Plea Bargaining

A new chapter,that is Chapter XXI1 on Plea Bargaining has been introduced in the Criminal Procedure Code. It was introduced through the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2005, which was passed by the Parliament in its winter session. It became effective from 5thJuly 2006. Originally Plea Bargaining is an American concept its origin can be traced back in America during the 19thCentury. Over the years Plea bargaining has emerged as a prominent feature of the American Judicial System.

What is Plea Bargaining?

Plea Bargaining can be described as a process whereby the accused may bargain with the prosecution for a lesser punishment. In simple words, Plea Bargaining is an agreement (contract) between the accused and the prosecution regarding disposition of the criminal charge levelled by the prosecution against the accused. In layman’s language, it is bargaining done by the accused of a serious and severe offence, with the authority for a lighter punishment in lieu of a full-fledged trial.

An agreement as a result of negotiation between the prosecution and defence (at time, also the judge) which settles a criminal case, usually in exchange for a more lenient punishment. Typically the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime or for a fewer charges than originally charged, in exchange for a more lenient punishment than the defendant would get if convicted at trial. It is seen as a win-win for all the parties as the prosecution has a certain conviction on the record, the defendant is provided a more lenient sentence than the risk of a higher one at trial and the judge is freed to move to other  cases and dispute to resolve.
Plea Bargaining can conclude a criminal case without a trial. When it is successful, Plea Bargaining results in a plea agreement between the prosecutor and defendant. In this agreement, the defendant agrees to plead guilty without a trial, and, in return the prosecutor agrees to dismiss certain charges or make favourable sentence recommendation to the court. Plea Bargaining is expressly authorized in statutes and in court rules.

Features of Plea Bargaining

  1. It is applicable on the offense which is punishable with imprisonment for not more than 7 years.
  2. Deposition of the case on mutually agreed terms.
  3. A possible concession to accused or culprit by the prosecuting authority.
  4. The negotiation must be done under judicial purview.

Types of Plea Bargaining

  1. Charge Bargaining
  2. Sentence Bargaining
  3. Fact Bargaining

Benefits of Plea Bargaining

i. Time saving

ii. Money saving

iii. No mental strains

iv. Guaranteed solutions

Who can file Plea Bargaining?

Plea Bargaining is an application for all those whose trail is pending. The accused should be eighteen years or more. The accused should have commit offense for which the punishment is not more than 7 years.

When it can be filed?

It can be filed before the commencement of the actual trail or on any point of the pendency of trail.


I. The acts which are Scio-economic in nature some are as follows :

1.Sati Prevention Act

2. Dowry Prohibition Act

3. The immoral Traffic Prevention Act

4. The Army Act, 1950

5. The Explosive Act, 1884

6. The Protection of Children from Sexual Offense Act, 2012.

According to IPC :

Section 115, Section 119, Section 302, Section 305 etc the offense which carry punishment for more than seven years.

Recent case on Plea Bargaining?

Tablighi Jamaat Case

A Delhi court allowed some foreign nationals from Thailand to walk free on the plea bargaining process after they accepted mild charges in connection with a Tablighi Jamaat congregation at Nizamuddin Markaz here. Metropolitan Magistrate Gagndeep allowed 34 Thailand nationals to walk free on plea bargaining and imposed a fine of Rs, 6,000 each while seven Thai nationals claimed trial.

The foreign nationals from Thailand were represented by advocate Ashima Mandla. The fine has been paid to the PM CARES fund as per the direction of the court, Mandla said.

The court had earlier said that there was prima facie sufficient material on record to proceed against the accused persons under Section14 (b) Foreigners Act, 1946, under provisions of the Epidemic Diseases Act, the Disaster Management Act, and the Indian Penal Code.

Thereafter, the court had summoned all the 41 accused of Thailand who were charge-sheeted in 48 charge sheets and 11 supplementary charge sheets, filed by Crime Branch of Delhi Police in the matter. The court had directed them to physically appear from the court.

The court has recently granted bail to many foreign nationals in connection with the cases related to Tablighi Jamaat congregation in March this year, which had reportedly become an epi centre of COVID-19 spread across the country.

Retention Policies

Repository Administrators can define document retention and archiving policies. A retention policy allows repository administrators to permanently delete (purge) older documents or documents that meet a certain criteria. For example, a policy could be created to mark documents of a particular matter type for deletion when a specified number of days or years has passed after the matter closed date. 

Retention Policies will support policies based on matter type, matter closing date, and other criteria. Administrators will have a chance to confirm a mass deletion before purging documents when retention policies indicate they should be purged.

Creating and Activating Retention Policies

When the document retention policies feature is enabled, a link will be available on the Repository Administration page:

The “Document Retention Policies” page will appear as follows:

Click “Add a new policy” to define a new policy:

The policy’s fields are described below.

After defining a retention policy, click OK. The dialog will close and the underlying page will update to show the new retention policy. 


The policy name field will allow only letters, digits, spaces, dashes, and forward slashes. The maximum name length is 25 characters.  


Administrators can add a description to retention policies in the description field on the Retention Policy dialog. Policy descriptions are limited to 120 characters.

“Policy is active” defaults to unchecked. 

Document Criteria:

The document criteria dropdown contains the names of all the repository’s custom attributes except for Notes type field. There will be an additional entry for each attribute with “ Type” appended to the attribute name. 

If there are no non-Notes type custom attributes in the repository, a message will display saying “Profile attributes must be defined before retention policies can be added.”

Retention Period:

The first field on the Retention Period line will accept numeric entries between 1 and 9999.  The first Retention period dropdown’s values are “years” and “days”; the default is years. The second retention period dropdown’s values are “last modified date” and “xxx closing date”, where xxx is the attribute selected for Document Criteria.

Using Parent-Child Attributes

If a linked parent attribute is selected in the Document criteria dropdown of the Retention Policy Definition dialog, an additional set of fields for the child attribute will be displayed:

The child attribute drop-down lists the child attributes of the selected parent attribute plus a blank entry. The 2nd Retention period drop-down will include a closing date entry for the child attribute if one is selected, and a closing date entry for the parent attribute if no child attribute is selected.

Using Lookup Buttons

On the retention policy definition page you will be provided with a lookup buttton.  The retention period is keyed off the workspace attribute’s closing date even when the workspace attribute is not used in the selection criteria.

The lookup button on this dialog acts like it does on the Advanced Search page. If multiple values are selected, then each value is automatically surrounded by parentheses and an OR operator is automatically inserted between values.

If workspaces have been enabled for any cabinets in the repository the trigger date listbox will include an entry for the workspace attribute closing date, i.e. “Matter closing date.” If the document criteria attribute is the same as a workspace attribute, the attribute will not be listed twice in the listbox.

Activating Policies

When “Activate selected policies” is clicked, all the marked policies will be set to active.

When “Deactivate selected policies” is clicked, all the marked policies will be set to inactive.

When “Delete selected policies” is clicked, a confirmation message box will display asking if the user is sure he/she wants to delete the selected policies. If he/she confirms the deletion, the selected policies will be deleted.

When you click OK on the Document Retention Policies page, all the changes will be saved.  Clicking Cancel will discard the changes.  You will be returned to the Repository Administration page.

Retention Policy History

An unalterable record is available of all changes made to purging rules.

Each activation and deactivation of a document retention policy is recorded.  Edits and deletions of active retention policies (but not of inactive deletion policies) are recorded.  Each of these records will include the current date/time, the user who performed the action, the name of the policy, and the policy’s criteria and retention period.  If the policy name is changed both the old name and the new name are included in the log entry.

A link to view the Retention Policy Log is found at the bottom of the Retention Policies page:

A Retention policy history will look like this: (with records sorted chronologically)

NOTE: A repository’s retention policy log is deleted automatically when the repository is deleted.


We live in a world where being positive is supposed to be one of the most important characteristics of an individual can possess. But is it normal to be positive round the clock? Is it healthy? We see multiple posts on social media to be positive and the famous line “Good vibes only” as a common caption under such posts. These posts suggest that the only way to deal with life is to be optimistic all the time and disregard any other complex feeling you might be feeling. Positivity is different for everyone but it is also healthy to recognize other feelings of despair or sadness or feel hopeless. A lot of us feel the pressure to feel and be happy all the time as though we are living the best time of our life covering up what we actually feel. Normally, we feel sad or desperate or lonely at times, that’s human nature. There is no one way to feel happy but quotes like “good vibes only” seems to put us a layer of fake happiness rather than acknowledging them
What is toxic positivity?
Toxic positivity is a culture or concept where being positive all the time regardless of the situation is promoted as an ideal way to live and any feeling that causes negative feelings is neglected or disregarded. It seems like quite a plan to deal with tough situations but ignoring unpleasant feelings only makes them bigger. Ignoring unpleasant feelings can lead to bigger problems such as depression and anxiety. Toxic positivity makes you feel like you are flawed if you don’t feel happy all the time and being happy all the time is the only true way to live. Good vibes only, smile more, or think happy are part of the idea that you ignore any other uncomfortable feelings.
Neglecting any feeling makes them a bigger problem because they are unprocessed. It is normal for us as human beings to feel a wide array of feelings. Snubbing any emotion doesn’t do well to our mental health. We need to recognize the complex feelings that we feel.

