What is to be done when the Cheque is bounced?

Cheque is an instrument to transfer the money from one person to another. Cheque is safe and secure. To promote cheques and people should trust the simple mechanism of cheque and many people should use it effectively without any doubt in their mind so the Government in the year 1988 have introduced a chapter in Negotiable instrument Act, 1881 which deals about dishonour of cheques. As per Negotiable Instrument Act section 138 to section 143 deals with the provision of dishonour of cheques

Problems in Dishonour of Cheques

1. Penalty

If a cheque is bounced, then a penalty is levied on both drawer and payee by their respective banks. The person will additionally have to pay late payment charges if the dishounoured cheque is against repayment of a loan.

2. Damage To Credit History

Your credit history is negatively impacted if a cheque is dishonoured since your payment activities are reported to the credit bureaus by the financial institutions. The lenders will trust you if you have a good credit score. In order to have a good credit score, it’s a good practice to avoid your cheques from being bounced. Your good payment activities will help you build good CIBIL score and benefit you at the time of lending money from financial institutions.

Important terms which is used by Bank in relation to Cheques :

  1. Drawer -the maker of a bill of exchange or cheque is called the “drawer”
  2. Drawee- the person thereby directed to pay is called the “drawee”.
  3. Cheque Return Memo – the bank offer memo to the payee indicating the reason why the cheque id dishonoured.   

Reason why Cheque is bounced :

  1. Insufficient Funds
  2. Closed account
  3. Stop payment

Let’s take a hypothetical situation to understand it completely in a very simple way :

Mr. Atul draws a cheque in the name of Ms. Ria of Rs. 5,000/-. Here Ms. Ria is a drawee and Mr. Atul is drawer. Ms. Ria deposited the cheque in the bank. The cheque got bounced i.e the cheque is dishonoured.

After dispositing the cheque Ms. Ria came to know about the dishonouring of cheque in 2-3 days. Then the bank will issue Cheque return memo.

As the cheque return memo is received by Ms. Ria within 1 month she needs to send a legal notice to Mr. Atul. But also if Ms. Ria and Mr. Atul are friends Ms. Ria knows the actual problem for dishonour of cheque then she has two options

  • She can call Mr. Atul and ask for the reason and ask him when she can again deposit the cheque. If their will be a genuine problem or based on their understanding Ms. Ria deposit the cheque again and then the cheque is honoured.
  • (ii) Ms. Ria can send a legal notice to Mr. Atul. She should mention the cheque is dishonoured, she should mention Mr. Atul should process the amount within 15 days from when the notice is received. Then to after 15 days no amount is being processed and no reply of legal notice is received by Ms. Ria then from 16th day her cause of action has started now within 1 month Ms. Ria will file a case against Mr. Atul under Negotiable Instrument Act 1881

Ms. Ria can file the case under sec 138 of Negotiable Instrument Act for dishonour of cheque. Ms. Ria can file the case with Judicial Magistrate 1st Class (JMFC) or Metropolitan Magistrate.

Documents which is to be furnished at the time of case :

  • Copy of Original Cheque
  • Cheque Return Memo
  • Copy of Legal Notice
  • Postal Receipt of the Legal Notice.

Punishments :

In accordance with section 138 of this act, dishonour of cheque is a criminal offence and is punishable with monetary penalty or imprisonment up to 2 years or both.

Latest amendments in the Act:

The Act has been amended time to time to ensure and enhance trust in negotiable instruments. With an aim to further streamline the Act, the Central Government incorporated Sections 143-A and 148 vide Negotiable Instruments (Amendment) Act, 2018 (“Amended Act”). These new sets of provisions have been effective since 1st September 2018.

  • Section 143A of the Amended Act

Section 143-A of the Amended Act empowers any court while trying an offence for dishonour of a cheque to direct the drawer, who is the issuer of the cheque, to pay interim compensation to the complainant. The amount of compensation payable cannot exceed 20% of the amount as stated in the cheque. This amount has to be paid within a stipulated time period of 60 days from the date of the order passed by the court, or further within the extended period of 30 days, as may be directed by the court on showing sufficient cause for the delay caused.

  • Section 148 of the Amended Act

According to the Amended Act, Section 148 states that in the event of the conviction of the drawer of the cheque, if the drawer proceeds to file an appeal, the appellant court has the power to order the drawer of a cheque to deposit an amount. This deposited amount in such case has to be a minimum of 20% of the fine or compensation awarded by the Magistrate Court in the appeal preferred against his/her conviction. However, if the appellant is acquitted, then the Court shall direct the complainant to repay to the appellant the amount so released, with interest.

Easy Ways To Live More Sustainably

Photo by Markus Spiske on Pexels.com

How beautiful is our planet earth, refreshing and clear lakes, gorgeous sunsets, glorious mountains, and that’s the reason why we love it so much but what if this beautiful nature starts asking for something in return, something as simple as using less water, would we still claim to love it? It is not news that factors like climate change and pollution are a threat to our planet, it been decades that scientists and activists are begging people to be considerate towards our unsustainable lifestyles which are hurting the planet. But our habits and convenience are not letting us change and we chose to ignore the dire warnings, continuing our usage of plastic and burning fuel like there is no tomorrow, which at this rate might be true. While the changes are not just needed for an individual but a policy and behavior changes of companies is also essential in saving the planet and being more sustainable. There was a study conducted in 2017, which stated that 71% of the global emissions were generated by just 100 companies. But as charity begins at home, change also begins from an individual, so here are some extremely simple ways in which we can move to a sustainable lifestyle, help the planet and be the change we want to see in this world.

1. Turn off the tap when you brush your teeth – It is a habit of most people that they leave the tap running while brushing their teeth, leaving a tap open can waste eight gallons of water per day which is a ridiculous amount considering that the precious water is going to waste. It can be hard breaking a habit which you have been carrying all your life but there is no reason in continuing such a habit knowing the amount of clean water going to waste like that. Water may be a renewable resource but we just have a limited amount of clean, fresh, and unpolluted water, which is not available everywhere, and hence saving even a drop is important. With groundwater being polluted and lack of clean water, we rely on water from rainfall which is also decreased due to climate change. If the situation continues like this by 2030 half of the world population would face a major water crisis. And if you need a monetary motivation, saving water can reduce your water bill too.

2. Use Public Transportation- We always complain and crib about public transports and avoid them at any chance we get. But the truth being told embracing buses, metros, and trains is one of the best things we can do to save our planet since transport is the second-largest emitter of greenhouse gases around the world. Using public transport and avoiding your car is the most beneficial way to curb climate change. An average car emits around 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide every year, so living car-free has the highest potential of mitigating a person’s carbon emissions. If you don’t have a choice but to drive, try using carpooling if the travel is unavoidable, it not only decreases the carbon but also saves you money.

3. Stop Buying Packaged Water- People prefer buying single-use plastic bottles of water every time they go out and then throw that plastic away which may never decompose, instead make it a habit of filling up a water bottle from home and carry it whenever you go out, it may take a tiny effort but it can delay the inevitable end of the planet. Almost all the plastic produced to date still exist in the environment and is likely to stay forever as it takes over 500 years for plastic to decompose into smaller particles.

There is no doubt that these suggestions cannot be feasible for everyone, like one won’t take pubic transport if the time of travel becomes three-times but this does not mean we should not try changing and embrace it, trying is the least we can do. If we wish to make the biggest impact on the climate for the least amount of effort, the best place to start is by making small changes individually and then taking it up to our communities, schools, colleges, and workplaces.


