Landing Your Dream Job

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Did you recognize that an individual referred for employment is 15 times more likely to urge a job? Job boards have just a 0.4 percent effectiveness rate, consistent with a recent Jobvite study, while the speed for somebody who comes within the door via an employee referral is over 5 percent. the simplest job search is that the job search that you simply don’t get to do. while some job seekers seem clued into that fact — almost 35 percent applied to their most up-to-date position through a referral — the bulk haven’t. So, how does one get that referral then sell yourself on the following application? Allow us to see how-

  1. Be prepared before diving into the work search- Although leaving your current job hasn’t crossed your mind, you ought to always have two things ready and up so far — your resume and LinkedIn profile. That’s where employers are getting to search for you. And if the thought of a replacement opportunity has crossed your mind? Before you start applying, know this: In cover letters, most of the people tend to speak about what they need rather than how they will help a corporation reach its goals. Many think the latter is implied, but it’s not — and you’ve needed to draw that very specific line. It’s your responsibility to match those description keywords and show how you line up with the role. There’s a difference between ‘I can contribute to your success in XYZ ways’ versus ‘I’m an excellent candidate, check out me’. The key here is to seem at the success marker for the work then be very specific about how what you’ve done can help replicate that sort of success. Use concrete numbers wherever possible.
  2. Start connecting- As you begin brooding about making a move, prepare a shortlist of companies (maybe three to five) you’d wish to work for and do extensive research on them. you would like to be as certain as possible that the corporate you would possibly jump to will cause you to happier than the one you’re leaving, and it’s hard to understand that until you hear from people that currently work there. Try reaching bent people that work on your shortlisted companies that you simply have something in common with — an equivalent school, major, interests, hometown, or LinkedIn group. Invite a number of them to coffee — your treat if possible — to ask them about what it wishes to work there. People generally will want to assist if it doesn’t cost them much.
  3. Think “relationship” or “networking”- If you’re making a habit to nurture your network along the way, then you won’t be seen as checking out employment. You’ll just be within the right place when an opportunity opens its door. The thought of networking can indeed make some people feel drained or maybe fake. But if that’s the case, you would possibly be doing it wrong. Networking isn’t about you. It’s about the person you’re lecture. Take an interest within the other person by asking about their interests, goals, challenges, and where they’d wish to enter their career. See if you’ll help them. Another key: Do more listening than talking. The irony is that opportunities tend to return faster when people specialize in fostering a real connection. Another pro tip: attempt to avoid getting impatient and feeling the urge to maneuver on if someone isn’t directly tied to the career path you see for yourself. Usually, the one that can assist you is 2 to 3 degrees of separation away, for instance, that person won’t be in your chosen field, but their relative, sister or friend might be. Something else to stay in mind when you’re relationship-building? It’s an ongoing effort. It could assist you to unearth hidden jobs or create custom opportunities for yourself.

Thinking through Act

“Acting is behaving truthfully under imaginary circumstances.”

Acting is basically an art of imitation or reflection or representation. It is the quality of utilizing your own spirit body and mind in being someone else. Actors on the stage do not show themselves up there, but they show the character they get into to people.”  Acting is equivalent to forgetting the original self.

actor-on-stage

Acting is not about being someone different. It’s finding the similarity in what is apparently different, then finding myself in there.

Benefits of acting

There are many benefits of acting :

  1.  It is a self-cleansing art.
  2. It helps us to forget ourselves, our worries, or goals, our life pressure, etc for the same time.
  3. It helps us to “be present”. Through acting, we enjoy “the moment”. We are at “the moment”.
  4. It helps us to understand the small little worlds as well as the big worlds of various people around us.
  5. Every act gives us a different perception that adds to build our character.

Methods of acting

  1. Stanislavski/Strasberg/Method: It uses affective memory considering our past. We need to relate to our past events. It draws situations from real life and there is an “emotional recall” as we get in touch with your emotional self.
  2. Meisner Method: It is the method based on the usage of imagination only. We need to enforce us to ask questions to ourselves. We ask the questions “what if”. We need time to contemplate under what situation will I be like this and considers the hypothetical future.

Voice Acting

Our emotions come out of our voices. Talking to a person over a voice call, we can immediately interpret if he is happy, sad, angry, guilty, lonely, or anything else. The Voice of a person gives a strong sense of the feelings of a person. Therefore, in addition to bringing the character by our body movements, we also need to bring out the character through our voice. Indeed, the voice acting is so powerful that it has opened up a separate domain for artists. Voice acting by podcasts are becoming popular day by day. It is easy to access and very interesting helping listeners to create a world of their own by listening to the voice artists. In addition, in these difficult times of pandemic, where shooting is difficult due to the rules of social distancing, podcasts are the way for artists.