Toxic positivity during lockdown –
Many people have openly and extensively discussed on social media that they will use this time of lockdown to learn a new language or read a book or learn new skills, while this is nothing wrong but it makes a large chunk of us who use this time to recuperate or use this period to rest feel like we are a failure and flawed beings because we don’t do the same things. Promoting the idea that we always have to be productive during a lockdown steals our right to have bad days. Rejecting emotions when you should have addressed put a damper in the mood. It’s completely okay to treat the lockdown as vacation and sleep all day or if we learn a new language. There is no one right way to feel emotions as all of us are different and have different ways we care about ourselves and others.

Ways to avoid being toxic positive person
We first need to accept our negative emotions and figure out why we are feeling that way. Speaking to a friend or parent or writing down our feelings positive and negative decreases the intensity of emotions. We need to give our self permission to understand and feel all complex emotions. We need to learn to be kinder to ourselves and our flaws. We need to acknowledge our pain, we should not shame ourselves or others for feeling the way we feel. This is our first pandemic and sadly we don’t have self-help books to help us through this pandemic. We all are new to this situation; we should be kinder to others and ourselves. This lock-down has been hard for all of us and the world could use some kindness in any way form. We need to understand that we are not pleasant all the time and pay attention to our fleeting emotions and understand them.

Modi calls for reformed multilateralism at UN

While high speaking a dialogue in UN’s Economic and social council (ECOSOC) has called for reformed multilaterlism . During this address the prime minister has spoken about India’s efforts against the Covid -19 pandemic and he has highlighted how the multilaterlism institutions such as the UN are outdated and he has reminded the world that this multilateral institutions are the relic of the world war era.In this context the prime minister has given a call for reforming Multilaterlism by providing opportunities for emerging powers such as India and he has made case for a permanent seat at the UN security council . This push for reformed multilaterlism given by the prime minister is inline with India’s long standing complain that united nations and other multilateral platforms they do not reflect the current geo-political realities and they are outdated institutions that date back to the world war era .

ECOSOC was established in 1945 as one of the six main organs of the United Nations.This council deals with the social and economic initiatives of the UN council and is said to the very heart of the UN council as it is promoting all the three dimensions of the sustainable developments -economic development ,social developments and environmental developments.It formulates the policies recommendation address to achieve internationally agreed goals and works with various other multilateral institutions such the World bank ,IMF etc.It acts as a platform for fostering debate and innovative thinking and it tries to built the consensus on the ways forward,and coordinating efforts to achieve internationally agreed goals under the sustainable development goals of the UN.The council is made of 54 member states, which are elected yearly by the UNGCA assembly for overlapping three year terms.seats on the council are allocated ensuring equitable geographic rotation among the united Nation regional groups. The President of the council is elected for one year term and the convention is that it is always chosen from the small or mid sized countries in order to give the greater voice for the smaller power when it comes to addressing the socio -economic challenges of the world.The presidency rotates among the United Nations regional groups in order to ensure equal representaions.

Teaching in times of Corona

We are living through times of unprecedented change and confusion. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed challenges to mankind in every realm imaginable, urging as to rethink the way we have approached social activities as well as everyday tasks that we so far did without second thoughts. Work from home has become the norm for most IT companies and trade has moved largely online. Perhaps the most visible of all shifts is in the education sector with all educational institutions having been shut down for months with no definite time for reopening. Since learning cannot be paused, teaching has moved online as well. This has brought with it multiple challenges – from questions of accessibility to apprehension over a widening digital divide to difficulty in ensuring the students understand and the limited interaction possible. While online education is a viable alternative in most western countries, it is far from ideal and is only a poor substitute for classrooms in a developing country like India.

While we can agree that students all over the country, particularly from rural backgrounds, are facing a severe challenge with this new mode of learning, we also understand that teachers have been finding the shift extremely difficult as well. If many tech-savvy students who are used to spending much time online or facing a screen is finding the shift strenuous, it is natural that teachers who have spent years teaching on a blackboard would find it more so. Along with the challenges of learning how to use technology in a way that allows students to learn better and maximizes opportunities for optimum holistic engagement, teachers also face other concomitant issues.

photo of kid playing with kinetic sand while watching through imac
Photo by Julia M Cameron on

While at home, many of them, like their students, are unable to access proper internet or gadgets which will make their work easier. They also have longer days where much time is spent worrying over internet connections and whether they are able to teach the students well. Particularly for teachers of younger classes, making videos that will capture the attention of seven-year-olds, and being able to anticipate their reactions are a huge task. Many teachers also need to be involved with whatever is happening at home or in the places that they are staying. The privilege of being uninterrupted while teaching is not one that is available to all.

Teachers also say that they are unable to connect with their students and help them with their questions or doubts. And if a new academic year which is completely online is to commence soon, a batch of students the teacher has never met will be learning from her. It is impossible with our current limitations and methods to forge meaningful relationships that used to exist in the class. Another major issue that has come up is that of the student response. Teachers have come out with stories of rude and condescending behavior from students. Many students who dare not say anything otherwise have turned to mocking teachers and interrupting classes, flaunting their strength from behind a screen. This has led to public outrage but also largescale demoralizing of teachers. Burnouts have become common and many worry that they are unable to deliver according to the expectations and needs of those they are teaching.

It is time to come together and support each other more than ever now. The challenges faced by those on the teaching side should be taken as seriously as that of the students. Only if those are addressed adequately can we ensure that a semblance of normal learning can be maintained within our digital classrooms. Their voices have to be heard and amplified. They should also be provided with solutions to their issues so that the entire education sector does not suffer.


A vaccine works the immune system to recognize and combat pathogens, either viruses or bacteria. To this do the certain molecules from this pathogen must be introduced to the human body to trigger in an the immune responses. Then these are called as the antigens, they are present of all the bacteria. By the injecting these are the antigens into the body by the immune can safely can learning to the recognize them as hostile invaders, produce antibodies, remember the future. If then the bacteria of virus reappears, the immune system immediately and attack aggressively as well as the before the pathogen spread and cause sickness.

POLIO VACCINE – CDC recommends for the children gets of the four doses of polio vaccine. They are should one dose of the following ages which is he 2 months, months old, 6 to the 18 months of old, and 4 to 6 years old children. Why polio dose is important of vaccine? – The children’s are united state should inactivated polio vaccine to protect against by the polio or poliomyelitis. They should gets the four doses. One doses at each following ages are the – 2 months. 4 months 6 months 4 through 6 year old

When the children who is travelling to a country where risk of getting polio icon should complete the series are the leaving for the trip. If a children are not to be series before leaving, an accelerated as follows.

1 dose of the age 6 weeks The second dose of 4 more weeks after first dose. The third dose 4 more weeks after second The fourth dose of 6 more months after the third dose.

Over 100 studies are the way to find of vaccine for COVID -19. Vaccination is the one of the world’s most successful health intervention, saving as many as 3 million lives every year. But the further 1.5 million death of year could be avoided with the improved global coverage. Cost of the conflict and vaccine hesitancy are the barriers. Vaccination is the most of successful important development in the human health and saving million of lives a year, according to the world health organization.

In the china where as the outbreak was the first reported are the five vaccine already being in of the human and government say that is in of the ready to end of year. Now the transition is reduce to a reduced serum the medium for human diploid cells without sacrificing cells growth expression, The reduced medium is a combination of two medium which is support to vaccine manufacture under serum free condition with diploid cells such as the growth may be the accomplish with 2% Serum free.

some time to take for cure with the help of vaccine against the diseases – The vaccine is may be month or a year of to the complete, then since a sufficient time of period must be elapse for the subjects to read the vaccine and develop the required antibodies.

BENEFITS – he vaccine is can be freeze dried stored because there no risk killing the pathogen as there is with live attenuated vaccine, they are also safer without any risk of the virus or Bactria mutating back into its the diseases causing forms.


Defence is an important and integral part of a nation’s life. For centuries wars have been fought among different people. Even in modern times, wars have not been removed from life. In some part of the world or other two nations have been at war with each other during the past decade or two. Many of the developed nations top are spending large amounts for the defence of their borders. In the name of defence they have been accumulating weapons of war. New techniques and new technology are utilised in building up arms. In short, every nation is interested in strengthening its military power. The preparations for defence have diverted huge amounts to defence while they could have been used for progressive measures and developmental projects.

WWhen importance is given to military power by some nations, it is quite natural that other nations, especially in contiguous parts, should also think of improving their defence. Hence, it has become a pertinent question whether India too should go in for the strengthening of its military power and whether military training for her youth should be given without delay.

For any country a standing armed force is essential. Every nation has its own army, air force and navy. Much money is spent on recruitment of people for these wings of the defence set up for their maintenance and development. These forces are expected to defend the country. But it is felt that a second line of defence would be necessary. Many feel that compulsory military training should be provided for our youth. This is based on the experience in other countries.

