CHILD RIGHTS

CHILD – The insignificant sound of this word can assist us with conjuring a picture of a fun loving minimal person who can easily look for bliss by blending with his/her relatives or companion gathering. A youngster is somebody whose psychological and physical advancement is to a great extent subject to the social and familial condition they live in. Youth is a weak stage wherein scholastic interest, great physical movement (read playing with companions) and sufficient social collaboration in a safe domain can add to the child’s physical and mental well – being. After each of the, a glad adolescence can guarantee a brilliant future. In this way, the word youngster work is an unmistakable logical inconsistency of everything that make for a perfect youth. To put it clearly, it’s the work of youngsters in any work that denies offspring of their adolescence, meddles with their capacity to go to customary school, and that is intellectually, truly, socially or ethically perilous and destructive. An exploitative practice however in any case widespread in the Indian Mechanical space.

India’s 2011 statistics demonstrated that there were more than 10.2 million “monetarily dynamic” kids in the age gathering of five to 14 years – 5.6 million young men and 4.5 million young ladies, 8 million kids were working in provincial territories, and 2 million in urban zones. Despite the fact that in provincial settings the quantity of kid laborers diminished from 11 million to 8 million between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, over a similar period, the quantity of youngsters working in urban settings rose from 1.3 million to 2 million. 1 in each 11 kids in India attempts to procure a living, as indicated by insights by Activity Help India. Absence of training, destitution and lacking mindfulness are a portion of the variables that have added to this wretched development of kid work in India. A few examiners accept that a comprehensive training framework and a severe law against this misbehavior can shorten the development of youngster work in our nation.

Despite the fact that these measures can introduce positive outcomes, history has instructed us that kid work laws/approaches have stayed insufficient in battling this hazard. The need of great importance is to address the financial states of our general public which forces a kid to work at a weak age, regularly in regrettable conditions. Ventures particularly exploit this small workforce as they are not in a situation to contend for better wages or favorable work conditions. Frequently guardians of these children push them to work because of miserable neediness. For a creating nation like India, it’s fairly disgraceful to have an equal economy of incompetent and unregulated workforce of kids who are continually being misused by their representatives, in this way impeding their turn of events and the fate of our nation. Is there a light toward the finish of this dim passage? one may ponder.

There unquestionably is.

Other than comprehensive training, tough utilization of kid work laws/administrative structures, social reviews can assume a significant job in checking kid work across different businesses. Be it a little scope industry or an enormous one, each association should give a record of its corporate social presentation as far as giving word related well being and security, work to minorities, ecological contamination and so on. In the expressions of some prominent scholars’ “social inspecting is characterized as a methodical endeavor to distinguish, investigate, measure (if conceivable), assess, and screen the impact of an association’s procedure on society (that is, explicit social gatherings) and on the open prosperity.” Social Review, in this manner, isn’t simply a stock of social projects completed by the organization yet a successful technique to recognize and decide the social obligations that ought to have been released.

As we have learnt, there are numerous pernicious elements that have added to the development of youngster work in our nation. Be that as it may, the opportunity has arrived to change the monetary texture of our general public for a superior and more promising time to come. A small advance towards this objective can presumably be social reviews alongside settling on educated choices and spreading mindfulness.

These are worldwide principles which request to not control lone youngster work yet in addition to give not too bad living to all representatives of the associations. These principles help the makers to keep up great workplace in the production lines. It gives the certainty to the general public that the producers regard the privileges of the workers.

Intellectual Property Rights

What are intellectual Properties?

These are the things that emerge out of human creativity. These are the creation of the mind. Inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, names, and images used in commerce fall under this. Intellectual property is divided into two categories: Industrial Property includes patents for inventions, trademarks, industrial designs, and geographical indications. Whereas, literary works (such as novels, poems, and plays), films, music, artistic works (e.g., drawings, paintings, photographs, and sculptures) and architectural design are covered by copyright.

The associated rights:

Intellectual property rights are the rights given to persons over the creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive right over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

Types:

  1. Patents – A patent is an exclusive right granted by law to applicants/assignees to make use of and exploit their inventions for a limited period of time. The patent holder has the legal right to exclude others from commercially exploiting his invention for the duration of this period. In return for exclusive rights, the applicant is obliged to disclose the invention to the public in a manner that enables others, skilled in the art, to replicate the invention. A Patent Owner has every right to commercialize his/her/its patent, including buying and selling the patent or granting a license to the invention to any third party under mutually agreed terms. Patents are valid for 20 years from the date of filing an application, subject to an annual renewal fee.unnamed
  2. Trademarks – Trademarks are another familiar type of intellectual property rights protection.  A trademark is a distinctive sign which allows consumers to easily identify the particular goods or services that a company provides. Some examples include McDonald’s golden arch, the Facebook logo, and so on. A trademark can come in the form of text, a phrase, symbol, sound, smell, and/or color scheme. Unlike patents, a trademark can protect a set or class of products or services, instead of just one product or process. Picture1
  3. Copyrights – Copyright is the set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of original work, including the right to copy, distribute, and adapt the work. Copyright lasts for a certain time period after which the work is said to enter the public domain. Copyright gives protection for the expression of an idea and not for the idea itself. Copyright ensures certain minimum safeguards of the rights of authors over their creations, thereby protecting and rewarding creativity. The copyright owner has the exclusive right to sell, publish, and/or reproduce any literary, musical, dramatic, artistic, or architectural work created by the author.download
  4. Trade secrets – Trade secrets are the secrets of a business. They are proprietary systems, formulas, strategies, or other information that is confidential and is not meant for unauthorized commercial use by others. This is a critical form of protection that can help businesses to gain a competitive advantage. Trade-Secrets

Why Are Intellectual Property Rights Important?

  1. Intellectual Property Creates and Supports High-Paying Jobs
  2. Strong and Enforced Intellectual Property Rights Protect Consumers and Families
  3. Intellectual Property Drives Economic Growth and Competitiveness
  4. Intellectual Property Rights Encourage Innovation and Reward Entrepreneurs
  5. Intellectual Property Helps Generate Breakthrough Solutions to Global Challenges

The Perils of Perfectionism

Perfectionism can be described as the persistent need or desire to accomplish things perfectly, according to a standard that one sets for oneself. It is considered a positive virtue often in our culture. We encourage students to strive for their best and athletes have grueling practice sessions in order to reach their goals. The desire to do well is a good thing but one has to ask whether an obsession with perfectionism actually ends up being counterproductive. We need to distinguish between aiming to do well which is what high achievers tend to do, and being obsessed with nothing but perfection, a standard too high to reach and humanly impossible to achieve.

In a society where individuals are so often judged based on what they are capable of achieving and what position they hold, it is tempting to base all our worth on our ability to do something flawlessly. The temptation is greater for certain personality types who are naturally prone to work harder and be ambitious. Perfectionism has a positive side which involves healthy practices like setting goals for oneself, attempting to do better, and to learn and grow more. The negative side includes feelings of unworthiness, fear of failure, anxiety, insecurity, and debilitating stress. A healthy balance of both, and a need to overcome an obsession with being perfect is essential to maintain mental and physical health.

man in black suit achieved an accomplishment
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

Perfectionism causes an individual to set standards for himself that he might not be able to keep. This can lead to him becoming anxious or depressed. It will affect his relationship with others, he might consider asking for help a sign of weakness, and he might develop severe trust issues since he tends to believe others will not do as good a job as him; he will think that unless he carries out a task, it won’t be perfect. This often leads to exhaustion and severe stress. A perfectionist tends to obsess over details that might not be that important, and their fear of failure might lead them to not engage in many opportunities. They usually tend to procrastinate chronically, and they might also end up holding others to impossible standards as well. Perfectionists are overly critical about themselves and worry about whether they are doing things right. As opposed to high achievers who will be satisfied with having given their best, perfectionists will need to have done everything perfectly regardless of how equipped they are to do the activity. Unrealistic standards and unnecessary self-criticism are detrimental to our mental health and our ability to do work well. It also makes us defensive and anxious about all criticism.

Understanding the signs of perfectionism and trying to undo it is important for every individual who struggles with this issue. Self-affirmation and acceptance can be one of the first steps towards a better and healthier approach to work. A work ethic that is bent on having everything perfect only destroys rather than builds. Acknowledge that you are not perfect and that you are bound to make mistakes. Delegate tasks and trust others when you are overburdened. Set goals that are achievable and be kind to yourself. Don’t ruminate over a problem excessively but learn to let go and move on. If you find yourself going on a thought spiral, find a distraction that will break that thought cycle: take a nap, do a mundane task, phone a friend. Remember to let yourself breathe and be human, to aim for excellence but not perfection.

Green Building -The future

Our climate is changing. A shift in the number of wildfires, tsunamis, earthquakes, droughts, and heavy rainfalls has been attributed to climate change. These changes have had an impact on agriculture and wildlife, including the introduction of new pests and depleting habitats.

Humans and our current life style practices remain the leading contributors to climate change, with carbon being the main culprit.

The Impact of Carbon
According to Architecture 2030, nine hundred billion square feet of buildings will be newly constructed or renovated by 2030. Buildings are one of the leading contributors to carbon emission, mainly from their use of fossil fuels during operations. In fact, cities and urban areas are responsible for approximately 75 percent of carbon emissions. If these buildings continue to be developed and run in the traditional manner, the environmental damage will only progress.

Thankfully, with an increased focus on the hazards that buildings emit into the atmosphere, companies are starting to consider adopting greener initiatives. Cities worldwide are investing in climate action plans with the goal of reducing their environmental footprint. This includes “Smart City” initiatives to better manage existing infrastructure, zero waste policies, alternative energy sources, and researching the potential of developing net zero buildings.

Resource Efficient
Integrating sustainable resources that are long lasting is key to ensuring that a structure is fully sustainable. Products such as reclaimed wood, recycled plastic or glass, as well as energy-efficient, locally sourced materials such as concrete that naturally contains a high thermal mass, will ensure that the building is resource efficient.

