Mutual Divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act, 1955

Divorce is a very serious issue. Nowadays, the seriousness is vanished the couple find it very easy to end up a relationship without thinking twice about the decision. Some Couple knows it all about the consequences they could suffer later on but apart from it they decide to end up the marriage rather than sitting together and solving the differences between themselves.

What is Divorce by Mutual Consent?

Under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 both the husband and the wife have been given a right to get their marriage dissolved by a decree of divorce on more than one ground specifically enumerated in Section 13.

Section 28 of the Special Marriage Act, 1954 and Section 10A of the Divorce Act, 1869, also provides for divorce by mutual consent.

The conditions required under section 13B of the Hindu Marriage Act are as follows:

(i) Husband and wife have been living separately for a period of one year or more.

(ii) That they are unable to live together.

(iii) And that both husband and wife have mutually agreed that the marriage has totally collapsed. Hence marriage should be dissolved. Under these circumstances, a Divorce by Mutual consent can be filed.

As per the Indian Legal system, a divorce procedure fundamentally begins with the filing of a divorce petition.

Where to file a divorce petition

1. The court can be one where couple seeking divorce last lived.

2. The court can be one where the marriage was solemnized.

3. The court can be one where the wife is residing as of present.

The entire procedure of divorce in India starts begins with the divorce petition which is filled by the parties associated with the divorce process and notice of the same is served to the other one.

According to the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955; a petition for a ‘mutual divorce’ can be filed if you and your spouse are facing difficulties and have decided to part your ways legally.

You can even file for divorce if the other party is not willing to get a divorce- this is called, ‘Contested Divorce’.

Points to be discussed before getting a divorce by mutual consent

  1. Maintenance
  2. Child custody
  3. Settlement of Property and assets

Requirement of Documents for filing Mutual Divorce Petition:

  • Marriage Certificate
  • Address Proof – Husband and Wife.
  • Four Photographs of Marriage.
  • Income tax Statement of last 3 years.
  • Details of profession and Income (Salary slips, appointment letter)
  • Details of Property and Asset owned
  • Information about family (husband and wife)
  • Evidence of Staying separately for an year
  • Evidence relating to the failed attempts of reconciliation

Procedure for getting a decree of divorce by mutual consent

Step 1: Jointly filing a petition

A divorce petition in the form of an affidavit is to be signed by both parties and filed before a family court in their region.

Jurisdiction of the court should not be a major issue in filing for divorce as the petition can be filed within the local limits of the ordinary civil jurisdiction of where the marriage was solemnized or where either of the parties currently resides.

As mentioned earlier, the parties to a marriage must be living separately for at least one year before filing the petition.

Step 2: First Motion

After filing the petition the parties shall appear before the court and give their statements. If the court is satisfied and the statements are recorded then the first motion is said to have been passed, following which a waiting period of 6 months will be given to the parties before they are able to file the second motion.

This waiting period as statutorily prescribed under Section 13B(2) of the Act is for the parties to introspect and think about their decision. It is a time given for them to reconcile and give their marriage another chance, just in case they decide to change their mind.

Anyhow, sometimes the court may be convinced that the marriage has reached the point of no return and the waiting period will only expand their misery. In that case, this period can be waived off by the court. This period if not waived off can extend up to 18 months. If the parties still want to get divorced they may now file for second motion. The second motion can be filed only after the waiting period of 6 months and before 18 months has elapsed.

Step 3: Second Motion

This is when final hearings take place and statements are recorded again. If the issues of alimony and child custody (if any) are mutually agreed upon the decree of divorce is passed after this step. The marriage has finally ended by now and divorce by mutual consent has been granted.

Conclusion

In my views marriage is a unique friendship where you find a best friend and a soulmate. In friendship sometimes we have to adjust according to our friend as per their likes and dislikes. Similarly, in marriage we need to make some compromise to make it work throughout our life. Taking such important decisions so quickly will offer us nothing. So we should try to make it work rather than leaving someone for just some bad incident in the past months or years.

ETHNIC CLEANSING

Ethnic cleansing is a premeditated attack done to drive out a specific community of people from a particular area. This means that a place will no longer have any signs of existence of the specific community; the area will no longer have the cultural or physical remains of the community thus effectively ethnically cleansing the area of traces of the specific community. It differs from genocide as the only intention of ethnic cleansing is to push a particular community from the area where genocide aims to completely kill an ethnic community in the area. Ethnic cleansing or forcibly pushing out a community is considered as a crime against humanity and condemned by the International Criminal Court and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. Ethnic cleansing is done using a wide range of inhuman methods such as rape, executions, assaults or unlawful detention or forceful displacement, threatening civilians and attacking civilian population all these crimes are classified as crimes against humanity.


Ethnic cleansing is ideas that rise when nationalist movements with racist ideologies. The term ethnic cleansing was first used during the war in Yugoslavia where Bosnian Muslims were driven out of the country by Bosnian Serbs who claimed the land as their own. There are many examples of ethnic cleansing; the most radical and extreme is the displacement of Jews with culminated in the mass killing of the Jews. The ethnic cleansing of Jews was tied to the final solution proposed by Hitler which says that the true and real solution to the problems faced by the people of Germany was the Jews and the only way to end it was to deport them or kill them in concentration camps. The Tutsi community in the country of Rwanda was also first raped, its civilian population attacked and unlawful detention this later progressed to a genocide where the Tutsis in the country were violently killed. The most recent example is the Rohingya persecution in Myanmar where Rohingya Muslims were forcefully deported from Rakhine State by Myanmar’s military government. The Rohingya Muslims were denied from getting citizenships thus were considered as illegal immigrants and were driven out of the country to Bangladesh.


Ethnic cleansing occurs during a war which later escalates into genocide. At least this is the usual trend. The reason could be a community’s religion, race or colour which is discriminated in an area. It is accompanied by assault, unlawful deportation and attack on civilian population which is against the Geneva Convention and a war crime. The very idea of ethnic cleansing debases a value of human life and disregards every human right which every person regardless of their nationality is entitled to. The entire idea of ethnic cleansing is inhuman and a disgusting taint on humanity. Political parties tend to take advantage over nationalism to create a common enemy where the majority of the population can relate to it. Ethnic cleansing divides an already fragmented population of a country leading to more problems. There should be more stringent rules from the international laws laid down that condemn ethnic cleansing. Monitoring bodies such as the UN must make ethnic cleansing which occurs in various forms must be recognized.

10,000 Digits Of Pi

More often people complain about having a terrible memory, things like birthdays, anniversaries, grocery lists, etc. tend to slip off their minds. One might imagine memory like something set in stone but it is not the case, with the right technique you can train your brain to remember almost anything you want. A four-time USA Memory Champion, Nelson Dellis, who has memorized 10,000 digits of pi, the lists of hundreds of names after only one hearing, and the order of more than nine shuffled cards, says that anyone can improve their memory with a little dedication. Here are five steps that can help in training your brain to remember things.

Photo by meo on Pexels.com
  1. Start With Strong Images- Dellis suggests that to memorize anything, start turning it into an image. Let u take seven wonders of the world, for example, for the Great Wall of China you might just want to imagine a wall or for Petra of Jordan, you can just go for an image of your pet. Images that are weird or gross or emotional tend to stay in the brain for a longer time. When looking at the brain, researchers found that the amygdala—a part of the brain that is important for processing emotion—encourages other parts of the brain to store memories. That’s why strong emotions make it more likely that memories will stay.
  2. Put Those Images in a Location- Next, you have to locate those mental images in a setting that is familiar with you. Using Dellis’ example, he locates the seven wonders of the world on a route through his house, starting with a wall in his entryway, then Christ—representing Christ the Redeemer— lounging around on his sofa. He also mentions that the weirder the location, the better are the chances of staying in the memory. Linking images to a place are called the memory palace, which capitalizes on your existing memory of a real place. It is usually a place you are familiar with, which can be your house or workplace which you know very well. Neuro-imaging research has shown increased activity in the occipito-parietal area of the brain when learning memories using a memory palace. This technique helps the brain to bring in parts that are dedicated to other sense-the parietal lobe is responsible for navigation, and the occipital lobe is related to seeing images.
  3. Pay Attention- Memorizing seven wonders of the World is not as hard as memorizing 10,000 digits of pi or 100 names in one hearing, and doing that needs more motivation and more attention. According to Dellis, he motivates himself with the mantra “I want to memorize this”, it may be simple but this mantra helps him focus on the task by concentrating his attention on the task in hand and it helps him remember better.
  4. Break Things Up- For a long sequence of cards or a large number, it is a good technique to break things up into smaller sequences. Dellis says that it is easy to remember words as you can associate words easily with images but numbers or names or cards can be tricky, and for that, he has a technique that whenever we see a name or a number or a card, we already have an image preset for it.
  5. Finish Up by Reviewing– After getting the images and their location sorted in the memory, all we have to do is make sure that it stays in the brain. Most of the memories don’t even get to the long-term memory part of the brain and that is why it is important to repeat the information, again and again, to turn short-term memory into the long term. There is no shortcut for that, all you have to do is practice and persistence.

Training the brain is not as easy as it sounds or seems, it takes a lot of efforts, repetiton, hard work and training on a daily basis. Train hard, work hard, practice hard, then it can become instinctive, says the memory champion.

DISTANCE EDUCATION

What Is Distance Education?

Distance education is defined as the practice of using correspondence, either written or virtual, to learn. With this practice, a teacher in New York could provide instruction to students all over the United States and the world. This helps students access teachers who may live geographically too far away to attend a class; it also assists students who cannot take classes during traditional hours because of work or other responsibilities.

Growth of Correspondence Courses

By the late 1800 s, correspondence courses had taken off, especially in the United States. Colleges and universities began offering correspondence courses, including some large schools such as Baylor University and the University of Chicago. As popularity in distance education grew, so did the number of schools offering the courses. By the mid-1900 s, schools all around the world relied heavily on correspondence courses to supplement their on-campus student bodies.

THE TYPES OF DISTANCE EDUCATION :

  1. You have the option of pursuing a distance learning programme from the one and only national open university of India – the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) or any of the 13 state open universities in India.
  2. All distance programs must be approved by the Distance Education Bureau (DEB) of the University Grants Commission (UGC.) You can access the list of ODLs (Online and Distant Learning Institutes) that are currently approved by the DEB on their website.
  3. Distance learning has evolved a lot in the last couple decades. With advances in technology, distance learning now also includes online learning or e-learning.
  4. Post Graduate Diploma in Sustainability Science (PGDSS)
  5. Appreciation Programme on Sustainability Science (APSS)
  6. Post Graduate Diploma in Food Science and Technology (PGDFT)
  7. Post-Graduate Diploma in Food Safety and Quality Management (PGDFSQM)
  8. Though two degrees cannot generally be pursued simultaneously, a student can pursue two programmer simultaneously through the distance mode or combination of distance and regular modes from the same or different universities/institutions in the following various combinations:
  9. One Degree and one Diploma/PG Diploma/Certificate
  10. One P G Diploma and one Diploma/Certificate
  11. One Diploma and one Certificate
  12. Two PG Diplomas
  13. Two Diplomas
  14. Two Certificate
  15. 8.There are now many institutes/ colleges/ universities in India that offer only online courses. University 18 is such an example. It has been developed in a Public Private Partnership with national universities like Karnataka State Open University (KSOU), Uttarakhand Open University (UOU) and IIM Shillong. Another such 100 percent online education platform is UTS. You can submit assignments online, access an online library 24-7 and take exams online.

beST DISTANCE LEARNING PROGRAM :

Take the leap towards the next stage of your career with programs that have been thoughtfully designed for working professionals. They are structured and scheduled to allow for a fulfilling work life & study balance. Depending on the need and depth of up skills, students have an option to choose from specializations within following: Certificate programs, Diploma Programs, Professional Programs, PG Diploma Programs and Master Programs.

DURING PANDEMIC PERIOD DISTANCE EDUCATION AT HOME E LEARNING :

The idea of rolling out of bed and moving onto the couch to study in your pyjamas may have once sounded like a real dream come true. But in reality, the novelty will soon wear off (if it hasn’t already) as you realize you’re getting through more Netflix series than you are assignments and lecture notes.