The term “caveat” has been derived from Latin which means “beware”. According to the dictionary meaning, “a caveat is an entry made in the books of the offices of a registry or Court to prevent a certain step being taken without previous notice to the person entering the caveat”. In other words, a caveat is a caution or warning given by a party to the court not to take any action or grant any relief to the applicant without notice given to the party lodging the caveat. It is very common in testamentary proceedings. It is a precautionary measure taken against the grant of probate or letters of administration, as the case may be, by the person lodging the caveat. Section 148-A of the Code of Civil Procedure provides for lodging of a caveat.

Section 148-A

Section 148-A, as inserted by the Amendment Act, 1976 is a salutary provision. It read as under:

  1. Where an application is expected to be made, or has been made, in a suit or proceeding instituted, or about to be instituted, in a Court , any person claiming a right to appear before the Court on the hearing of such application may lodge a caveat in respect thereof.
  2. Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), the person by whom the caveat has been lodged (hereinafter referred to as the caveator) shall serve a notice of the caveat by registered post, acknowledgement due, on the person by whom the application has been, or is expected to be, made, under sub-section (1).
  3. Where, after a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), any application is filed in any suit or proceeding, the Court, shall serve a notice of the application on the caveator.
  4. Where a notice of any caveat has been served on the applicant, he shall forthwith furnish the caveator at the caveators expense, with a copy of the application made by him and also with copies of any paper or document which has been, or may be, filed by him in support of the application.
  5. Where a caveat has been lodged under sub-section (1), such caveat shall not remain in force after the expiry of ninety days from the date on which it was lodged unless the application referred to in sub-section (1) has been made before the expiry of the said period.


The underlying object of a caveat is twofold: firstly, to safeguard the interest of a person against an order that may be passed on an application filed b a party in a suit or proceeding instituted or about to be instituted. Such a person lodging a caveat may not be a necessary party to such an application, he may be affected by an order that may be passed on such application. This section affords an opportunity to such party of being heard before an ex parte order is made. Secondly, to avoid multiplicity of proceedings. In the absence of such a provision, a person who is not a party to such an application and is adversely affected by the order has to be taken appropriate legal proceedings to get rid of such order.

The provision related to the caveat would be applicable to suits, appeals as well as other proceedings under the code or under other enactments. It is no doubt true that no order should be passed against the caveator unless he is heard, but if the caveator is not present at the time of hearing of the application and the Court finds that there is a prima facie case in favour of the applicant, ad interim relief can be granted by the Court in his favour. Interim order passed without giving notice to the caveator is not without jurisdiction and is operative till it is set aside in appropriate proceedings.

Who may File?

Sub-section (1) of Section 148-A prescribes qualifications for the person who intends to lodge a caveat. He must be a person claiming a right to appear before the Court on the hearing of the application, which the applicant might move for the grant of interim relief. The language of Sub-section (1) of Section 148-A is wide enough to include not only a necessary party, but even a proper party. Hence, a caveat may be filed by any person who is going to be affected by an interim order likely to be passed on an application which is expected to be made in a suit or proceeding institute or about to be institute in a Court. Thus, a person who is a stranger to the proceeding cannot lodge a caveat. Likewise, a person supporting the application for interim relief made by the applicant also cannot file a caveat.

Rights and Duties

Sub-section (2), (3) and (4) of Section 148-A prescribe the rights and duties of the caveator who lodges a caveat, of the applicant who intend to obtain an interim order and of the Court.

Under Sub-section (2) of Section 148-A, once a party is admitted to the status of a caveator, he is clothed with certain rights and duties. It is his duty to serve a notice of the caveat lodged by him by registered post on the person o persons by whom an application against the caveator for an interim order has been or is expected to be made.

Sub-section (4) of Section 148-A provides that is the duty of the applicant to furnish to the caveator forthwith at the caveator’s expense a copy of the application made by him along with the copies of papers and and documents on which he relies. This provision thus makes it obligatory for the applicant to serve his application along with all copies and documents filed or intended to be filed in support of this application.

Once a caveat had been lodged, under Sub-section (3), it is duty of the Court to issue a notice of that application on the caveat. This duty has been cast on the Court obviously for the purpose of enabling the caveator to appear and oppose the granting of an interim relief in favour of the applicant.

Oil spills

A Decade After BP Oil Spill, Scientists Still Working To Save Bird ...

In this figure we can see clearly very bad condition of sea water.

The oil spills are very harmful to marine birds mammals as well as the under water various fishes, shellfish, sharks etc. there are oil destroy the insulating ability of fur bearing mammals such as sea otters and the water repellent of a bird’s features , thus the abilities, thus exposing these creaturess to the harsh elements.

Two cargo ships collided off the Mumbai coast on August 7 causing an oil spill that spread quickly through Maharashtra’s coastline. MS,c Chitra ruptured its tank when it hit incoming MV Khalijia and ran aground at Colaba, near Prongs Reef Lighthouse. The vessel contained about 1,200 tonnes of fuel oil in its tanks of which 800 tonnes spilled into the Arabian Sea before the leaks could be plugged two days later.


5 Environmental Consequences of Oil Spills

Oil destroys the insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals, such as sea otters, and the water repellency of a bird’s feathers, thus exposing these creatures to the harsh elements. Without the ability to repel water and insulate from the cold water, birds and mammals will die from hypothermia.

Juvenile sea turtles can also become trapped in oil and mistake it for food. Dolphins and whales can inhale oil, which can affect lungs, immune function and reproduction. Many birds and animals also ingest oil when they try to clean themselves, which can poison them.

Fish, shellfish, and corals may not be exposed immediately, but can come into contact with oil if it is mixed into the water column — shellfish can also be exposed in the intertidal zone. When exposed to oil, adult fish may experience reduced growth, enlarged livers, changes in heart and respiration rates, fin erosion, and reproduction impairment. Fish eggs and larvae can be especially sensitive to lethal and sublethal impacts. Even when lethal impacts are not observed, oil can make fish and shellfish unsafe for humans to eat.

An oil tanker stationed in Tamil Nadu’s Ennore released at least two tonnes of oil into the sea north of Chennai on Sunday after its fuel hose snapped, the spill occurred at the Kamarajar Port in Ennore, around 20 km from the state capital. An oil spill was reported from the same port in January 2017 after two vessels collided. It had affected 30 km of the coastline, caused significant environmental damage and killed a large number of turtles and hatchlings.

Preliminary estimate of spilled fuel oil quantity is less than 2 tonnes,” port authorities said in a statement. “The emergency response mechanism was immediately activated and all concerned agencies, including the Coast Guard, swung in action to attend and mitigate the situation.” Raveendran added that 80% of the spilled oil has been contained within the boom – floating barriers installed to contain leaks – and has not spread out into the sea.


International humanitarian law is a set of legal laws that regulate the conduct of war. It seeks to protect the people who do not participate in the war and to limit the methods and the repercussions of war. International humanitarian law is a part of public international law. It is made up of a set of treaties, rules, principles and regulations. It also follows the customary war laws that regulate the conduct of participants of the war. Its main purpose is the proportionality between the military necessities of humanity and its humanitarian cause. The sources of international law are international agreements such as the Geneva Convention 1, 2, 3 & 4, protocol 1 and 2, and the Hague regulations. All these agreements aim to protect civilians, non-combatants and medical professionals who are not participants of war but are victims of war.

International law divides conflict into international armed conflict and non-international armed conflict. International armed conflict is strictly between two states only as stated in the article two of all Geneva Convention. The rules regarding combatant status, conduct regulations and methods of war are more conditioned for international armed conflict. Non-international armed conflict is defined in article 3 in all Geneva Convention. Any inclusion of a non-state actor makes the war a non-international conflict. IHL follows some basic rules that every country that had signed or ratified has to agree to. Non-combatants or the civilian population who are not participants of the war shall and must be protected at all times. Any prisoner of war must be protected from violence. It prohibits perfidy. Treatment of the wounded and the sick is done by medical groups or the Red Cross, any attack on medical personnel is considered as a war crime. There must be a clear difference between non-combatants and combatants. There should be special protection given to women, children and medical professionals. International humanitarian law also speaks about the prohibition on certain kind of weapons such as cluster weapons which harms all combatants and non-combatants. It also forbids the conscription of children under the age of 15 into armed forces. The use of protective emblems to attack other parties who are participants of the war is considered illegal.