Compulsory military training is only one of the means through which youth could make themselves useful to their country. It is said that in many foreign countries such a training is given. When young men reach a certain age they have to give up whatever occupation they might be following at the moment and take up a course in military science be they students in the universities or workers in factories. They may go back to their original occupation, if they so desire, after the training is over, or they may take up a regular course in military science. Such a training helps them to defend their country in times of emergency when there is pressure on the regular armed forces. This training is compulsory for all able bodied persons.

Apart from this aspect, military training is useful in other ways. Life in our country today has become notorious for acts of violence and indiscipline in many walks of life, in many parts. Regionalism, Communalism and linguist and religious fanaticism breed indiscipline and chaos. Under these circumstances, military training will be of great value in making everyone understand the worth of discipline. It is found that the students in NCC or the ACC are different from others in many ways.

Military training is also useful in other ways. The sense of discipline that is instilled into youth, the habit of service and dedication and selfless work help people in peace time activities also. When there are natural calamities like floods, quakes and drought, those who serve in the armed forces can do service to the distressed people. They can be expected to be quick and efficient in doing their duty and in the execution of any work that may be given to them. If the country is to derive valuable benefits, compulsory military training must be an indispensable factor of life.

Money Matters!

With time, money is the only thing that has became so important today and is continously needed everyday by everyone.

Money is the constant need and demanded by every human in the world. Without money, there is nothing anyone can buy today and without money its difficult to live now.

Earlier people were happy without money. The times where barter exchange were in place. There wasn’t use of money but still people found happiness in those simple things. At that time, money was not much of importance to the people.

After development of coins and currency notes, the world has changed. Happiness is found in the money and without money there is no happiness. In order to survive today, money plays an crucial role today for poor to the rich ones.

Money has changed the idea of happiness and today you can see every person is chasing money be it for basic needs or be it for to buy anything.

The poor, the middle class, and the rich class; every class of society are chasing behind money and constantly are working or are putting efforts to get money in order to survive. The poor ones or daily wage earners have to put in efforts everyday to get the money for buying basic things or necessities for his family. Everyday the daily wage earners earns so that they can feed themselves and their family.

The middle class have three classes: lower middle class, middle class and the upper middle class. All the levels are at a situation where they are rich from the poor and daily earners but are poor than the rich ones. The middle class people also needs money and works hard daily to earn money. The rich class or the luxury people even after being rich still constantly chase behind money and think of becoming more rich. No matter the levels, money is needed by everyone to buy or do anything in this world.

Well, if there is moneythen there is everything. Constantly people are running behind and chasing money and have forgot to live the life or to find happiness without money.

Considering the lockdown, still we need money in our pockets to go out. We need money for stepping out of the house, no matter lockdown exists or not. To travel you need money, to make something you need money, to live daily you need money, to go out with anyone you need money, for education, for health, for work, for every single little thing you need money.

Without money, there is no value of people. If someone has money, then only he is valued. Silly, right? But it is the fact today. Money buys you happiness today. Those who have money are respected by others. Money brings status to people. Money brings luxury and comfort. These are the mindsets that have taken place over the years.

Every human runs after money and the whole life of any human revolves around money. Every individual thinks about money every single day and the means to earn it.

Today, there is no peace or real happiness in anyone’s life. Money brings happiness for sometime but no peace. Money is the only thing that is never enough for anyone. We constantly need money for anything. We can’t live without money today. It has become such an important part of our lives that it is impossible to live without money today or in future as well.

Every thing is related to money. With money, we can buy anything but not peace or real happiness. Gone are the days when people used to be happy without money. But now, imagining living without money is not possible ever.

No matter how much rich or poor you are, you need money. It is an essential thing which is the constant need for every class of people in the society.

Money has took over the place of happiness in lives. People chase money so much that they have forgot that there is a life beyond money. But, the reality is different. ‘Aaj Paisa hai toh sab kuch hain.’

Who said? The basic necessities are food,shelter and water. No, the basic necessities in order to live is money first and then these. Without money, there is no food or shelter or water.

Nothing is free today. If you have money then only you can buy whatever you want to. Money was introduced or invented so that it can be a common medium of exchange that is accepted by everyone replacing with barter system. But who knew? That one day this invention would be so important or dominant in the world.

Money has changed lives but we can’t also deny that it has ruined many lives. The sufferings of people without money. People dying because of hunger due to lack of money. People dying or taking up their lives because of no money due to which they can’t feed themselves and their families. People dying due to certain diseases which requires lakhs of money and are incapable to do so. People involving in thefts or crimes for money.

No matter how much necessary money is today still it is one of the reason or you can say main reason for such happenings or for someone’s sadness or pain. Money has became more important compared to humanity.

To be honest, there is no humanity left around. People are busy in making money or earning money that they forget to help anyone in need.

People forget to live their lives and make memories or spend time with their families or their close ones and constantly busy in chasing money. Today, as the pandemic hit the world we as people are at our homes with our families and close ones and have got the opportunity to understand that in the end spending time with your family matters and brings you more happiness than money. In the end our life is more important.

Money matters and will always be needed for each and everything but making or keeping money more important than your family or close ones is incorrect. We need to understand that money will be always important but not every happiness is bought by money.


Entrepreneurs who are business leaders look for ideas and puts them into effect in nurturing economic growth and development. They play the most important role in the economic growth and development of Indian economy. An entrepreneur plays a pivotal role not only in the development of industrial sector of a country but also in the development of farm and service sector. The major roles played by an entrepreneur in the economic development of an economy are as follows:

Promotes Capital Formation- Entrepreneurs promote capital formation by mobilizing the idle savings of our citizens. They employ resources for setting up their enterprises. Such types of entrepreneurial activities lead to value addition and creation of wealth, which is very essential for the industrial and economic development of India.

Employment Generation- Entrepreneurs provide instant large-scale employment to the unemployed which is an unending problem of India. Small entrepreneurs provide self employment to artisans, technically qualified persons and professionals.

Entrepreneurs promote development of industries- They help to remove regional disparities by industrializing rural and backward areas. The growth of industries and business in these areas lead to a large number of public benefits like road transport, health, education, entertainment, etc. They help to reduce the problems of congestion, slums and population in cities by providing employment and incomes to them. They help to improve the standard of living in sub-urban and rural areas.

Reduces Concentration of Economic Power- Industrial development normally leads to concentration of economic power in the hands of a few individuals which results in the growth of monopolies. Entrepreneurs contribute towards the development of society by reducing concentration of income and wealth.

Wealth Creation and Distribution- It stimulates impartial redistribution of wealth and income in the interest of the country to more people and geographic areas, thus giving benefit to larger sections of the society. Entrepreneurial activities also ensure equitable distribution of income and wealthy by inculcating the spirit of entrepreneurship amongst people thereby providing them self employment with limited resources.

Increasing GDP and Per Capita Income- Entrepreneurs are always looking out for opportunities. They encourage effective resource mobilization of capital and skill, bring in new products and services and develops markets for growth of the economy. In this way, they help increasing gross national product as well as per capita income of the people in our nation.

Improvement in the Standard of Living- Entrepreneurs adopt latest innovations in the production of wide variety of goods and services in large scale that too at a lower cost. This enables the people to avail better quality goods at lower prices which results in the improvement of their standard of living.

Promotes Country’s Export Trade- Entrepreneurs earn valuable foreign exchange through increased exports. They produce goods and services in large scale for the purpose earning huge amount of foreign exchange from export. This ensures economic independence and development.

Induces Backward and Forward Linkages- Entrepreneurs work in an environment of changing technology and try to maximize profits by innovation. This induces backward and forward linkages which stimulate the process of economic development in the country.

Facilitates Overall Development- Entrepreneurs act as catalytic agent for change which results in chain reaction. Once an enterprise is established, the process of industrialization is set in motion. This unit will generate demand for various types of units required by it and there will be so many other units which require the output of this unit. This leads to overall development of an area due to increase in demand and setting up of more and more units.

Lucid Dream

Lucid dreaming is a form of dreaming in which you are able to control your own dreams. Most of us, generally can’t control our dreams. That is mainly because in that moment, we think that this (the dream) is real. But the moment we wake up, we realize it wasn’t real. When we try to recall it, we might only remember about 7 % of the dream.

Lucid dreaming is basically when an individual is fully aware that they are dreaming while they really asleep. This let’s us have a certain degree of control of our dreams. People who get reoccurring nightmares, or have a desire to spend a little bit more time with their loved one who has passed away take help from this phenomenon.

Steps that can help you lucid dream.

1. Keep a dream journal. Immediately after you wake up, write in a journal about all the details that you remember from your dreams. Keep it next to your bed and make it a habit to write in it the next day. At first, you probably won’t have much to write. But with practice and consistency, you will be able to recall even the smallest details of your dreams.

2. Self-fulfilling prophecy. Before sleeping, keep reminding yourself to be aware of your surroundings. The longer you do that, the higher your chances are to be aware in your sleep. As we are usually not aware of the fact that we are dreaming, we are unable to control it. But by doing this, we slowly but gradually start getting aware of the fact that we are dreaming.