Impact of COVID-19

Human life most important on Earth. It also face many natural and artificial problem.Disease is also one of them which is caused by various microorganisms like viruses, Bacteria, Fungi etc Now human is facing a viral disease COVID-19 also known as
Corona virus Disease 2019. Firstly it outbreak in Wuhan,China in December 2019. WHO declared it as a pandemic. Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) which causes illness in the respiratory system in the humans. It is the new virus that is impacting the whole world badly as it is spreading primarily through contact with the person. When an infected person meets with another person then by touches their nose, eyes, and mouth the virus can be spread. There is no current vaccines are made by the scientist which can prevent this disease. Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, these viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses include some cases of the common cold while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 There are as yet no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections.

Everyone wants to overcome from this disaster. COVID-19 badly impacted on Indian economy. It increases the rate of unemployment, interest rate, fiscal deficit. The import of electrical goods, clothes, is slided by 15%-25%. The export of raw materials like metal, cotton, jute, vegetables etc also decreased. Various institution and Experts presume India’s GDP growth is about 2%-4%.

Health Impact

The main issue in India is about the health care system that it is now one doctor available for 10000 population and improper facilities in government hospital and they are also lack of the adequate doctors, physicians, nurses etc other equipments. The poor “Health Literacy” is a big issue because , it is crucial tool in prevention of communicable disease. It will be easy to overcome if spreading the awareness among the people. Government is issuing the notification of the banning people gathering events, stay at home but due lack of awareness or poor Health-Literacy people not obeying it strictly. The other main issue is low medical infrastructures.

Social Impact

After the spreading of this pandemic people are facing challenges like improper delivery essential goods like food, rice, vegetables in rural or slum
area. The other major issue to the farming that presently is sowing season of rice, barley, arhar, maize etc if no gathering of workers are allowed so how the crops would sowed, harvested or processed. Persons, Children also facing mental stress or boredom during the lockdown due to COVID19. By the unknown lockdown tourist, migrants labourer stuck at these place is also a problem. The Event and ritual ceremony, marriage are also postponed.

Economic Impact

The loss of employment is also a major issue most of factories, industry, commercial centers are closed nearly unemployment rate is increased by 23% and daily wage workers are not getting job and they facing both pandemic and starvation. By the shutdown of companies, transport system and other economic activities leads to economic crisis. The government should allow few of them where there not gathering occurs to push step of the development and giving packages to smaller and cottage industry. Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced package of 1.75 lakh crore package for relief. The economic activity must be promoted by e-commerce, online broking and
in remote areas industry may open with proper preventive measures.

Academic Impact


The classes, semester, education system is also closed is also an issue and the other alternative method (like online classes, notes) of study is not much effective. It is big challenge to academic to continue it in original form or other alternative. The students are also facing mental stress, or anxiety, over thinking due in pandemic is also a big issue. It may become health problems to students or people because theyare no doing daily exercise, walking, playing games etc.

Legal Impact


There is also legal issue is arising by the lockdown in country it violates the human rights, right to life . People are beaten if they go outside for essentials or for morning walk. The court is not going on so it may result in the compilation of cases and petition. It can be disposed by online sessions. There is also legal problems that employees are not getting the compensation, allowance in shutdown. Due to COVID19 pandemic the performance of the many contracts delayed or interrupted.

There is also Psychological problems is also a challenge by remaining inside the home it bores the mind and by continuous watching news of COVID19 makes people panic. People fear in getting touch with any object, vegetables, or the other packets. At last we should not be panic in this situation.

We have must follow guidelines of the government and take precautions to
save us from the disease. Someone truly said prevention is better than cure so we must follow the preventive measures to protect us like washing or sanitising hands wearing masks , avoid public gatherings, covers mouth and nose while sneezing. If we stand together against it we firmly win over this pandemic.

Thanks

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN INDIA

There are many environmental issues in India. Air pollution, water pollution, garbage domestically prohibited goods and pollution of the natural environment are all challenges for India. Nature is also causing some drastic effects on India.

Environmental issues are one of the primary causes of disease, health issues and long term livelihood impact for India.
Major environmental issues are forests and agricultural degradation of land, resource depletion (such as water, mineral, forest, sand, and rocks), environmental degradation, public health, loss of biodiversity, loss of resilience in ecosystems, livelihood security for the poor.

The major sources of pollution in India include the rapid burning of fuel wood and biomass such as dried waste from livestock as the primary source of energy, lack of organized garbage and waste removal services, lack of sewage treatment operations, lack of flood control and monsoon water drainage system, diversion of consumer waste into rivers, cremation practices near major rivers etc.

Air pollution, poor management of waste, growing water scarcity, falling groundwater tables, water pollution, preservation and quality of forests, biodiversity loss, and land/soil degradation are some of the major environmental issues India faces today.

India’s population growth adds pressure to environmental issues and its resources. Rapid urbanization has caused a buildup of heavy metals in the soil and these metals are being ingested through contaminated vegetables. Heavy metals are hazardous to people’s health and are known carcinogens.
According to a British thinker Malthus, a growing population exerts pressure on agricultural land, causing environmental degradation, and forcing the cultivation of land of higher as well as poorer quality. This environmental degradation ultimately reduces agricultural yields and food availability, famines and diseases and death.

Population growth, is also seen as a major cause of air, water, and solid-waste pollution.

Some measure issues which affect the environment-


WATER POLLUTION
India has major water pollution issues. Discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that are exist do not operate and are not maintained. The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. The uncollected wastes accumulate in the urban areas cause unhygienic conditions and release pollutants that leaches to surface and groundwater.

According to a World Health Organization study, out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 had partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities (1992). Over 100 Indian cities dump untreated sewage directly into the Ganges River.
Other sources of water pollution include agriculture run off and small scale factories along the rivers and lakes of India. Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture in northwest have been found in rivers, lakes and ground water. Flooding during monsoons worsens India’s water pollution problem, as it washes and moves all sorts of solid garbage and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.

• AIR POLLUTION
Surveys suggest over 100 million households in India use such stoves (chullahs) every day, 2–3 times a day. It is a major source of air pollution in India, and produces smoke and numerous indoor air pollutants at concentrations 5 times higher than coal. Clean burning fuels and electricity are unavailable in rural parts and small towns of India because of poor rural highways and limited energy generation infrastructure.
Air pollution in India is a serious issue with the major sources being fuel wood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. These biomass-based household stoves in India are also a leading source of greenhouse emissions contributing to climate change.

In other states of India, rice straw and other crop residue burning in open is a major source of air pollution.

Vehicle emissions are another source of air pollution.

SOLID WASTE POLLUTION
Trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India. It is a major source of pollution. Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year. Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps.
In part, India’s garbage crisis is from rising congestion. India’s waste problem also points to a stunning failure of governance. The tourism regions in the country mainly hill stations are also facing this issue in the recent years.

Even medical waste, theoretically controlled by stringent rules that require hospitals to operate incinerators, is routinely dumped with regular municipal garbage. A recent study found that about half of India’s medical waste is improperly disposed of.

Some of the few solid waste landfills India has, near its major cities, are overflowing and poorly managed. They have become significant sources of greenhouse emissions and breeding sites for disease vectors such as flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, rats, and so on.

NOISE POLLUTION
Noise pollution or noise disturbance is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. Noise-wise India can be termed as the most polluted country in the world. The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly caused by machines and transportation systems, motor vehicles, aircraft, and trains. In India the outdoor noise is also caused by loud music during festival seasons. Outdoor noise is summarized by the word environmental noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential areas.

Indoor noise can be caused by machines, building activities, and music performances, especially in some workplaces. Noise-induced hearing loss can be caused by outside (e.g. trains) or inside (e.g. music) noise.

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS
India was the third largest emitter of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, in 2009 at 1.65 Gt per year, after China and the United States . With 17 percent of world population, India contributed some 5 percent of human-sourced carbon dioxide emission; compared to China’s 24 percent share. On per capita basis, India emitted about 1.4 tons of carbon dioxide per person, in comparison to the United States’ 17 tons per person, and a world average of 5.3 tons per person

THE CURIOUS CASE OF CHANGE

Change is evolution by every person on the universe. It is the law of the universe to change. Physical change or personality change, we change for the better or the worse. Sometimes we change for the betterment of others or ourselves but mostly change is noticed by others than ourselves. Every time we change there is a different outlook on life, love and friends. We acquire a new perspective on the same things around us. Every time we change we don’t notice that we have upgraded to a new personality. There are hard sides to change, some people will leave you or you can outgrow each other. We notice only when we are acquainted about it when someone says that we have become different or something has changed about us. Change happens over time, over a series of situations. There isn’t a certain event to trigger a change or you will decide to change. Change can be confusing or threatening to what you were once but it’s inevitable. It’s different for everybody. It isn’t easy for everyone either. Change isn’t necessarily accepted by everyone because we always fall in love with a person when our vibes flow in one direction and when we change so does our vibe. When the vibes don’t sync, people end up on different terms with each other on life, that’s why we grow distant Change also makes sure that you are staying on top of your game. You become the person who you want to be when you change because of your own motivation. It’s integrating yourself to change that will make it an easier process. Change more importantly helps you move on. You find different coping mechanisms to get better and become a better version of yourself. Change means progress in your life. It’s the only way you will leave your comfort zone and move on. Change is what humanity has always done best. It is a huge part of our life. Change documents our journey. It makes you realize that you are worthy because you are more evolved than your previous version. It is an important and undeniable part of life regardless of time. All you can do is to embrace change.
Your friends, family and main people fell in love with the old you. Your friends made friends with the old you not the new you. Change doesn’t always end like this, maybe with enough trust and love. You turn into a better person than before. The older you get the more you understand that change is life. That’s the gamble everyone takes in life, a gamble we make using ourselves to be a better person, to end up successful in life, to have the life that we have envisioned to be as a kid or rich or just perfect to according to our standards, to have dreams, hopes, happiness or love but more importantly, we will change for yourselves or for the people you love but ultimately everything will change with time.

LITERACY IN INDIA

Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, Despite government programs, India’s literacy rate increased only “sluggishly”. The 2011 census, indicated a 2001–2011 decadal literacy growth of 9.2%, which is slower than the growth seen during the previous decade.


There is a wide gender disparity in the literacy rate in India: effective literacy rates (age 7 and above) in 2011 were 82.14% for men and 65.46% for women. The census provided a positive indication that growth in female literacy rates (11.8%) was substantially faster than in male literacy rates (6.9%) in the 2001–2011 decadal period, which means the gender gap appears to be narrowing.
One of the main factors contributing to this relatively low literacy rate is usefulness of education and availability of schools in vicinity in rural areas. There is a shortage of classrooms to accommodate all the students in 2006–2007. In addition, there is no proper sanitation in most schools. The study of 188 government-run primary schools in central and northern India revealed that 59% of the schools had no drinking water facility and 89% no toilets. In 600,000 villages and multiplying urban slum habitats, ‘free and compulsory education’ is the basic literacy instruction dispensed by barely qualified ‘para teachers’. The average pupil teacher ratio for all India is 42:1, implying a teacher shortage. Such inadequacies resulted in a non-standardized school system where literacy rates may differ. Furthermore, the expenditure allocated to education was never above 4.3% of the GDP from 1951 to 2002 despite the target of 6% by the Kothari Commission. This further complicates the literacy problem in India. Several caste disparities also exist. Discrimination of lower castes has resulted in high dropout rates and low enrollment rates. The National Sample Survey Organization and the National Family Health Survey collected data in India on the percentage of children completing primary school which are reported to be only 36.8% and 37.7% respectively. On 21 February 2005, the Prime Minister of India said that he was pained to note that “only 47 out of 100 children enrolled in class I reach class VIII, putting the dropout rate at 52.78 percent.” It is estimated that at least 35 million, and possibly as many as 60 million, children aged 6–14 years are not in school.

The large proportion of illiterate females is another reason for the low literacy rate in India. Inequality based on gender differences resulted in female literacy rates being lower at 65.46% than that of their male counterparts at 82.14%. Due to strong stereotyping of female and male roles, Sons are thought of to be more useful and hence are educated. Females are pulled to help out on agricultural farms at home as they are increasingly replacing the males on such activities which require no formal education. Fewer than 2% of girls who engaged in agriculture work attended school. The provision of universal and compulsory education for all children in the age group of 6–14 was a cherished national ideal and had been given overriding priority by incorporation as a Directive Policy in Article 45 of the Constitution, but it is still to be achieved more than half a century since the Constitution was adopted in 1949. Parliament has passed the Constitution 86th Amendment Act, 2002, to make elementary education a Fundamental Right for children in the age group of 6–14 years.