Net Zero as a Solution
Net zero, however, for several companies and homeowners, still feels largely unattainable. Cost, restricting policies and procedures, and limited information often create roadblocks for making these energy-neutral buildings a reality. To be able to create these buildings, end users and investors need to both understand and value the chosen solution. This includes investing in energy-efficient solutions and advocating for standards that are environmentally responsible while being cost effective at the same time.

So what does it mean to be environmentally responsible? Creating an environmentally responsible building begins with an understanding of the current systems that negatively impact the environment, such as heating and cooling, and finding alternatives that will decrease the impact. This includes looking at both the site and size of the structure to reduce the amount of resources used. The key is to minimize the overall impact on the environment. Once the site is determined, architects and builders need to look at how the structure of the building can insulate (keep energy in), while also integrating solutions that will store any excess heat in the winter and that will pre-cool the structure in summer during the night.

A net zero building needs to produce as much energy as it consumes. This requires some outside-of-the-box thinking and the integration of a variety of solutions that seamlessly work together for a healthier environment. Because heating and cooling are two of the main sources of carbon, it makes sense to begin by looking at systems that will reduce the use of HVAC systems.

One project that did exactly this was the Ed Lumley Centre for Engineering Innovation at the University of Windsor campus. With a desire for cleaner air, this project included the installation of a bio wall. This wall, which includes 1,500 plants, naturally filters the carbon dioxide in the air and then transfers its freshness to the entire building. This building also boasts glass and solar systems, a green roof that collects and filters rain water, and hollow core slabs to both harness and store energy and in turn decrease the use of traditional HVAC systems.

Green buildings are not about implementing one solution alone; instead, the architects and engineers need to work in collaboration to find solutions that will lessen the carbon footprint. Each aspect of the building needs to be considered, from the insulation to how energy will be harnessed, stored, and released.

Developing a Foundation for Net Positive
Increased awareness of not only the value, but the necessity of adopting green building initiatives in new builds and retrofits is critical. All those involved in the green building industry, including builders, engineers, and architects, play a vital role in helping to shift thinking at both the industry and consumer levels. This includes educating and advocating for the adoption of solutions that will have a positive impact: green solutions that will pave the way to a net positive tomorrow.

Structure of government in North Korea


The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is an Asian country situated in the northern section of the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang is the nation’s capital and largest city. North Korea is a self reliant socialist state. It can be said as Stalinist dictatorship of the workers party of Korea. North Korea is a one-party state that is guided by the Jucheand Songun ideologies of self-reliance and military prioritisation. The country has a fixed constitution as well as the ‘Ten Principles for the Establishment of a Monolithic Ideological System’ which sets standards for governance and the behaviour of the North Korean people. The main branch of government is the State Affairs Commission of North Korea deliberates and determines the work of defence building of the State, including major North Korean governmental policies which carries out the all instructions of the leadership.
The government has features a unicameral Supreme People’s Assembly (SPA) with 687 members, each of whom are elected every five years. The president of the SPA is titular head of the korea. Constitutionally SPA is highest organ of state power and primary legislative organ. The session of the SPA is held for one or two times in a year for one week or more than one week. The Sessions of the Supreme People’s Assembly (SPA) are overseen by the Premier. The premier also appoint the vice primiers, cabinet ministers. The government is dominated by the members of the workers party of Korea. They also take part in the passing of laws, discussing domestic and foreign policies, appointing cabinet members, and reviewing and approving the state economic strategy. All elections to the assembly are based on a list of WPK- approved candidates who always run unopposed. There are also two parties the Korean Social Party and the Chondoist Chongu Party, it exist nominally, only the WPK holds any power at the national level.
The government is under one man leadership and since it’s independence in 1948 the highest position is only occurred by the three different member of one family (Kimdynasty). The workers party of Korea (WPK) is only lead by the Kim I L sung and his family. The Workers party of Korea comprises of 3 million members and control politics of North Korea. After the death of the Kim I L sung then his son Kim Jong became leader of North Korea an ld now his grand son Kim Jong Un is leader. Since 17 December 2011, Kim Jong Un is supereme head of the country.


Conclusion


North Korean government is totally Authoritarian government. It falls under the one party rule and one man leadership. Based on communist system, in North Korea there is nominally occurs other parties but only Worker’s Party of Korea onlyh old the supreme power. The other parties are only as puppet. So we can say that there is organisational dictatorship.

Thanks

Strategic Thinking

The strategic thinking is simply in intentional and rational thought process that the analysis of the critical factors and variables that will influence the long-term success of a business, a team or an individual. These thinking includes careful deliberate anticipation of threats and vulnerabilities against the guard and to pursue. Ultimately strategic thinking and lead to a clear set the goals, plans, and new ideas required to survive and thrive in a competitive, changing environment. This sort of must be account for economics realities, market forces, and available resources.

THE STRATEGIC THINKING IS VERY IMPORTANT: The competitive landscape can quickly for any organization. New trends emerge quickly and require our to take advantages of them fall behind. By the everyday strategic thinking into your work and life routine, you will became an more skilled at anticipating, forecasting and capitalization of an opportunities.

The levels are allows to you greater contribution in your role, become more essential to your organization and prove that you are ready to control of the resources.

During the organization’s annual planning process, leaders often, analyze and the synthesize external and internal data idea to develop its strategic intent and build a strategic narrative. This document will guide the company the future for defined period of time. Leader the choose and plan sustain the effort across the organization.

THE COMPONENTS OF STRATEGIC THINKING:

If the working on your company’s strategy, you all the engage in analysis, problems decision making and leading through changes. As a creat a strategic direction or plans are –

  1. Business opportunity.
  2. Feasible of each risk.
  3. The costs associate that various tactic effective.
  4. The effect of competitors, supplier, customer on your strategic plans.
  5. The method are objective with overall plans.

THE OBSTACLES DURING PLANNING YOU ALL PROBLEMS SOLVE:

  1. Gathering relevant information about the problems.
  2. Clearly defined the problems of the point review.
  3. Brainstorming possible solutions.
  4. Delegating assignments of various parts of the strategy to associates.

There are the thinking requires agility and decisiveness in choosing a plan and sticking with it however the aware of the new,opportunities. There are between consistency and flexibility team are:

  1. Make the decision as the information through research.
  2. Choose objective and accompanying metrics.
  3. Follow a standard decision making process.
  4. Build consensus when necessary.

There are the strategy thinking During planning. you will need to communicate ideas to the staff and gather feedback from them. You all utilize effective channels to communicate a compelling vision of the completed plan to all employees and keep them focus the their are contribution to the plan.

IMPROVE ON STRATEGIC THINKING SKILLS:

  1. Set aside time the reflect and plan the future, identity, polarize tasks and determine where allocated.
  2. Uncover your own basis so you can think more clearly about strategy.
  3. Listen to subjects matter expert and opinion leader in your organization to obtain higher quality information you can your strategy.
  4. Learn to ask good questions to under option and plans like Is this idea logical?.
  5. Explore all the consequences of the different strategies and direction.

Failure Is a Great Thing

Failures are  the stepping stones to success. Mistakes help you improve. You can learn from your mistakes. It enables us to look from different perspectives and let us see the other strategies that will work.This is a growth mindset. Growth mindset make everyone powerful and adaptable. It facilitates them to develop resilience which helps them in bouncing back.It makes them to consider failure as a positive learning experience in a creative way.Though mistakes hurt you , they make you humble.

In fact, our brains grow and develop in important ways whenever failure occurs. When kids understand this concept, amazing things can happen for them (and for us).When we learn new things , our brain grows.They learn to tolerate frustration.They learn to focus on the positive aspects, patience ,social and emotional skills for their life-time.After learning from mistakes, children can help others and guide them who experience similar difficulties or failures.

Failing in some activities like exam, competitions,sports etc is a natural event or part of living .Failure can produce painful feelings such as anger, sadness, frustration, or low self-esteem in a child or adult. These emotions may be based on their age and emotional maturity.They have to be taught to recognize and deal with those feelings in a positive way.

Failing gives the children a chance to self-regulate their emotions . While children learn from mistakes, they also understand the moral judgement that comes from doing something like apologizing to the opponent or neighbour and take measures to correct the wrong thing to a right.

How parents can help children face and learn from their failures ?

Parents should praise their children for learning from a mistake. They should not be praised for not making a mistake.

Challenging experiences are the only way children learn specific coping skills and problem solving skills .If we pamper them and protect them from adversity , certain brain connections will not develop.

Kids typically fear failure.But if they know that mistakes improve learning and grow their brain , they will accept the mistakes and think about different learning paths or strategies.When children are exposed to failures and by regular practise, they learn to respond to it strongly rather than merely reacting to it.

Children should know that winning is not an important thing. They should be praised for their efforts and attitude to take part in the challenging activities or competitions .

Children should be made to understand that the biggest mistakes teach us more courage , strength and wisdom than any success can bring.

Parents can share stories of past failures and the steps they took to get over from them . This can be beneficial for your children. It’s even more helpful by keeping your kids in the communication loop as you face challenge or adversity in the present.

Sharing current failures allows parents to share the entire thinking, communication and behavioral processes they engage in . More importantly , it delivers the message that no matter how old we are, we fail, we persist and we learn from them.

Kids who are overpraised become dependent on others for validation  and may end up needing a constant flow of positive feedback to feel valued. Hence , they should not be lavishly given compliments. Parents should enlighten children by guiding them to get confidence from overcoming challenges or adversity rather than over-praising.

Encourage them to try new things – Kids naturally get inclined toward the hobbies that interest them and at which they excel. But if your child avoids trying a different activity because she’s afraid of how she’ll perform, she’ll miss or fail to broaden her horizons.