Crimes such as genocide, attacking civilian population, ethnic cleansing and using child soldiers in war are considered as grave war crimes. Present trends in wars are likely to continue. International human rights bodies should make more stringent laws. Given that most human rights laws are governed by the state and its behaviour. The state must take strict actions against it. International humanitarian laws serve the purpose of keeping a balance of the necessity of war and humanitarian laws. It aims for war to occur without the loss of any non-combatants. Combatants who knowingly break the law are subjected to go under a tribunal for their crimes and these individuals are held accountable for the war crimes that they have committed. It is rightly said that only in total abandonment of human conflict will human rights prevail. The human capacity and to inflict suffering to one and other is inevitable in the history of mankind but when we can’t prevent it then we must regulate it and reduce the amount of suffering.

AI helps in improving website USABILITY

Today, an online presence is a must for even the startups and the small businesses. And, a website is essential for it. Without a website, the business is considered simple and not doing well. Almost, all the businesses have one, including all your competitors. The question is — does it really bring about more business? Do your potential buyers or regular shoppers have a good time using your website?

All of that comes down to the user experience (UX) or usability of your website. That is, if your website isn’t user-friendly, it won’t be effective.  To make it an effective one, the navigation is expected to be simple and various features can be accessible instantly. If they can’t easily navigate your website or find it not very appealing, they’ll just return back to the search engine and find an alternative website that fulfill their needs.

Website usability is a crucial factor and it plays a significant role in any business. That’s why website usability — delivering a pleasant user experience to your website visitors — should be your top priority in 2020.Now, as you probably know, artificial intelligence (AI) is making great improvements in recent years, with positive influences in various industries such as healthcare, hospitality, automotive, and even online usability (UX).

To illustrate the latter, here’s how AI can improve a website’s usability:

Semantic Search in Search Engines

Usability of the website can be improved by implementing the Semantic search in the search engines.Search bars on any website allow visitors to quickly navigate to what they’re looking for. These users have a specific intent in mind, such as finding a piece of information or shopping for a particular product.In traditional search, known as lexical search which involves character-matching wherein the results were limited to literal matches of the query words or variants of them.

That’s where AI helps — with semantic search, the search engine can figure out the intent and contextual meaning of the search query, thus improving the accuracy of search results, and consequently increasing the user satisfaction. Semantic Search is defined as the search for information based on the intention of the searcher and contextual meaning of the search terms, instead of depending on the dictionary meaning of the individual words in the search query.

Semantic search denotes search by understanding the overall meaning of the terms as they appear in the search query, to generate more relevant results. Semantic Search in search engines mean the search engine would provide relevant search results based on the intent and contextual meaning of the search terms.

Factors considered in SEMANTIC search

A smart search engine would consider several factors to provide the most relevant and useful search queries, including:

Current trend – If the world cup match finals was just over in the country and someone is searching for ‘Who won the world cup’, the semantic search system should be able to understand the query and give relevant results based on the current trend and news.

Location of search – If a person is searching for ‘what is the temperature’, the semantic search engine should be able to provide results based on the current location of the search.

Intent of the search – Semantic search engines should be able to give appropriate search results based on the intent of the search and not based on the specific words used in the search query.

Variations of words in Semantic Search –Semantic search should consider tenses, plural, singular etc and provide relevant search results for all semantic variations of the words. For example, words like devicedevicesdevice’s etc.

Synonyms and Semantic Search – A semantic search engine should be able to understand the synonyms and give more or less the same search results on any synonyms of the word users search for. For example, try searching for “biggest mountain” and “highest mountain”. You would get pretty much the same results since both of them means the same in this particular query, even though the “biggest” and “highest” could mean different things in different cases.

Concept matching – This is a sub-set of context matching in semantic search. Semantic search should understand the broad concept of the query and return relevant results. For example, a query on “Traffic problems in a particular city” could return relevant results including the topics “narrow roads”, “nonfunctioning traffic lights”, “lack of roadside assistance” etc. because in a broad conceptual point of view, all of these lead to traffic problems.


Semantic search will enable even the non-technical persons to get the more relevant results based on the intent and contextual meaning of the search terms. Bing and Google are not pure semantic search engines. However, both of the search engines incorporate many elements of semantic search in to their search algorithm to provide more relevant and useful search results.

To explore , further about this topic, please check the following link :


World Hepatitis Day

On World Hepatitis Day, let us put an end to all forms of discrimination that is meted out to people suffereing from hepatitis.


World Hepatitis Day, observed on July 28 every year, aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis — a group of infectious diseases known as Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E — and encourage prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Hepatitis affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide, causing acute and chronic disease and killing close to 1.34 million people every year. Hepatitis causes liver diseases and can also kill a person. World Hepatitis Day is one of eight official global public health campaigns marked by the World Health Organization (WHO).


WHO keeps this year’s theme is “Hepatitis-free future,” with a strong focus on preventing hepatitis B among mothers and newborns. On 28 July, WHO will publish new recommendations on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of the virus. HBV can be prevented among newborns through the use of a safe and effective vaccine. WHO is calling on all countries to work together to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030.

Significance of the theme

WHO says, “A hepatitis-free future is achievable with a united effort.”

With 2020’s theme for World Hepatitis Day being “Hepatitis-free future”, it becomes all the more crucial to know about the nature, prevention, and treatment of these viral illnesses. Hepatitis A and E are usually self-limited infections and comparatively not as severe as the other types. Hepatitis B and C are the leading causes of hepatitis-related deaths and can lead to serious conditions and cause long-term liver damage like liver cirrhosis, acute on chronic liver failure, liver cancer, or even death. Hepatitis D usually occurs in conjunction with Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B and C especially pose a serious threat to India as suggested by the numbers.

Once diagnosed, the course of treatment is based on whether the infection is acute or chronic. In the current scenario, it is vital to get a test and have the medications started, as those with pre-existing health conditions are at a higher risk of contracting the COVID-19 virus. Increased awareness through campaigns, initiatives, and discussions will help spread information as well as reduce the stigma about the disease. Awareness will also enable access to testing, ultimately resulting in early diagnosis.

WHO mentions the following points in dealing with the situation:

  1. PREVENT infection among newborns.  All newborns should be vaccinated against hepatitis B at birth, followed by at least 2 additional doses.
  2. STOP TRANSMISSION from MOTHER to CHILD. All pregnant women should be routinely tested for hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis and receive treatment if needed.
  3. LEAVE NO ONE BEHIND. Everyone should have access to hepatitis prevention, testing, and treatment services, including people who inject drugs, people in prisons, migrants, and other highly-affected populations.
  4. EXPAND access to testing and treatment. Timely testing and treatment of viral hepatitis can prevent liver cancer and other severe liver diseases.
  5. MAINTAIN essential hepatitis services during COVID-19. Prevention and care services for hepatitis – such as infant immunization, harm reduction services, and continuous treatment of chronic hepatitis B – are essential even during the pandemic.

Education of the masses is the way forward to find these missing millions and ensuring that they receive proper treatment and care. Only then, it is possible to drastically reduce the number of patients who would suffer from these diseases and eliminate the risk of the virus and achieve the dream of “Hepatitis-free” India.


Let us learn to protect ourselves from Hepatitis diseases on World Hepatitis Day.