Several states in India have executed successful programs to boost literacy rates:
• Bihar has significantly raised the literacy rate as per the 2011 census. The literacy rate has risen from 39% in 1991 to 47% in 2001 to 63.8% in 2011. The Government of Bihar has launched several programs to boost literacy, and its Department of Adult Education won a UNESCO award in 1981.


• Presently Tripura has the third highest literacy rate in India. According to the 2011 census, literacy level was 93.91 percent in Kerala and 91.58 percent in Mizoram, among the most literate states in the country. The national literacy rate, according to the 2011 census, was 74.04 percent.
projects implemented by the state government of Tripura to increase literacy in the state are:
10,000 Anganwadi centers have 100 percent enrollment.
Policy of no-fail till class VIII to prevent children from dropping out.
Midday meals in all schools with an eclectic menu for all days of the week to attract more students.
No tuition fee in government colleges.

• In Kerala a special program – titled improved pace and content learning (IPCL) – has been designed to provide basic education to such people. Kerala topped the Education Development Index (EDI) among 21 major states in India in the year 2006–2007. More than 94% of the rural population has access to a primary school within 1 km, while 98% of the population benefits one school within a distance of 2 km. An upper primary school within a distance of 3 km is available for more than 96% of the people, whose 98% benefit the facility for secondary education within 8 km. The access for rural students to higher educational institutions in cities is facilitated by widely subsidized transport fares. Kerala’s educational system has been developed by institutions owned or aided by the government. In the educational system prevailed in the state, schooling is for 10 years which is subdivided into lower primary, upper primary and high school. After 10 years of secondary schooling, students typically enroll in Higher Secondary Schooling in one of the three major streams— liberal arts, commerce or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students can enroll in general or professional undergraduate programs. Kerala launched a “campaign for total literacy” in Ernakulam district in the late 1980s, with a “fusion between the district administration headed by its collector on one side and, on the other side, voluntary groups, social activists and others”. Kala Jāthas (cultural troupes) and Sāksharata Pada Yātras (Literacy Foot Marches) were organized to generate awareness of the campaign and create a receptive social atmosphere for the program.

  • Himachal Pradesh underwent a “Schooling Revolution” in the 1961–2001 period that has been called “even more impressive than Kerala’s.”


• The government of Mizoram identified illiterates and organized an administrative structure that engaged officials and community leaders and manned by “animators” who were responsible for teaching five illiterates each. Mizoram established 360 continuing education centers to handle continued education beyond the initial literacy teaching and to provide an educational safety net for school drop-outs.


• Tamil Nadu’s midday meal program is among the best-known in the country. Starting in 1982, Tamil Nadu took an approach to promote literacy based on free lunches for schoolchildren, “ignoring cynics who said it was an electoral gimmick and economists who said it made little fiscal sense.” Then the chief minister of Tamil Nadu, MGR launched the program, which resembled a similar initiative in 19th century Japan, because “he had experienced as a child what it was like to go hungry to school with the family having no money to buy food”.

GOVERNMENT EFFORTS:


NATIONAL LITERACY MISSION
The National Literacy Mission, launched in 1988, aimed at attaining a literacy rate of 75 per cent by 2007. Its charter is to impart functional literacy to non-literates in the age group of 35–75 years. The Total Literacy Campaign is their principal strategy for the eradication of illiteracy. The Continuing Education Scheme provides a learning continuum to the efforts of the Total Literacy and Post Literacy programs.

SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN
The Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Hindi for Total Literacy Campaign) was launched in 2001 to ensure that all children in the 6–14-year age-group attend school and complete eight years of schooling by 2010. An important component of the scheme is the Education Guarantee Scheme and Alternative and Innovative Education, meant primarily for children in areas with no formal school within a one-kilometer radius. The centrally sponsored District Primary Education Programme, launched in 1994, had opened more than 160,000 new schools by 2005, including almost 84,000 alternative schools.

Do we choose our problems ?

Everything in life happens by our choice. Life is a struggle and we pick something on the go and hold it as a treasure. These belongings limit us from attaining the spiritual enlightenment. Now you are at a certain point in your life and you have the liberty to make wise choices and proceed to the path of liberation.

To think about a situation or a problem as being everything, is called a worry. Worries are not easy to get rid of. Everyone experiences worries now and then. To worry is the same as taking the matter into your own hands. It is wrong to take matters into your own hands. Each and every God has said that people should not worry and that we have to leave everything to Him.You cannot experience anything amidst your worries. Experience (of God) and worrying are never together. You will have the experience once these worries disappear.

Worry is the greatest ego – Real peace should be with you forever. You cannot experience God in the presence of worries. Worry is the greatest ego. A person who believes, “I am running this, I am doing it,” will suffer from worries. The person, who does not have faith in God, will be the one who worries.

Worry is an open fire – Worry is a fire. One becomes consumed with anxieties that something bad may happen. Once in a while there arises an opportunity for a human being to become an individual with imposing values but if he wastes away his human life worrying, then he will lose the right to be born a human again. Grave indeed is the consequence of not realizing this. The path of liberation starts the moment you stop worrying. Until attaining the spiritual experience of the Lord, the fire of worries continues to burn and people burn in the fire of worries just like potatoes roasting in a fire pit. Such is the life of those who worry.

Spiritual Enlightenment – Bliss follows when worries stop. When worries no longer occur, then all entanglements will diminish. You will experience bliss in the absence of worries and in the midst of all external turmoil. It is then that you will realize that the true entanglements are gone. It will not come just like that. Bliss will only come after the spiritual enlightenment or the Eternal Spirit untangles all your puzzles, and at that point, you will experience bliss and it will remain with you. A life free from worries is a desirable one for all of us , is it not?

Nothing in this world is worth worrying about, not even for a second. Now face those entanglements and bring a solution to them.“Oppose adverse circumstances, look for solutions, but do not worry.” Double punishment for those who worry God says that there are two punishments for those who worry and just one for those who do not. If you worry about a task, you ruin it. Nature tells us to put forth tremendous effort in order to accomplish a difficult task. The one who worries takes the reins into his own hands and believes, ‘I am the one who is making it work!’ .Dependence on the non-Self (complex of thoughts, speech and actions) results in worry. You will have to leave behind all your materialistic possessions and relations when you leave this world. During this final stage in your life, no one will have the power to do anything. The only things you will be allowed to take with you are your paap (bad deeds) and punya (good deeds). To put it simply, a list of whatever rights and wrongs you have done here, will accompany you. The monetary earnings gained from those crimes will remain here and the case will continue in the next life. As a result of these accumulated karma you will acquire a new body and you will have to start afresh to pay off the debts you created in your this life. So why not wake up from the beginning? Worries actually harm your health and obstruct whatever is due to you.

The final words….

If you truly had faith in God, you would leave everything to him and sleep soundly. There is so much going on inside of you (such as digestion etc) that requires care, and yet you worry about what is happening on the outside. God is doing all the great work inside, and all the outside work is minor in comparison to this. You claim that you are doing all the work, so naturally God will feel bad! Worries arise because of this ego of ‘doership’. The person, who worries, is egoistic. Leave everything to God , Surrender yourself to HIM and stop worrying. Then  you will realize God, so that your worries will be gone forever.

THE REALISATION OF LIFE

Man has every day to solve his problems and adjusting his burdens. His burdens are many, too numerous for him to carry, but he knows that by adopting a system he can lighten the weight of his load. Whenever they feel too complicated , he starts to search for a system to set everything in place and distribute the weight evenly. This search for system is really a search for unity, for synthesis; it is our attempt to harmonize the heterogeneous complexity of outward materials by an inner adjustment. All our egoistic impulses, our selfish desires, hide our true vision of the soul. For they only indicate our own narrow self. When we are conscious of our soul, we perceive the inner being that transcends our ego and has its deeper affinity with the All.

Teachings of Jesus and Buddha

When Jesus said, “Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth,” he meant this. He proclaimed the truth that when man gets rid of his pride of self then he comes into his true inheritance. No more has he to fight his way into his position in the world; it is secure for him everywhere by the immortal right of his soul. Pride of self interferes with the proper function of the soul which is to realise itself by perfecting its union with the world and the world’s God.  Jesus also says in his teachings, “It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of Heaven” – which implies that whatever we treasure for ourselves separates us from others; our possessions are our limitations. He who is bent upon accumulating riches is unable, with his ego continually bulging, to pass through the gates of comprehension of the spiritual world, which is the world of perfect harmony; he is shut up within the narrow walls of his limited acquisitions.

Buddha says, It is true, that I denounce activities, but only the activities that lead to the evil in words, thoughts, or deeds. It is true,  that I preach extinction, but only the extinction of pride, lust, evil thought, and ignorance, not that of forgiveness, love, charity, and truth.

Eternal Spirit – the light of a consciousness

The man of science knows, in one aspect, that the world is not merely what it appears to be to our senses; he knows that earth and water are really the play of forces that manifest themselves to us as earth and water . Likewise the man who has his spiritual eyes open knows that the ultimate truth about earth and water lies in our apprehension of the eternal  which works in time and takes shape in the forces we realize under those aspects. Unlike science, this is not a mere knowledge, but it is a perception of the soul by the soul. This does not lead us to power, as knowledge does, but it gives us joy, which is the product of the union of kindred things. The man with the spiritual vision understands deeply these natural phenomena. The water does not merely cleanse his limbs, but it purifies his heart; for it touches his soul. The earth does not merely hold his body, but it gladdens his mind; for its contact is more than a physical contact – it is a living presence.

When a man does not realise his kinship with the world, he lives in a prison-house whose walls are alien to him. When he meets the eternal spirit in all objects,  for then he discovers the fullest significance of the world into which he is born; then he finds himself in perfect truth, and his harmony with the all is established. Thus the text of our everyday meditation is the Gayatri, a verse which is considered to be the epitome of all the Vedas. By its help we try to realize the essential unity of the world with the conscious soul of man; we learn to perceive the unity held together by the one Eternal Spirit, whose power creates the earth, the sky, and the stars, and at the same time irradiates our minds with the light of a consciousness that moves and exists in unbroken continuity with the outer world.

“Sadhana – The Realisation of Life” is a breathtaking collection of spiritual discourses given by Rabindranath Tagore in West Bengal. To him the verses of the Upanishads and the teachings of Buddha have ever been things of the spirit, and therefore endowed with boundless vital growth;A repository of the timeless wisdom of the East, Sadhana is one of the most profound books on spirituality that you will ever read!  It is highly recommended as a starter book to any seeker of spiritual wisdom.

Please refer this book to explore further on this topic – “Sadhana – The Realisation of Life” .It is available as a downloadable free e-book (in PDF format also) online.

PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACTS DUE TO LOCKDOWN

Well before i start this article, let me mention to you that this is just my point of view on the current situation.So as we all know it’s a tough period that the entire world is currently facing ,it’s necessary for all of us to keep our physical and mental health stable.We all know the physical impact of the pandemic , here i’d like to mention a few psychological impacts the pandemic has on society.

Firstly, let’s talk about the lack of patience that has  been shown by the people of all the age categories.I’ve seen people being impatient on the matters which they would usually not consider even paying attention to.This is affecting the marital status of the couple ,divorce rate has been massively increasing due to the intolerant behaviour between the husband and the wife.Parents losing their minds on their own kids who are just unaware of their mistakes.Also, lets not forget how the adults have been treating their old aged parents,a feeling of parents being a  burden has risen in the mindsets of the children.

Secondly, due to the pandemic many of the employees are on the verge of losing their jobs, well that doesn’t mean they are supposed to show the frustration of their work on the family and society, it’s happening, there are many cases where violence has taken place due to the frustration of husbands or wives on their spouses.Not to forget that people are not hesitant to take  others life just for the sake of money, because they don’t have any source of income .Government has been implying many plans to provide food and shelter for ones in need but not everyone are being are part of this privilege provided by the government.

Thirdly, I would want  you to know  about the number of cases which includes self harm,suicides, depression etc. We live in a society where people take hours posting about mental health and how they are there for the ones who need them  but, cannot take 2 seconds of their life to pick up a call from a person who is suffering from the same disease they mentioned in their posts.We witnessed some of the most shocking suicides in this period of lockdown like Sushanth Singh Rajput who gave an amazing performance in movies like MS Dhoni nand Chichore.