3. Mnemonic introduction of lucid dreams (MILD). It can be done right before you fall asleep. All you have to do is rehearse the dream that want to see and say, ‘I will be aware and I will dream this’. Now chances are that you won’t get it right the very first time. But again, persistency is the key. Keep saying that to yourself every time you are about to fall asleep. It will take time, but it will come to you.

4. Reality Check. By asking yourself if you are dreaming in the middle of the dream, can help you lucid dream. This is because of the fact that by asking yourself this question, in a way you are trying to stay aware of your dream. This one is hard, because naturally this question won’t immediately click to you. With some practice and will power, you can remember to ask yourself this question. After you ask this question, like in the movie ‘Inception’ you can check this by looking at a clock. If the clock is moving at it’s usual slow pace, you are not dreaming. But if time is moving drastically, you are still dreaming. It basically helps your recognize reality and dreams.

All these methods of lucid dreaming will only work if you constantly practice doing so. You need to be regular with these particular habits and after some time, viola! You will be doing whatever you want to instead of having no control on your dreams whatsoever!

Wasting Minds: Is The Education System Failing Us?

If the purpose for learning is to score well on a test, we’ve lost sight of the real reason for learning.

– Jeannie Fulbright

Education is the form of learning that directs each individual to pursue his interests, to sharpen his skills, to become comfortably employable. The ultimate effects of education may vary from teaching others to take the nation forward to creating world class technologies depending on the individuals. It is different from being literate which is simply defined as being able to ‘read, write and speak. Education system on India in the olden days of Takshila and Nalanda Universities relied on creativity and was famous in the whole world for it. It was the scope for creativity that education provided that fulfilled it’s purpose of developing the society in totality. There is no point of educating an individual without having an effect, directly or indirectly, on the society.

Presently, the Indian Education System is in fiasco, mostly owing to shoddy politics. It now focuses on rewarding rote learning sans understanding, penalising those who question, suppressing free thought and pigeon-holing clueless kids into “streams” and yet manages to combine the corruption and ineptitude of the public services with the greed of the private. Did I forget to mention the abysmally low salaries for teachers and the utter incapability of society to deal with failure?

The entire ranking list of toppers is an unapologetic hierarchy of rote learning, where we’re never ashamed of showcasing the performance of disability. The day since rote learning has replaced knowledge as a standardized way of judgement, it has become more of fierce, dark competition, where children chase absolutely nothing. Celebrating success of this kind was meant to be an all-round personal achievement and not a standard system a failed competition in education. Succeeding in a hollow system like the one that prevails now, is even more worse than not gathering enough knowledge and failing a number of times.

The system is so sick that it has become an antithesis of the pleasure in knowledge acquirement and freedom. With such imprudent exaltation of so called toppers furthermore makes the entire failed system even more worse and disheartening to the not so called toppers, rather the victims of a still failed system. The entire definition of “excellence” is being misjudged. Perfection is unattainable, and in this case, is a complete trick of misjudgement.

Education system was meant to come out with a strategy that would scrap discrimination and not jeopardize the learning process. Authorities shouldn’t teach us displeasing habits of grading every human being out there by a completely wrong system, rather they should join hands to cultivate a sense of morality, joy of learning in every individual and aim towards an all-round development of a human being than pushing towards the death end of a cliff with all sort of cursed strategies.

The ongoing pandemic only magnified the shortcomings of the education system.
The structure of schooling and learning, including teaching and assessment methodologies, was the first to be affected by these closures. Only a handful of private schools could adopt online teaching methods. Their low-income private and government school counterparts, on the other hand, have completely shut down for not having access to e-learning solutions. The students, in addition to the missed opportunities for learning, no longer have access to healthy meals during this time and are subject to economic and social stress.

The pandemic has significantly disrupted the higher education sector as well, which is a critical determinant of a country’s economic future. A large number of Indian students—second only to China—enrol in universities abroad, especially in countries worst affected by the pandemic, the US, UK, Australia and China. Many such students have now been barred from leaving these countries. If the situation persists, in the long run, a decline in the demand for international higher education is expected.

Parents, students, and employers must demand that our institutions deliver real capability and not empty certificates. Let us stamp our vote to those leaders who can make this happen. Let us not keep quiet till we get what we deserve. But with the right to raise our voices comes the responsibility to stay invested. Media must capture this moment and ensure that those in power heed this call. It must hold them accountable for action.
It is our children’s future, not our ancestor’s pride, that deserves our outrage first.

Only then can we begin to unleash the potential of our 100 million young minds.


Section 3 of the Competition Act, 2002 is the substantive provision in the Competition Law dealing with anti-competitive agreements and arrangements. An anti-competitive agreement is an agreement having an appreciable adverse effect on the competition. This Section prohibits any agreement in respect of production, supply, distribution, storage, acquisition or control of goods and services which causes, or likely to cause an applicable adverse effect on the competition in India. Thus there are two essential requirements to bring into operation Section 3(1):

  • There should be an agreement
  • The agreement should cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition in the market in India

An agreement is anti-competitive if it causes or is likely to cause an adverse effect on the competition. The term appreciable adverse effect has not been defined in the Act. In the case of Haridas Exports v. All India Float Glass Manufacturers Association (2002), the Supreme Court observed that the words appreciable adverse effect on competition embraces acts, contracts, agreements or combinations which operate to the prejudice of the public interests by unduly restricting competition or unduly obstructing the due course of the trade.

Proviso to Section 3 provides that the aforesaid criteria shall not apply to Joint ventures entered with the aim to increase efficiency in production, supply, distribution, acquisition and control of goods or services.


Horizontal agreements are agreements between enterprises at the same stage of production. Section 3(3) provides that such agreements includes cartels, engaged in identical or similar trade of goods or provisions of services, which-

  • Directly or indirectly determines purchases or sale prices.
  • Limits or controls production and supply.
  • Share the market or source of production
  • Directly or indirectly results in bid rigging or collusive bidding.

Under the Competition Act, 2002, horizontal agreements are placed in a special category and are subject to the adverse presumption of being anti-competitive. this is known as ‘per se’ rule. This implies that if there exists a horizontal agreement under Section 3(3) of the Act, then it will be presumed that such an agreement is anti-competitive and has an appreciable adverse effect on competition.


Vertical agreements are those agreements which are entered into between two or more enterprises operating at different levels of production. For instance between suppliers and dealers. Other examples of anti-competitive vertical agreements include:

  • Exclusive supply agreement and refusal to deal.
  • resale price maintenance
  • tie-in arrangements
  • Exclusive distribution agreements

The ‘per se’ rule as applicable for horizontal agreements does not apply for vertical agreements. Hence, a vertical agreement is not per se anti-competitive or does not have an appreciable adverse effect on competition.


Section 3(5)(i) of the Act provides an exception, from the adverse effect of Section 3 to the right of any person to restrain any infringement of, or to impose reasonable conditions, as may be necessary for protecting any of his rights which have been conferred upon him under:-

  • The Copyright Act, 1957
  • The Patents Act, 1970
  • The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958
  • The Geographical Indications of Goods ( Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
  • The Design Act, 2000
  • The Semi-Conductor and Integrated Circuits Layout Design Act, 2000

The effect of Section 3(5) is that entire Section 3 dealing with prohibition of anti-competitive agreements will not apply where the owner of any intellectual property rights under the enactments provided above does not anything in the exercise of his right of restrain the infringement of any of those rights, or imposes reasonable conditions as may be necessary for the protection of any of those rights. In the case FICCI-Multiplex Association of India v. United Producers/ Distributors Forum & Ors.(2011), it was held that the extend of non obstante clause in Section 3(5) of the Act is not absolute as is clear from the language used therein and it exempts the right holder from the rigors.

“Women” as Entrepreneurs in India:

Women owned businesses are highly increasing in the economies of almost all countries.
The hidden entrepreneurial potentials of women have gradually been changing with the growing sensitivity to the role and economic status in the society. Skill, knowledge and adaptability in business are the main reasons for women to emerge into business ventures.

‘Women Entrepreneur’ is a person who accepts challenging role to meet her personal needs and become economically independent. A strong desire to do something positive is an inbuilt quality of entrepreneurial women, who is capable of contributing values in both family and social life.

With the advent of media, women are aware of their own traits, rights and also the work situations. The glass ceilings are shattered and women are found indulged in every line of business from pappad to power cables. The challenges and opportunities provided to the women of digital era are growing rapidly that the job seekers are turning into job creators. They are flourishing as designers, interior decorators, exporters, publishers, garment manufacturers and still exploring new avenues of economic participation. In India, although women constitute the majority of the total population, the entrepreneurial world is still a male dominated one. Women in advanced nations are recognized and are more prominent in the business world.

Major problems faced by the Women Entrepreneurs can be described as:
Lack of Confidence: In general, women lack confidence in their strength and competence. The family members and the society are reluctant to stand beside their entrepreneurial growth. To a certain extent, this situation is changing among Indian women and yet to face a tremendous change to increase the rate of growth in entrepreneurship.

Socio-Cultural Barriers: Women’s family and personal obligations are sometimes a great barrier for succeeding in business career. Only few women are able to manage both home and business efficiently, devoting enough time to perform all their responsibilities in priority.