After failure , Parents should make the children to try again and understand that they are on the right track. They can suggest them to ask for help without giving up.Also, Parents can make them realise that they can become better the next time.

Conclusion:

Kids typically fear failure.But if they know that mistakes improve learning and grow their brain , they will accept the mistakes and think about different learning paths or strategies.When children are exposed to failures and by regular practice, they learn to respond to it strongly rather than merely reacting to it. Children should know that winning is not an important thing. They should be praised for their efforts and attitude to take part in the challenging activities or competitions .Children should be taught to fail with a positive approach.

INDIA: UNITY IN DIVERSITY

As we all know that there are multi culture in India …in every state of India you will find a collection of different cultured people…like, their language will be different…. their costumes will be different …their rituals will be different…but only one thing is there which provides uniqueness to India , that all the people live together…..whatever their background is , they cooperate and compromise and live with unity….

we have seen so much examples of their unity…some are as follows:

we see a Muslim family’s child is participating in dress competition by wearing lord Krishna’s dress,

 we see that Sikhs are organizing langar for Muslims…

we see that a Muslim girl in Mumbai wins GITA contest…..

we see in a Hindu Ganpati Pandal in Mumbai which became a makeshift venue for Eid Namaaz for Muslims, as the nearby mosque had run out of space……..

We see in Mumbai a woman was in a critical condition and about to deliver when some female devotees took her to the Ganpati Temple, Wadala, Mumbai and gave birth to a baby boy. And, couple named the boy “Ganesh”.

We see when soldiers are on border they are there for India not for their religion.

We see when a cricket match is going on then everyone whatever they are they just cheer for India like, indiaaaaaa……indiaaaaaa….

we see that Muslims make way on road while Hindus pass silently during Ganesha chaturthi …….and the list is so long….

you know what there are mainly 5 religions India named as, Hinduism,Muslims,Sikhism,Christianity,Buddhism,Jainism…….

you know what there are 22 languages in India named as, Assamese,Bengali,Bodo,Dogri,Gujarati,Kannada,Kashmiri, Konkani,Maithili,Malayalam,Manipuri,Marathi,Nepali,Odia,Punjabi,Sanskrit,Santali,Sindhi,Tamil,Telugu,Urdu and Hindi….At present, as per the Ministry of Home Affairs, there are demands for inclusion of 38 more languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.

In India whatever the person is Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Christian, Jain….if you ask them that who are they? Then you know what!!! What they will answer??…. They will say that they are AN INDIAN….how many languages speak in India but there is only one language that connect them with each other and that language is of love, humanity, respect, care……SO FEEL PROUD TO BE AN INDIAN…….and I can’t stop my feelings to share the famous lines and that are….

MAZHAB NAHI SIKHATA, AAPAS MEIN BAIR RAKHNA HINDI HAI HUM, WATAN HAI HINDUSTAN HAMARA…….

The Course of Judicial Activism in India: Pros and Cons

The judiciary is a system of courts which take decisions by interpreting the law. In judiciary is a independent body, which has separate powers, especially to interpret the constitution and other statutes to take any decision in the court of law. The judiciary is one of the organ of the government along with executive and legislature, and only if all of them function properly it lead to the development of the nation. When the judiciary goes beyond the provisions of the constitution and other statutes to take a decision, and thinks about the political, moral, ethical and social aspects of taking the decision, then it is said that the court law has taken decision through “Judicial Activism”. This has been defined by Black’s Law Dictionary as the “philosophy of judicial decision-making whereby judges allow their personal views about public policy, among other factors, to guide their decisions.”Ironically judicial activism is no where to be defined in the Indian Constitution or other statutes. Only the supreme courts and high courts can use the process of judicial activism to take a decision. There has been an evolution in respect to this concept from the times of independence. From those times efforts have been taken to implement judicial activism, however it is being effectively followed only from the past few years. P.N Bhagwati was the first one to use judicial activism to introduce the concept of PIL (Public Interest Litigation). 

In the starting stages, where the legislature was just building up, it did not give importance to judicial activism, rather it stuck to its old traditional ways. Only after a decade or two after India got independence in 1947, the concept of judicial activism just started to evolve. The course of judicial activism in the nation did take some wild turns, and its origin and evolution will de discussed further in the article. The concept of judicial activism started gaining power firstly in the Keshwananda Bharti case, where it was declared that the basic structure of the constitution shall not be prone to nay change, this decision was taken place when our hon’ble prime minister Indira Gandhi imposed an emergency in the nation, even though the judiciary was under pressure, it took the right decision by keeping judicial activism in mind. Later in the In A.K. Gopalan v. State of Madras, the Supreme Court of India has rejected the claim that a person cannot be deprived of art 21 only by due process of law, but that procedure established should be reasonable and fair. It stated that this was a mistake of the makers of the constitution as it has been omitted by them during its making. This has taken another turn when the word “life” under article 21 does not simply mean mere existence, but means that every human being shall carry on life with dignity and respect in the society. Then in 1967, in the Golaknath & Ors vs State Of Punjab, the supreme court has given the judgement that the fundamental rights under part III of the constitution shall not be amended, even if it could be done as stated under article 368 with a two third majority in both the houses of parliament. The PIL case which was mentioned earlier has also judicial activism possible in India, as it avoids unnecessary litigation, and gives anyone the chance to file a case. There are several cases which were landmark judgments to the concept of judicial activism, like Hussainara Khatoon (I) v. State of Bihar, Sunil Batra v. Delhi Administration,etc.

However, there have been some criticism that the concept of judicial activism is facing. Firstly, due to this concept the judge often displays personal opinions in the judgment given, which may or may not be considered good in the eyes of the society. Secondly, when the judiciary is using this concept to take decision in vital cases, it is displaying the power which wasn’t given to it, hence we can say that the separation of powers is not being followed. It is said that the judiciary which does not consist the elected members, is lowering the power of the executive and judiciary. There has also been a confusion between judicial review and judicial activism, where judicial review means the actions of the legislature and executive could be reviewed by the judiciary if they are complying to the provisions of the Constitution and other statutes. There is a very slight difference between both of them, and both have been considered useful in th terms of law. 

In Spite of the criticism judicial activism has been proven to be very useful, especially in todays world. The application of law should differ as per the changes in the society, as the trend, belief, thoughts and values change in the society the laws have to change for the well being of its citizens. The times has come where the judges should take bold decisions, and they have to use their power to provide equal and fair justice to all. Some recent cases where judicial activism has done a great service to the society are, declaring Right to privacy as a fundamental right in the Justice K.S.Puttuswamy v. Union of India and others case, criminalising triple talaq in the Shayara Bano v. Union of India case , legalising passive euthanasia in  Common Cause v. Union of India case, declaring Right to marriage as a fundamental Right in Shakti Vahini v. Union of India case, and many more such cases. 

Therefore, we can come to a conclusion that there are positives and negatives to judicial activism, it has been beneficial in bringing change through certain judgements, and it has been bad as it has affected the authority of elected representatives, government officials, ministries, and the police. If there is legislation on judicial activism, many problems related to power and authority maybe avoided, but this to may have some concern. However it did play a significant role in getting justice to different classes of the society. 

Legal Issues associated with Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence is a combination of a human intelligence and thinking capacities along with machines, when a machine conducts like a human being or animal, and displayed analytical and logical reasoning skills like a human, it is termed as “ Artificial Intelligence”(AI).  AI literally means use of a human intelligence not by a human, as it is artificial. It is a field in computer science, and AI can function like a human being without any human help. The rise of AI, has posed many challenges in the field of law. Many questions have arised regarding the legality of AI, its application, the legality of its actions, and the change that has to be brought in the books of law. The legal issues and challenges related to AI have been discussed as follows: 

  • Liability: It is the state of being legally responsible for something, if in case an offence which led to some damage has been committed by AI, who would be held liable, would it be the creator, the consumer or any other middleman. Law has to make new provision regarding the apportionment of liability in the case of AI. Even if the liability has been established, what would be the nature of the offence, civil or criminal, and what would be the punishments and penalties for the same. 
  •  Recognition of AI as a person/citizen: Should AI be recognised as a natural and legal human being and be bestowed with all the human rights, can we regard AI as a person who can fulfill human obligations, and should citizenship be granted to AI technologies like robots. These are issues which have made the legislature think about giving citizenship to robots. The law does not recognise a robot as a person, and if any offense has been committed by the robot, it is assumed that the manufacture, creator, and other parties are held responsible, but can they be held responsible is the question. A robot can be established for a particular reason, but there are things which are out of the control of the creator and actions can take place which have not been anticipated, when the mental intention to cause harm does not exist, can one be punished for the actions of their creation. The only nation which gives citizenship to a robot is Saudi Arabia, it has given citizenship to a humanoid robot named Sophia. 
  • Data Privacy: For AI to operate, lots of data has to be analysed, collected, processed and uploaded to a robot or any other AI technology, there are high risks where there can be misuse of personal data, which can lead to various cyber crimes. Measures have to taken regarding the security of the data which s being used, they have to be taken in such a way where confidentiality of sensitive information can be maintained. Even if such measures are taken some data can be leaked involuntarily. The Personal Data Protection Bill 2018 (Data Privacy Bill) in India, has been implemented recently which makes the organisations using the data accountable for its privacy, there is a provision which states that AI should have the right to forget information which may pose a threat. However this provision is still highly debatable, as forgetting it may affect the learning abilities of AI even more. 
  • Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): IPR are the rights given to intangible creations which have been created or invented out of human intellect. The four types of IPR are copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets, these are given for different creations according to the conditions specified. These rights give recognition and protection to all intangible creations. All the above rights do not take non-human or AI creation into consideration, so what if AI creates new things out of its intelligence, hence in the future the definition of the above rights may have to change, and no longer its traditional ways can be followed. 
  • Agreements and Contracts:  AI if used effectively and efficiently, can make up a perfect contact managing system, where all the disputes related to contracts could be solved using AI, The mechanism and procedures relating to drafting a contract can also be done by AI. In the future we can even expect smart contracts, where all the above functions will take place in the digital world, but for all these to happen either newer provisions or changes to older ones in the contract law has to be brought suitable to AI. 
  • Competition Law: AI will use different type of technology for it to function better than a normal human being, and the companies and firms who possess AI mabe in an advantaged position than its competitors, as use of AI can lead to better services to consumers, and accurate decisions of pricing strategies. AI can capture the situations in the market, and accordingly analyse the information and give proper steps which have to be taken by the firm. However, this is considered to be anti competitive and illegal under the Competition Act, 2002, which prohibits anti-competitive agreements and combinations, and firms having a dominant position over others. Competition shall be in a fair manner. Therefore changes have to be made in the law to make sure no one gets the benefit out of using AI as a protection to the activities taking place in the firm.