Venture capital Financing

Venture capital is the form of Financing where venture capitalists will invest funds in startups and starting stage companies which has potential to do good in future.Venture capitalists will invest in equity share of the companies.where it will be high right risk but with the analysis of them they will invest and analyse the good return in future. Venture capitalists will invest in well diversified and new product company which is producing new product which may have demand in the market. Venture capitalists will advice the management to take good decisions to make company successful.

Ways in which venture capitalists finance the company

  1. Venture capitalists may purchase equity share of company
  2. Investing in debentures of the company
  3. Giving the loan to the company

Stages of venture capital Financing

Seed stage: Here company just has the plan or the idea of the product but requires fund to bring that idea in to actual product and make the market research, demand forecasting.

Startup stage: Here company need fund to make the advertisement of the product, where the market research and demand analysis has already completed.

First stage: Here Business goes for actual production of products and bring it in to the market. For production need the fund.

Second stage: Here business go for the more and more production of products and bring new products for the market.

Bridge stage: Here Business already matured and ready for merger, aquision and go for ipo. So need fund for merger and ipo.

Exit strategy for venture capitalists

  1. Initial Public Offering
  2. Merging with other companies
  3. Acquired by other company
  4. Purchased by other venture capitalists
  5. purchased by company owner

Following the Footsteps of Google: Work from Home is the new Modal -SHUBHANKAR

The pandemic has been an unprecedented situation not only for a few countries but for the whole world. But the most impacted country of all has been the United States of America. The situation hasn’t improved at all in the US as it looks to reopen after nearly 4 months in lockdown. But as far as experts claim, the Trump administration has failed to make sure that the crisis doesn’t affect one of the largest economies of the world. Yesterday, tech giants Google announced that it is letting its employees work from home for at least another year until July 2021. This decision has been taken in terms of the situation in the United States prevailing because of the Coronavirus.

The US administration and in particular the US President Donald Trump since the start of the coronavirus have always blamed the Chinese government for the outbreak of the virus in not only the US, but around the world. But what the US hasn’t been able to do so far with one of the best healthcare facilities in the world, is to contain the virus spread. The sole reason behind it is the lack of strict restrictions imposed and the willingness of the Trump administration to open the economy back again. The utter eagerness for the economy to be opened back quickly has risked many a lives in the US already and is risking many more. But the appreciation needs to be given to the tech giants google for taking this step, keeping their employees health as a priority over anything else.

What google has done is set an example, that yes we know that these are unprecedented times, but work can be done from home as well. The feeling that work can’t be done from home isn’t the best at all. I know that work should be done at office only, but risking one’s life for the work to be done is the utmost disrespect to one’s work also. The companies need to understand that work can be done from home as enthusiastically as it can be done at the work place physically. With the advancement in technology, working from the comforts of home is the easiest way to work as well as stay safe from the virus which has impacted the whole world, be it the powerhouses of the world or the developing nations. What I want to convey through this article is the fact that companies should make sure that their employees don’t suffer and the work is also not impacted.

In the end, I want to say that what Google did is the best thing to do right now, to make sure that the work is also not compromised and also that safety is established. The thing is to make sure that companies follow the footsteps of google and let its employees work from home for atleast a year from now on until the vaccine is given to each and every person around the world.   


Man, of course, even in natural state is born with certain rights. He has right to live. Even animals recognise this. But in a civilized society which we witness today and for which the man has spent thousands of years of his existence, witnesses abrogation and violation of his ordinary Human Rights. As civilisation advances, more disrespect is shown to human rights. We cannot confine this accusation to a particular country but to the whole world.’Amnesty International’, the universal supervisor, though not a silent spectator, has failed to achieve the targeted results.

Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains. It is not a mere statement of psychological or philosophical nature. But today is material reality. Even in western civilisation like America ‘s great leaders like Lincoln and Martin Luther King who fought for the human rights of blacks in yesteryears fell victims to bullets. Racism has been an eyesore to any civilised society. Man would have better been in jungles.

If it is racism in western world, it is casteism in countries like India. It is appalling note that even today two – tumbler system exists in remote villages of India. As the whole system revolves around this vicious circle, violation of human rights is a everyday phenomenon in India.

Though the Indian Constitution clearly enunciates and defines the Fundamental Rights of citizens and their guardians, need has arisen to create extra-constitutional bodies to protect human rights. Human Rights Commission at National level and at State level have been created to deal with violation of human rights. The high-handedness of the police which is the enforcement body of laws, custody deaths, filing of cases under provisions not related to their pretty crimes committed to satisfy either their superiors or their political bosses have received condemnation from all quarters. The incidents in Tamil Nadu after May – 2008 elections, were subjected to wild criticism. The political vendetta and vengeance by political parties and their leaders are not healthy signs of democracy. Gone are the days when the policies and not individuals were subjected to valid criticisms.

As far as India is concerned, we have enough laws, but the violations arise only when they are implemented. To a large extent, though the violation of human rights can be traced to a large scale illiteracy prevailing in India, it can be safely concluded that the system of education practised in India does not emphasis much on human values. The system needs total revamping. Strict enforcement of law is the need of the hour but violation of human rights is strongly condemnable.

We are in a civilised democratic country. In the words of Churchill, ‘Democracy is the worst form of Government but, we do not know better than that’. Hence, what is required is ‘respect for human values’.

Staying fit in lockdown

Corona virus disease which was first identified at Wuhan, China has caused a massive spread all over the world as because this is an infectious ailment, our country has adopted the method of Lockdown to tame down the vulnerable situation of Covid 19. This circumstance is becoming a lot more serious over the days when Corona virus is creating a dreadful impact worldwide. Lockdown basically is a very effective process to ensures the security of people by isolating the positive cases. Government has taken up this solution to break the chain of Corona Virus. Lockdown will help in the reduction of death rate as face to face interactions nowadays is to be avoided. The policy of staying separated from one another is also known as Quarantining oneself. This is relatively a new term which signifies that people should not get much exposed to the contagious disease. World Health Organizations has termed Covid 19 as a Pandemic. Hence, all the other places like Shopping malls, Cinema Halls, Restaurants which provided entertainment to the common folks after a strenuous busy day have been closed down. Also, school, colleges, universities has declared to be shut off till the Graph of Covid spread goes down. Hence it is much crucial for all of us to take proper measures and precautions to protect ourselves at this time. Usage of Masks and Sanitizers has become compulsory as declared by the Government which is undeniable and is the best rule to be followed for the protection of every one around, preventing the spread of Virus. Those who are breaking such regulations are to be strictly punished by the cops. Other than that, Few below mentioned steps can be followed for a happy living:-

1) Mental Health of a person needs to be taken care of and known just as we do to the physical Health. Mental Health is not much talked about and not many considers this as a significant issue. This requires serious treatment too. Mental Health is a time span when the afftected one faces a lot of trauma, starts gets negative feelings and lose all hope of living. A large no. of people commits suicide on a regular basis due to depression. If someone seeks help he should be talked to often or will mandatorily attend a psychiatrist. Understanding the depth of such an ailment in India is practically impossible as they don’t know how to communicate regarding this to another. due to this Covid situation Mental Health is getting hampered as because People are social beings, it is a torture of them to caged down for a very long tenure.

2) As because the Gyms are closed, you cannot skip on your exercises. Exercises are a must for your body, it releases stress and motivates you to get back in shape and keeps away ailments. Even a little bit of working out, or running around would help a lot. Exercising is the best way to work on yourself, plank for 30 seconds, arm and leg stretch is indeed a must. If someone has never been to a gym, this is the best time to indulge yourself in working out at home.