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Irrespective of the form of acting, the main trick is to make your character your best friend. We need to study up on character traits; read testimonials, interviews, or watch videos. Then, we need to try to bring the traits through voice. Traits, in general, depending on age, geographical location, any distinct characteristic, or disability. There is a need to develops a culture of responsive acting. It is also important to tackles self-consciousness. It is an effective way of creating the world around us. An actor is an energy bank, always excited about his character and his story.

“Acting is a sport. On stage you must be ready to move like a tennis player on his toes. Your concentration must be keen, your reflexes sharp; your body and mind are in top gear, the chase is on. Acting is energy. In the theatre people pay to see energy.”

Indian Education system VS Foreign education system

The Differences Between Indian Education and Foreign Education

Education is an essential part of human civilization. No matter how big or small, how developed or backward the country is, still they have a lot of educational institutes that work to make their citizens qualified enough to take the responsibility of their nation, the people, and the wealth of it. Education is a medium that takes the progression at a height that only can be compared with the sky. Every country has its own education system and policy. This depends on how much does the country is capable of spend on education in its annual budget. Besides, the resources are the matter that makes the difference. For all these reasons, you can see a huge difference in the education system from country to country.

Indian Education- Past and Present

India is one of the largest countries with the second-largest populated country in the world. Besides, it is enriched with a huge number of human and natural resources. The culture, the heritage all these can be loudly said in its favor. Its education system had been followed by other countries in ancient ages. But in modern times it is seen the students of this country have lesser faith in the education system here. Those who are capable to afford, tend to go abroad for higher study. It is not that, the colleges and the universities have no reputation; still there have a lot of good things to say about the education policy of this country. Despite having all the good things, every year a lot of students are applying for studying abroad. Still, a foreign degree gets a special mention rather than an Indian degree. Therefore, the question must come to your mind and you’ll be willing to know the difference between Indian and foreign education.

The Differences in Education System

It is not the right thing to compare the education system of India and other foreign countries as in every system there are some benefits and drawbacks. But if you thoroughly go through the Indian education policy and the system as well you may find a huge loophole and wrong things that make you feel the worse than any other countries including the USA, UK, and  Australia and New Zealand. Here is a list which can prove you the differences between Indian and Foreign Education system.

The Management

This must be the best topic to start the discussion regarding this matter. In India, most of the lower and upper-grade institutions are run by the government. Unfortunately, most of them are not governed properly; corruption, lack of funds, and political influences are disturbing the whole system. As a result, poor basic study affects the career of the majority of the students. On the other hand, foreign education is looked after by professionals and without having any bad influence the system runs smoothly towards the betterment always.

 The Creativity

Indian education is more based on theory rather than practical. Whereas foreign education gives more importance to practical learning. In this way, most of the time, the much-needed creativity is found lost in an Indian study.

The Necessity

In India education is compulsory to all but like a part of the routine. Without having any target and without knowing own potential, students use to go for studying medical or engineering stream. As pressure comes from his or her respective families to become either a doctor or an engineer. Perhaps he or she would have some different interests and hopefully could do better in that field. As a result, though they could achieve the degree, find themselves nowhere in the path of success. On the other hand, in foreign countries, the talent is given priority and the students are allowed to select the course according to their interests and obviously where they can build their career.

Extra-Curricular Activities

In foreign countries, you can see so many extracurricular activities are included in the study. In Australia, cricket, hockey, and boxing is added in the curriculum. In the USA you may see arts, sports, music, and acting in the syllabus. These activities help the students to display their talent and skill apart from the study materials. In this way, people around the world get an experience to see some of the very talented persons from different fields coming out from these countries. But on the other hand, Indian education rarely encourages these extracurricular activities. This is mainly a classroom  based study restricted within books and copies.

Techniques of Learning

In the Indian education system Students have to memorize facts and figures, equations of maths, chemical equations and reactions, dates, and times of historical incidents, and also thousands of other things. Often students find themselves at a loss and could not enjoy the steam and in most of the cases, he or she could not perform as per their potential. But in foreign countries, the education system works for providing knowledge by following practical techniques.

Method of Study

The Indian Education system hasn’t changed too much since independence. Still, it is following the old techniques and takes a longer time to adopt modern technologies than any other advanced countries down the west. As a result, the quality of the study doesn’t improve too much in India. On the other hand, foreign education always changes their curriculum according to the modification and development of technologies. Besides, the requirements of industries also being considered while reformation of the education system. For this reason, the foreign education always remains updated but Indian education always left behind.

The Popularity

Once there was a time when the students from outside used to visit India for learning, as this country was considered as the temple of knowledge and wisdom. But the time has changed and the needs for the study also have changed. Now to get the advanced study, to increase the job opportunity, and to build a handsome and secured professional career, the students from India are trying their luck to get admission in the universities of different foreign countries. The lawmakers of India should think of it seriously!!