These are the major legal challenges that are being faced due to artificial intelligence, these are not all of them, but they constitute some of the important ones. We are presently in a fast moving generation, in it becomes vital to understand the legal and ethical implications of AI and its effects. AI has been proved to be beneficial in many ways, but if not controlled properly, may act as a threat to the dignity of the nation, and the only way this can be avoided is by making provisions in the present legislative framework regarding AI and it applicability. The provisions should be framed after taking into consideration all the above challenges, and effective follow up action should also be done. The stricter the legislation, the lesser the problems. All the above challenges and issues act as shortcomings or drawbacks to the field of law, the traditional legal frameworks is no longer applicable, it should be changed according to the situations prevailing around us. AI will continue to face such barriers as long as no change ir brought, it high time we recognise new technology in the world. 

Right issue

Right issue refers to the listed company or public limited company will raise the fund through issuing shares to the existing shareholders. In right issue existing shareholders can purchase the shares at discount or less than the market price of the share. The issue will be according to proportion of share held my share holder. The ratio will set by comapny, according to that shareholder will get additional share. In Right issue existing shareholder will be offered to purchase the share where it is his choice whether to purchase or not. The issue was done to raise additional fund for the operation of the company. In right issue the shares are issued at discount to shareholder.

THE LEGAL HISTORY OF MADRAS

The judicial system in madras occurs in three stages where the British tried their best to administer justice in the town. The company first formed a judicial structure in the towns to help the Englishmen living in the town and to secure justice for them. But slowly the company acquired a large area where they could not neglect the indigenous population anymore thus this lead to the development of a through judicial systems. Madras was previously known as a Madraspatnam which was a small village. Francis Day was sent south by the East India Company to acquire land due to the shortage of cotton in the north and to ease the trade. Francis Day procured a land grant for the area of Madraspatnam after negotiations with the Raja of Chandragiri to build a factory in 1639. The land was used to build the Fort of St George. The Raja had also granted to the Company full power. the charter of 1660, This allows the company to form laws in accordance to the English laws for its government. The charter gave the Company power to make laws for its government and for that of the factors, masters and mariners employed in voyages, provided such laws were not repugnant to the laws of England. The town of Madraspatnam was divided into white town and black town.

The Town of Madras was subordinate to the town of Surat. The administrative head on the town was called as an “Agent “. The agent was a subordinate to the president of the factory in Surat. He was supposed to administer justice in the town. The serious offenders and the cases should be consulted by the company authorities in England. But there were defects the judicial power of the agent and the council was vague and indefinite and many delays also, they did not have any. The black town had a different system of administration of justice. The old tradition of the judicial system was allowed to continue where the village headman was to judge all cases of the village. The village headman was called as “Adigar”; the court was called as the Choultry court. Then the Choultry court became a court where petty cases would be decided. The most cases were decided by the agent and his council or the raja. There is no conclusive report where these cases were held due to lack of reports. But the existing reports show that there wasn’t a clear system that was followed. The officers in the Choultry court were not similar to the laws of the natives. This shows that the judicial system was rudimentary.

Chapter 1660, This empowered the governor and his council to authorize or give death penalties and death sentences for capital offences. The charter vested more powers in the Governor-General and his council which gave them extensive judicial powers. The agent and the council uncertain about their jurisdiction and their judicial duties deferred the case to the company authorities in England. The company made the town of Madras a presidency town. This gave extensive judicial power to the agent and his council who were elevated to the position of the governor-general and his council. The court of judicature, Steynsham Master who was the Governor of Madras reorganize the Choultry Court and established a court of judicature in 1678 for the trial of civil and criminal cases by jury deriving authority from the charter of 1661 which vested all judicial powers to the governor-general and his council. The court would take in appeals by the Choultry courts. The cases in the court were decided as per the English laws with the help of jury of 12 men. The Governor and Council were to have original jurisdiction and appellate jurisdiction in cases decided by, the Choultry Court. Thus a well-administered judicial system was implemented. This established two courts and well-understood jurisdiction of cases. There were pitfalls in this system too. The officers who sat at the court were not lawyers or familiar with the laws of the native land. The officers would not dispense justice at a higher level as they were not lawyers. The judgment of the cases was subpar but this was a step ahead from the previous court system. This much-needed improvement from the elementary implementation of justice that was previously administered in the town. The lack of lawyers was apparent.

Admiralty court– Under the provisions of the Charter of 1683 a new court was established in Madras on 10 July 1686. It was called the admiralty court. The court was to decide cases according to the rules of equity and a good conscience and the laws and customs of merchants. It has to have the power to hear and determine all cases, mercantile and maritime in nature, concerning persons within the charter limits of the Company; all cases of trespasses, injuries and wrongs, done or committed on the high seas, or within the charter limits; cases of forfeitures and seizures of ships or goods. The court practised English civil law instead of the common law in England as the jurisdiction of the court was extended to ships from different countries. The civil law that’s was used was an amalgamation of the maritime customary laws. The court in 1687 secured services of an English professional lawyer, Sir John Briggs who would preside over the court as written in the charter. The presence of a lawyer decreased the need for the governor-general and his council to sit at the court. Thus the role of the governor-general and his council in the court declined. The court of admiralty exercised wide jurisdiction as opposed to what was stated in the charter. The establishment of the Admiralty court was a landmark in the judicial history of Madras as for the first time a professional lawyer was to administer justice and the executive gave up judicial functions in the admiralty court.

Mayor’s court– It was common and custom in England that the judicial powers would be deferred to Municipal Corporation of the city, this was seen in London. The British thought to apply the same administration in Madras. The corporation of Madras consisted of a mayor, 12 Alderman and 60 Burgesses. Every year the mayor was selected by the Alderman. The tenure was for life or the period of stay in Madras. The first mayor and the 12 Alderman were already selected by the charter itself. The Burgesses were to be selected by the Mayor and the alderman. The court was held every fortnight and the quorum was the Mayor and two aldermen. There was an existence of a jury who convened to judge criminal cases. The Mayor’s Court dispensed justice not according to any fixed law, but as its Charter laid down.

The judicial administration in madras during 1639-1726 was elementary. Justice was administered by non-lawyers. Their judgment was subpar and at their discretion. They had no judicial training and very much vested in the executive decisions of the company. When the company first procured Madras their focal point was still trading. Thus the earlier stages of the judicial system in Madras were rudimentary and no proper demarcation of jurisdiction. The officers were not familiar with the Hindu laws which were applied to the Hindu native and the Muslim laws that were applied to the Muslim natives, this lead to major inconsistent judgment. The situation changed after 1687 when there was an introduction of some sort of structure to the judicial system. The charter of 1688 showed signs of freedom of the judiciary from the executive powers but installation of the Mayor’s court changed that. Yet, the judicial system introduced a democratic structure to India where the autocratic rule was used.

Contribution of Health Workers – Real Heroes.

The Hero for us is mostly a superstar, for whom we stand up and applaud in the cinema halls. These are our reel life heroes whom we admire a lot and millions of people follows them. Do we ever look back take some time to appreciate what the real life heroes do for us. We are a lot privileged to have these people around us who will stand by strongly no matter what. Real life heroes are mainly the Social service providers like Doctors, Soldiers or Health workers who single handedly holds the Earth together. The systems will break down in no time if these people fails to or if they aren’t competent to do their work seriously. What would have happened if they haven’t served so much for he society? Working towards a national cause is the best policy of serving the humanity. Existence would have seized if these people weren’t available there for contributing towards needs of the society. Heath workers, maybe we don’t recognize them as much as we do to the Superstars, but their contribution isn’t any less. Heath workers are the Pillars of society, they are those people who helps to cure patients and takes care of them so they heals properly. They have to deal with a lot of patients suffering from various physical or mental ailments. They look after those victims constantly and convinces them about the beauty of life, also helps in preventing further problematic situations for them. They in turn contribute to the health workforce. We actually owe a lot and will be supremely grateful for and never disrespect them.

In this present scenario we get a lot of information through media that so many health workers are randomly getting affected by the Covid 19 and also some are losing lives because of this cause. This is so heart wrenching to hear of their demise for such a noble cause i.e., providing service to the public. They are disguised Gods who give a new life to the broken people. A patient who has lost all hopes and is waiting for the end needs a lot of motivation and guidance for accepting that they deserve to live more and fight back. This mental support is very much needed and is very much needed and is provided by the health working. Not just this day, the Health workers are doing this jobs since the starting of the pandemic, all over the world. The health workers initially started their duties with testing to trace the covid 19 patients. It was their primary duty to detect whoever is corona positive. Then they isolate those patients and also provides utmost care and concern to them. It is really difficult to wear those Personal Protective Equipment kits which has been prescribed by the Medical Association of India. We don’t know whether they take proper food or nutrients. yet cannot do anything about that. Health workers also voluntarily fulfills the requirements of those who stays in Home quarantine.