Fourthly, I’d like to mention some of the cruel acts that took place due to the rumours spread in the quarantine.Doctors and Nurses who are treating us during this time are being harassed by few people in the society because of the the fact that they have a lot of chances of spreading the virus because they come in contact with the patients.Such rumours are spread by people from our very own society ,well they are not to be completely blamed because it’s the fear that’s being built in the mindset of every person that’s leading them to take such  steps.

I would like to conclude by saying that at the end of the day we must not forget the fact that we are humans and only we can help our fellow beings.Let’s all stand united in fighting the pandemic and stay mentally stable and not take any step that we might regret in the future.

The dark side of Indian Marriages

Well, before i start this article, let me mention to you that this is just my point of view on the current situation.What comes to your mind when i say the word wedding or marriage?Let me tell you what comes to my mind when i hear this word ‘wedding’,firstly,it’s a celebration  especially the indian weddings, people literally wait for this moment probably their whole lives.Its a gathering of people who are present to wish the newly wedded couple.Well, this was just a jist of the positive aspects of the wedding little do we focus  on the dark side of the wedding .The major practice that few of them still follow is the taking of dowry.In india dowry was abolished according to the ‘Dowry Prohibition Act’ in the year 1961.Even after that we can still see people receiving dowry more like people demanding for dowry,loans are being taken just to give dowry to the groom’s family, not just that, in few places if the dowry fullfillment hasn’t been made the inlaws dont hesitate to torture the bride, which has led to suicides and even murder of the girls.Talking about ‘marriage’ i feel it is not the same as wedding because wedding is a celebration or a ceremony where two people are united for the social acceptance of the two whereas marriage is a lifelong wedlock between the two it involves loving each other ,compromising for one another,sacrifising etc.It takes many people for the success of a wedding but it just takes two of them to make a marriage successful.I would also like to mention the cruelty being shown by the people when it comes to the intercaste or inter religion marriages .Honestly,somewhere it is still not accepted as easily as the same caste or religion marriages.We still live in that stereotypic society where all humans are not considered one, there is discrimination against people based on their caste and religion.A few days ago i just read a news where a boy in punjab was tied to a tree and was thrashed mercilessly for daring to fall in love with a girl of different caste,shocking!I also read another news where the father killed his own daughter for falling in love with a man of a different caste.In the above mentioned cases all they did was to  dare to love the other.It is really heartbreaking to come across such scenarios, where the innocents are being punished like the criminals and the criminals who have been committing crimes like rape,murder,acid attacks etc are freed, and it takes 5 and more years for the people to decide if they are to be punished for example the ‘Nirbhaya’ case.I hope there is a change in  the mindsets of people in the society and hope for them to live in peace and harmony. Love is not a crime, it is our human right, to love the person we want to. 

Self-sabotaging:Is it different from failure?

First, let’s start off with what does self-sabotaging actually mean. A behavior is said to be self-sabotaging, when it holds you back from doing what you actually want to do, it undermines your goals. How different is self-sabotaging from failure? We’ll when you fail to complete or achieve something because of certain external factors or because you just didn’t work the right way it’s called failure but self-sabotaging is something to do with your inner thoughts or behavioural pattern that causes you to fail. 

There are mainly two types of self-sabotaging behaviour:- 

1. Conscious self-sabotage:- It happens when you are aware that your behaviour is keeping you away from what you want to do and achieve your goals. Example:- You know that your mum asked you to buy some groceries that she needs but you end up playing your video games instead. 2. Unconscious self-sabotage:- It happens when you behavioural patterns keep you away from doing what you want to do or in achieving your goals indirectly and you realise it later. Example:- Students who fear failing often either come always late to classes or do not perform well in exams wantedly to avoid the expectations of the teachers and students. Higher expectations lead to more pain when not succeeded. 

Let’s have a look at few forms of self-sabotaging behaviours commonly seen:- 

1. Procrastination:- As human beings, we all have procrastinated at some point of our lives, or we still continue to do so. We often delay our school assignments, or the work assigned by our bosses in office, or have delayed some work even though we know we have to do it, this is a very common form of self-sabotaging often shown by most of us. It does no good to us but still we consciously choose to procrastinate. 2. Abuse of substances;- People often drink and smoke a lot and even use drugs. These may give you short term satisfaction but it creates a lot of problems. People tend to drink and use drugs, if they’ve gone through a tough time at work or college, but that does not entirely negate the problem. You might not be able to enjoy your time with friends and family because you’re drunk . 3. Stress eating:- When a lot of people face problems, they end up eating a lot out of stress, but this doesn’t help them at all . For a short period of time it might give you the comfort you require, but it ends up ruining your health. 

Conclusion:- 

Self-sabotaging can go a long way in creating problems for you. The only one that can stop it is you. We show this behaviour typically in three situations:- 

1. When you realise that everything is going good but you somehow try and spoil it 

yourself. 2. When you work hard to achieve something and you destroy it as soon as you come 

close to it. 3. When it’s time to stand up and speak for yourself but you instead keep mum about 

the situation. 

If you want to stop self-sabotaging, you must realise the purpose it has in your life, and what it does to you. You must practice facing difficult situations in life and even failure. You must try finding alternative behaviours to fill in. The best way to stop this is aiming to improve your good habits, rather than just eliminating self-sabotaging behaviour you possess.

Galaxy – A cluster of masses

A galaxy is the collection of stars, stellar remnants, gases, dust and dark matter all bound together by gravity. The Earth, the planet in which we live, is in a galaxy called ‘The Milky Way’. Galaxies are of various shapes and sizes.  A galaxy which has stars ranging from a hundred million to few billion is called a dwarf galaxy. These galaxies are small as compared to other galaxies. Scientists confirm that the Milky Way galaxy has about four hundred billion stars. The IC 1101 is a super-giant galaxy, which has about hundred trillion stars. These stars orbit around the galaxy’s center of mass, which are thought be massive black holes. A galaxy can be elliptical (ellipse shaped), spiral (disk shaped with arms) or irregular in shape. The Milky Way galaxy is spiral shaped.

The size of a galaxy ranges from 1,000 to 1, 00,000 parsecs in diameter and are separated by millions of parsecs from each other. The Milky Way galaxy is thirty thousand parsecs in diameter. 1 parsec is approximately equal to 31 trillion kilometers. The spaces between galaxies are filled with gases. All the galaxies identified by man are organized into groups, cluster and superclusters. 

If you like watching stars at night, you are looking at the stars that belong to the Milky Way galaxy. On dark, cloudless nights especially in the northern hemisphere, you can see bands of the Milky Way galaxy stretch across the sky.

Galaxies are constantly moving, at nearly 600 – 850 kilometers per second. Some are moving away from each other, which in turn mean that they are moving towards other galaxies. The Milky Way galaxy will also collide with other galaxies, but since they are trillions of kilometers apart from the nearest galaxy, this will not happen in the near future. 

Astronomers observe galaxies or any heavenly bodies by the use of a very powerful telescope, in observatories. The Hubble telescope is a power space telescope which constantly observes the universe for new discoveries.

Every galaxy has its own magnetic field. They are strong enough to drive mass inflow into the centers of galaxies. They can modify the spiral arm formation of spiral shaped galaxies. Magnetic fields are highly in formation of new stars, as they provide for angular momentum required for collapsing gas clouds.

Spiral galaxies produce new generations of stars, as they have dense molecular clouds of interstellar hydrogen in their spiral arms. Star forming materials are not available in abundance, so once a star is formed, the available supply of hydrogen is reduced and formation is new stars must wait until the level of hydrogen is increased. There is something called as a dark galaxy. These are hypothesized galaxies with none or very few stars. Dragonfly 44 is an ultra-diffuse galaxy with has the same mass of the Milky Way galaxy but with nearly no discernable stars and is completely made of dark matter.  

Scientists tell that the universe is constantly expanding; this is hard to observe during one’s lifetime, as it takes millions of years to do so. Hence constant research must made and passed down to future scientists. 

SOUTH INDIAN DELICACIES

South India primarily consists of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Telangana and Puducherry. Now that we know the Indian states that form South India, let us learn about the amazing cuisines available here. From crispy dosas to spicy biryanis, these cuisines will certainly make your taste buds wanting for more.

If you decide to visit the southern states of India, you are in for a treat. The food here is delicious, be it vegetarian or non-vegetarian dishes, the variety is extensive. The staple food in this region is rice; you have rice in almost everything. Some are steamed; some are grinded to make a fine paste or batter to make idlis or dosas. The food is mainly spicy here, because lots of spices are cultivated in this region and also exported to other places from centuries. All the states in this region have coasts, so fresh sea food is abundant. Fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals and many varieties of crops are grown in this region. So the cuisine is not limited to a few ingredients.

 Let me now see the most popular dishes available here.

Dosa: There are almost a hundred varieties of dosas made. It is a traditional breakfast food made of fermented rice and lentil batter. The most popular type of dosa is Masala dosa, which is an extra crispy dosa, with a spicy paste applied inside. It is stuffed with mashed potato called as palya and served with chutney and sambar. Other varieties include onion dosa (dosa with lots of onion served with vegetable curry and chutney), set dosa (just like pan cakes), rava dosa and plain dosa. Other varieties are inspired.

Idly and Vada: Idly and vadas are also breakfast items. Just like dosas, idly is also batter made of fermented rice and lentils, but unlike dosas this one is steamed. The result is a soft, fluffy, round delicious idlies. Vada is shaped just like donut, but it is savory and fried. They are a fantastic combo, often served with chutney and sambar.

Biryani: Be it chicken, mutton, egg or fish; biryani is by far the most popular and most consumed food among non-vegetarians. It has a lot of varieties, just like any other food item. Done Biryani in Karnataka, Chettinad Biryani in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, Malabar Biryani in Kerala and Hyderabadi biryani in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, which is the most popular one. Biryani is a mixture of spices, rice, vegetable, dry fruits and tender meat, all steamed together to produce a mouthwatering dish. It is often served with raita (spicy curd with onions), eggplant curry or any type of spicy gravy.

South Indian Meals: A wide variety of food items. It is a pure vegetarian dish. Let me name a few, white rice, poori, chapathy, vegetable pulao, spicy vegetable mixture (called palya), sambar, rasam, curd, pickles, papad, payasam (any type of sweet) to name a few. It is eaten as lunch or dinner.

There are many different types of food, specific to that region also. Here we have seen the most popular food items that are also common in these areas. 

Sky watching can lead you to a magical place. Do you believe that?

How many of you as kids would look up to the sky and wonder where the stars came from?,or why do stars twinkle?, or why can we just see them in the night time?. Well I guess that makes all of us. The night sky along with its stars and planets, have always been magical and mysterious, in some ways. Do you remember the nursery rhyme ‘twinkle twinkle little star’?. It was not a topic for just older people, people of all age groups still watch and admire the night sky, and all the elements it carries. Sky watching at night, also somehow makes us forget our problems, and worries, how magically it  takes us to a different dimension, without any problems. Do you know that we can also see different planets at night from planet earth?. You don’t often need a telescope for that,with a little bit of knowledge about it, and a little bit of analysing skills, you can see them clearly. Stars are of different kinds, shapes, sizes and sometimes colour too. 

So, what is the colour of a star, and how are they different from planets?

To answer this question, let us first look at what a star is. Star is an astronomical object consisting of, luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity. Sun is also a star and the closest one to earth. Fusion of hydrogen into helium into its core makes the star shine. There are seven main types of stars O, B,A,F,G,K and M. Red, orange , yellow, green , white and blue are the colours of the stars. A dead star is called a white dwarf. The stars are different from the planets, as stars have a higher temperature, and they radiate energy, and are more brighter than the planets. Stars also twinkle unlike the planets, and stars also stay in the same position, but the planets do not. Sometimes, in order to observe certain stars and planets carefully, you require a telescope or a binocular. 

How to observe the sky?

To observe the sky , we first must have a general idea about the sky, it’s stars and planets as well, this will help us in having a better and an easy start. The next thing is, finding out a perfect location to sky gaze,as not all the places can show you, what the sky holds clearly. We also can make use of telescopes and binoculars for further clarity. Make sure you are comfortable, and then peacefully start it. Safety is very important , so try avoiding looking at the  sun, in the day-time, it can have serious after effects. The stars and the planets start moving from the eastern horizon, and set on the western horizon, just like the sun. Simply, naked-eye gazing can show you, wonders of the sky. The sky holds much more than we can ever imagine. So once you start observing it, there is no end to your learning.