Conclusion

This article has no intention to malign Indian Education only to promote foreign Education. But those who have a close look at the Indian Education system must agree with this article. This criticism should be taken positively and try to change the system according to the needs of the present time. Only then the Indian Education can stand side by side to the Foreign Education.

VALUE OF STATISTICAL LIFE.

Cost–benefit evaluations of landmine clearance are contradictory. estimates that expenditure to remove landmines from Cambodia would produce benefits—in the form of saved lives, reduced injuries and medical costs, and greater farm output—that are worth just 2% of the costs. In Mozambique, the benefits would be worth only 10% of the costs similarly, suggests that landmines are not serious impediments to economic development in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and argues that general promotion of demining as a development action is unwarranted. An exception to these negative results is the study by of mine clearance in Afghanistan in which a positive net present value is obtained. However, even in that study the value of lives saved and disabilities avoided is only 35% of the total annual benefit of landmine clearance, with more benefit from saving dairy cattle.

As noted by, the study by discounts the benefits of mine clearance, but not the costs, even though the clearance program is spread over 25 years. While discounting costs substantially reduces the size of the negative NPV, the estimated benefits are still only 5% of costs. Paterson also notes that the study by Harris, and by implication the other studies cited above, fail to note that landmine programs involve targeted clearance operations rather than an “average” clearance task so that mine fields with the greatest benefits are likely to be cleared first. For example, Paterson suggests that in Cambodia the clearance of landmines that prevent the use of existing infrastructure or allow new development projects such as access roads, water systems, and irrigation works are likely to yield significant economic returns. As a result, the true economic benefits of real landmine programs are seriously underestimated. A recent cost–benefit study undertaken by shows positive benefit–cost ratios for clearing irrigation systems, water supplies, roads and bridges, school premises, health stations, and historical sites in Cambodia, while costs do not generally cover benefits for the clearance of agricultural lands. Applying these results to the overall Cambodian clearance program in 2004 Gildestad finds that benefits were 38% higher than costs. 

THE CONCEPT AND ITS POLICY:

The value of statistical life (VSL) or the hedonic value of life is the trade-off between money and very small risk of death. This measure is the most prevalent benefit assessment approach used by Government agencies when valuing changes in risk. In the case of labor market, it is the wage-fatality trade-off revealed by workers‟ decision about how much extra pay or wage compensation the workers require for accepting jobs that pose additional risks.1 The VSL concept is based on the standard willingness to pay (WTP) principles from the public finance literature. While many non-economists continue to attack the entire concept of monetizing risks to life, these implicit trade-offs are reflective of how people themselves value the risks and respect consumer sovereignty in much the same way as do prices in other economic markets (Viscusi, 2008). Before conceptualizing the value of life, it is useful to distinguish this optimal deterrence amount from the amount that is optimal from the insurance standpoint.

HETEROGENEITY OF VSL :

This issue is illustrated in figure 1. Suppose that some worker groups, black or SC/ST community, etc.) faces the lower and flatter wage offer curve. Worker chooses risk for which his constant expected utility locus EU 3 is tangent to the market offer curve. This worker will have a lower VSL than the VSL of worker who faces the same risk but has different market opportunities. Hersch and Viscusi (2009) used fatality risks based on industry, immigrant status and age and found that Mexican workers face grater risk than native US workers and receive less risk compensation.

Gig economy

In this digital age, the workforce is becoming more mobile and work can increasingly be done from anywhere. As a result, job and location are being separated. A gig economy is a free market system in which temporary positions are common and organizations hire independent workers for short-term commitments. The term “gig” is a slang word for a job that lasts a specified period of time and it is typically used by musicians. In Gig economy, more specifically new technology-enabled kinds of work are involved. It’s also referred to as the “freelancer economy,” “agile workforce,” “sharing economy,” or “independent workforce.” Examples of gig employees in the workforce could include freelancers, independent contractors, project-based workers and temporary or part-time hires.

Components of Gig economy

The Gig economy is made up of three main components:
Independent workers – they are paid by the Gig (i.e., consumer of a task or a project);
Consumers – they need a specific service, for example, a ride to their next destination, or a particular item delivered; and
Tech platforms or companies – they connect the worker to the consumer in a direct manner, including app-based technology platforms. Companies such as Uber, or TaskRabbit act as the medium through which the worker is connected to – and ultimately paid by the consumer. 
Benefits of Gig economy

They offer flexibility, freedom and personal fulfillment to the freelancers or independent workers.That means that freelancers can select among temporary jobs and projects around the world. From the perspective of the freelancer, a gig economy can improve work-life balance over what is possible in most jobs. In a gig economy, businesses save resources in terms of benefits, office space and training. They also have the ability to contract with experts for specific projects who might be too high-priced to maintain on staff. The employers can select the best individuals for specific projects from a larger pool than what’s available in any given area.