Market-Oriented Risks: Stiff competition in the market and lack of mobility of women make the dependence of women entrepreneurs on middleman indispensable.
Many business women find it difficult to capture the market and make their products popular. They are not fully aware of the changing market conditions and hence can effectively utilize the services of media and internet.

Motivational Factors: Self motivation can be realized through a mind set for a successful business, attitude to take up risk and behavior towards the business society by shouldering the social responsibilities. Other factors are family support, Government policies, financial assistance from public and private institutions and also the environment suitable for women to establish business units.

Knowledge in Business Administration: Women must be educated and trained constantly to acquire the skills and knowledge in all the functional areas of business management. This can facilitate women to excel in decision making process and develop a good business network.

Awareness about the Financial Assistance: Various institutions in the financial sector extend their maximum support in the form of incentives, loans, schemes etc. Even then every woman entrepreneur may not be aware of all the assistance provided by the institutions. So the sincere efforts taken towards women entrepreneurs may not reach the entrepreneurs in rural and backward areas.

Exposed to the Training Programs: Training programs and workshops for every type of entrepreneur is available through the social and welfare associations, based on duration, skill and the purpose of the training program. Such programs are really useful to new, rural and young entrepreneurs who want to set up a small and medium scale unit on their own.

Identifying the Available Resources: Women are hesitant to find out the access to cater their needs in the financial and marketing areas. In spite of the mushrooming growth of associations, institutions, and the schemes from the government side, women are not enterprising and dynamic to optimize the resources in the form of reserves, assets mankind or business volunteers.

Highly educated, technically sound and professionally qualified women should be encouraged for managing their own business, rather than dependent on wage employment outlets.
The unexplored talents of young women can be identified, trained and used for various types of industries to increase the productivity in the industrial sector. A desirable environment is necessary for every woman to inculcate entrepreneurial values and involve greatly in business dealings.

The additional business opportunities that are recently approaching for women entrepreneurs are:
• Eco-friendly technology,
• Bio-technology,
• IT enabled enterprises,
• Event Management,
• Tourism industry,
• Telecommunication,
• Plastic materials,
• Vermiculture,
• Mineral water,
• Sericulture,
• Floriculture,
• Herbal & health care,
• Food, fruits & vegetable processing

Empowering women entrepreneurs is essential for achieving the goals of sustainable development and the bottlenecks hindering their growth must be eradicated to entitle full participation in the business. Apart from training programs, Newsletters, mentoring, trade fairs and exhibitions also can be a source for entrepreneurial development. As a result, the desired outcomes of the business are quickly achieved and more of remunerative business opportunities are found. Henceforth, promoting entrepreneurship among women is certainly a short-cut to rapid economic growth and development.

Fake or Real?

Every person has two side faces. One side that we show to the world and the other side that we hide from everyone. So, which one is the real face? Its the one which we ‘hide’ from others.

Why do we hide?

We hide the inner face or reality of us from everyone in the fear of being not accepted. We tend to fear that we will be judged by the society or peers, friends, family, relatives, etc. The fear of getting misunderstood by people.

We tend to hide our real side because we feel that if we show that side people would leave us or judge us. There is a constant fear of getting judged.

Fake is the new trend:

Today, being fake is the new real. People tend to be fake around the other people so as to be accepted. They hide their real emotions or feelings or the side that they actually are. They display their fake image when they are surrounded by people.

And it is the reality, we tend to judge others without thinking twice. We live in a judgemental society where being real is called as rude or very straightforward. And so some people prefer being fake in front of the world.

The idea of being real is not mastered by everyone. Being fake is such a trend that sometimes we forget our own real side of us.

Everyone fake a side of themselves due to various reasons. Sometimes they fake to fit in a group. Sometimes to hide their real side. Sometimes to show that they are just like others. Sometimes to make others happy.

Even when we don’t like a person for whatever reason, we end up saying hi or smile at them. We still be nice to them in front of their faces and then we gossip about them or you can say bitching about them behind their backs.

Yes, people do that. We live in a society where people do gossip about other’s lives. There are fake people who will be nice at your faces and then gossip about you the next moment you leave.

I do not say that everyone is fake or try to hide their real side. There are people who got nothing to hide. They prefer being like this. They prefer being fake in the world with everyone they meet. They love being fake but are genuine with their close ones.

These kinds of people show their real faces to the ones that they actually love. Where they can be really themselves and be accepted for who they are. Some might fear to hide their real side and some may not.

Not everyone has a fake side and not everyone is trying to hide something.

The real face:

Inspite of all these fake faces all around us, there are people who are real. Who are actually real and love being the way they are without having any fear of not being accepted and having nothing to hide.

They tend to show the real side because they do not have anything to hide. They love themselves as they are and wany everyone to accept them for who they are.

They do not care about the judgements of the society. This is the way they like it and they choose to be real. They accept themselves and are happy for being real. They do not like being fake and can’t even if they try. They also do not tolerate fake people around them.

The real side people have nothing to care about. They always show their real side to everyone they meet or be close to. Yes, not everyone they meet knows them completely but those who are close to them knows them inside out.

The real people can’t be fake with someone or pretend to like someone. If they do not like a thing or person, they will just not try to show much interest.

They do not have to pretend even. They will directly tell you that they do not like you or for that matter a thing. Yes, real people are straightforwards too. And thats the reason straightforward people and being real is not accepted by everyone.

The real people are hated by many as people love fake people who are nice on other’s faces and later bitch about them. The real people who will tell others directly about what they feel or about the things or person they dislike are not being accepted in the society. The real people speaks whatever comes to their minds and are free minded and open. Such kind of people are rare in this fake world but still are left alone.

The real side of the people are left out by many because of their straightforwardness. They have less friends who understand them compared to the fake ones.

The fake side is loved by everyone. The real side is loved by people who are also the same.

Which side to choose?

We live in a society where we are surrounded by fake ones and real ones. Some choose to be fake and some choose to be real. The choice completely depends on different individuals. Some choose to be real even after losing everything. Some choose to be fake always so as to be accepted and hide their real side. Some have nothing to hide still prefer being fake.

At times, something bad happens because of being real and people tend to change due to such occurings and start prefer to being fake with everyone they meet. Certain times, when we don’t like a person we still smile or greet them due to relations we have with them. Such times, some people also feel not to hurt anyone.

There is no compulsion of choosing a side and living with it. It completely depends on us whether we have to be real with everyone or some or whether we have to be fake with some or everyone we meet.

Why do people get so easily offended these days?

People are so easily offended these days and to imagine where the mind-set of a person was few decades ago and where they are now, one must say it is difficult to understand. Few centuries ago people from Africa were sold as slaves in America. In 2009 Barack Obama became the first African-American President of the United States. India has had both a female Prime Minister (Indira Gandhi) and a President (Pratibha Patil), even Islamic nations like Pakistan and Bangladesh have had a female Head of State, but the United States has never had a female Head of State.

Real life is not like that depicted in movies. In movies when the protagonist has to kill his old friend because he’s the villain says, “You know that I have to do this right?”, then they both hug each other, then the hero kills him. This does not happen in real life. When your friend even says something to you that you do not like, you will be fuming with anger. 

What was offensive a few years ago is not offensive now. What is offensive now was not offensive a few years ago. Punishing children at school was not offensive until recently. Being a member of the LGBT community was not offensive until recently (only in a few countries). People even get offended if you honk, as they show their frustration by honking back at you, for whatever reason it is. Proverbs 19:11 says, “A person’s wisdom yields patience; it is to one’s glory to overlook an offence”.

Why do people get offended, let us have a look as some of the reasons?

  • People are too sensitive: According to a research by Stony Brook University, about 20 per cent of the population are genetically predisposed to empathy that is, they respond intensely to both positive and negative stimuli.
  • Ego: This is very powerful three letter word. A silly argument breaks out between two people, because both of them think they are right, and they do not want to compromise. Friendship, relationships are often split by their own ego. A healthy argument is always good, but it is never healthy if you get offended. Holding grudges just to prove a point or just to display one’s power over a subordinate are all traits of ego. Both parties feel that one is more offended than the other. 
  • Work Place: Stress at work place can cause a lot of behavioural changes. Not loving the work that you do can also lead to stress. This can cause a person to offend others and also get offended easily. This tends to become the permanent character of a person within a few months, and he/she become insufferable. One can develop anxiety with such stress induced behaviour.
  • Insecurities : Not having anyone to depend on, developing the thought that  “No one is there for me”, can create a sense of not being happy or even put you in a state of depression, which makes you care less about others. This makes you prone to offend others or get offended easily.
  • Diet: The type of food that we eat today reduces the life span of a person considerably, mainly due to processed foods (even junk food) which are easily accessible and takes almost no time to prepare. These contain preservatives and MSG’s to give that taste which you do not get from food prepared at home. These chemical are not good over the long haul. Most of the ingredients are also synthetic, artificial or adulterated. These can be allergic or different than what your body can process. Scientifically it is said that these substances do not allow you to produce hormones like serotonin or GABA which are produced as brain calming hormones, so this makes you more prone to anger, hence get offended.