Is Ageism the new Racism?

Ageism, that is also known as age discrimination is the unfair treatment of older people, because of their age. This is a very common problem, which never really ages. It’s usually the so-called youths of today’s society, who often display this rude behaviour. Growing up, our parents and our teachers have always taught us to be kind and helpful, to the older pack of this world, respect them for their long journey and admire them for having survived this harsh and tough world. But as the time is passing, we are all leaving behind the values instilled in us. They not just face discrimination from today’s youth, but also in their work place or wherever they go they are subjected to discrimination. Personally growing up as a Indian, my mother not only always taught me to respect and help the elderly just like every parent did, but also upheld good examples that I can carry throughout my life. All of you reading this would have ignored, or have refrained yourself from helping the elderly, at least once. It might have occurred, when you stopped yourself from giving an elderly person your seat, while traveling in a bus, or when you ignored an elderly person, who needed help, in climbing the stairs.

Some examples of ageism:-

  • Losing their jobs, because the employer feels that their aging, would become an obstacle to their work.
  • Not being entrusted with any major work at home,by their children or grandchildren, who feel they are incapable to do so.
  • Not being given new credit cards, or insurances like travel insurance etc, because of their age.
  • Receiving a very poor service, either at a restaurant or at the place of purchase, because of their age, not to forget being mistreated by them as well.
  • Being mistreated by doctors and staff at the hospitals, who do not respect them, because of their age.

How does the law protect the elderly from Ageism:- 

There is no codified law on basis of age discrimination in India, but our constitution guarantees us equal protection under law, and protection of every individual from discrimination on various grounds such as, religion, caste, sex or place of birth, under Article 15 of Indian constitution. However there is no inclusion of discrimination of age in this article. Our country still has no law as such in place, and in a country like India where one of the major economic problems is unemployment, they cannot afford to keep the elderly in their jobs.

Conclusion:-

It is our duty as fellow human beings, to love,care and respect each other, especially the elderly. Age discrimination can cause a lot of psychological problems to the elderly, they may loose confidence in their abilities, and stop living their life, the way they want to, it will surely make them lonely and depressed. Ageism is increasing day by day, and people must realise that age is not static, and one day we’ll all grow old and weary and be treated the same way by the generations to come. This is not a cycle we all should be proud of, this should stop. We need to educate ourselves and others around us about the vicious cycle of ageism. It’s time to bring up the values deeply rooted in us, and be wise in realising that, being rude does not equate to being cool. 

COMEDY

Comedy is an art form to entertain people with funny content. Comedy makes people laugh or at least it removes the frown from a gloomy face. Comedy is often expressed in many forms mainly through books, theatre, film, television and stand-up comedy. Comedy is always done at the expense of someone or something. Sometimes the comedian makes fun of himself to make others laugh or he might make fun of someone else. So if comedy hurts your feeling in any way, laugh it off. Comedy too, has its limits on how far the comedian takes a joke. It must always be funny or at least help you relax but never make you feel uncomfortable. 

Being a comedian is a tough task because he must always keep coming up with new ideas and not keep performing the same routine repeatedly. A comedian must have the ability to read the room and must always adapt instantly. 

Comedy is of multiple genres based on the source of humor, the method of delivery and its context. Most of the comedy fits into multiple genres. Let us see few genres below:

Farce: Farce is a comedy that entertains people through situations that are highly exaggerated and improbable. It is characterized by physical humor, drunkenness and use of deliberate absurdity. It is usually written for the stage. Few examples in this category are mockery of rich people, mistaken identity and constant falling depicting that the person is drunk.

Comedy of manners: This comedy deals with the behavior of people. This type of comedy has a satiric tone to it. The comedian uses witty language to expose the unwanted hype and proudness of the upper-class society. The basic abstract of this genre in that even though the upper-class people give a vibe that they are better than others, they too are immoral; they too live a life full of scandals.

Burlesque: This type of comedy is intended to cause humor by mocking something or an issue with a serious note. Here the comedian imitates a serious subject in a comic and humorous way. Parody is the best example. This version has two types; high burlesque, where a dignified subject is portrayed as low or undignified version whereas the low burlesque portrays a subject of low importance as highly important. Some examples are parody movies, for example “The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe” is an emotional movie whereas “The Epic Movie” is its parody version.

Satire: This category is something which is more witty than comical. Here the main purpose is to ridicule the actions of individuals, organizations or even government where the comedian is emphasizing on their mistakes and corrupt nature. This is meant as a constructive social criticism to draw attention from the concerned parties. This is achieved by ironic statements or statements that are sarcastic.  This is often found in memes or television shows like daily news or other such programs.

Romantic Comedy: This is not a type of comedy that makes you fall down in laughter; this is more of a smile or slight giggle at the expense of two individuals involved in a romantic relationship. How they meet and how they get involved is the basic storyline. The plot is a lighthearted humorous plot. This genre always has a good ending, one which the viewer or reader desires. Rom-com movies or sitcoms belong to this genre.

COVID-19 AND MENTAL HEALTH

It is normal and understandable that people are experiencing fear,worry and stress when they are faced with uncertainty in the context of the COVID 19 pandemic.Added to the fear of contracting to the virus significant changes in our daily lives as our movements are restricted in support of efforts to contain and slowdown the spread of the virus faced with new realities of working from home, temporary employment, home schooling of children and lack of physical contact with other family members , friends and colleagues .It is important that we look after our mental as well as our physical health.WHO together with partners is providing guidance and advice during COVID 19 Pandemic for health workers, managers of health facilities, people who are looking after children , older adults, people in isolation and members of the public more generally to help us look after our mental health.

         Preliminary evidence suggest that symptoms of anxiety and depression(16-28percentage) and self reported stress(8percent) are psychological reactions to the COVID 19 Pandemic and may be associated with disturbed sleep. A number of individual and structural variables moderate this risk.Studies prove that more vulnerable groups identified are older adults , the homeless, migrant workers and children.

       Lack of knowledge among mental health professionals and difficulty in obtaining the cooperation of patients for preventive measures leads to psychotic disorders. As the number of patients affected by this pandemic continues to increase social distancing , using mask and sanitizer were the common measures used to prevent the pandemic and promote the BREAK THE CHAIN program.

      Quarantine, isolation and social distancing in the times of a raging pandemic can be psychologically distressing for many people.Giving Confidence and support to them and to their family is an important factor.FIGHT THE DISEASE NOT THE PATIENT should  be our motto.

Virtual Classes – The Game Changer

The concept of Virtual Classes is relatively new, and this is slowly becoming popular day after day. Virtual classes are also known as Online classes and its trending as of now. This virtual classes basically signifies the classes are to be conducted online using Laptops or Tables or Smartphone whichever is available. The teachers are taking the initiative to educate the students because they cannot compromise of completion of the syllabus as it is mainly associated with the future of the students. It is really not possible for the teachers to go out and gather the students for taking a normal class due to the Pandemic situation; i.e., for the Covid 19. Hence a temporary solution for the problem is certainly an online class. Taking Virtual classes can come under the broad category of working from home. As because all the school, colleges and institutions has been closed for quite a long time right now because of Lockdown, no one is eager to take the risk of taking normal classes. The Parents would not approve it as well. Also, it has been made mandatory by the Government to follow these rules. The teachers are instructed to conduct Online Classes till date the School , Colleges reopens after lockdown. Virtual classes are going to be a trademark for the upcoming generations. Through Virtual classes, a professor or a Teacher can reach out to many more students once at a time. The process of conducting online classes is simple, you just need to have proper undisrupted Internet access, then you need to download one app from various options like Zoom, Discord, Google meet, Microsoft teams e t c. Then you have to attach your smartphone with a Tripod and film the videos. The videos can be recorded and it is of great help for the students to check it out again at the time of requirement. Virtual classes are a lot beneficiary for all the students out there and if this step has not been taken from the start of Lockdown, the entire framework of education would have been broken down. It is comparatively easier for the teachers to take Virtual classes from their homes at any time they may feel appropriate. Upgrading the system of education can be achieved in such a way.

There are a several disadvantages for Virtual Classes too, namely

1) Several media platforms revealed that such applications aren’t safer for usage as it gets the access to personal information, and hence the question of cyber security arises which is undeniable. The Right to Privacy gets hampered if it is not protected with proper passwords and can cause a huge loss to the general people.

2) Virtual classes are much less impactful as compared to the regular classes as the visual effects aren’t created by the teachers which is a core of learning, especially for the kids.

3)Virtual classes never helps in creating interpersonal relationships between the teachers and students as because there is much lesser interactions between peers and scope of discussions related to any other topics except studies is relatively much lesser.

4) Communication enhancements never happens if u don’t interact face to face with a person, skill doesn’t get improved in any ways, only listening to various subject descriptions is not of much help.

5) Maximum no. of people from our country India belongs to poorer sections, in fact many of them belongs to the Below Poverty Line category, we need to look into and improve such basics before continuing with online classes as because they cannot afford proper food, Primary education comes for free as because Government intervenes but Internet connection never comes for free.

6) Many teachers do not know the proper technicalities of taking Online classes, especially the old aged tutors as they never got the official training for conducting such.

7) Virtual Classes increases the Screen time for the youngsters as they tend to get addicted to smartphones already, these choose not to go through lines of textbooks hence such rays affect their minds and body. Much more distractions are caused because of the family disrupting their focus and undivided attention.

8) Many students do not have the habit of understanding Virtual classes well which in turn provokes them to play online games rather than studying.

A DAY OF STREET CHILDREN

Today I am going to describe a day of street children……..the start of their morning takes place on the footpath or on the dividers…then a normal child usually go to his school but a street children go to find their 2 WAQT KI ROTI…so they either start begging….or they start selling something…they also clean the vehicles on crossings when it is red light and then they ask for money to the vehicles owner….a normal child have option of breakfast but for the street children there are lot of difficulties lunch so for them breakfast is not the cake of street children’s plate…..they have to do a lot of work to earn food….to earn money…sometimes there are some street children who are elder in their family then we just cant imagine the burden of their responsibilities…..they have to manage their siblings as well as their earning….when a normal child go to the school for learning….and here is the street children who learn from their daily experiences….who learn from their empty stomach……and after giving exam every day in their life they get these learnings…..the roads are their biggest teachers…….when a normal child return back to his home after school then their mother ready the food for them and also serve them with full of love…here are the street children who have to make their plate of food by own…..there is no one to serve them…there is no one to feed them a single bite with love….while a normal child ask for a mineral water…..and here is those children who lives on street, they have to drink hand pump’s water….and they remain happy in this because they know they don’t have any option….while a normal child plays games on tablet, computer, phone …….and here is street children who feels very happy in playing gilli danda, kanche etc……a normal child have AC in their room and a very soft bed to sleep….and here is street children who have nature’s land to sleep and the wind is their AC …..and if it starts raining some time then it becomes too difficult to them to manage……..


In actually if we see that whether they have facilities or not they know that how to create them….and how to be live happy in less facilities…..even though they haven’t place to sleep but nature has done all the settings for them…next time if you face any kind of these children then please don’t be rude to them because apart from doing this they don’t have any option ……giving them some rupees will not make you poor and on receiving that rupees will not make a children rich….the only thing which will happen that at least they have some rupees to eat something….to fill their stomach……

             OLE is at the Wheel: The Success of Manchester United

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

What a dramatic turnaround it has been. The 2019/20 season saw the Premier League table turn dramatically at the end of the season. The halted 2019/20 Premier League season, which was halted due to the Covid 19 pandemic came to an end yesterday. This season can be surely termed as one of the best in many years for the Red Devils- Manchester United. Yes, Ole is surely at the wheel right now. The way Manchester United started the season, with the selling of their outright strikers Lukaku and Alexis Sanchez, a top 6 finish was going to be termed as a very good season for Manchester United. But when yesterday the league got over, Manchester United finished 3rd on the overall table, finishing above the likes of Chelsea, Spurs, Arsenal and Leicester City. This table showed the grit and determination with which the whole squad played this whole season of ups and downs. The start of the season saw Manchester United at one stage being 14 points behind Leicester City and completed the season with 4 points more than Leicester City.