The Four Connections

Place – Disconnected from a corporate office, the people find places to work that protect them from outside distractions and pressures and help them avoid feeling rootless. Many claim their work was portable.

Routines – In organizations, routines often improve people’s workflow: keeping a schedule; following a to-do list , beginning the day with the most challenging task etc.

Purpose – For most people in our study, striking out on their own initially involved doing whatever work would allow them to find a footing in the market. But they remain with a strong will that succeeding means taking only work that clearly connects to a broader purpose. All could articulate why their work, or at least their best work is more than a means of earning a living. Purpose creates a bridge between their personal interests and a need in the world.

People – Humans are social creatures. how important other people are to our careers — as role models who show us who we might become, and as peers who help us progress by sharing our path. Loneliness might hit the independent workers and they can certainly be at even greater risk.Some freelancers are keenly aware of the dangers of social isolation and strive to avoid it. All reported having people whom they turn to for reassurance and encouragement. In other cases they’re family members, friends, or contacts in similar fields, who can’t always offer specific work advice but nevertheless help them to push through challenging times and make them to take the risks their work requires.

Summary

In the digital age, the workforce is becoming more mobile and work can increasingly be done from anywhere. Hence, Gig economy comes into picture offering mutual benefits to the worker and consumer. In Gig economy, more specifically new technology-enabled kinds of work are involved. They offer flexibility, freedom and personal fulfillment to the freelancers or independent workers.The four connections that an independent worker or freelancers have are People, Routines,Purpose and Place. Purpose creates a bridge between their personal interests and a need in the world.

Fitness Myths

The explosion of wellness as a mainstream trend has affected some positive change: healthier options at major restaurants, an influx of boutique fitness studios, and a renewed interest in self- care among them. But the invigorated interest in our health has also opened the floodgates for information – particularly around diet and fitness – that isn’t always the foremost reliable. There is so much information floating around about exercise, that it’s sometimes hard to discern fact from myth. And unfortunately for several folks, hearing is believing. Here are some common myths regarding fitness which are commonly believed and followed.

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1. Stretch before you workout- We all must have heard this one and believed it without even questioning it. The importance of a pre-workout stretch is that the favorite most-believed myth, with nearly 3 in 5 believers. Studies have shown that the main advantage of stretching is maintaining or increasing range of motion through a joint. What about injury prevention and improved performance? Stretching has historically been prescribed for tight muscles as a way to get the body to relax but recently the fitness industry has discovered that stretching a ‘cold’ body could have negative impacts. But that doesn’t mean jumping right into your workout is the better option; instead, keep the pre-workout warm-up but change what it consists of. A proper workout schedule should be a cardiovascular exercise to warm the body up and get the blood flowing for about 5 to 15 minutes, followed by a sequence of dynamic exercises.

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2. Lifting weights will pump up your body- For a long time weight lifting was put in the spotlight by bodybuilders, strongmen, and professional athletes determined to be the biggest and worst on the block. It bred the longstanding misnomer that you lift heavy weights minimal times for size and strength and you lift little weight a lot of times to lose weight/lean out … not true. At all. It’s important to dispel this myth because strength training is a vital component of any fitness routine. Lifting weights regularly (and appropriately) will: improve your heart health, keep your tendons/joints/ligaments lubricated and feeling good, boost your metabolism, correct your posture, regulate your hormones and make you stronger. t does all this because lifting weights taps into all of your body’s energy/movement systems while challenging it in a way that forces the response of all that was previously mentioned. What lifting weights won’t do is give you unwanted bulkiness unless you are specifically training for that.

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3. Muscles turn into fat if you stop working out- This is a popular myth in part because of an optical illusion. If I transition from a lively lifestyle of building mass to whatever an alternate lifestyle seems like, there’s a chance. The muscles get smaller and therefore the body fat will probably rise counting on the diet. This leads most people to believe that their muscle is turning into fat. The real story is that muscle and fat are two different tissue systems with different functions. Muscle tissue is what gives you mass and what is constantly burning calories. The fat tissue is what gives you the ‘gut’ and is where excess energy is stored. Although energy is shared between the 2 systems, muscle and fat don’t convert to at least one another. They simply move up and down on a spectrum independently and in most cases simultaneously. The confusion for people probably come therein once they are inactive, their muscle size and productivity decreases. This results in less of a demand for ‘fuel’ or energy from food consumption. When your body has excess fuel from unused food its default is to convert it into long term storage, aka ‘fat.’ When you have an increased demand for storage your fat cells expand or grow larger and in some instances, new ones are created.