For the Health workers, Work is God, their family becomes secondary to them. As because they are liable towards society they cannot take a leave any day and go to meet with their family. Even if the Family requires them urgently, many a times they are unable to attend social gatherings or meetings. The family deliberately misses them, like we all do and they sadly so cannot indulge themselves in all the happiness either. They are so dedicated towards their work, they rarely takes up holidays. Many health workers have to work 24 * 7 and no body knows when a patient would need a First Aid. They even do not get proper mess or rooms to stay. Random cases are over the media nowadays where frequently these people are abused or harassed due to the fear of Covid. Their families are tortured and thrown out of their homes. This shows that hardly any humanity is left within us any more. They do not get Honors or Prizes ever, they don’t need such but all we can do is provide them with proper empathy and acceptance. They are our real life Heroes and the children should learn and read more about them and get inspired by their work spirits. Children shall look up to them as their role model. They are the strong walls on which the community stands intact.

Cultivating Self-Love

 

Owning our story and loving ourselves through that process is the bravest thing that we’ll ever do. Be proud of who you are, and not ashamed of how someone else sees you.

The process of loving yourself can be extremely difficult. Especially if you don’t know what steps to take. So, it is quintessential to discern what self love constitutes and what it doesn’t.

Self-love is having time for your own beautiful ideas, memories and dreams. It is honouring yourself enough to believe in those passions and see that you need them, that you need to pursue them to be the person you were born to develop into. Self love is allowing yourself to mature and change, to grow into new perspectives and be comfortable enough in your own skin to allow your creativity to have the chaos it needs to be strong and the focus it needs to move in a positive direction. It is a state of being that respects these rights in others, that takes to heart that only they can see their path as only we can see ours, and that this sort of respect is a fundamental key to being human and living together. That this is part of liberty, that order comes from divine chaos, and all that requires self respect. Thus, self-love is genuine and complete acceptance of oneself.

However, what self-love discards is the egoistical self-centred sense of being whereby you only “love” yourself when you’ve “won” versus others, or when you consider yourself “better” than others. This is unsustainable and not authentic love for self, as when you truly love and accept yourself you don’t need to compare yourself to others. True self-love is not selfish pleasure, but rather the origin of discipline and willpower.

When you are conscious of that, that’s fantastic, you have made the first step- pat yourself on the back as it takes a lot of strength to admit that to yourself. Self-love is the most efficient route to everything from true self-discipline to pursuing your dreams, living out your full potential, and living an authentic and fulfilling life. It’s not easy, I am still on this path but it’s gradual and when you see yourself progressing on it, it truly is amazing. So how do we do it?

When you make choices or decisions ask yourself- ‘What would I do if I truly loved and accepted myself?”. Even if you haven’t accepted yourself yet, it puts you in the right mind-set and your decisions will reinforce the love for self. Aim to free yourself of any attachment. You are not your things, you are not your job, you are not your partner, you are not your friends, you are not your money. You are you. We cling on to them because they help us define ourselves – all because we don’t love ourselves. Stay true to yourself and if that means some people won’t accept you because of it – that’s fine because you are accepting yourself. Doesn’t it feel amazing when you acted naturally and did what was true to you ?
Do more of things that bring you true joy and not just pleasure. For example, think about what activities make you most happy or brought you most joy when you were a kid or teenager. It could be drawing, reading a book, helping someone, playing an instrument, etc. It must be true joy and not just superficial pleasure from activities as they might not help you cultivate that real self love.

Then, try focusing more of your attention to the present. Don’t get stuck with an image of you in the past or future. You need to realise that there is only now and no other time is real. The past was gone and the future is yet to come. Now is the only real setting there is- so bring your attention to it and cherish it. Look around you, focus on what your senses are feeling and even act surprised as if you just found out you exist. I personally found meditation to be incredibly powerful in cultivating this as a daily mind-set.

Those were the five things that helped me, I hope you will find something useful in them. Remember – let your ego fall and let unconditional love rise – for yourself and for others. You cannot truly love others unless you’ve learned to love yourself first. You must put oxygen mask on yourself first before putting it on others.

Self-love is looking out for yourself, not in a selfish way, but in a healthy way. Once we develop this discipline, we can use it in all sorts of life areas, like going to bed early, keeping up with physical activities, saying no to junk food, dedicating time to read and learn, and so much more. Quell the spoiled toddler, become the correct parent of your own mind. All the best with your beautiful journey !

Stock split

Stock split is decided by the company where the shares of the existing shares will be divided in to more number of shares. The share split is done to increase number of shares in market, to bring liquidity in particular stock and to make stock to avail for retail investors to purchase. In stock split the shares will be divided according to ratio specified by the company.after stock split companies market capitalisation will remain same. The face value and market value of share will be divided according to ratio specified by the company.

Air force common admission test (AFCAT)

AFCAT is very popular exam as like upsc competitive exam, many of youngster have a dream to join Indian air force, when they watched movies and any of their idle who are in air force and who are playing a role of Indian air force cadet so, they become more crucial to join the air force. Many of youngsters have a dream to fly fighters plan they can do such thing after clearing these exam, interviews and some physical and medical tests.

 Air Force Common Admission Test is a written exam conducted by Indian Air Force twice every year to induct officers in the IAF. The written exam is followed by Air Force Selection Board Interview for shortlisted candidates.

 It is not tough to crack the AFCAT exam if candidates have prepared well.

 What are the options through AFCAT?

Through AFCAT you can apply for all the three branches of the IAF which are Flying Branch, Technical Branch and Ground Duty Branches. The eligibility criteria for different branches vary. Both men and women can apply for all the three branches. While for women there is short service commission only in all the three branches, for men there is Permanent as well as Short Service Commission for men. However for Flying Branch only Short Service Commission is there through AFCAT. Thus if you clear the written exam and then clear the AFSB also then you have a chance of joining the Air Force Academy.

Eligibility Criteria

  • Flying Branch –Age should lay between to 23 years at the time of course commencement. The candidate must be a Graduate (Minimum three year degree course) in any discipline from a recognized University who have attained minimum 60% marks in aggregate in all papers put together and have passed Math’s and Physics at 10+2 level OR BE / B Tech degree (Four year course) from a recognized University with minimum 60% marks in aggregate in all papers put together.
  • Technical Branch- The age must lay between 18 to 28 years at the time of course commencement.
  • Ground Duty Branch-The age must lie between 20-23 years for Graduates, 20-25 years for Post Graduates, 20-26 years for LLB (Three year course after graduation) and 20-27 years for M.Ed./PhD/CA/ICWA.


AFCAT is an online exam conducted by the Indian air force to get potential officers.

AFCAT exam was started in 2011 as an OMR sheet based paper. In 2019, AFCAT exam went online and many candidates attempted the AFCAT online across the country. 

All AFSB Stage 1 qualified candidates will have to appear for AFSB Stage 2 and undergo the following tests:

  1. Psychological Tests: These are the written psychological tests and are conducted by professional psychologists.
  2. Group Tests: These tests involve mental and physical activities to examine the candidates’ on various mental and physical parameters.
  3. Interview Round: In this round, the interviewing officer takes a personal round of interview for the candidate.
  4. Computerized Pilot Selection System (CPSS) Test: This test is mandatory for only those candidates who have applied for the Flying Branch.

If the candidate clears the Online Tests and both the stages of AFSB Interview then he will be called for Medical Examination.

If you really wants to join Indian air force and serve for our nation, AFCAT is an exam which can give you wings, for all of you who have the dream of working between the sprawling jets can turn this dream into reality through this exam.

          Tourism Industry: Survival of the Fittest is the New Normal

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

Will the tourism industry ever be the same? The question seems to be unanswerable at the moment in this kind of a situation. Tourism plays a very vital as well as important role in determining the economy of a country. Tourism, especially in India constitutes a major part of the economy. But after the Covid 19 pandemic hit the world, tourism has been shut ever since. And more over if it even starts eventually slowly opening up, people would rather prefer to not travel at this stage when the world is being caught by a pandemic. The only the tourism industry could again start and flourish is with the help of a bit of innovation and technology being used in the tourism industry.

Be it the use of Artificial Intelligence or the use of any other means, but innovation is needed. What the tourism industry could use is the power of advertisement, to advertise about the tourist places, the hotels, the places and also adding a dimension of safety initiatives they would provide, so that the tourists are attracted. Be it the use of robots in hotels to welcome the guests rather than people welcoming the guests. This would be innovative as well as use of technology would mean less chances of transmission of infections. The tourist should be offered good offers or attractive discounts so that tourists can’t resist but plan for going for a holiday. The offers could be like giving heavy discounts or giving relaxation on air fare for tourist destinations. One thing which could be done by hotels could be the assurance of safety measures being provided by them to their customers and also about the food they are providing to the customers, is it properly cooked and is it hygienic or not.

See, nowadays customers would be looking more for hygiene rather than the prices of hotels and tourist packages prices. They would be making sure that if the city or country they are visiting for a holiday isn’t well equipped with their health facilities, then they wouldn’t travel there. So, the tourist destinations should also focus now upon improving the health conditions of the destination by a fair and better margin than it was before. Yes, tourism industries profits would take a toll, but as we know this world is a globalised world, travel can’t stop and the world will be back to normal once again. But till then, the tourism industry has to make a well laid down plan with regards to how they will use the technology available in the world to the fullest use so that customers can be attracted towards these holiday destinations back and tourism starts flourishing again. With the use of innovative ideas, the main aim of the tourism industry now should be to focus more on the marketing aspect, much more than they previously did. Because this time it’s not the customers who would come on their own to holiday destinations, but they would have to be lured towards these destinations through aggressive use of advertisements and marketing techniques, which also includes promotions.

Well, yes the pandemic isn’t going anywhere now, but as is said that tough times also go away and a new beginning is always there, so a new beginning for the tourism industry is always there, just a little bit of effort is required.    