3) Talking to family is a very relaxing idea as it takes away all the boredom of your life and opening up to them is essential for your growth. Family is the foremost place which knows you thoroughly and understands you better no matter what. Spend your leisure time by chit chatting with them or playing indoor games like Chess, Ludo, Cards together just like we did in our child hood days. Family bond makes you feel and live much better. Use this ample of time to strengthen your connections, which was previously lost due to shortage of time by getting closer to your family.

4) Eat properly, take proper vitamins and minerals which are prescribed by the doctors globally. Taking medicines time to time is very essential these days. In taking Junk foods are absolutely a big No No for your health right now. Food should be consumed at regular intervals, Seasonal fruits shall be consumed daily for removing body toxins and it also keeps the body hydrated.

5) Many people can start pursuing their lost passions once again, utilizing this time for your benefit is the best option. Hence those who couldn’t earlier manage time to continue with their likings because of the work pressure can restart by cooking new dishes, gardening, painting, singing, dancing, writing e t c. All these are a part of self care which would enhance your skills once again.

6) Children are getting time to spend with their parents which is in turn a boon for them because both the parents work for a lot of time and do not get the scope to speak to their children, also the children spends a lot of time in Schools. After a busy day, no body has the energy to communicate with each other making the child lonely and irritated. Parents must take the initiative to engage the child and watch a movie or t v shows all together or read out a book to them which will increase their moral values and they will become comfortable while exchanging views.

7) Youngsters should help their parents out with household domestic chores which in turn is going to make the difficult and boring work ten times simple. Also, Teenagers should spend time with the grand parents, hear out their stories of experiences which also serves as a healing therapy both ways. Also they can associate themselves with new Learning courses online which will enhance their knowledge.

The practice of Domestic Violence all over India should be stopped immediately as this will hurt both ou and your loved ones.

Job Satisfaction

“Pleasure in the job puts perfection in the work.”

– Aristotle

Job Satisfaction may be defined as the feeling of satisfaction or attitude that an employee has about the job that he or she is performing. It is not a self- satisfaction, happiness but the satisfaction on the job. Job Satisfaction relates to the total relationship between an individual and the employer for which he is paid. There is direct relationship between employee’s job performance and the satisfaction that he or she derives from doing the job. Many research studies have clearly shown that employees who are satisfied have a better attitude towards their jobs and his productivity is significantly higher than less satisfied employees. Hence, it is important that the employees feel a sense of satisfaction with their job or else it might lead to frustration, anger and in some cases depression. Job Satisfaction is also an achievement indicator in career development task. When an employee is satisfied, he or she cares more about the quality of work, they become more commited and loyal towards the work and the organisation, the employee retention rate increases and the employees become more productive which helps in achieving goals of the organisation. A satisfied employee generally have a positive attitude towards his job and company. He or she is proactive, they have a higher level of motivation and they tend to take initiative, they are willing to take more responsibility and establishes better relationship with their colleagues, fellow employees, superiors and subordinates. A satisfied employee shows a positive energy all the time. As we know satisfied employees will stay with the organisation or company for a long-period of time and so for this the organisation must concentrate on removing dissatisfied employees from the workplace inorder to reduce negative energy. Empower the satisfied employees so that they helps in achieving both their own needs and those of the organisation. Job Satisfaction is an attitude that employees have regarding their work and the organisation and it is based on numerous factors which includes both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job Satisfaction also plays an important role in maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organisation as the company has already invested a lot of money on them. It is a complex and multifaceted concept as a wide range of factors affects the level of job satisfaction. They are individual, social, cultural, organisational and environmental factors. Job Satisfaction is usually linked with motivation as it motivates them to work hard and give their best. Job Satisfaction can be measured in cognitive (evaluative), effective (or emotional) and behavioral components. Job Satisfaction helps in knowing whether employee is satisfied and it is one key metric that can help in determine the overall health of an organisation, that is why many organisations employ regular surveys to measure employee satisfaction and track satisfaction trends over time. A high satisfaction level indicates that employees are happy with how their employers treat them. Job Satisfaction plays a crucial role both for the company and for the employees for many reasons including the following:-

  • Increases Productivity – Job Satisfaction is highly correlated to productivity. If a person is satisfied with his job he will be more productive. A happy and satisfied employees generally work smarter and harder to achieve company goals.
  • Protects Physical Well-Being- Job Satisfaction is directly proportional to physical health and well-being of the employees. An employee who is healthy will adjust himself well in the organisation and to the work and hence tends to contribute more towards the organisation.
  • Decreases Employee Turnover and Absenteeism- A company where there is high employee turnover shows that the organisation provides less satisfaction to its employees and this is the major disorders of company. A high job satisfaction level significantly reduces voluntary separation of employees and thus company is able to retain its talented employees. A higher satisfaction level also has a positive effect on the attendance of the employees. It helps in reducing the rate of absenteeism in the organisation.

So lastly, job satisfaction is really very important for the prestige and goodwill of the organisation.

Animal Cruelty: Are Humans Losing Their Humanity?

Imagine you were the one being tested on, imagine your skin being torn off alive, imagine your arms and legs being ripped off while still alive, imagine being burnt alive, fellow classmates even imagine losing your life, just so you can satisfy other species. Doesn’t sound fun, does it?

Now imagine this, you are a poor soul who has been searching for food everywhere. Suddenly, your happiness sees no bound as you see pineapple lying in front of you. You thank god and people for feeding such a delicacy amidst long hunger. You gulp that in one bite and feel inside of your body hurting and burning. You soon realize it was not just a pineapple. You run for water to soothe down the internal wound and burning. You stand in water for hours in oblivion just to face one reality – that now only death can relieve this burning. If reading this makes your stomach churn, you might understand the pain that poor soul went through which for some people was a mere ‘elephant’. What makes it even more disheartening that the elephant was pregnant  and yet had to spend her last few hours standing in the water waiting for death so that to leave this cruel world in solace.

In yet another instance of cruelty towards animals, a monkey was hanged to death from a tree in Telangana’s Khammam district.

Animals – creatures that are considered fit for human cruelty. Hitting dogs, throwing bricks at speechless animals and taming them forcefully for circuses has become common news now. It is time we re-emphasized the need for animal rights to protect and safeguard their lives from humans.

It’s blood curling that there exist some people who intentionally hurt animals because they enjoy hurting things, or because it makes them feel powerful. Some, love the control they possess over these helpless creatures. While, there are others who simply enjoy pain and violence.

It should be noted that intentional cruelty to animals is strongly correlated with other crimes, including violence against people. (HSLF). Any psychologist or police officer can ascertain you that animal cruelty is a precursor to criminally violent behavior toward humans. There are plenty of laws against cruelty to animals as well. Thus, Outright cruelty, harm to a living creature for no other purpose than the cruelty itself, is definitely prohibited and while not punishable to the extent that human cruelty is punishable, it is considered a serious indicator of a disordered mind and a dangerous person.

There are very strict guidelines laid down by the Indian government. Like, the animal should have rested before being slaughtered, an animal should not be killed in front of the other animals, no pregnant animal can be killed and all the animals should be diagnosed by the veterinarian before butchering them. The veterinarian must allow only the healthy animals to be slaughtered but all of it is on paper. All the strict laws have no strict implementation due to lack of will. There will surely be reduction in the rate of animal cruelty if these laws are implemented strictly!

We need to begin with our own selves without expecting any kind of new policies or laws to protect animals. Regularly keeping a bowl of fresh water outside your house and feeding the street animals. Such small activities would provide street animals with basic survival needs in the harsh city life.

Are we going to realize this any soon that we are a part of an ecosystem where human, plants, animals, insects, and microorganisms, all have to live together without harming each other? It’s generally only the humans that are less tolerant towards animals, plants, insets, etc. whereas, the rest simply seek for a peaceful existence.