Value of Discipline in life

Imagine being in a society where there is no discipline, just think for a mere second, what would happen to this world if there is no discipline. The only word that comes up instantly is disaster. If there is no discipline among the people of a society then there is just chaos. Discipline bridges the gap between our aims and achievements. In every sphere of life this is a very essential factor. To quote Roy Smith, discipline is the refining power which transforms talent into ability. If soldiers disobey the orders of higher officials and perform their duties as they like, then terrorists can easily enter our country and ruin everything. In the same way disciplined soldiers are more efficient to work. In a battle fought between the Englishmen and Frenchmen, the English won the battle even though the French had a bigger army, this was because of their discipline and morale. Imagine that you are a pedestrian, and the drivers on the road are not following the traffic rules, scary? This is what lack of discipline can do to a peaceful society. Countries like Japan and Israel have a higher economic growth compared to a lot of countries, this is because of the discipline shown by the common public. 

Advantages of being disciplined:- 

● Being disciplined will help a person focus more on their goals and day to day activities. They perform their activities in a more efficient manner. 

● Being disciplined has its own perks as well, people start respecting you as discipline commands respect. Since being disciplined takes a lot of effort, people respect your determination. 

● Being disciplined helps you finish your job smoothly and on time. You will not be distracted by anything else and will be focused on your work. 

● Being disciplined includes having a balanced life with habits like healthy food, exercise, walking and sleeping at the right time. Hence you have a better and healthy life. 

● Being disciplined helps a person have a very good self control over himself/herself, avoiding silly problems, not indulging in trivial things and having a healthy relationship with everyone around them. 

● Being disciplined will also help a person avoid unnecessary stress or tension and be happy in all their activities. 

● Being disciplined will make a person more organized, they will have a time schedule allotted for every activity, and this will help them find a lot of extra time to relax. 

● Being disciplined will also make a person value time the most, and make use of every second possible. They have better time management skills than others. 


Discipline should be omnipresent. Every small activity taking place around us happens in discipline, be it the sun rising on time or the birds chirping blissfully in the early morning or the blood flowing in our veins or the heart that beats continuously. They all happen to continuously do their work without any help or a clock. Initially we might feel it’s excruciating but with time it will always get better soon. Imagine how beautiful and happy will all of our life be if it’s disciplined. This will help all of us resist evil and enjoy life’s true fruits in a real sense. 

KERALA MODEL – The Trail and Error

The Kerala model was established in 1970. This received world wide recognition and applauds for its immense development of two most crucial aspects of humanity – Health and Education, also ensured high female literarcy rates. Much prior to today’s situation, the measures taken by Kerala was a milestone and also proved deep insights in the matter. The upliftment of The Health and Education is the treasure of a state. On the early March, Kerala and Maharashtra had the most number of cases all over India. Inspite of all all the necessary precautions taken beforehand, the question here lies is… Whether the Model was successful enough to combat the Pandamic- Covid 19? Was this Model efficient enough to be implemented nationally? Can a Pandemic be controlled by any specific Model or theries? Initially during the outbreak of Pandemic in India, Kerala a state with population over 35 Million, has reported 4189 cases of Covid – 19 as on 30th June, 2020 and 23 deaths with a stirring recovery rate of 51.7 per cent. hence, this Model got praises all over India. BJP Government in Madhya Pradesh has leant and adopted Kerala’s strategy of tackling Covid 10 infection. Kerala actually emphasized on various key factors, firstly educating or alerting the citizens on the gravity of the situations and hence dealing with it on personal levels, this is the primary step as it is mandatory for the citizens to understand it is safe for them as well as for safeguarding other’s interests. After that, as recommended by the World Health Organizations the 4 T’s Test, Trace and Treat, Kerala followed the same. Thirdly, Isolation that is Quarantining the infected ones specially and not allowing them to roam. Kerala played a very significant role in treating the issues of migrant labourers hence tackling them properly and this was a remarkable achievement of India. Kerala was the first state amongst India to conduct exams as well for students of Class 10-12. A lot of controversies were triggered upon across the media as to who will guarantee the protection of the students? due to the speedy recovery rate has there been a sense of carelessness and over confidence in the mindsets of Kerala Government?

Commissioner of Police Vijay Sakhare, Kochi, Kerala was the chief architect of Kerala’s brand new policy i.e., Triple Lock Strategy in Kasaragod District. This was actually made on the basis of Three relevant lock down stages for the people, separately for each sets of people strictly for their security. 1) The General Lock – the 1st lock was implemented on 25th March, 2020. This is the primarly lockdown for all the people to remain confined in their homes and not to roam around. Self quarantining is absolutely essential for restricting the movements. Rule- breakers were hence widely punished by the cops. 2) Containment Zones – the 2nd lock was implemented as on 28th March, 2020. This is the segregated places with the most number of Covid – 19 positive patients. Only the service for most essential goods very provided as the rest shops, industries, market places were closed down to avoid gatherings. 3) Home Quarantine – the 3rd lock was made especially for those who were affected and also their contacts, they were isolated and their treatments were to be done in the house itself. wearing masks and repeatative sanitizations is a must of those who were isolated. This led to around 75 per cent reduction of new cases which was commendable.

Unfortunately, Mass Spread of Covid Infection was confirmed in the state of Kerala on 17th July, 2020. Silent community transmission happened in Thiruvananthapuram at over 50 percent rate in Covid- 19, says Kerala Health Minister. This created a terror amongst the common people. Around 10 large community clusters has occurred in the state. The costal neighbourhoods of Pulluvila and Poonthura is coping with the stage of community transmission, as declared by the Chief Minister of Kerala, Sir. Pinarayi Vijayan in a press conference. The community transmissions has also been found in Kerala, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh. Hence, the Government is answerable to the people that whether a Model of a state can actually help to combat with relatively world-wide issues such as a Pandemic.

Here or There: Opportunities are Everywhere


Opportunities are everywhere, everytime and every moment, the thing is one just doesn’t need to identify them, but needs to grab them as quickly as possible before someone else does. That’s what the big billionaires of the world have done, not only before but in this deadly pandemic as well. When businesses all around the world have shutdown, many have filed in for bankruptcy, many have lost their jobs, but these people have used their mind or we can say the business mind so well that they made this moment of a deadly pandemic turn into a fruitful period of wealth and power.

The billionaires I’m talking about are Jeff Bezos, Elon Musk, etc. They were the ones who’ve gained the most during these unprecedented times. Be it the historic space mission launched by Elon’s SpaceX company or the ever dominating Amazon company of Jeff Bezos, the richest man on the planet right now. Its not that they did it overnight. The hardwork and time they’ve put in to make their dreams realise is absolutely amazing. What this article would focus on is the full use of opportunities in life and that nothing in life can put you down on your knees forever if you have the right determination and passion. If not, this cruel world will keep you at your knees forever.

These were unprecedented times, hard times, losses would hit everyone, nobody’s business would survive, but people with determination and plan ‘B’ and ‘C’ did what they know best, never give up and take opportunities lashing at you with both hands. How about I telling you that Jeff Bezos’s wealth increased by a whooping $56.7 billion in the year 2020. Didn’t pandemic hit Amazon Company? It did, but he never was jaded away by it. The opportunity was that people wouldn’t venture out in these times with coronavirus taking its toll, so how would they buy things, be it grocery or other essential items. That’s when, people started using the benefits of online shopping. But, what about the delivery boys delivering those parcels, they could infect the customers unintentionally, of course. For that, came the concept of no touch delivery. Talking about opportunities, the amazon founder, didn’t just stop there over the past few years. He knew that to earn success in this dynamic world, changing within even seconds, you need to be a little bit diverse. He saw the opportunity in the online streaming industry, had very fierce competitors in the business, be it Hotstar or Netflix, but he was determined and brought in a new platform for online streaming, Amazon Prime Videos, and the gamble paid off. This is what I’m trying to say, the use of opportunity available in the whole market arena.

How about the opportunity seized by the Tesla CEO, Elon Musk. Knew the resources are getting depleted, knew that electronic cars will be the new normal in the future, invested in the project, formed Tesla and is earning in billions. How many of us knew about this resource depleting problem, I suppose almost all of us, but did we think like he did? No, we didn’t and that’s what is called opportunity missed. That’s what he didn’t do and that’s what I’m trying to say through my article. Why did he form SpaceX? He saw the opportunity in the field of astronomy and found out that it was one of his dreams, he pursued it, rather than just wasting the opportunity.

I want the young generation to understand that there is no time, when opportunities aren’t there. Opportunities are there, anytime, anywhere, but you need to grab it. Yes, I won’t say you will succeed everytime. You won’t. Failure will accompany you more than success does. But if you continue to be determined, be true to yourself and your goals, you would definitely achieve success. And for achieving those goals, the opportunity must be seized and taken.  

What happens if Social Media Disappears

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Sharing our meals, style, routine, work, relationships, friendships, opinion exercises, likes, and lives has become so normal, it’s now compulsive. We joke that if you didn’t post it, it didn’t happen. But what if one day, you went to post your beautiful meal on Instagram and you can’t find the app. Anywhere. There is also no YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, or Pinterest. This can’t be happening. Social media has disappeared. Would there be chaos? How would communication change? How would your brain change?

