care homes etc. We must try to make their rights fulfilled. There are some suggestions to minimize this problem:-

  1. Monitoring, review and reform of policies, programs and laws to ensure protection of children’s interests and rights.
  2. Complete abolition of child labour with the aim of progressively eliminating all the forms of economic exploitation of children.
  3. Securing for children all legal and social protection from all kinds of abuse, exploitation and neglect.
  4. Childhood care development and quality education for all children.
  5. Separate vigilance Agency for look out children exploitation, begging, chid physical and sexual abuse etc. Conclusion

The children must be saved because children are most important asset of the country. So it is duty of citizens and society to protect them. Society should come forward against this social evil. We should must create awareness about it and help in ensuring basic rights. Nations should starting at the Mandal or Taluk level and awareness programmes need to be conducted giving , wide publicity holding public meetings, street level group discussion with village elders, conducting film shows, dramas, audio-visual programs etc; highlighting the importance, need to provide, care and protection of the street children. The government should also allocate proper fund for children development and for elementary education. There is need to be start new programmes, scheme and the amendment in law where it needed.