As we all know that earth has so many wonders in it….nature show us its beautiful creation but there are some mysterious places also present on earth…Bermuda triangle is one of them….

The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil’s Triangle or Hurricane Alley, is a loosely defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings.
The earliest suggestion of unusual disappearances in the Bermuda area appeared in a September 17, 1950, article published in The Miami Herald (Associated Press) by Edward Van Winkle Jones. Two years later, Fate magazine published “Sea Mystery at Our Back Door”, a short article by George Sand covering the loss of several planes and ships, including the loss of Flight 19. Sand’s article was the first to lay out the now-familiar triangular area where the losses took place, as well as the first to suggest a supernatural element to the Flight 19 incident.
In February 1964, Vincent Gaddis wrote an article called “The Deadly Bermuda Triangle” in the pulp magazine Argosy saying Flight 19 and other disappearances were part of a pattern of strange events in the region. The next year, Gaddis expanded this article into a book, Invisible Horizons.

There are some explanations also about the Bermuda triangle-
Compass variations- Compass problems are one of the cited phrases in many Triangle incidents. While some have theorized that unusual local magnetic anomalies may exist in the area, such anomalies have not been found.

Gulf Stream- The Gulf Stream is a major surface current, primarily driven by thermohaline circulation that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and then flows through the Straits of Florida into the North Atlantic. In essence, it is a river within an ocean, and, like a river, it can and does carry floating objects. It has a maximum surface velocity of about 2 m/s (6.6 ft/s). A small plane making a water landing or a boat having engine trouble can be carried away from its reported position by the current.

Human error- One of the most cited explanations in official inquiries as to the loss of any aircraft or vessel is human error.

Violent weather- Hurricanes are powerful storms that form in tropical waters and have historically cost thousands of lives and caused billions of dollars in damage. The sinking of Francisco de Bobadilla’s Spanish fleet in 1502 was the first recorded instance of a destructive hurricane. These storms have in the past caused a number of incidents related to the Triangle.
A National Hurricane Center satellite specialist, James Lushine, stated “during very unstable weather conditions the downburst of cold air from aloft can hit the surface like a bomb, exploding outward like a giant squall line of wind and water.”

Methane hydrates- An explanation for some of the disappearances has focused on the presence of large fields of methane hydrates (a form of natural gas) on the continental shelves. Laboratory experiments carried out in Australia have proven that bubbles can, indeed, sink a scale model ship by decreasing the density of the water.
However, according to the USGS, no large releases of gas hydrates are believed to have occurred in the Bermuda Triangle for the past 15,000 years.

Flight 19 was a training flight of five TBM Avenger torpedo bombers that disappeared on December 5, 1945, while over the Atlantic. The squadron’s flight plan was scheduled to take them due east from Fort Lauderdale for 141 mi (227 km), north for 73 mi (117 km), and then back over a final 140-mile (230-kilometre) leg to complete the exercise. The flight never returned to base. The disappearance was attributed by Navy investigators to navigational error leading to the aircraft running out of fuel.

One of the search and rescue aircraft deployed to look for them, a PBM Mariner with a 13-man crew, also disappeared. A tanker off the coast of Florida reported seeing an explosion and observing a widespread oil slick when fruitlessly searching for survivors. The weather was becoming stormy by the end of the incident. According to contemporaneous sources the Mariner had a history of explosions due to vapor leaks when heavily loaded with fuel, as it might have been for a potentially long search-and-rescue operation.

G-AHNP Star Tiger disappeared on January 30, 1948, on a flight from the Azores to Bermuda; G-AGRE Star Ariel disappeared on January 17, 1949, on a flight from Bermuda to Kingston, Jamaica. Both were Avro Tudor IV passenger aircraft operated by British South American Airways. Both planes were operating at the very limits of their range and the slightest error or fault in the equipment could keep them from reaching the small island.

• On December 28, 1948, a Douglas DC-3 aircraft, disappeared while on a flight from San Juan, Puerto Rico, to Miami. No trace of the aircraft, or the 32 people on board, was ever found. A Civil Aeronautics Board investigation found there was insufficient information available on which to determine probable cause of the disappearance.

Connemara IV a yacht was found adrift in the Atlantic south of Bermuda on September 26, 1955; it is usually stated in the stories (Berlitz, Winer) that the crew vanished while the yacht survived being at sea during three hurricanes.

• On August 28, 1963, a pair of US Air Force KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft collided and crashed into the Atlantic 300 miles west of Berm

Rafael aircraft coming to India from France

The Dassault Rafale is a French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multirole fighter aircraft designed and built by Dassault Aviation. Equipped with a wide range of weapons, the Rafale is intended to perform air supremacy, interdiction, aerial reconnaissance, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike, and nuclear deterrence missions. Many of the aircraft’s avionics and features, such as direct voice input, the RBE2 AA active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar, were domestically developed and produced for the Rafale program. Originally scheduled to enter service in 1996, the Rafale suffered significant delays due to post-Cold War budget cuts and changes in priorities. The aircraft is available in three main variants: Rafale C single-seat land-based version, Rafale B twin-seat land-based version, and Rafale M single-seat carrier-based version.


The Rafale is being produced for both the French Air Force and for carrier-based operations in the French Navy. The Rafale has been marketed for export to several countries and was selected for purchase by the Indian Air Force, the Egyptian Air Force, and the Qatar Air Force.  Due to its great capabilities, the first batch of 5 raflaes arrives in India in two days.

On the one hand, when there are neighbors like China and on the other hand, when there are neighboring countries like Pakistan, India needs to work on both its army and the Indian Air Force. In such a situation, 5 Rafale aircraft was given to the Indian Army yesterday. These Rafale aircraft flew from France yesterday and reached the UAE airbase Al Dhafra today. Here their maintenance and refueling work will be done. After this, these fighter aircraft will fly and arrive at Ambala Air Force Base tomorrow. With this aircraft joining the Indian Air Force, the morale of the Indian Army will be greatly elevated. However, the condition of the Airforce is not good right now because there is a shortage of squadron. This thing has been told in many reports. But with Rafael joining the Indian Army, it can play a decisive role in winning a war.


“You can call them (Rafale) both beauty and the beast,” said Indian Ambassador to France Jawed Ashraf after interacting with the IAF pilots at the airbase before they set off for India. “Delivery of 10 aircraft has been completed on schedule. Five will stay back in France for a training mission. The delivery of all 36 aircraft will be completed on schedule by the end of 2021,” the Indian embassy in Paris said in a statement. India and France signed a Euro 7.87-billion ( 59,000 crores approximately) deal on September 23, 2016, for 36 Rafale jets. The IAF official said the air-to-air refueling of the aircraft will be undertaken with dedicated tanker support from the French Air Force. “Our air force pilots tell us that these are extremely swift, nimble, versatile, and very deadly aircraft,” said Ashraf while congratulating the IAF pilots on becoming the first ones to fly one of the world’s most advanced fighter aircraft. The envoy thanked Dassault Aviation, the manufacturer of the aircraft, for delivering the fleet on time, the French government and the French Air Force for extending all required support.

Online Classes During Pandemic

COVID-19 began in the month of December in 2019 and soon it grew into a pandemic, leading to several losses of lives and locking down of many cities. Social distancing became the key to escape out of this problem. But, with this solution came other problems. We are able to follow social distancing by keeping us locked in our houses but this stopped students’ education too. But we can’t just stop everything due to this COVID thing. We need to find an effective solution to continue the education of students. We need to continue the functioning of schools and colleges.

Online Classes

In the times of the internet, the one and the only solution are online classes. The online way to share knowledge and information now is the internet. It has proved to be a real miracle these days, connecting millions and making information access fast and easy. Be it school, college, tuition, or coaching classes, knowledge is now being delivered to students who are sitting at their home and can learn things sitting there only. Students now need a mobile or desktop and fast internet connection to attend their online classes and learn things. It is not possible for a pandemic to stop students from learning.