Child Sexual Abuse

Child Sexual Abuse is one of the most heinous evils rampant in our society today. It is an issue that needs to be acknowledged in our houses and our systems if it is to be fought properly. Child sexual abuse refers to situations where a child is exploited sexually, tricked into involvement in sexual activities. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) as the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehendis unable to give informed consent toor for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consentor that violates the laws or social taboos of society…”. The perpetrator is usually someone who the child knows well and has been around the child in places considered safe. The dynamics involved in such situations are very different from similar abusive cases involving adults and thus need to be treated differently.

Child sexual abuse includes both physical and non-physical activities between two individuals one of whom is a minor for the sexual gratification of the other person who is older than the minor. Rape, penetrative sexual activities, touching of breasts or genitals, forcing the child to watch porn or engage in harmful sexual activities, taking pictures and videos of the child, etc all come under child sexual abuse. It is not usually a one-time event but a continuous process that usually becomes more invasive and destructive with time. Child sexual abuse is a crime inflicted on a minor who is unable to give consent or process what is done to them. It leaves lasting effects that stay with them as they grow up and even cripples their ability to engage in everyday activities. It destroys them mentally, emotionally, and physically making many of them struggle with their experiences as adults. Self-doubt, fear, and repulsion of their own bodies is a common byproduct, as are PTSD, suicidal thoughts, and depression. Child sexual abuse leads to the devastation of entire families and individuals precisely because of its particular nature and the vulnerability of children.

road walking cute young
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

Child sex trafficking rings and kidnappings are large scale industries which profit from sexually abusing children, but we need to be aware that this does not happen only in such spaces but inside our own homes as well. It thrives because the child is often unable to fully articulate or communicate what is being done to them. Even when they know or feel that something is wrong, they tend to not voice it, particularly when the perpetrator is someone they trust. This delay in identifying abuse also lends itself to aiding the abuse to continue for extended periods of time, even years. Another reason is the lack of awareness on the part of parents or guardians who miss the signs of abuse or take the expressions of the child as silly when they try to say that they don’t feel safe or comfortable with certain people. Indian cultural standards that often attribute respect to elders and never dare to question them becomes an ally to such practices since parents are more likely to scold than listen to their children when they say that someone in their own family makes them uncomfortable. Listening to the child and not invalidating what they are saying can greatly aid in identifying instances of abuse faster. Increased anxiety, health disorders, physical signs of abuse, or use of force are all pointers to the fact that something may be wrong. Being a watchful adult and being a friend to the child will often allow them to open up to us.

The National Crime Record Bureau (NCRB) recorded that in 2018, at least 109 children were victims of sexual abuse every day in 2018. One has to keep in mind that this statistic is solely based on cases that were reported. The number of cases increases every year and particularly now with a pandemic and everyone being forced to be shut inside their own homes, the cases have severely spiked. The urgency of the issue has to be understood and addressed not just by the law but the common citizen since she is the one who is most likely to be able to identify, intervene and stop it in the least amount of time.

For help: CHILDLINE – Call 1098 (Ministry of Women and Child Development)

Law: A Noble Profession

LAW

Laws are rules that bind all people living in a community. Laws protect our general safety, and ensure our rights as citizens against abuses by other people, by organizations, and by the government itself.  We have laws to help provide for our general safety.  These exist at the local, state and national levels, and include things like:

  • Laws about food safety.  At the state and local level, health departments have guidelines that restaurants follow for how to store and prepare food in a healthy manner, so that diners won’t get sick. At the national level, the Department of Agriculture and other federal agencies inspect food production plants to be sure that the food that shows up in your supermarket is safe to eat.
  • Speed limits and traffic laws exist so that we drive in a safe manner.
  • Licensing for doctors and nurses ensures proper training of the people who look after us, and who often have our lives in their hands.

We also have laws that protect our rights as citizens, and which include things like:

  • Laws that come from the Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution, that guarantee our basic freedoms like freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
  • Laws that protect us from discrimination because of our race, gender, age, or because of a disability.

There are few professions which are considered noble among people. Their principal objective of folks practicing these professions is serving the society with utmost sincerity and integrity, not just to rake in moolah. Doctors, Lawyers and Teachers are such professionals who are deeply respected and enjoy a sterling stature among people as they are seen as the one who are contributing substantially towards the society. Of late, Law has become one of the most lucrative professions. The top-notch and astute lawyers earn pots of money when they represent big corporate houses and rich businessmen in courts. Then there is an array of Law firms which pay a bomb to their employees. That is why so many youngsters are opting to become lawyers these days.

Earning money by dint of hard work and tactical acumen isn’t bad but lawyers, especially the young ones, must bear in mind that monetary benefits must not be the sole driving force. As mentioned above, Law is a noble profession. There are times when ordinary people cannot afford the exorbitant fee of lawyers, so that is when lawyers must step up and no let the financial inadequacy of such people rob them of the justice. The democracy of the nation and the reputation of the Judiciary enhance manifold when even the people of limited or no means are able to get justice. Layers have an important role to play in coming to rescue to such people and helping & guiding them with felicity. The Indian Constitution lucidly states that no person should be denied the justice because of lack of money. Every person, irrespective of their caste, religion, education and financial status is entitled to get justice in the court of Law. This spirit of Constitution can only be safeguarded when lawyers of formidable standing and erudition come forward and lend their support to this cause. India is a diverse country where the wealth is not equally distributed. A lot of people from rural areas or from small towns are not even aware of their fundamental rights and legal solutions.

The law is important because it acts as a guideline as to what is accepted in society. Without it there would be conflicts between social groups and communities. It is pivotal that we follow them. The law allows for easy adoption to changes that occur in the society.

Society is a ‘web-relationship’ and social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationship where a social relationship is understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term, ‘social change’ is used to indicate desirable variations in social institution, social processes and social organization. It includes alterations in the structure and functions of the society. Closer analysis of the role of law vis-à-vis social change leads us to distinguish between the direct and the indirect aspects of the role of law.

1. Law plays an important indirect role in regard to social change by shaping a direct impact on society. For example: A law setting up a compulsory educational system.

2. On the other hand, law interacts in many cases indirectly with basic social institutions in a manner constituting a direct relationship between law and social change. For example, a law designed to prohibit polygamy.

Law plays an agent of modernization and social change. It is also an indicator of the nature of societal complexity and its attendant problems of integration. Further, the reinforcement of our belief in the age-old panchayat system, the abolition of the abhorable practices of untouchability, child marriage, sati, dowry etc are typical illustrations of social change being brought about in the country trough laws.

Law certainly has acted as a catalyst in the process of social transformation of people wherein the dilution of caste inequalities, protective measures for the weak and vulnerable sections, providing for the dignified existence of those living under unwholesome conditions etc. are the illustrious examples in this regard. Social change involves an alteration of society; its economic structure, values and beliefs, and its economic, political and social dimensions also undergo modification. However, social change does not affect all aspects of society in the same manner.

CONCLUSION

It can be implied by common sense that law helps us to survive as a society and it is convenient. Convenient is comfortable and humans look for comfort above all things apart from happiness. Also law helps in getting rid of the social barriers that exist in our society. Through law we survive yet thrive. Hence law is necessary in a society.

Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour, wherever possible. It shapes politics, economics and society in numerous ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people.

If the harm is criminalized in legislation, criminal law offers means by which the state can prosecute the perpetrator. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives.

Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies, while international law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to environmental regulation or military action. The legal response to a given social or technological problem is therefore in itself a major social action which may aggravate a given problem or alleviate and help to solve it.

Ayushman bharat scheme

Ayushman Bharat Programme is an umbrella health scheme of the Government of India. It was launched in 2018 by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

The Ayushman Bharat programme was launched in 2018 to address health issues at all levels – primary, secondary and tertiary. It has two components:

  1. Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY), earlier known as the National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS)
  2. Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs)

Ayushman Bharat is an integrated approach comprising health insurance and primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare. The HWCs are aimed at improving access to cheap and quality healthcare services at the primary level. PM-JAY will cover the financial protection for availing healthcare services at the secondary and tertiary levels.

Ayushman Bharat is the largest government-funded healthcare programme in the world with over 50 crore beneficiaries. It has been dubbed ‘Modicare’.

There are 1300 diseases including serious health conditions like heart & liver ailments, cancer, tuberculosis are covered under AyushmanBharat and this very great help for those who cannot afford the costly treatment.

Features of Pradhan Mantri Ayushman Bharat Yojana

  • Over 10.74 crore poor and vulnerable families are covered across the country, No limit on family size and age of members.
  • Priority is given to girl child, women and senior citizens. Free treatment can be availed at all public and empanelled private hospitals.
  • The scheme was able to enrol 18,236 hospitals. Of these, 9,665 were private hospitals. In fact, of all the treatments served, 62 per cent of the expenditure was incurred in private hospitals. Around 46.5 lakh individuals availed treatment, with an average hospitalization cost of Rs 16,107.

With Ayushman Bharat sponsoring almost all secondary care and most of tertiary care hospitalizations, things are never going to be the same. Because of the large number of surgeries done in public and private hospitals, better infrastructure will come up which can easily take care of malaria, TB and HIV, apart from all other
medical treatments.
With the launch of the National Medical Commission by the government, the much debated shortage of medical specialists can be addressed in just three years.

Ayushman Bharat can transform healthcare by encouraging digital medical records.

Private healthcare was becoming unviable well before Ayushman Bharat, mainly because of the Central Government Health Scheme. The scheme, which sets the benchmark for procedural pricing for all government schemes, did not make major changes in its pricing of procedures, which is not scientifically arrived at, in the last 10 years. Compounding the problem was delayed payments by government sponsored health schemes, at times after more than a year.

The only grievance is the pending request for upward revision of some of the rates which assume will happen soon.