Happy Friendship Day

“A friend in need is a friend indeed” – We all grew up listening to this line repetitively. From very childhood, when a baby learns about his family and relatives, the very next thing he comes to know about is Friendship. If Family is the beginning step of one’s life; Friendship is the secondary step. Friendship largely impact one’s life. Just as family teaches the moral value, Friendship teaches the social values. Friendship Day is celebrated on 30th July every year worldwide whereas, we Indians usually celebrate the Friendship Day as on 1st Sunday of the August month. Primarily, when that kid starts going to school, he meets several new children of his age and instantly develops a connection. This sacred bond is known as Friendship. When two kids are like-minded, they talk a lot and hence get really attached resulting in devotion towards each other. This connection entirely comes from the heart and not from anywhere else. Two person cannot forcefully be friends till they don’t develop the connection mutually. Friendships mostly forms between two or more peers i.e., classmates as this essence stays on for a long period of school life. Friends tend to play together indoor and outdoor sports. They discuss about various matters like news, sports, cinema etc. Friends go off to cinema halls, excursions together also visits each other’s houses. They also supports each other at difficult times. Friends can only match up with the enthusiastic nature of one another. Friends also help each other with studies and homework. Friends are punished together for any mischief caused by them. These are some innocent naughtiness which are harmless and is remembered later on as a part of nostalgia later on after school. Every person needs friends in their lives. A child can feel difficulty in conversing with their parents due to the age gap. The child henceforth shares all the complications and problems with the friends as because they won’t judge as like the parents do. The generation gap thing here is excluded. The friends are best companions at the time when a child is facing any confusion or is reluctant to take new decision for life. True friends do it out of selflessness. Here ‘True’ friends means the best ones who would motivate you to be good and stay by your side. There are many such people who will compete with you, or get jealous and will secretly bring you down. You need to be aware of them. Your friends understand you a lot better because they shares the same learnings. A good friend would never let you down and as a companion or partner in crimes, he would stay by no matter what. Friends get to know all your secrets and also makes fun of them. Friends never allows you to get depressed or hurt. you get to enjoy your life along with your friends, by going out to various places, exploring sight scenes, eating out together, having fun etc. Giving exams together is also an important part of life.

Friends can also ruin your life, as it makes or breaks a person. A good company would ensure a better living whereas a bad company would force you to have several wrong habits which would harm your body in the most negative way. This will result in failure in fact, end of carrier or life. Choosing the better company is important indeed. Many people suffers due to a mistake of choosing wrong friends for life. They can drag you into drugs or illegal crimes, if not taken care of.

As we grow up, there is no scope for re bonding with the lost friends once again without special meet ups, because during college life you focus more on studies or carrier and not having so much fun. College life is mainly meant to prepare your self for the future hence, it requires much more responsibilities and seriousness. During college we do not get enough time to watch a movie or eat out together as we used to do in school canteens. In college one mostly has a only few friends. Later, during jobs, a person has just a handful of friends and colleagues. Friendship Day shall be enjoyed in the name of old and golden friends.

FREEDOM FIGHTERS

Ambedkar, B. R. (1891 – 1956): A leader of the depressed classes throughout his life, he worked for the moral and material progress of the untouchables. He was jurist by profession and equally a great social worker, politician, writer and educationist. He launched a number of movements for securing equal status for the lower castes. He was appointed the Law Minister in the Interim Government and also Chairman of the Constituent Assembly’s Drafting Committee.

Ansari, M.A. (1880 – 1936): Qualified as a physician, he organised the All India Medical Mission of Turkey in 1912-13. Later took a leading part in the Home Rule League agitation. Elected President, Muslim League in 1920. Participated in the Khilafat, the Home Rule and Non-Cooperation Movements. He was the founder of the Nationalist educational institution, Jamia Millia Islamia in 1920.

Azad, Chandra Shekhar (1906 – 31): One of the most famous revolutionaries from the present day Uttar Pradesh. He was arrested during Non-Co-operation movement, and was flogged for ridiculing the court during trial by declaring his name as Azad, his father as Swatantra and his home as prison. From this he became famous as Azad. He shot himself dead with the last bullet he had in his pistol, while fighting alone with the police.

Asaf Ali (1888 – 1953): Started his legal career at Delhi and later joined the Home Rule movement, in 1945, took up the Secretaryship of the INA Committee and he was India’s first Ambassador to Washington.

Badruddin Tyabji (1844 – 1906): First Indian barrister at Bombay High Court.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1857 – 1920): Remembered as Lokmanya, he played a leading part in popularising the cult of patriotism; first nationalist leader who sought close contact with the masses and he was also a forerunner of Gandhiji. He started akharas, lathi clubs, Shivaji and Ganapati festivals to inculcate among the people the spirit of service to the nation, the first congress leader to suffer several terms of imprisonment for the sake of the country. He openly declared, “Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it”.

Bhagat Singh (1907 – 1931): Born in a Sikh Jat family of Lyallpur district, joined the Hindustan Socialist Republician Army in 1925; in 1928 shot and killed Saunders to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai who received injuries during the anti-Simon Commission agitation at Lahore. He was the main accused and received the death sentence; executed on 23 March, 1931.