How it is a different experience?

This way of learning is totally new to everyone, be it students, be it teachers or be it parents. We were already involved in some small ways of e-learning but a complete shift towards this type of mode is  something new and challenging to everyone. Teachers are continuously involved in finding new ways to make e-learning more interactive and interseting for students. They are continuously evolving their way of teaching and trying to give them a class-type of feeling. Teachers are also learning to adapt with new softwares and explore things. Students are learning how to deal with online homework submissions, doubt-sessions and examinations. But, the problem is that the medium of interaction is always an electronic device. Hence, students are subjected to fatigue and mental stress. They seem irritated and develop body pain sitting still at a particular position holding their phones or laptops. Students are also developing stress on eyes. It is quite difficult for them to adjust with all of these. It seems that this way of teaching costs their health, both mental and physical. Besides this, internet is not available to all the areas of the country and to all the students. Poor students can’t afford high speed data. This method of teaching, is thus, a barrier between poor students and education. It is a harsh truth that they are left behind. We need to work together towards this to make education available to underprivileged students also.




As we are humans and we always want something new, something unique, something bigger, and most importantly something different…..our history is full of great people and great inventions…..there were some inventions after them, the world has took a new dimension or we can say that the world get updated by time by time……there are some inventions which have changed the way of thinking of human beings, and provide a new face to the world……these inventions are as follows:

WHEEL- just imagine if there were the invention of wheel didn’t take place then how our life will be going on….This primitive technology made it easier for all of us to travel. From the archaeological excavations, the oldest known wheel is from Mesopotamia, around 3500 B.C.
As a result of advancement in the new and innovative design of wheels, industrialization could take root. Wheel played a vital role in our life.

COMPASS- It was created for spiritual and navigational purposes; the earliest compasses were most likely invented by the Chinese in around 1050 BC. It was made of lodestones, which is a naturally magnetized iron ore.The invention of the electromagnet in 1825 led to the development of the modern compass.

STEAM ENGINE- In 1781, James Watt introduced a steam engine and went on to fuel one of the most momentous technological leaps in human history during the Industrial Revolution.
During the 1800s these engines lead to an improvement in transportation, agriculture, and manufacturing industries.

AIRPLANE- On December 17, 1903, Wilbur and Orville Wright achieved the first powered, sustained and controlled airplane.
Beginning with gliders, the duo laid the foundation for modern aeronautical engineering.
The possibility to fly over thousands of miles in less time would not have been made possible if the aircraft were not invented.

FIRE- From the past to the present Fire has been in rituals, agriculture, cooking, generating heat and light, signaling, various industrial processes, cremation, and as a weapon or medium of destruction. This remarkable control of fire happened during Early Stone Age by Homo erectus. The invention of fire was the biggest achievement of our ancestors and an essential thing of all the time.

LIGHT BULB- Today we get light by only switching on a button….the light bulb was just like a revolution in the history of world…Thomas Alva Edison invented the light bulb.

ELECTRICITY- There is a very big invention apart from light bulb….the electricity….without electricity we feel very incomplete now a days…Alessandro Volta discovered the first practical method of generating electricity. 1831 is marked the year of major breakthrough for electricity. A British scientist Michael Faraday discovered the basic principles of electricity generation. This invention was also the revolution in the history of world. It works as a backbone for almost every work..

X-RAY- X-ray was the very big invention for the medical field as it brought an ease in treating people.
All credits to physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen. While testing whether cathode rays could pass through glass, he noticed a glow coming from a nearby chemically coated screen. Because of their unknown nature, he named it as X-rays. Through his observation, he learned that X-rays can be photographed when they penetrate into human flesh.

In 1897, during the Balkan war, X-rays were first used to find bullets and broken bones inside patients. In 1901, he received the Nobel Prize in physics for his work.

CAMERA- Camera was one of the remarkable inventions in the history as it allows us to capture all the moments and with the help of this, we can travel in the memories of flash back.
The first partially successful photograph of a camera image was made in approximately 1816 by Nicephore Niepce, using a very small camera of his own making and a piece of paper coated with silver chloride, which darkened where it was exposed to light.

COMPUTER- In today’s life laptop, computer become an essential thing either it is business man, student, employee everyone need it. It was also the biggest achievement for history. Major Shoutout to the mechanical engineer Charles Babbage for laying the foundation to this remarkable and most reliable invention. In the early 19th century, the “father of the computer” conceptualized and invented the first mechanical computer.

TELEPHONE- Alexander Graham Bell, best known for his invention of the telephone. Today we can talk to any one from anywhere…and we feel connected to our every loved ones because of telephone.

INTERNET- Internet was also the remarkable invention as everyone needs it in today’s time either it is a school going child, an employee, or elder ones. Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on technology, including the rise of electronic mail, instant messaging, voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone calls, and two-way interactive video calls.

WORLD WIDE WEB- The Internet is a networking infrastructure. Whereas the World Wide Web is a way to access information over the medium of the Internet.
The father of the World Wide Web is a British Computer Scientist, Tim Berners-Lee. By October 1990, three Tim laid the foundation to the web through HTML, URL, and HTTP technologies.
April 1993, marked an important step in the history of Web. The decision to use the web for free was announced. And today we can see there is not a single day gone when we don’t search something on Google. We can say Google has become the part of our life…if we don’t know something and if we want to search something, then we easily open Google and collect the information….from a street to the world every information is available here.

Lockdowns And Decreased Seismic Noise

Scientists from the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Brussels recently shared an observation that after lockdowns were imposed by governments all over the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a remarkable decline in human-linked vibrations within the crust of the Earth. And the scientists in Brussels, with the help of other scientists around the world, have published a new study in the journal “SCIENCE“, which shows how the ‘Seismic Noise’ has reduced, allowing them to observe and record previously concealed earthquakes better.

Courtesy- Stephen Hicks @seismo_steve

Measured using seismometers, seismic waves are the vibrations traveling within the Earth that could be set off by earthquakes or volcanoes. The waves could be subject to the disturbance caused due to human activities or naturally. In the study, it is found that the reduced human activity led to an average drop of around 50% human-caused seismic noise, which was recorded between March 2020 to May 2020. The drops in the seismic noise, especially in the urban areas, are unprecedented and are observed to be more than what is considered usual quiet periods like weekends, holidays, or during the night.

The scientists have termed this time of global anthropogenic or human-based seismic noise deduction as ‘Anthropause’. This anthropause can help the scientists get a more accurate measure of the seismic waves and to differentiate between human and natural seismic noise clearly.

Lead author of the study, Dr. Thomas Lecocq from the Royal Observatory of Belgium explains, “With increasing urbanization and growing global populations, more people will be living in geologically hazardous areas. It will, therefore, become more important than ever to differentiate between natural and human-caused noise so that we can ‘listen in’ and better monitor the ground movements beneath our feet.”

The scientists and researchers are hoping to move forward with their study of seismic lockdown and the previously hidden indications of earthquakes and volcanoes would be easier to be recognized and there will be a better understanding of the natural seismic waves.


“I want to fly a plane. I want to make a paper boat. I want to become a police officer and catch all criminals by myself. I want to become a model. I want to become the Prime Minister of my country. I want to meet Sharukh Khan in person.” These are some of the things one must have said or at least heard a child say. But as we grow up, things change and people find it difficult to continue their dreams. Some of them make use of their hobbies and elevate it into their career, some pursue them in their free time and some just don’t really happen to bother about it.


According to Wikipedia, A hobby is an activity, interest, or pastime that is undertaken for pleasure or relaxation, done during one’s own time.