What made this turnaround possible for a struggling Manchester United team midway through the season? The answer is the signing of the Portuguese midfielder Bruno Fernandes in the January transfer window. The change brought in by the midfield maestro has helped Manchester United perform better than before and helped them have a steady team, building a steady team around him and enjoying the fruitful results. Not only Bruno Fernandes, but all the other players from the squad need to be congratulated as they never gave up and till the end fought like a strong team, which never gives up. With rumours going strong of Paul Pogba not happy, wanting to leave, the club was under pressure. But with the introduction of Ole as the permanent manager of Manchester United, the fortunes have really turned around quite significantly. Yes, Manchester United haven’t won any silverware under him, but he has obviously built a team which in the future can challenge not only for the Premier League but also for the all important Champions League.

What Ole has done, is shown faith in the youth and brought in players from both the academy as well as from the transfer window. He has brought in the young players, building a squad for the future who could challenge for any tournament. Look at the names they have in the starting line up, be it the young English striker Marcus Rashford, French striker Anthony Martial and the teen sensation Mason Greenwood. The midfield also has the mixture of both young and experienced talent like Pogba, Bruno Fernandes, Matic, Scott Mctominay, etc. The major problem what United will face over the next few seasons, which Ole has to focus on and fill the gap as soon as possible is the defence. With the experienced goalkeeper David Degea making way to many mistakes this season, he has to come up with the quality performances again before the criticism increases, leading him to be axed by the club in the near future. The young defenders like Lindelöf and Harry Maguire have to make sure that their mistakes are less going into the new season and that they hold a tight backline. These are things which Ole needs to focus upon in the future, with Champions League football coming up the net season.

What I feel after Ole’s performance this season as a manager and the team he has built is that it wouldn’t be long before Manchester United are back again dominating the footballing world. The main focus for him should be to nurture the young talent into world class players who can dominate the likes of current English champions Liverpool or the ever dominating Manchester City. This team which Ole has played over the course of this season has looked just going on the right track and I feel what the fans of Manchester United have been waiting for, the domination of Manchester United over other football clubs is very very close and the man who could do it is, none other than Ole Gunnar Solskjaer.

The Paradox of Freedom of Speech

Freedom of speech is a wonderful liberty and health inducing function of society if, and only if, the citizens exercise their right to freedom of thought beforehand – exploring their ideas to see if they come from a place of love, good intention and virtue – or emotional indifference, entitlement and fear.”

The paradox of free speech and freedom of expression – at what level can one’s freedom of speech will involve limiting the freedom of speech of another person’s? Its really something to think about. The irony and the paradox of freedom of speech is this – in theory, every single citizen, regardless of who they are or where they come from, are entitled to their opinions and should be free to say whatever they please and the government should not try any means necessary to censor that person.. … except that someone else can who is not a part of the government can, or the government can censor that person through indirect means, or that person can be limited in their freedom of speech because of other reasons. Hate speech is one of them or speech that is deemed as offensive or crude.

Sure, saying homophobic slurs or racist slurs are deemed as hate speech, but what if this angrily-provoked language is done to antagonize a particular group of people who rightfully deserve it (like for example, a dictator or an social elite that have all the power but leave little of that power to the public)? Can that turn into censorship as well? Or what if someone has an opinion or makes a statement that is unpopular or controversial or unorthodox? For example, if a person says that he/she does not like a section of people following a particular religion because they possess an internalized paranoia about a religion that they do not know. That person can easily be deemed as being intolerant.

What about having unpopular opinions but you do not want to say anything about of the fear of being judged because of stigma or taboo like sexual fantasies or sexual orientations or having an opinion that is very unpopular like thinking that Communism is justified or thinking that the Earth is flat, even though scientific evidence will show otherwise? Or what about the political correctness movement that has been happening the past few years that replaces certain words with other words which at the same time limits the amount of speech that people are allowed to say or not say or else their words will have a negative effect on a certain demographic? (even though it is already well-known that whatever word or phrase you say, those words will shape our thoughts and may even reinforce already internalized schemas about certain categorized human groups like the mentally challenged as “idiots” will further reinforce the internalized image of an idiot).

What if someone makes a statement that someone else would find as unsettling or offensive? What gives the other person the right to censor the person who made their joke and limit his/her freedom of speech because that person did What if someone makes a statement that someone else would find as unsettling or offensive? What gives the other person the right to censor the person who made their joke and limit his/her freedom of speech because that person did not like it? Whether you liked the joke or not, that person given charges for hate speech and many people feel that his joke can taken out of context and his freedom of speech was taken from him just because some people did not like it.

What about people who have a lot of influence or in a very high position where their influence will influence the behaviors of others? Businessmen, lawyers, politicians, marketers and so on. If they say something that will eventually upset a lot of people, whether they are being genuine or not, they could be risking having their own image damaged such as when EA chief creative officer Patrick Söderlund said about the upcoming game Battlefield V having women in game despite the historical context, he said “either accept it or don’t buy the game” and a few months, it was reported that the number of pre-orders of BFV was low, possibly as a response to Söderlund’s comment (who now left EA). I think we all know that whatever you say, you are not going to please everyone but I sometimes feel that people are in an advantage or a disadvantage – if a person has a lot of influence and power, their freedom of speech will surely have a positive influence on others, regardless of what say or should be very picky on what they say or else their may be a backlash; or for those people who are in a severe disadvantage for having opinions or statements that are unpopular statement are of sound mind or not.

Despite the shortcomings, free speech is an error-correcting mechanism whose function is to prevent the entire structure from collapsing; the ability to constantly criticize ideas serves as a firewall to contain bad ideas and prevent them from spreading uncontrollably. It also serves as a guide to navigate grey areas where the right path is often hard to see. Having said that, everything has a cost and benefit, and free speech is no exception to this. However, I think that this is a commodity that is far too valuable to be jettisoned, such that the price we pay for not having massively outweighs the downsides of having it.

It should be also realized that freedom of speech is deemed to be a governor of other freedoms, and the erosion of it is usually a reliable signifier that some semblance of totalitarianism is beginning to take root. Freedom of speech is the natural extension of freedom of thought, and thus should be the most vigorously defended of all inalienable rights. If your right to free is being violated, it’s your duty as a citizen of a free country to make that known, and if all else fails, it’s a important enough matter to warrant violence if no other means will suffice. Free speech, especially free political speech, speech is the beacon of all other freedoms. It must be protected Is the costs, and at least here in America, our first constitutional government was created with the idea in mind that their constituents should openly rebel should their rights begin to erode. The last time that happened, it ended up being much more complicated than that. You know it as the American Civil War.

“If we don’t believe in freedom of expression for people we despise, we don’t believe in it at all.”

Noam Chomsky

What is Ethical Hacking?

Hacking refers to the practice of gaining access to systems or computers through unauthorized means. While our everyday life is increasingly moving online as are all activities, it is important that our privacy is maintained, our bank accounts remain secure, and our data not be used for other purposes. Cyber-crimes which are crimes perpetuated online pose a massive threat to our security in the virtual world and are on the rise every day. These activities are done by malicious hackers who use the information for their own personal gain or for organizations with criminal intentions. It is to counter this threat that ethical hacking is promoted now.

code on computer screen
Photo by ThisIsEngineering on Pexels.com

Ethical hacking refers to the practice of breaking through or bypassing system security with non-criminal intent. It is a pre-emptive measure to identify the flaws in a system as well as expose the probable cracks through which data can be compromised. The breach in the system will allow the organization to understand their current security status and do what is needed to better it. Ethical hackers are also known as White Hat hackers as opposed to Black Hat hackers who use illegal means to gain access to a system and do harm. There is a third group who are called the Grey Hat hackers. They are hackers who break into systems without authorization but do so with no mal-intention. Many do it for the fun of it and also report their breaches to whoever concerned. However, the lack of official authorization makes even this act a crime. Data theft, identity stealing, and large-scale money heists are all common activities that a black hat hacker would engage in. In the current landscape of commerce and technology, it is undebated that those who have access to and control of more information get the upper-hand. Information and data are the currency used most widely now. It is to ensure that these transactions and safekeepings are as secure as possible, and that the organizations who handle our data are able to safeguard them that we have need of ethical hacking.

An ethical hacker employs his skills to find the glitches in the armor and alerts his employers about his findings. With technological innovations reaching new heights every day, it is necessary that security systems are constantly upgraded and under scrutiny. Companies hire ethical hackers to find vulnerable points in their security systems and software that could be points through which an unethical hacker could enter the system. Ethical Hacking is also known as pen-testing or penetration testing. This is because they perform what is called a ‘pen test’ to hack into the system. Ethical hackers usually use the same methods that unethical hackers will use to enter a system. The only difference is that they are doing it with legal authority. They are required to keep their findings and understanding of the security system of an organization confidential since any slippage of information from them can cause harm as well. They are to remove or erase any traces of the hack once they have finished checking the system in order to stop unethical hackers from exploiting the same vulnerabilities. Ethical hacking can be learnt online from professionals or as part of courses. It is becoming a much sought-after profession and an increasingly pertinent one in the current global scenario.

CLIMATE CHANGE

The rising average temperature of Earth’s climate system, called global warming, is driving changes in rainfall patterns, extreme weather, arrival of seasons, and more. Collectively, global warming and its effects are known as climate change.


CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE –


• The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases, with over 90% of the impact from carbon dioxide and methane. Fossil fuel burning is the principal source of these gases, with agricultural emissions and deforestation also playing significant roles. Temperature rise is enhanced by self-reinforcing climate feedbacks, such as loss of snow cover, increased water vapor, and melting permafrost.


• Forces that contribute to climate change include the sun’s intensity, volcanic eruptions, and changes in naturally occurring greenhouse gas concentrations.
According to NASA, “These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades.”


• On Earth, human activities are changing the natural greenhouse. Over the last century the burning of fossil fuels like coal and oil has increased the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). This happens because the coal or oil burning process combines carbon with oxygen in the air to make CO2. To a lesser extent, the clearing of land for agriculture, industry, and other human activities has increased concentrations of greenhouse gases.

EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE:
The consequences of changing the natural atmospheric greenhouse are difficult to predict, but certain effects seem likely:

• On average, Earth will become warmer. Some regions may welcome warmer temperatures, but others may not.


• Warmer conditions will probably lead to more evaporation and precipitation overall, but individual regions will vary, some becoming wetter and others dryer.


• A stronger greenhouse effect will warm the oceans and partially melt glaciers and other ice, increasing sea level. Ocean water also will expand if it warms, contributing further to sea level rise.


• Meanwhile, some crops and other plants may respond favorably to increased atmospheric CO2, growing more vigorously and using water more efficiently. At the same time, higher temperatures and shifting climate patterns may change the areas where crops grow best and affect the makeup of natural plant communities.


The Role of Human Activity in climate change:
In its Fifth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded there’s a more than 95 percent probability that human activities over the past 50 years have warmed our planet.

The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 412 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there’s a better than 95 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth’s temperatures over the past 50 years.

Schools of Hindu Law

There are two main schools of Hindu Law, the Mitakshara and the Dayabhaga. The Mitakshara (literally means “a concise work”) is a running commentary on the code of Yajnavalkya. It has been written by Vijnaneshwar (11th century) and prevails in all parts of India, except in Bengal. The Dayabhaga School, which is followed mainly in Bengal, is not a commentary on any particular code, but is a digest of all the codes. It has been witten in Jimutavahana (12th century). It may also be noted that the Mitakshara is the orthodox school, whereas the Dayabhaga is the reformist school of Hindu Law. The Dayabhaga ia considered to be a dissident school of the old Benares School.

The Dayabhaga is not divided into any sub-schools. However, the Mitakshara is sub-divided into four schools prevailing in different parts of India. These different schools have the same fundamental principles, but differs in matters of details, especially with reference to the topics of adoption and inheritance. These four sub-schools are as follows:-

  1. The Benares School, which prevails in northern and north-western India except in rural Punjab where its authority has been considerably modified by customary law. The main authorities of the school are the Virmitrodaya and the Nirnaya Sindhu.
  2. The Mithila School, which has most of its followers in Bihar. The main authorities are the Vivada Chintamani, the Vivada Ratnakara, the Madana Parijata and the Vyavahara Mayukha.
  3. The Dravida or Madras School, which prevails in southern India. the principle authorities are the Smriti Chandrika, the Parashara Madhaviya, the Saraswati Vilasa and the Vyavahara Nimaya.
  4. The Maharashtra or Bombay School, which prevails in western India. The main principle authorities are the Viramitrodaya and the Nirhaya Sindhu.