Bhulabhai Desai (1877 – 1946): Established the Swadeshi Sabha for promoting the boycott of foreign goods. His last and perhaps the greatest contribution to the national cause was his brilliant defence of the INA prisoners in 1945.

Bipin Chandra Pal (1858 – 1932): Entered into the Brahmo Samaj and founded the English weekly, New India; initially follower of Surendranath in politics; founded Bande Mataram in 1906 and was imprisoned for refusing to give evidence in the Bande Mataram Sedition case in 1907.

Chakravati Rajagopalachari (1878 – 1972): Participated in the anti-Rowlatt Bill Satyagraha in 1919 and gave up his legal profession in 1920, to join the Non-Co-operation Movement; a chief organiser of the Congress in the South; involved a formula for the solution of Indian Constitutional tangle in 1944 and assisted Gandhiji in his negotiations with Jinnah, served the Interim Government as Minister for Industry, Supply, Education and Finance and then as the Governor of West Bengal. In 1948 succeeded Lord Mount Batten as the first Indian Governor General of the Indian Dominion till 26 January 1950 when India became a republic, between 1952 and 1954 Rajaji was the Chief Minister of Madras. Founded the Swatantra Party in 1959.

Dadabhai Naoroji (1825 – 1917): The Grand Old Man of India, associated with the Indian National Congress right from its inception. The Indian to become a Member of the House of Commons on the Liberal Party’s ticket, President of Indian National Congrees thrice, in 1886, 1893 and 1906, first Indian to draw the attention of the Indians as well as the British Public to the drain of wealth from India to great Britain and the resulting poverty of the Indians; “Poverty and un-British rule in India”, a book written by Naoroji was published in 1901, proves his thesis of Drain of wealth.

Gopal Krishna Gokhle (1866 – 1915): A follower of Mahadev Govind Ranade, popularly known as the socrates of Maharashtra; Gandhiji became Gokhle’s political pupil, in 1905 laid the foundation of the ‘Servants of India Society’ for the trainning of national missionaries for the service of India, and to promote, by the constitutional means, the true interest of the Indian people.

Gopinath Bordoloi (1980 – 1950): One of the builders of modern Assam; imprisoned in 1941 and 1942 for taking part in the individual satyagraha and the in the Quit India Movement.

Jatindra Mohan Sen Gupta (1885 – 1933): Renounced his legal practice during the Non-Co-operation Movement, organised the strike of the employees of Assam Bengal Railways, led the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Kamala Nehru (1899 – 1936): She was married to Jawaharlal Nehru in 1916, joined her husband in the Non-Cooperation Movement, and the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Kasturba Gandhi (1869 – 1944): Endearingly married to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi in 1882, one of the first of a group of Indian women to be imprisoned in the Transvaal, arrested for participating in the Quit India Movement in 1942, died while serving imprisonment at Poona.

Sarojini Naidu (1879 – 1949): Educated in England, showed a marked flair for literature at an early age which later found expression in beautiful English verses and earned her the title “Nightingale of India”. She joined Home Rule League in 1916; first Indian lady to preside over the Congress, led the salt raid at Dharsana in 1930, at the beginning of the Quit India Movement in 1942 arrested and detained with Gandhiji; the first Indian lady to become the Governor of Uttar Pradesh in free India, fought all her life against poverty, ignorance and social taboos.

Narayan Malhar Joshi (1879 – 1955): He was a member of the Central Pay Commission in 1947, an important leader of the Indian trade union movement; organised creches, dispensaries for women and children and industrial training schools and co-operative societies.

Swami Sahjanand Saraswati (1889 – 1951): He was President of the “All India Kisan Sabha”. He pioneered the peasants cause and became the Founder-President of the Bihar Kisan Sabha in 1927.

Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit (1900 – 1990): Sister of Jawaharlal Nehru, a prominent national leader, was imprisoned thrice in connection with Civil Disobedience Movement in 1932, 1941 and 1942; played an important role as India’s representative in San Francisco during the first meeting in UN where she challenged the might of the British.

Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890 – 1988): Born in a village of Peshawar district of the British India, joined the national movement at very young age and inculcated the ideas of nationalism into the minds of the Pathans; plunged into the agitation against the Rowlatt laws, the Khilafat, Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience movements, never saw eye to eye with the fanatical ideology of the Muslim League and was committed to secularism. He opposed to the Partition of India. He was popularly known as Frontier Gandhi.

Mahadev Desai (1892 – 1942): In 1917 came in close contact with Gandhiji pledged himself into the Champaran Satyagraha, editor of Motilal Nehru’s periodical, Independent.

Ram Manohar Lohia (1910 – 1968): A socialist, in 1934 became a founder member of the Congress Socialist Party and edited its journal’. ‘The Congress Socialist’, in free India. A forceful journalist who promoted the cause of Hindi as national language.