The AB-PMJAY offers a unique opportunity to improve the health of hundreds of millions of Indians and eliminate a major source of poverty afflicting the nation. There are, however, substantial challenges that need to be overcome to enable these benefits to be realised by the Indian population and ensure that the scheme makes a sustainable contribution to the progress of India towards UHC. UHC has become a key guiding target for health systems around the world under the Sustainable Development Goals to improve the health of the global population and overcome the scourge of medical-related impoverishment. The success of UHC is measured by the access of health services across the population, the types of services that are available, and the financial protection offered to the population. While there are obvious resource constraints in implementing AB-PMJAY.

Rafale in India

Rafale fighter jets will soon be inducted in Indian Air Force. This is sure to give Indian firepower a major boost. Rafale fighter jets will introduce new capabilities in IAF’s fighter fleet that will be unrivalled in the region. The aim of the Indian Air Force has always been to be prepared for a two-front war on Indian borders. IAF is capable of warding off twin threats to India and Rafale fighter jets are going to further increase Indian strength and strategic depth in the region.

The order for the HAMMER Missile for Rafale jets with the ability to neutralize any target at the range of around 60-70 km and is being acquired under the emergency powers for acquisition given to the armed forces by the Modi government.

“The order for the HAMMER missiles is being processed and the French authorities have agreed to supply them to us at a short notice for our Rafale combat aircraft,” government sources told ANI. In view of the urgent requirement for these missiles by the Air Force, the French authorities would be delivering the missiles to India from the existing stock meant for some other customer.

Rafale fighter jets are equipped with state of the art weapon systems. Most famous of these weapons are the Meteor missiles.

Meteor missiles are a game-changer. They are air-to-air missiles that work ‘beyond visual range’. This means that even if the pilot cannot locate enemy aircraft with his eyes, he/she can aim and fire the missile which will hit and destroy enemy aircraft. The Meteor is powered by a unique rocket-ramjet motor that gives Meteor far more engine power, for much longer than any other missile. This means it can fly faster, fly longer, and manoeuvre more than any other missile – giving Meteor the ability to chase down and destroy agile hostile fighters.

Every missile has a ‘no escape zone’, if a target aircraft is within this zone, it is hard for it to evade the missile and save itself. Greater the ‘no escape zone’, better is the missile.

India has contracted 36 Rafale multi-role fighter jets from France in fly-away condition with 13 India Specific Enhancements (ISE) under a €7.87 billion Inter-Governmental Agreement (IGA) signed in September 2016.

There is reason for rafale has powerful fighter plan it can take off weight than f-16.

The maximum take-off weight a Rafale can carry is 24.5 ton while an F-16 can carry a maximum of 21.7 ton. So, clearly in a dogfight between the two, the Rafales have a slight edge given the fact that it can load more weapons than the F-16s.

But, rafale is more costly than other fighter plan ,Big increase in Rafale’s price came because a deal bypassing mandated procedures and made in the face of official objections resulted in €1.3 billion ‘non-recurring’ cost attributed to the ‘Design and Development’ of 13 India Specific Enhancements being spread over 36 instead of 126 aircraft.

The Government has compromised national security by denying to the Air Force the 7 squadrons (126 aircraft) that it desperately needs. “The PM’s unilateral decision to buy 36 Rafales resulted in a price escalation of 41.42% per jet.

India is likely to receive the first batch of six Rafale fighter jets by July 27. The French-origin jets are expected to significantly boost the combat capability of the Indian Air Force.

That is great news for our country because after getting this fighter plan, india will become more powerful and it enhances the strength of india.

DEMOCRACY

WHAT DOES IT MEAN BY DEMOCRACY: A form of government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them or by their elected agents under a free electoral system.


TYPES OF DEMOCRACY:
Generally there are two types of democracy: direct and representative.


In a direct democracy, the people directly deliberate and decide on legislature.
In a representative democracy, the people elect representatives to deliberate and decide on legislature, such as in parliamentary or presidential democracy.


KEY ELEMENTS OF DEMOCRACY:
According to American political scientist Larry Diamond, democracy consists of four key elements:


• A political system for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections.
• The active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life.
• Protection of the human rights of all citizens.
• A rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens.


CHARACTERISTICS OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT :


Citizen Rule citizens have the power to decide who will be the decision makers that run the government.
Majority Rule and Minority Rights- as we know that there are minority and majority in a country so in democratic country there is some rules for majority and some rights for minority.
Individual Rights- apart from the minority rights ,in democratic country there are human rights also exists.
Free and Fair Elections- there is free and fair elections held in democratic country to choose the government.
Citizen Participation- in election every citizen who is eligible to vote cast the vote for choosing a government for the country.
Cooperation and Compromise- there is always a cooperation and some compromise in a democratic country. Because if there will be no cooperation and compromise then there conflicts will rise..

Substance Abuse:The new “COOL”

Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome – a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.

Difference between substance abuse and addiction

Substance abuse differs from addiction. Many people with substance abuse problems are able to quit or can change their unhealthy behavior. Addiction, on the other hand, is a disease. It means you can’t stop using even when your condition causes you harm.

Addiction doesn’t start overnight. It takes time to build up a tolerance to the drug of choice, to develop cravings for the drug, and to experience problems due to use of illicit substances. Drug abuse often starts first. Though at its worst it can look like addiction, there is one key characteristic that makes drug dependence different.

The first sign is the inability to stop using drugs and alcohol. Someone who struggles with drug abuse may experience a number of problems that plague those with addiction but he may be able to stop using all drugs of abuse without a problem for long periods of time. An addict is unable to stay away from his drug of choice and/or other substances despite a keen desire to quit using.

INSIGHT ON THE SUBSTANCES/DRUGS ABUSED

Alcohol

Alcohol affects everyone differently. But if you drink too often, your chances of an injury or accident goes up. Heavy drinking also can cause liver and other health problems or lead to a more serious alcohol disorder.

Heroin

This illegal drug is the natural version of manmade prescription opioid narcotics. Heroin gives you a rush of good feelings at first. But when it wears off, everything slows down. 

Cocaine

This drug speeds up your whole body. When you use cocaine, you may talk, move, or think very fast. You may feel happy and full of energy. But your mood may then shift to anger.

Marijuana

A growing number of states have legalized medical uses of marijuana. A handful of states also allow recreational pot. But in most states, it’s still illegal. Marijuana can make you feel silly and laugh for no reason. Or you may feel sleepy and forget things that just happened.

Signals that you may have a problem with substance abuse include if you:

  • Lack interest in things you used to love
  • Change your friends a lot
  • Stop taking care of yourself
  • Spend more time alone than you used to
  • Eat more or less than normal
  • Sleep at odd hours
  • Have problems at work or with family
  • Switch quickly from feeling good and bad

In conversation with a marijuana consumer:

1. When did u smoke marijuana for the first time? Or how long have u been smoking?

A-The first time I smoked it was nearing the end of 11th grade. I’ve been smoking since 3 years now (only marijuana) I’ve never touched cigarettes. 

2 .Do u think the usage of marijuana is risky?

A- The only “risk” is that you go home and your parents find out*laughs*. Smoking anything is not healthy of course. People with asthma usually try a different method of consuming marijuana preferably edibles.  Although I have known people who have asthma but still smoke.

3. When you  use the term high, what do u mean, what effects do u feel in your body? 

A-In the earlier days when the substance is new to the body, the high is typically stronger You feel the urge  to smile and laugh and you feel relaxed. Paranoia is common when you’re not in a safe place or a place you are new to. When the body gets used to it, the high mellows down to just feeling relaxed and happy.

4. Did you experience any health risks, allergies, etc after its consumption?

A- People usually cough a lot when they’re new to it that’s because they’re not used to the taste and the smoke. But other than that I’ve never noticed anything. Paranoia and anxiety on the other hand increases if you’re in this state of mind.

5. What made u want to use the drug in the first place?

A-Ever since my 9th grade I made a pact with myself that I’ll try it after 10th. I always wanted to feel what it’s like and now it’s like a super power I possess that helps me solve everyday problems easily. It’s that “paranoia” which helps in problem solving while you’re high.

6 . Do u regret using it or not?

A- I would regret not doing it. Everyone should try it atleast twice or thrice because most people don’t do it right or don’t feel the “high” in the first time and they give up thinking it’s not what they thought it would be.

7.  Marijuana is not yet legalized in most parts of the country, what are your views on the use of this drug?

A-In a country where marijuana grows naturally, it is impossible to stop the consumption and legal or not most of the teenagers are doing it. It’s become a “trend” now. I know people who used to smoke in cigarettes because rolling papers weren’t available in India. All this is very new and still has to grow. I believe the cannabis market in India has a bright future because the number of users are increasing and the market is huge, if legalized the government can make a huge profit while also increasing the quality of the stash.

Bonus share

Bonus share is issued by the company to its existing shareholders for free instead of cash dividend. Bonus shares are issued to capitalise the companies profits. In Bonus share issue company will convert the profits in to equity share and issue in free of cost to its existing shareholders. The issue of Bonus share is inthe form of proportion. Which is set by the company. According to share held by the shareholder proportion to that he will get the bonus share. The issue of Bonus share will increase the number of share in the market. To get the bonus share one need to purchase the share before the ex-dividend date.on the record date who has the share in their account such share holder will receive the bonus share. The reason to issue the bonus is convertion of profits in to capital.

5 Books To Read Before You Die

Losing yourself in a great book, is one of the most endearing and satisfying joys. Every book has a different style, different attitude, different perspective but every book teaches and leaves you with a different feeling. It is hard to choose a favorite but let’s talk about 5 books that you must read.

  1. To Kill A Mocking Bird, by Harper Lee- A novel before its time, Harper Lee’s Pulitzer-prize winner addresses issues of race, inequality and segregation with both levity and compassion. While To Kill a Mockingbird could be a favorite book of just about everyone who has read it, it is important to recollect that it continues to be subversive and challenging to the establishment. The story revolves around the cute, lovable kids, Scout and Jem, and undoubtedly one of the most loved character in literature, Atticus Finch. Most of the characters within the book are marginalized by the facility structure of their town — a structure that also exists nearly everywhere — where wealthy white men control the lives of everyone else, and even the members of that group who want to use their status for something honorable, cannot win against the flattening wave of power.