Difference between the Mitakshara and Dayabhaga Schools

The fundamental points of difference between the Mitakshara and Dayabhaga Schools of Hindu Law may be summarised as follows:

BASESMITAKSHARADAYABHAGA
As regards Joint PropertyRight to property by birth (of the claimant); hence the son is co-owner with the father in ancestral property. After the commencement of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, the daughter can also a coparcener.Right to property by death (of the last owner; hence son has no right in the ancestral property during father’s life time.
As regards AlienationMembers of joint family cannot dispose of their shares while undivided Any member of joint family may sell or give away his shares even when undivided.
As regards inheritanceThe principle of inheritance is consanguinity (i.e., blood relationship). But cognates are postponed to agnates.The principle of inheritance is spiritual efficacy (i.e., offering of pandas). Some cognates, like sister’s son are preferred to many agnates.
As regards Doctrine of factum valetA fact cannot be altered by hundred texts. It is recognised to a very limited extent.Doctrine of factum valet is fully recognised.

Besides the above points, the other bases of difference between Mitakshara and Dayabhaga arouse out of their differences in the meaning of the word “Sapinda”. According to Dayabhaga ‘Sapinda’ means the same ‘pinda’ means the ball of rice which offered by the Hindu as obsequies to their ancestors. The term ‘Sapinda’ thus connotes those related to the duty of one to offer ‘pinda’ to the other. On the other hand, Vijnaneswara defined ‘Sapinda’ relationship as the relationship arising between two persons through their being connected by particles of one body.

Thus fundamental difference in the term “Sapinda” resulted in the formation of law, which were in material respect quite distinct from each other.

ANIMAL RIGHTS

God has done so many creations on the earth…animals are one of them….animals don’t have mind as human beings but they have feelings and emotions like human beings….they can’t express their feelings by words as human beings but they also suffer a lot but they can’t express it and there are some people who take advantage of this…..as we know that this world is full of good or bad people so there are also good people in this world who understand that every living being also feel the same as human beings….even there are some religions who declared the violence against animals as a sin.
The Vedas, the first scriptures of Hinduism teach ahinsa or nonviolence towards all living beings. In Hinduism, killing an animal is regarded as a violation of ahinsa and causes bad karma, leading many Hindus to practice vegetarianism.
Jainism was founded in India in the 7th-5th century and ahinsa is its central teaching. Due to their belief in the sanctity of all life, Jains practice strict vegetarianism and many go to great lengths even to avoid harming insects.
Buddhism is the third major religion to emerge in India, and its teachings also include ahinsa. Buddhism teaches vegetarianism (though not as strictly as Jainism), and many Buddhists practice life release in which animals destined for slaughter are purchased and released to the wild. Despite the influence of Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, meat-eating was still common in ancient India.

In 262 BCE, the Mauryan king Ashoka converted to Buddhism. For the remainder of his reign, he issued edicts informed by the Buddhist teachings of compassion for all beings. These edicts included the provision of medical treatment for animals and bans on animal sacrifice, the castration of roosters, and hunting of many species.when it cross the limit of violence against animals then the government and some people came forward and done work for animal’s welfare.


WORK FOR ANIMAL’S WELFARE:


• India’s first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960), criminalizes cruelty to animals, though exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments.

• The 1960 law also created the Animal Welfare Board of India to ensure the anti-cruelty provisions were enforced and promote the cause of animal welfare.

• Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of draught animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation.

• The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Rules, 1998 sets general requirements for breeding and using animals for research.


• A 2006 amendment specifies that experimenters must first try to use animals “lowest on the phylogenetic scale”, use the minimum number of animals for 95% statistical confidence, and justify not using non-animal alternatives. A 2013 amendment bans the use of live animal experiments in medical education.


• In 2014 India became the first country in Asia to ban all testing of cosmetics on animals and the import of cosmetics tested on animals.

• In 2013 India made it illegal to use captive dolphins for public entertainment.

• In 2017 The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has released four new Gazette notifications under the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 to regulate dog breeders, animal markets, and aquarium and “pet” fish shop owners .
Now India has a grade of C out of possible grades A,B,C,D,E,F,G on World Animal Protection’s Animal Protection Index.

Animal issues The 1960 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act is the legal basis of animal protection in India. Provision 11 states that it is illegal for ‘any person… [to treat] any animal so as to subject it to unnecessary pain or suffering or causes, or being the owner permits, any animal to be so treated’, and that such mistreatment is punishable with fines or prison sentences.[ Despite restrictions on killing and eating cows throughout most of the country, India became the world’s largest exporter of beef in 2012.]
According to a 2012 FAO report, India also had the world’s largest population of dairy cows (43.6 million) and was the second-largest producer of milk (50.3 million tons per year). In 2011, India was the third largest producer of eggs (behind China and the United States) and the sixth largest producer of chicken meat. India is the second largest fish producer in the world after China, and the industry has substantial room for growth.
A 2007 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations found that Indians had the lowest rate of meat consumption of any country. Roughly one-third of Indians are vegetarian (the largest percentage of vegetarians in the world), but few are vegan. Despite having the highest rate of vegetarianism in the world, Indian consumption of dairy, eggs, and meat – especially chicken – was increasing rapidly as of 2013.
India’s 1960 anti-cruelty law created the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) to regulate animal experimentation. A 2003 report by Animal Defenders International and the U.K. National Anti-Vivisection Society based on evidence gathered by the CPCSEA during inspections of 467 Indian laboratories finds “a deplorable standard of animal care in the majority of facilities inspected”. The report lists many instances of abuse, neglect, and failure to use available non-animal methods.

There was a time when animals are used for entertainment and in teaching them they have to suffer from so much pain….
• In 2014, the Supreme Court of India banned the traditional bullfighting sport Jallikattu, which was mainly practiced in the state of Tamil Nadu. This led to widespread controversy, and the 2017 pro-jallikattu protests. Under this pressure, the government of Tamil Nadu adopted a law that reintroduced the sport on state level, likely leading to a renewed ban by the Supreme Court. The sport remains a controversial issue.
An inspector from the Animal Welfare Board of India said in 2017 that cases of dogs being bludgeoned with iron bars or burnt alive had taken place almost every month.

India has a number of domestic animal welfare organizations such as Peoples for Animals Haryana, Scouts & Guides for Animals & Birds, OIPA: Indian People for Animals, started by Naresh Kadyan, People for Animals, started by Maneka Gandhi, as well as chapters of international animal nonprofits including People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Humane Society International, and In Defense of Animals.
Government and organizations are trying their best but this is responsibility of every human being to aware people, to teach the children that animals or other living being are also our friends, it is the responsibility of everyone to not to harm the BEZUBAAN ZAANWAR….we can see the example of the Kerala incident where a mother elephant died after eating the cracker-filled fruit and stood in a river for many days with its trunk and head immersed in the water perhaps to nurse its wounds and it was found that it was pregnant….this is not only one case…. don’t know how many animals are got killed every day….whoever do this just remember you can’t stop the karma to follow you…just remember if you are harming anyone either it is human being or animals or any other living beings then you also have to face that situation and you will also get whatever you have done with them…….

Rosalind Frankline:The Unsung Heroine of DNA

Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite. A victim of male prejudice, she is also known as “wronged heroine of DNA.” Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA, particularly Photo 51, while at King’s College London, which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix for which James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at Birkbeck on the molecular structures of viruses. Her team member Aaron Klug  continued her research, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982.

She struggled throughout her life for recognition for her work among her male counterparts. Her work wasn’t highlighted while she was alive nor after her death for a long time. Her research played a huge role in the awarding of Nobel Prizes to Watson, Crick and Wilkins and Aaron Klug. She was a potent symbol of male prejudice and also her grave read that her work on viruses was of “lasting benefit to mankind”. However her top priority remained academic success.

Story of ram mandir ayodhya

History of Ayodhya

Ayodhya, also called Oudh or Awadh, town, south-central uttar pradesh state, northern india. It lies on the ghaghara river just east of faizabad.

An ancient town, Ayodhya is regarded as one of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, revered because of its association in the great Indian epic ramayana with the birth of rama and with the rule of his father, Dasharatha. According to this source, the town was prosperous and well-fortified and had a large population.

Oudh was joined with the Agra Presidency in 1877 to form the North-Western Provinces and later the  united provinces of Agra and Oudh, now Uttar Pradesh state.

Dispute of ayodhya

Despite the town’s great age, there are few surviving monuments of any antiquity. The Babri masjid (“Mosque of Bābur”) was built in the early 16th century by the Mughal emperor Babur on a site traditionally identified as Rama’s birthplace and as the location of an ancient Hindu temple, the Ram Janmabhoomi. Because of its significance to both Hindus and Muslims, the site was often a matter of contention. In 1990, riots in northern India followed the storming of the mosque by Hindu nationalist’s intent on erecting a temple on the site; the ensuing crisis brought down the Indian government. Two years later, on December 6, 1992, the three-story mosque was demolished in a few hours by a crowd of Hindu nationalists. It was estimated that more than 2,000 people died in the rioting that swept through India following the mosque’s destruction. An investigative commission led by Manmohan singh Liberhan, a retired judge, was formed in 1992 but did not issue a report until 2009. The report, when it finally appeared, caused an uproar because it blamed several leading figures from the pro-Hindu Bhartiya janata party for the mosque’s destruction. A court ruling in 2010 divided the land between Hindus and Muslims, but that decision was overturned in 2019 by the Supreme Court, which entrusted the property exclusively to Hindus.

Judgement of ayodhya dispute

the Supreme Court cleared the way for the construction of a Ram Temple at the disputed site in Ayodhya, In the judgment of the three judges of the Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 acres (1.12 ha) of Ayodhya land be divided into three parts, with one third going to the Ram Lalla ,a previous Hindu temple Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha,, and directed the Centre to allot a 5-acre plot to the Sunni Waqf Board for building a mosque  and the remaining one third going to Nirmohi .

Now, after the judgement ,5th of august will be bhoomi pujan and construction will started soon of ram mandir.

The construction of the Ram temple in Ayodhya is set to begin on Wednesday when the first bricks will be laid for its foundation, according to a spokesperson for the head of the temple trust.

The event will be marked by prayers to Lord Shiva at the Kuber Tila shrine on the Ram Janmabhoomi site, allocated for the temple in a historic supreme court verdict last November.

The rudrabhishek ritual follows the tradition set by Lord Ram, who prayed to Shiva before launching an attack on Lanka, said Mahant Kamal Nayan Das, spokesperson for the Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teertha Kshetra Trust head Mahant Nritya Gopal Das.

The work of laying the foundation of the temple will begin after these special prayers.

The prayers will be performed by Kamal Nayan Das and other priests on behalf of Mahant Nritya Gopal Das, who visited the site recently.

“This religious ceremony will last for at least two hours and after that the construction of the Ram Mandir will start with the laying of the foundation of the mandir structure,” Kamal Nayan Das said.

In its verdict on the Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid land dispute, the Supreme Court had ruled in favour of construction of a temple at the site.

The Ayodhya dispute is a political, historical, and socio-religious debate in India, centered on a plot of land in the city of Ayodhya uttar pradesh.  This is the first  judgements in India’s history, a bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi put an end to the more than a century old dispute that has torn the social fabric of the nation.

Tort And Contract

The distinction between a tort and a contract, is clearly brought forth the definition of tort given by Winfield which states “Tortious liability arises from the breach of a duty primarily fixed by law, such duty is towards persons generally and its breach is redressible by an action for unliquidated damages.”

A contract is an agreement, whereby a legal obligation is constituted and defined between the parties to it. It is a legal relationship, the nature, contents and consequences of which are determined and defined by the agreement of the parties, the law giving legal forces and authorities to the agreement. Thus, whereas in tort, the duties are fixed by the law, in the contract, they are fixed by the parties themselves.

In a contract, one party owes duty to another contracting party only (Principle of Privity of contract) while in tort, the duty imposed by law is not towards any specific individual or individuals, but they are towards the world at large. Both in tort and contract, the remedy available is damages, but while in contract, the damages are liquidated (i.e. they are predetermined by the parties), in tort, the damages are unliquidated (i.e. they are not predetermined by the parties), but are awarded by the court.

In certain cases, the same incident may rise to liability both in contract and tort, for example, when a passenger whilst travelling with a ticket is required owing to the railway company’s negligence, the company is guilty of a wrong which is both breach of contract and tort.