Sachchidananda Sinha (1871 – 1950): A distinguished lawyer, journalist, politician and educationist, joined the Congress in 1899, actively participated in the Home Rule movement, from 1936 to 1944 Vice-Chancellor of Patna University.

Vallabhai Patel (1875 – 1950): Born in an agriculturist family of Nadiad in Gujarat; entered politics by joining the Gujarat Sabha in 1915, of which Gandhi ji was the President; joined the Non-Co-operation Movement; led the famous peasants agitation against in increase in land revenue at Bardoli and won a signal victory; joined the Quit India Movement in 1942; in free India became the Deputy Prime Minister; a man of iron who never allowed personal sentiment to confuse his duties.

Acharya Vinoba Bhave (1895 – 1982) : Close associate of Gandhiji; leader of Sarvodaya and the Bhoodan Andolan; was a staunch advocate of cow protection.

Rajendra Prasad (1884 – 1963): As a student he took interest in the anti-partition agitation in Bengal and established the Bihari Students ‘Conference’ in the fore-front of the salt Satyagraha and the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 and 1932 and suffered imprisonment; on failure of Cripps Mission undertook a tour of his province and prepared the masses for the Quit India Movment; joined Interim Government as Minister for Food and Agriculture in 1946; the first President of the Constituent Assembly, became the first President of the Indian Republic.

Abdul Kalam Azad (1888 – 1958): Known as the Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, born in Mecca where his ancestors had migrated from India during the revolt of 1857; in 1898 accompanied his parents to India and settled in Calcutta, associated himself with the revolutionaries during the Swadeshi Movement; in 1929 he came in close contact with Gandhiji and supported the Non- Cooperation programme; Chief of the Khilafat Committee, elected President of the special session of the Congress at Delhi in 1924, he led the negotiations with British Cabinet Mission (1946), a member of the Constitutent Assembly; joined the Interim Government as Minister of Education and Arts, in free India he became the Education Minister and later took charge of the portfolios of National Resources and Scientific Research, he established the University Grants Commission.

Ghosh, Aurobindo (1872-1950): A leading Bengali revolutionary who later turned yogi. For about ten years, he remained active in the political field, particularly during the partition of Bengal, and was one of the propounders of the programme of Swadeshi and boycott. He expressed the view that political freedom was “the life and breath of our nation”. In 1910, he retired to Pondicherry, where he spent his life in mediation and spiritual pursuits.

Hume, Allan Octavian (A.O.Hume) (1829 – 1922): A British Civil Servant in India, who after his retirement for service in 1882 worked for India’s political claims and is known as the ‘father and founder’ of the INC. Hume was the guiding spirit during the formative years of the INC. He had studied medicine and surgery and was a great naturalist and botanist.

Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820 – 1891): He was an upcompromising social reformer and put up a valiant fight for introduction of widow remarriage and stamping out polygamy from society.

Jinnah, Mohammad Ali (1875 – 1948): A leading lawyer, leader of the Muslim League and founder of Pakistan.

Besant, Annie (1847 – 1933): An Irish English woman, who came to India in 1939 to work for the Theosophical society. She ardently worked for India’s independence. In 1915 she founded the Home Rule League to launch the Home Rule Movement and was made President of the Calcutta session of the Congress in 1917.

Bose, Subhash Chandra (1897 – 1945): He was the supreme commander of Azad Hind Fauj (the Indian National Army). In January 1941, he escaped out of India and reached Berlin. He died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945.

Impact of Coronavirus on Mother Nature

Only after the last tree has been cut down. Only after the last river has been poisoned. Only after the last fish has been caught. Only then will you find that money cannot be eaten.

– Cree Indian Prophecy

As said in the quote above is very much true. As we don’t value things which we have today and we regret for that afterwards. Same goes with us, that we do with our mother nature. Whenever our phone hangs we hit the reset button. Half of our technical problems gets solved that way. Whenever we reset or reboot our system it starts working again as earlier. Isn’t it amazing. Now, same mother nature is doing with us. Novel Coronavirus or COVID-19 has shut down the whole world. Almost 90% of our life was shut down and all the world seemed to be stopped at that particular time. As we know COVID-19 is contagious and it transfers from person-to-person and for controlling this pandemic lockdown, sanitizer and social – distancing is the only solution to this problem as no specific medicine is discovered till now by any of the country. The nationwide lockdown which was ordered by our Honourable Prime Minister Narendra Modi has resulted our mother nature to reset or reboot. Our mother nature was rejuvenating or rejoicing during that period as human beings were restricted at their homes and was giving a chance to our mother nature to relax and heal from all the pollution caused by the human’s like air, water, land and noise pollution over past many years. The Mumbai known as the busiest city of India was looking like a bare or stark land and this deserted look of Mumbai was going viral at that time on social media platforms. This social media was helping us to look another side that is the true beauty of the city and how we were harming this beauty of nature and were creating hurdles. As at that time people were restricted to stay at home and their was less to no humans on roads means less pollution, clean beaches and clean air. During that particular time, Delhi’s Air Pollution level dropped as the AQI (Air Quality Index) sank to as low as 93 in New Delhi as compared to 161 in March 2019, as per IQ Air Report. Another positive news or impact of lockdown on mother nature was related to aquatic or marine life and that is Mumbai’s Marine Drive witnessed a school of dolphins playing in the water and this was due to decrease in water traffic and water pollution during lockdown period and this has given them a new playground to play. The next positive impact was on our most sacred river and that is river Ganga. The health of Ganga river has shown significant improvement during nationwide lockdown which has led to reduction in dumping of industrial waste into it, experts have said.