Social media is a huge part of everyday life, with those 16 to 24 years of age spending 3 hours a day, on an average using social media. At this age, if we live to our old age, we’ll end up spending seven years of our entire lives on social media. And it’s an amount expected to rise with younger generations. It would be a rough wake up call to lose connections and friends that were solely based on social media apps like Instagram. You would immediately feel disconnected, uninformed, and lost. Your brain would also be going through some major withdrawal symptoms. Using social media releases dopamine through the Ventral Tegmental Area of the brain or VTA, it’s the same neurotransmitter that releases those good feelings when you win a lottery, make love, or eat junk food. It makes us feel wonderful, at least momentarily, and the continuous craving keeps us coming back for more.

Social media is a drug and many of us are willing addicts. The VTA evolved in humans as a social tool, helping us in learning good behavior from bad. Now, the same chemical response once prompted by a real-life-friendly hug or celebration for personal achievement is triggered by virtual likes, or hearts or comments. Yet social media can make us feel the opposite of happy. The fear of missing out(FOMO), anxiety, jealously, insecurity, and needing instant approval from others, these are all impulses that increase with social media use.

So, while your brain is going through withdrawal, you’ll also be discovering what it feels like not to have to be connected all the time, which could be pretty refreshing. Just remember we did survive with no media for millennia. One of the first platform Friendster, came online in 2002, followed two years later by Facebook. It wasn’t until 2005, that YouTube changed our world. You still have e-mail and Google, so not all is lost, texting and calling still exist, so staying in contact with friends and family just requires a little more effort. You might begin reading books and magazines again, something needs to fill that void where influencers opinion used to be. You’d also have to get news the old-fashioned way without the filters of algorithms, which means you would be better informed. More than half of the world population get some form of news from social media, but platforms such as Facebook or Twitter do not have the ethical requirements of traditional journalism. The information on social media channels is not fact-checked, leaving it up to you to figure out what is credible and what is simply an opinion or worse a complete lie.
However, the actual good news is that you might get to know your neighbor, the lack of social media could bring physical communities closer since there isn’t the online option anymore.
We have a complicated relationship with social media, it has the potential to be both highly positive and very negative. In the global COVID-19 pandemic of 2020, social media became one of the only ways people could reach out to each other, during nationwide lockdowns. It brought comfort, connection, and entertainment during a difficult time. But at the same time, it also spread miscommunication about the virus.

Social Media is not disappearing any time soon, but it would be worthwhile for your mental health to consider how much time you spend on social platforms, then spend less, there is probably even an app for that.


We all have studied in our primary school that flood, earthquake, tsunami, volcano eruption, wildfire, drought etc. are natural disasters.
But in today’ time are these really just a natural disaster????? No in today’s time these have become MAN MADE DISASTERS ….yes, these disasters are happening in today’s time because of human’s mistakes ….just because human interrupts in process of NATURE….

Let’s talk about every topic one by one :

  1. FLOOD – yes flood. As it is rainy season, we can clearly see in our surroundings that so many cities either it is metropolitan or not have filled by water… every street, every crossing is just totally filled up by water…why????…..does this rain take place for the first time in our life so that we couldn’t make any arrangements???……did this rain not occur in the old time?? ..…it occurred….. But in old time they had better arrangements than us ….
    What we have done guys the first problem is population….since there are so many people and everyone will live in a home so what we did??? Just cut the trees and forests and made very big big buildings and had not made any drainage system for the water…
    There is just a small amount of rain in any city and just look at it situation it become water water everywhere..
    And now when the water enters in our home then we blame GOD for all this…Here is no fault of GOD…here is the fault of us THE HUMANS….
    There is also another thing to be noticed that we have seen so many times that any animals like leopard, snakes usually come into our city or sometimes even in our streets … another example, we have seen that animals like rhino and elephants are walking on road why???….. Don’t they have their home (forests)??…. The answer is NO…We have occupied their home we have finished the forests and build our home …we have divested their home so where they will go that’s why they just come to cities….. Here is no fault of animals it was their home and we have divest it form them so fault is of us THE HUMANS….
  2. EARTHQUAKE- There was a time when earth quake was a natural disaster but now it has also become man made disaster.

Some scientists have traced the increase in earthquakes, especially in areas not known for the presence of fault lines or past seismic activity, to human actions. That’s right. We humans are causing earthquakes more frequently than ever before. scientists have identified a variety of large-scale human activities that can trigger earthquakes.

Although natural earthquakes usually occur along fault lines, While many human-induced earthquakes are mild and don’t cause much damage, some of them can be serious and dangerous. In fact, scientists believe human activity has caused earthquakes with magnitudes as high as 7.9 on the Richter scale.
Scientists believe most human-induced earthquakes are the result of mining. As companies drill deeper and deeper below Earth’s surface to extract natural resources, holes left behind can cause instability that leads to collapses that trigger earthquakes.

Building large dams can also cause earthquakes. For example, approximately 80,000 people died in China in 2008 as a result of a 7.9-magnitude earthquake triggered by 320 million tons of water that had been collected in the Zipingpu Reservoir after a large dam was built over a known fault line.

Another human activity triggering earthquakes is hydraulic fracturing (known as “fracking”) for oil and gas, including the high pressure wastewater disposal that usually accompanies fracking. In this process, water, sand, and chemicals are pumped underground under high pressure to fracture rocks to release natural resources.

As those resources, such as oil and natural gas, make their way to the surface, so do the water and chemicals that were injected to begin the process. This wastewater is collected and often injected deep underground again to dispose of it. Both the fracking process and wastewater disposal have been shown to trigger earthquakes.
These aren’t the only human activities that can trigger earthquakes, though. Scientists point out that earthquakes can also be triggered by other human activities, such as construction of skyscrapers and nuclear explosions.

  1. DROUGHT- Mr. Rajendra Singh, Chairman, Tarun Bharat Sanghsaw the current drought as, “A man made disaster.” He called for, “A community driven decentralized water policy as the only solution. Before offering solutions we first need to listen to the knowledge of the farmers who have dealt with drought.”

Mr. Richard Mahapatra, managing editor, of Down to Earth magazine claimed “There is no connection between monsoon and drought, the dire situation has been caused mismanagement of water.”

  1. FOREST FIRE- The causes of forest fire have been increasing rapidly. The problem has been accentuated by the growing human and cattle population. People enter forests ever more frequently to graze cattle, collect fuel wood, timber and other minor forest produce. It has been estimated that 90% of forest fires in India are man-made
    Fire is caused when a source of fire like naked flame, cigarette or bidi, electric spark or any source of ignition comes into contact with inflammable material.

Recent amazon rain forest’s fire , Australia ‘s forest fire there are so much examples of this…

So , we have seen that humans are continuously interrupting in nature but remember when nature will determined to learn us a lesson that day…that day no one will be able to ask any question no one will be able to say a single world because when nature got angry then there is no one on this earth who can save us…


Potential Appraisal

Each and every person has some or the other talent. Some talents and skills they know about that while some are not known. The talent which he or she may not know is known as hidden talents. As it is correctly said by Delue –

“We all have hidden talents waiting to be discovered.”

And identifying these talents is done by Potential Appraisal. Potential Appraisal is also known as Potential Evaluation. Potential Appraisal is a crucial function of Human Resource Management. It is used by many organisations. Before moving further first we should know that what is potential appraisal? Potential Appraisal is an appraisal process which helps in identification of the hidden talents or skills which is present within a person. The person might or might not be aware of them. Appraising the potential of a human resource in a scientific and systematic manner can help an organisation in enhancing their corporate performance. It can be also defined as a new system of developing employees for occupying higher position in an organisation is called potential appraisal. It is a future – oriented appraisal and its main objective is to identify and evaluate the potential or the hidden talent of an employee so that he can take the higher position and responsibilities in the organisational hierarchy. The time for a potential appraisal is not fixed. The assessment activity is done under the discretion of managers. There are many organisations who uses potential appraisal as a part of performance appraisal process but potential appraisal is different from performance appraisal. Actually potential refers to the skills and abilities which an employee possess but which are not currently brought into use by an organisation. As these are the skills which helps an employee to take higher challenges on job in future. And when these untapped and unutilized qualities are put to use they are definitely going to give fruitful results to the organisation. The attributes and qualities which are hidden might be in the form of analytical power, creative thinking, innovative ideas, ability to predict future condition and changes, proactive, problem-solving, decision-making, etc. So, we have to find all these hidden talents which are there in an employee and have to make optimum use of these so that the goals of both the parties can be achieved. The main purposes of Potential Appraisal are –

  • To make employees aware of their future prospects.
  • To provide training and development activity to your employees.
  • To provide career opportunities by advising them to work hard.
  • To draft a management succession programmes.