Some hobbies include DIY, coin collection, writing poems and articles, stamp collection, gardening, camping, play board games, watch movies/series and documentaries, make a scrapbook of special events, cooking, drawing, dancing, singing, stargazing, flying a kite, calligraphy, learning a new language, volunteering, performing yoga and the list continues.

Some of them have become obsolete such as stamp or coin collection due to VUCA world. Technology has also enhanced various things and have led to molding of interest. Now-a-days, it is possible to learn new things via internet. YouTube and other online platforms have made it possible for amateur to learn new skills online.

Some hobbies can be expensive but some comes with few costs involved. But at the end of the day, one must devote some time for these hobbies as they are a great stress reliever. One way to end the monotony is to focus on a hobby that is both enjoyable and helps you pass the time in a meaningful way.

Benefits of having a hobby:

  • Hobbies offer a new challenge.
  • They are a great source of happiness and stress reliever.
  • Hobbies provide an outlet for stress.
  • They help in enhancing one’s own personality.
  • They promote healthy relationship with oneself as well as others.
  • They also give one a platform to showcase one’s talent with the world.

As we grow up, life becomes monotonous and sometimes dull. Presence of some hobbies help in innovative thinking and reducing everyday stress. It is something that one has outside the normal job and something that is interesting. It is extremely important to adapt to the changes overall keep going and these hobbies add colors to life.


Aloe vera

Aloe vera is a succulent plant species of the genus Aloe. An evergreen perennial, it originates from the Arabian Peninsula, but grows wild in tropical, semi-tropical, and arid climates around the world. People have used it for thousands of years for healing and softening the skin. Aloe has also long been a folk treatment for many maladies, including constipation and skin disorders. The cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and food industries use aloe vera extensively, and the plant has an estimated annual market value of $13 billion globally. Each leaf contains a slimy tissue that stores water, and this makes the leaves thick. This water filled tissue is the “gel” that people associate with aloe vera products. Like other Aloe species, Aloe vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil.


The gel contains most of the beneficial bioactive compounds in the plant, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, and antioxidants .Aloe vera gel contains powerful antioxidants belonging to a large family of substances known as polyphenols.


Aloe vera is known for its antibacterial, antiviral, and antiseptic properties. This is part of why it may help heal wounds and treat skin problems. There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that topical aloe vera gel can slow aging of the skin. The United States Pharmacopeia describe aloe vera preparations as a skin protector as early as 1810–1820.


Aloe vera may also help treat constipation. This time it is the latex, not the gel, that provides the benefits. The latex is a sticky yellow residue present just under the skin of the leaf. The key compound responsible for this effect is called aloin, or barbaloin, which has well established laxative effects.


People sometimes use aloe vera as a remedy for diabetes. This is because it may enhance insulin sensitivity and help improve blood sugar management.

This plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.

Hate Binge And Chill

Over the last weekend, all I can notice on social media was Netflix’s latest docu-reality series, which was trending on number #2 “Indian Matchmaking”. People on Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook were criticizing the show and the memes were being circulated, I am no fan reality shows but I was just curious to know what the fuzz is all about.

The show begins with a woman (Akshay’s mom) listing all the qualities, to a Mumbai based matchmaker- Sima Taparia, that she is looking for in her future daughter-in-law, and trust me when I say this that 10 minutes into the show and I am already hating it but I still watched 2 episodes in the same sitting. “I shouldn’t be watching this shit,” I say to myself but somehow, I finished all eight episodes of the show in a matter of hours within a day. The show is downright cringe-worthy. Sima Taparia, the narrator makes pretty nasty and mean comments, especially about girls who are ambitious, independent, and looking for a partner that would treat her as an equal. Such girls for Sima Aunty are stubborn, not-flexible, demanding, and difficult to find a match for; while on the other hand if a boy demands those qualities then it is normal. So much for the double standards. The show without doubts contains all the elements of a binge-worthy reality show- A man-child, who wants a wife like his mother, nosy mother, who blackmails by pointing to her high blood pressure the boy into marrying, a most probably closeted guy, an ambitious, career-oriented woman, a face reader, astrologers, life-coach, and US-based scenes. It is worth all the hate and I too watched it under the hate spell.

It happens to a lot of us that we get glued to television for such shows that we hate, those shows don’t make any sense, we make fun of them, get offended by them but we still binge them. But why does that happen? Why can’t we stop watching something that we do not like? According to psychology and communications experts, love and hate are 2 strong emotions and once our emotions are unleashed, whether it’s because we’re very attracted to something or very repelled by something if we feel strongly enough about it, we want to know more, we grow curious about it.

The same happened with Indian Matchmaking, I was annoyed by Sima Taparia and other problematic characters and it unleashed my emotions. I was furious when Sima Taparia said, “Indians don’t like lawyers as a daughter-in-law”, words like “flexible”, “compromise”, “tall”, “well-settled” were thrown around and I was screaming, “Why even bother getting married then?” at my TV screen when Sima Taparia said, “In India, marriages are breaking like biscuits” and thus her job is getting tougher. But with every episode I felt that I do want to know what is going to happen next in their lives, I might miss something and everyone is already talking about it. When there are no good options about what to do, we tend to do this like binge-watching a show that you dislike because you have developed an interest as it is more interesting than doing nothing.

When we start a show that we begin to hate, we think that we have wasted our time by start watching it in the first place and to compensate the lost time and effort we keep going on in a hope that we will get at least something out of it in the end. And eventually what happens is you dislike it more and more, you waste more and more money, and things generally just get worse.

But how do we stop this hate-binge? Well, psychologists suggest that turning off the auto-play is a good start, if you don’t like something in the first two episodes stop watching it then and there and if you feel peer pressure by the Social Media into watching the entire series because everyone else has, try to start a new series and then go back to the one you hated. I honestly would love to try this technique out because hate-binge just makes you feel guilty and nothing good comes out of that.


Recently we have heard about a lake which water turned into pink color and it was the big cause of everyone’s wonder….everyone was surprised that how it happened ….then every had curiosity to know about that lake and to know about how it’s green color changed into pink color……and the name of that lake is the LONAR LAKE…….

The lonar lake is located at Lonar in Buldhana district, Maharashtra, India. Lonar Lake was created by an asteroid collision with earth impact during the Pleistocene Epoch.

The lake was initially believed to be of volcanic origin, but now it is recognized as an impact crater. Lonar Lake was created by the impact of either a comet or of an asteroid. The crater has an oval shape.

The water of the lake contains various salts and sodas. During dry weather, when evaporation reduces the water level, large quantities of soda are collected.

The lake is a haven for a wide range of plant and animal life. Resident and migratory birds such as black-winged stilts, brahminy ducks, grebes, shelducks (European migrants), shovellers, teals, herons, red-wattled lapwings, rollers or blue jays, baya weavers, parakeets, hoopoes, larks, tailorbirds, magpies, robins and swallows are found on the lake.

In early June 2020, the lake turned red/pink in a span of 2–3 days. A report by Agharkar Research Institute, National Environmental Engineering Research Institute and Geological Survey of India suggested that lowered water levels and high salinity caused growth of Halobacterium and increased Carotenoid levels, which in turn led to color change.

• Use of fertilizers, pesticides and toxic materials in the agriculture field around the lake results in pollution of lake water.
• Deforestation is illegally carried out in the surroundings and cattle grazing inside or near the rim of the crater creates fecal pollution.
• Excavation activities are often carried out illegally thus disturbing the lake’s underground water source.
• The lake’s ecosystem is being damaged because of the sewage dump in the lake.
• Commercial activities, including illegal construction, within the vicinity of lake has damaged the lake’s natural.

There are various activities (e.g. “Save Lonar”) for the protection of Lonar crater are on-going.