2. The Book Thief, by Markus Zusak– Set in Germany during 1939, The Book Thief follows a young girl, Liesel, growing up in Germany amidst World War II. Liesel is living with foster parents, Hans and Rosa. Throughout the story, Liesel steals many books. At first, she doesn’t even know how to read, but she knows that the book is important. Hans notices and teaches her how to make sense of the letters, as she rescues books from the tyranny of Nazi rule. Meanwhile, her family has hidden a Jewish fighter in their basement and death looks down on the family, narrating our tale. Experience bravery that is rarely found in the world, and friendship that is formed in the most unlikely of situations.

3. The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger- It only takes one sentence, written in the first person, for Salinger’s Holden Caulfield to announce himself in all his teenage nihilism, sneering at you for wanting to know his biographical details “and all that David Copperfield kind of crap”. The Catcher in the Rye is the quintessential novel of the adolescent experience, captured in deathless prose. 

4. The God of Small Things, by Arundhati Roy-Roy won the 1997 Booker Prize with her debut novel, a powerful inter-generational tale of love that crosses caste lines in southern India, and the appalling consequences for those who break the taboos dictating “who should be loved, and how. And how much.” Sex, death, religion, the ambivalent pull of motherhood: it’s all there in this beautiful and haunting book. 

5. The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood– Atwood’s classic dystopian novel of a terrifying (and terrifyingly plausible) future America has rewarded rereading like no other book; I’ve probably read it 30 times by now. the globe of the narrator, Offred (from “Of Fred” — women not have their names), is chilling, but she could be a magnificent survivor and chronicler, and also the details of everything from a mundane way of life to ritualized sex and violence to her reminiscences of the time before (our contemporary reality, as seen within the ’80s) are realistic. The novel is as relevant today as ever; feminist backlashes still wax and wane, but women’s rights remain within the spotlight. And despite its scenarios of great despair, The Handmaid’s Tale is ultimately a hopeful book — Offred, and others, simply can’t be human without the chance of hope, and therein lies the strength of the resistance. All of Atwood is worth reading, but this book best exemplifies the cultural and psychological impact that a piece of fiction can create.

Human Resource Management

“Human Resource isn’t a thing we do. It’s the thing that runs our business.”

– Steve Wynn

The above quote is very true. Organisation are social system, which are composed of role, interaction and relationship among its employees who are occupying various positions in the organisation. Success of the organisation and achievements of its goals are the two important things which is necessary for an organisation and this depends on the nature and pattern of cooperation among individuals or it depends on our human resource. As we know human resource is an asset for the organisation and if they are productive and efficient enough we will be able to achieve our goals. Human Resource is not only unique and valuable but it is also an organisation’s most important resource. It seems logical that an organisation would spend a great deal of effort to acquire and make optimum utilisation of such resources. This effort is known as Human Resource Management. Human Resource Management may be defined as a process of recruiting, selecting, inducting the employee, providing orientation, providing training and development, appraising the performance, deciding compensation, motivating employee and maintaining proper relation with the employees. In simple terms, human resource management may be defined as the art of procurement, development, motivation and maintenance of competent workforce in order to achieve organisational goals and targets. It is the process of bringing people and organisation together to achieve the goals of both the parties. Human Resource Management is pervasive in nature as it is present in all organisation whether it is government, non-government, educational, religious, etc. Human Resource Management is primarily concerned with the management of people within the organisation focusing on policies and system. Human Resource Management is an action-oriented process. It mainly focuses on action rather than on record keeping. It tries to find out the problem that employees face at work and are solved through rational policies. HRM is all about people at work and so it is also known as people – oriented activity. The main intention of HRM is to develop the full potential of employees as it is development-oriented. Managing human resource is a challenging job as the nature of the people is very dynamic and complex and taking them altogether and make them work is not an easy task. As people have sentiments and emotions so they cannot be treated as machines. It is therefore necessary to manage and handle people with some tactics. Human Resource Management is not a one shot deal rather it is a continuous function. It cannot be practiced only one hour each day or one day a week rather it requires constant alertness and awareness of human relation. And therefore it is an ongoing process. The scope of HRM is very vast. All major activities in the working life of a worker from the time he or she enters the organisation until he or she leaves, comes under the purview of HRM. This mainly includes procurement, training and development, job analysis and job description, remuneration and rewards, personnel records, welfare and industrial relations. The objective is the thing which is very necessary. So the objectives of HRM are:-

  • Helps in Achieving Goals – One of the most important objective of human resource department is to help in achieving the goals of the organisation. And if it does not meet this purpose, HR department or any other department is going to suffer because of this.
  • Assistance to Employees in Achieving Personal Goals – HRM aims to assist employees in achieving their personal goals as if these goals are achieved it will enhance the individual’s contribution towards the achievement of organisational goals. If an employee’s personal goal is achieved he will be more motivated and productive and will do his work more enthusiastically.
  • To Provide Well-Trained and Well-Motivated Employees – HRM helps in providing well-trained and Well-Motivated employees as they will exert their maximum effort for the organisation.
  • To Provide Respectful Environment – HRM helps in providing respectful environment to each and every employee. As inappropriate behaviour may result in organisational crises. Hence, all of them should get proper respect at work.

So lastly, Human Resource Department is very necessary in each and every organisation as they are the one who manages the most important resource of the organisation and that is employees.

Right to Information

In a democratic government of the people, by the people and for the
people, the foundation of a healthy democracy lies in well-informed citizens . Enlightened and informed citizens definitely enhance the democratic values of a country. The right to information in a democratic set up is recognized all over the world and it is a natural right flowing from the very concept of democracy. No democratic government can survive without accountability and the basic postulate of accountability is that the people should have information about the functioning of their Government.
Now that India has a law for RTI, it can be made more beneficial by its effective implementation leading to improved public administration for the betterment of the people.

Right To Information is derived from our fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression under Article 19 of the Constitution. If we do not have information on how our Government and Public Institutions function, we cannot express any informed opinion on it. Democracy revolves around the basic idea of Citizens being at the center of governance. And the freedom of the press is an essential element for a democracy to function. It is thus obvious that the main reason for a free press is to ensure that Citizens are informed. Thus it clearly flows from this, that the Citizens Right To Know is highly important.

The Act primarily envisages setting out a practical regime of right to information for citizens to secure access to information under the control of public authorities, in order to promote transparency and accountability in the working of every public authority.
Right to Information means the right to information accessible under this Act which is held by or under the control of any public authority and includes the right to: –
1) Inspection of work, documents, records.
2) Taking notes, extracts, or certified copies of documents or records.
3) Taking certified samples of material.
4) Obtaining information in the form of diskettes, floppies, tapes, video cassettes or in any other electronic mode or through printouts where such information is shared in a computer or in any other device.

Objective of the Act

1) To promote transparency and functioning of the government. accountability in the functioning of the government.

2) Right to information makes administration more accountable to people.


3) It reduces the gap between administration and people. Right Information makes people aware of administrative decision-making.

4) It facilitates better delivery of goods and services to people by civil servants. It facilitates intelligent and constructive criticism of administration.

Steps to Apply

Write a simple application along with the prescribed fees addressing Public Information Officer (PIO) of the related department from which you want to get any information.
Fee
For Central Departments, there is a fee of Rs 10 for filing the request, Rs 2 per page of information and Rs 5 for each hour of inspection after the first hour. However, if the applicant is a Below Poverty Card holder, then he/she need not pay any fee at all. Time Limit
The law also contains a provision for timely imparting of information. The concerned public officials face a penalty in case the information is not given in time. The time limit is reasonable and does not jeo-pardise a person’s rights. Time limits are set in order of urgency and accessibility. Information regarding a person’s life and liberty is made available forthwith or within the shortest possible time, say within 48 hours.

Penalties
Sec.20 (1) provides power the State Information Commission to impose a penalty of Rs.250/- per day till application is received OR information is furnished, so however, the total amount of such penalty shall not exceed Rs.25000/- Provided that the State Information Officer, as the case may be, shall be given a reasonable opportunity of being heard before any penalty is imposed. As per Sec.20 (2) the State Public Information Committee shall recommend for disciplinary action against the State Public Information Officer, as the case may be under the Service Rules applicable to him.

Ground for Denial of Application
As per Sec.24 of the Act, intelligence and Security Organizations established by the Central Government and Listed in of the Act, shall not apply:- Information pertaining to allegations of Corruption is not excluded. Information pertaining to Human Rights Violation can be given after approval of Central Information Commission time allowed,45 days.

RTI Amendment 2019

The amended bill does away with the fixed tenure of five years for the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and the Information Commissioners (IC) — instead, they will serve for a tenure determined by the Central government. Moreover, the salary of the CIC and the ICs which are currently benchmarked with the salary of the Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and the Election Commissioners respectively, which in turn are benchmarked with the salary of a Supreme Court judge, amount to Rs 2.50 lakh, along with a monthly allowance of Rs 34,000 per month — plus the usual perks like rent free furnished accommodation and 200 litres of fuel every month. The amended bill gives the government to fix the salary, which could be lower — given that the Information Commission is a statutory body unlike the EC which is a constitutional body. However, the current incumbents’ salaries will not be affected by the amendment.

Right to Information (RTI) as a tool for promoting participatory development, strengthening democratic governance and facilitating effective delivery of socio-economic services. In the knowledge society, in which we live today, acquisition of information and new knowledge and its application have intense and pervasive impact on processes of taking informed decisions. Right to Information Act 2005, is termed as the best tool for bringing Good governance in the society. This right has been recognized in many International instruments and is seen not just a facet of the right to freedom of speech and expression but also as a right that is necessary for the exercise of civil and political rights and socio-economic and cultural rights.

Thanks