These are the purposes for which potential appraisal takes place. Potential Appraisal can be used in a number of human resource management functions like human resource planning, career and succession planning, promotion and transfer decision and for training and development. But the main use of potential appraisal are –

  • Employee Development – It is a powerful tool for developing our employees. Potential Appraisal also helps in developing the career of employees as it helps in identifying the hidden talent and skills of an employee. It helps the employee to know their certain competency which was earlier not known to them.
  • Motivates Employees – As the organisation helps them to identify the talent which was within them but was not known to them. This motivates employees as know they can further develop their skills and competencies.
  • Identifying Training Needs – Potential Appraisal helps the organisation to identify the training needs as such appraisal throws light on the hidden skills of employees and by providing them appropriate training program can help both organisation and employee to grow.
  • Assistance to Organisation – It provides assistance to the organisation as now the duties and responsibilities can be provided to the potential employees and can ensure continuous growth of the organisation.
  • Assessing the Individual – Potential Appraisal helps us to assess an individual that how much level of work an employee can handle comfortably and successfully.

As we know, appraisal system varies from organisation – to – organisation. But according to me potential appraisal should be followed by each and every organisation as it will help in building a strong relationship between the employee and the organisation.

U.S. Cutting Ties With WHO Is A Misstep That May Cause Severe Repercussions


U.S. President Donald Trump announced on May 19 that U.S. would be halting it’s funding of the World Health Organization and pull out of the agency, accusing it of protecting China as the coronavirus pandemic took off. The move has alarmed health experts, who say the decision will undermine efforts to improve the health of people around the world.

It was a knee-jerk response and an overreaction to a legitimate concern. Yes, the WHO has problems and has been too lenient on China recently. Does that mean every other country should pull the plug and ignore its other achievements, without attempting diplomatic reform? It’s hypocritical for the US to pull out of an international organisation because another country has too much sway within it. How would they react if, say, the UK pulled out of the IMF and World Bank because it has too much American influence? Terrible for the international reputation of the U.S.A. It will further harm the world’s ability to detect and react to this and future pandemics. And there will be future pandemics. If the U.S.A. was/is depending on the WHO for it’s intelligence gathering, the U.S.A. has bigger problems than COVID-19. It will provide Trump’s base with a bone to chew on and provide them the simple answer to a very complex question that they so crave.

Critics have condemned this move and called out the President for playing the ‘blame game’. Trump has shown his incompetence with dealing with the Covid-19. What’s worse he even screwed the ability of a country that has been well known to be the leading force of healthcare. Meanwhile, China, a country who is still stereotyped as filthy people and Sickman, is recovering from the Covid-19. Long gone are those Americans who jeered at China and boasted that their CDC can handle the Covid-19 easily. Who’s to blame? If we look at the facts, Trump is definitely blamed for all this mess. His unwillingness to listen to CDC or even his white house health advisors to take the matter seriously because he doesn’t want a lockdown like China has resulted in the death of more than 142,000 Americans as of the time of my writing.

The growing reports of deaths began make the President realize that his administration was seriously failing in its response to the corona virus. He responded in two ways. He suddenly made it clear to the States that they were responsible for providing all the necessary protective wares and ventilators as well as all testing for the virus and that the failures were there’s not his. Next, he forcefully (and quite unfairly) condemned the work that China and the WHO had undertaken to react to the virus thus showing that he knew better than anybody what was best for everyone and that he was still a brilliant genius. So, fundamentally this is why President Trump decided to halt funding to the WHO. An activity that, it is certain, a majority of its 193 other member countries of the WHO will condemn as many of the larger countries have done already. No-one cuts funding in the middle of this kind of disastrous international epidemic. If one feels disturbed about any other country or organization involved in it one waits until the epidemic is over and then everyone gets together and analyses what worked well and what did not, then sit together to make sure the next time this happens the world is better prepared. Regrettably the USA seems to think that it can handle world matters unilaterally. As this is absolutely impossible for any country the result can only end up with some real disappointments for everyone including the USA, now the country with the largest mortality than any other as a result of poor corona virus policies and management.

Not anyone in the world, not even Trump himself, will benefit from Trump’s suspension of the US’s financing of WHO. Especially at times like these when WHO’s role in coordinating the worldwide response to pandemic is critical. We can be sure that WHO will not be distracted and will carry on its important job albeit maybe in a little less effective way as compared to when they did have the rightly anticipated financing from the US. The only thing this Trump’s move will achieve is that the rest of the world will finally and eventually give up on America to do the right thing and will try to distance themselves away from the US.

Students’ Engagement with Politics

The average Indian student’s encounters with the word ‘politics’ is often colored with negative experiences and connotations. When one talks of politics at the workplace or at the church, it is always used in a manner that signifies that something is wrong there – there is a moral implication in these ideas. Many use the word itself as referring to something which is the domain of a certain few who are power-hungry and seek to control. This is because their definition of what is political is extremely limited and their experience of the world has been limited to certain spaces that they inhabit. Many do not see their duty as a citizen of a democratic country to include anything but going to the voting booth whenever elections come along. Many also do not know whom to vote for or what they stand for, so they are easily persuaded by campaigners, many are promised material benefits, many others go with what their family or friends say, and still others for whoever appears to match their personal tastes. With India being the largest democracy in the world and yet finding itself the hub of many communal riots and systemic shutting down of voices, it is time we start asking what our role is in a political system.

The student is considered the future of the country. She is the one who is going to inhabit the world that is currently being built and who will go on to shape and change the world as she moves into the public arena. In this context, it is absolutely vital that she be able to understand what the system that governs her stands for and how it functions. A general understanding of political systems of governance, ‘political literacy’ itself is one of the most essential qualities that an individual should possess. This also makes the person aware of the challenges that are facing their society, the issues that other sections of the society are fighting against, and also nurtures a sense of responsibility. It will aid in creating a bent towards social action and for standing for what is right.

It is in recognition of the potential that resides in young minds and their part in creating the future that many fundamental aspects of the government are included in school curriculums for all students and not just those going onto study political science or sociology. This is also why the government’s move to remove many-core passages from CBSE textbooks which talk of these very things is looked upon with apprehension. This is also why political parties are allowed to exist on many college campuses, although this is becoming rarer now. It is in these formative years that a student’s capacity to think is shaped by what he reads and sees, and his perception of the world expanded. While many college politics stories turn violent, the solution is not to curb all activism but to instill principles that will guide students as they make decisions and decide what is worth standing for. The idea that machoism and calling for blood is the epitome of political interaction has to be dismantled and replaced by consistent engagement and listening. There should be dignity and freedom of making choices that are based on strong moral principles, and spaces of dialogue created. The youth will not disappoint if they are given the tools they need to navigate these discussions, and they are standing up for causes as is evident from the number of student-led protests that happened in our country in the past one year. Students are to be exposed to arenas of political interaction and allowed to participate so that they can develop their own ways of seeing and thinking, as well as ensure that the country is in safe hands.

Employee Engagement

Hey Readers. Let’s talk about employee engagement.

In simple words, how much a person is involved with their organization and its values is “employee engagement”. Employee Engagement is a measurable degree of an employee’s positive or negative emotional attachment to their job, colleagues and organization which profoundly influences their willingness to learn & perform at work. An “engaged employee” is one who is fully involved in, and enthusiastic about, his or her work and thus will act in a way that furthers their organization’s interests.

What Is Employee Engagement? Definition, Measurement, Drivers, and ...

The Four Levels of Employee Engagement:

  • Engaged and Committed: These include those employees who are actively involved in the processes and are emotionally attached to their organization. They consider the organizational goals as their own and keenly work according to that.
  • Engaged but not committed: These include employees who are engaged in their work but are not committed to the organization and vice versa. They are motivated but not that much is visible in their performance. This can be due to internal conflicts, bad reputation etc.
  • Neither engaged, nor committed: They are neither engaged to their work nor committed to the organization. 
  • Actively Disengaged: These are the employees are that not at all good for any organization. These people are not interested in their own job and don’t feel any attachment but the worst part is that they won’t let others do the work. They hamper the productivity of high performing employees.

Benefits of Employee Engagement:

  • Increased productivity
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Better communication
  • Great Commitment
  • Efficient Team Working
  • Higher Retention

Key Drivers of Employee Engagement:

  • Decentralized power structure: 

    One of the main drivers of employee engagement is a decentralized power structure. When you pass on some executive powers to your high performing employees they feel obliged. It fills them with a sense of responsibility and makes them accountable. This way it also becomes easy for them to apply new innovative ideas.

  • Freedom of opinions:

    Employees who feel free to share their opinions and ideas are more productive. You should encourage your employees to express their views more often. Also, conducting regular one on one meetings with your workers is a great way to hear them out.

  • Acknowledging employees:

    They feel a sense of gratification knowing their work has been beneficial. Therefore, a manager and other heads should make it a point to appreciate the employees and their efforts. It gives them a sense of belonging and they feel worthy about their work. So, no matter the amount of contribution, it is very importay to recognize and appreciate employees.

  • Growth and development:

    An employee aspires to learn and grow at his or her workplace. It is a quintessential element that every job seeker looks forward to while joining an organization. But failing to provide the scope for growth and development leads to dissatisfaction.

    Employee Engagement - Starfish Taylor

Employee Engagement is an important process and managers as well as employees should consistently take part in it. They must work together and appreciate each other work for increasing overall productivity of any organization.