In Edwards v. Mallan, (1908) KB, it was held, a dentist who contracts to pull out the tooth is of course liable for breach of contract, if he injures the patient by an unskillful extraction. He is also liable for the tort of negligence, for everyone who professes skill in a amount of such skill.

In such cases, where the same fact resulted in a breach of contract as well as tort, the plaintiff cannot claim the damage twice over. he can either sue for the breach of contract or for the commission of tort. The contractual duty may be owed to one person and the legal duty (duty by law), independently of contact to another. For example, the surgeon who is called by a father to operate upon his daughter owes a contractual duty to the father who takes care. If he fails in that duty, he is also liable for a tort against the daughter.

In Pippin v. Sheppard, (1822), a surgeon was called in by a husband, to treat his wife. The court held that the husband could sue the surgeon for the breach of contractual duty while the wife could maintain an action in tort as the doctor owes a duty of care to his patient .

Thus, liability in tort is fixed by law irrespective of any contract between the parties, although it s possible that in certain circumstances liability in tort may be modified by contract.

The Legality Of Gambling In India

Gambling is a type of wagering agreement which takes place between two parties, where one party promises the other to pay a certain amount of consideration on happening of a future uncertain event. It will be regarded as gambling if there exits consideration, risk and a prize. Gambling can be majorly of two types: 

  • Chance/Probability Based: In such type of gambling, the final result is totally unexpected and random. Everyone has an equal chance of winning and losing. For example, lottery, bingo, roulette, etc. All games where the outcome is uncertain.
  • Skill Based: The outcome of the even is not totally uncertain, and it can be influenced by a certain set of skills in a person. These games require skills to play, and the outcome cannot be totally certain. For example, poker, betting on races, etc. 

There are different state gambling laws in India, as it has been clearly given under the Seventh Schedule of the Indian Constitution that the states can have different legal policies of “gambling and betting, it is the option of the state to either allow and regulate such activities, or totally prohibit them. It is totally the discretion of the state and the centre should not be involved in gambling and betting matters in the state. There is a central legislation named “The Public Gambling Act, 1867” which was enacted to prohibit all types of gambling and games in relation with chance and probability, however it regulates the skill based gambling. This Act is a 145-year-old law which has been existing from the British era, and it has provisions for the operation of a gambling house, its financing, and the crimes related to gambling. Chance/probability gambling is legal only in two states in India, they are Goa, Daman and Diu and Sikkim which have special legislation for this purpose. The state of Goa has allowed gambling by enacting the Goa, Daman and Diu Public Gambling Act, 1976, and the state of Sikkim has Sikkim Regulation of Gambling (Amendment) 2005, all the other states have a similar type of the central legislation which has been enacted. However some states have legalised lottery, with some restrictions, that lottery could be drawn only once a week, however it being drawn more than that illegally. The Central Lotteries (Regulation) Act of 1998 , has the respective rules and regulations related to lottery for state governments. Sikkim and Nagaland have enacted other legislations for the purposes of online gambling, they are The Sikkim Online Gaming (Regulation) Act, 2008, and c The Nagaland Prohibition of Gaming and Promotion and Regulation of Online Games of Skill Act, 2016. Ironically even though there have been legislations regarding gambling, but not even one defined what gambling is.  All the above legislations have provisions related to rules and regulations of gambling and betting, process to apply for a license, the restriction on obtaining a license, the payment and payment restrictions fro obtaining a license, the liability and enforcement in case of an offence,  and the respective punishments and penalties.

There are other legislations like Payment and Settlement Act, 2007, Information Technology Act, 2000 which contain some provision relating to the regulation of gambling and betting. In Spite of all the above legislation there have been many on-going debates on why the “games of skill” excluded from punishment and penalty under the law. There have been doubts on why horse race betting is legal in India, but not cricket betting even though both have so many similarities. Horse race betting is considered as a game of skill but it is not the same case foe cricket betting. There has also been a debate on Rummy not being a game oc chance, and it shall come within the purview of game of skill as it is not similar to that of  flush, brag, etc which are games of pure chance and probability. There have been many cases and discussions with respect to Rummy as a game of skill, and its legal status in the nation, the debate still continues to happen. Surprisingly the states of West Bengal, Nagaland, and Karnataka have legalised the game of poker, regarding it as a game of skill. 

To sum it up, we have understood the legal status of gambling and betting in the nation. However, it is still regarded as highly uncertain and unclear. It is high time that the laws related to gambling have to be amended both at the central and state level. The laws have to be more clear to avoid unnecessary confusion and debates. The legislation should also become stringent so that illegal gambling can be total unseen in the nation. However, the efforts that are being put be different state government under this area of law should be appreciated. There is hope that in the future we can see a day where all gambling and betting activities are under control. 

Why Insolvency And Bankruptcy Code, 2016?

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC), has been enacted in India  when the parliament passed the bill in the year 2016. Insolvency is a state of being unable to pay off your debts, it a state of economic distress, when the person, firm or company is no linger able to carry out its business. Bankruptcy is more of a legal term when one is declared as insolvent, and the legal process which is followed a person who could not fulfill their financial obligations, as they had due payments to their creditors. The legal process of bankruptcy relieves a person to some extent from some depts, and protects them so that no one could harm them for their money. The IBC is a single legislation for all the problems related to insolvency and bankruptcy by giving time-bound processes for resolving them , it is a combination of may other existing laws. It was implemented to bring one uniform law with respect to insolvency and bankruptcy. It took India and average of 4.3 years to come up with such a resolution, it took a lot of time as compared to other nations. However this bill has brought a tremendous change in the policies related to insolvency and bankruptcy.  The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)  was established under the code which aims to fulfill the objectives of the code, by making sure insolvency resolution are happening in a legal and transparent way. The IBBI contains a total of ten members from law ministry, finance ministry and the Reserve Bank of India. This act applies to and individual person, companies, partnership and other firms which have been established under any particular statute. This gives all round solutions to creditors, debtors, companies, shareholders and anyones who has an insolvency problem.

The main reason behind the legislation was to provide clear and timely processes for resolving insolvency, it provided a speedy solution. The code gives an opportunity to the creditor to assess the position of the debtor, and can make plans for the liquidation of debt. The code has provisions for a special agency which only deals with insolvency proceeding and matters of a party. This provides protection to the debtor by giving them immunity against the shareholders, creditors and other party involved. Several insolvency professionals will be appointed to take care of the communication between the creditor and debtor, they manage all the information related to the assets of the debtor, and they make sure the entire process of insolvency resolution happens correctly. The proceedings of the resolution process are adjudicated by the National Companies Law Tribunal (NCLT), for companies and the Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) for individuals, and through this process the insolvency professionals will be guiding the part through it. The resolution process can either be initiated by the debtor or creditor. Then a committees which consists of all the creditors if formed and they decide upon the action of plan that has to be taken for recovery of their debt.  They might either take a decision to give the debtor more time, otherwise the assets of the debtor will be sold for recovering the debt, all the function should happen before the time limit prescribed in the code. As soon as the decision is taken the process of liquidation happens where the assets are sold under the guidance o the insolvency professionally, and fee has to be paid for the whole process and other necessary costs. The insolvency resolution process for the company is a total of 180 days with a 90 day extension, and for small firms it is 90 days with a 45 day extension, these were the changes brought through the bill. The above process is termed as the Insolvency Resolution Process (IRP). Therefore, the IRP consists of three major steps, they are Initiation, the resolution of insolvency and then finally the liquidation process. IBC has been amended thrice in the past few years, making it a better legislation by changing according to the situation in the society.

We can come to conclusion, that this act has brought a good change in the areas of insolvency and bankruptcy, as the system which existed before this act was proved to br inadequate or ineffective. This code has introduced a time bound process for insolvency resolution. It has provisions relating to IBBI, Insolvency professionals, adjudicating mechanisms like NCLT and DRT, and for Information utilities, which has all information regarding the process and decision taken. This code enabled the protection of debtors, and gives an efficient insolvency resolution process. In spite of the efforts India is still way backward in the World Index of Ease of resolving Insolvencies, and this will be changed in the future due to the IBC. If it is implemented in a strict manner, we can look forward to seeing a day where India may top the index, and it will be appreciated world widely for its efforts in this area. We as responsible citizens should make sure that we follow the laws of the nation which will lead to the welfare of people inturn developing the nation. Many such more effective and efficient legislations should be enacted to solve the problems in the society. 

Debentures

Debenture is the loan or debt instrument which is issued by Government and Corporates to raise the fund. Debenture are issued on fixed interest rate. Their value is based on credit rating. Based on credit rating people will purchase the debentures. Debenture holders are the creditors to the company and they get interest on their investment in the company.

Types of debentures

Secured debentures: secured debentures are backed by the assets security. They are like mortgage loan. For such debenture particular assets will be act as security.

Unsecured debenture: Unsecured debenture are not secured by any assets they are purchased based on companies credit worthiness and reputation.

Convertible debentures: Convertible debentures are the Debentures which allow to convert to Equity shar. Where debentures holder will become equity share holder.

Non Convertible debentures : Non Convertible debentures are the Debentures where it is not possible to convert it into equity share.

Redeemable debentures : in this types of debentures the time of repayment of loan is mentioned and when investor can get back his invested money is mentioned.

Irredeemable debentures : The debentures will not have time of repayment. These are long term debentures. These are repayable at the time of liquidation.

Industrial Disputes

“All our problems, all our disputes, all our disagreements can be resolved quickly to mutual satisfaction if we address the question.”

Benazir Bhutto

An Industrial Dispute can be defined as a disagreement, conflict or difference of opinion between management and workers. An Industrial Dispute may also be called as an industrial conflict. In simple terms, it may refers to any disagreement in industrial relations which may be in the form of strike or any other form of action between employer and employee. The disagreement between employer and employee arises due to wages or terms and conditions of employment like hours of work, safety, health, welfare issues, etc and if these are not resolved on time it may result in dissatisfaction among the parties involved and this often leads to industrial disputes or conflicts. Whenever an industrial dispute occur both the parties that is employee or workmen and the management tries to pressurise eachother. If the dispute is not resolved on time the workers may resort to strikes, picketing or gheraos and the management may resort to lockouts. Industrial disputes are very costly and damaging to companies and employees. This results in increase in the average cost of production as the fixed cost is incurred continuously. This also leads to fall in sales and rate of turnover which further leads to fall in profit. An industrial dispute may also harm the organisation’s prestige and goodwill, psychological and social consequences may also arise. So, inorder to reduce these problems, the organisation should seek to avoid or resolve any potential conflict. However, it is not always possible to prevent industrial disputes which arises in an organisation. But if it arises then in this situation the organisation should know how to handle and resolve any conflict that develops. As resolving the disputes can substantially reduce the financial cost and the damage done to employee relations and productivity. There are many types of disputes and this can be classified as follows:-

Interest disputes is related to new wage level and other conditions of employment. Rights disputes which is also described as grievance disputes. It is a dispute in which claim is made that workmen are not treated according to the rules, laws and regulations, contract of employment. The grievance may be regarding retrenchment, dismissal, payment of wages, overtime, working time, demotion, promotion, transfer. The next dispute is recognition dispute which arises when organisation refuses to recognise a trade union for the purpose of collective bargaining. The various causes of industrial disputes are as follows:-

  • Demand for High Wages- As the cost of living is rising and in order to meet the rising cost of living index and standard of living the workers demands for more wages. And this is the thing which brings both the parties into conflict as the employer is never willing to pay more wages to workers.
  • High Industrial Profits- At the present scenario, workmen consider themselves as a partner of the industry and that’s why they demand there share in the profit and this leads to conflict between them.
  • Working Hours and Conditions – As we know in some industries the working condition is not hygienic. There is no proper facility for drinking water, heating, lighting, safety, etc. And the working hours are also greater. So, these are the causes of disputes.
  • Automation of Plant and Machinery – In today’s scenario, when the whole world is moving towards modernization. India is also running on the same track of modernization and introduction of automatic machines which is replacing labours. And this is the major cause of disputes which is taking place in the organisation and the workers are going on strikes more frequently, to resist the rationalisation.
  • Non-recognition of Trade Union- The employers don’t like the interference of trade union and that’s why they don’t recognise them and this brings the workers into conflict with their employers.

So lastly, industrial disputes should be resolved on time as it impacts the organisation and the nation very badly.