Finally, humans have achieved rapid growth over the last century. But during this journey of advancement, we encountered arrogance of knowledge and started harming our nature and that too by rigorously using natural resources without hesitation. The whole world is trapped in a vicious circle that no one was willing to break, think or stop. Even though nature continued to warn us from time to time but due to our arrogance and attitude we use to ignore these indications and act like as if we are blind and deaf. But how long could she tolerate these things? And that’s why she replied, and now the whole world has come to a halt, due to a tiny virus which is an invisible enemy. But, nature is still kind to us. She is giving us another chance. Our mother nature is following the principles of “Giving” as she always give us. She never complaints to us as she is a mother, she always gives us another chance. We should always show our gratitude or should say Thank You to God for every good and bad things. As there is a positive energy behind this and the things become positive. Nature gives us a clear message – “I forgive you, I give you another opportunity and have made your job even easier. Now breath the clean air, enjoy the clean water, watch the clear skies but don’t pollute it again. What you have lost is also mine because you are my own being. But I have to balance my parts. If you rebel, then know, the final call will be mine.” So lastly –

“We often forget that we are nature.

Nature is not something separate from us.

So, when we say that we have lost our connection to nature, we have lost our connection to ourselves.”

– Andy Goldsworthy

Social Media Good or Bad?

Well before i start this article, let me mention to you that this is just my point of view on the current situation.We all know the rapid growth of Social media in the today’s world.We have so many platforms like Faccebook,Instagram,Twitter etc.I’d like talk about the good and bad about Social Media.

Advantages:

1.It is a platform where we can convey our messages immediately.It is definitely a boon when it comes to this because when you consider the period 50years ago,the major communication medium that was used were the letters but the major drawback of it was that it was time consuming and the message to be sent was delayed.Well not anymore.

2.People who lived away from their family can virtually meet them through video calls .

3.There are many platforms where we are free to share our views ,our photos and our videos.Things get viral in no time in today’s world.It’s immediately brought to notice to people who later give justice to the case.

4.Online shopping is one of the most trending social media platforms now in this pandemic .It is very easy for us to just order anything online and in no time we have it on our doorstep.

Disadvantages

1.Online bullying has become worse case scenario nowadays.Young people are a trap fro this.Many of them comment or state statements which hurts the others feelings.There are cases where online bullying has led to crimes like suicide and murders.

2.Online predators are increasing everyday ,teenagers are a prey for it.These predators sexually assault them online and cause harm to the mental health of the young minds.

3.Everyone is getting addicted to it. We are making social media a bane for ourselves by over using it .We are forgetting the value of relationships and rather worry about the virtual relationship ,we are spending less time with family and more on being online.

4.We depend on the social media and make less use of our minds for example when a small boy is given a math problem he immediately googles it instead of spending some time to think about it.

I would like to conclude by saying that we have to be alert in whatever steps we take and not depend on something which might result in harming us.During the lockdown we literally spend horse on social media instead we could just spend some time with our family and also spend time in exercising and keep our mental and physical health stable. 

Let’s just say that social media is a boon to people, who make use of it, in a right way, and a bane to people who just want to fool around. But we must be careful and not get tangled in the dangerous web of social media evils. We must use social media carefully and make it an advantage to us. The more we restrict someone from using social media, the more they get curious about it and end up getting caught in its evil web. So it’s better to let them use it carefully and find out more about the same.

Are we raising a generation of burnt-out children?

Basic things needed by a child in the childhood are the time to play and to look and explore the world through his own eyes. This is a natural thing and of course, right from a child’s mindset. But, in this busy world, Parents show greater interest in developing the talent of the children for their better future. They see the competitive world in front of them. They realize that only “The most eligible can survive” by competing with his capabilities among the sea of humans.Hence, they unknowingly put constant pressure by comparing the children with their peer groups.

Growing up with the Internet and technology meant constant stimulation for the current generation. As we know, constant stimulation affects our nervous system, and some of this stimulation can trigger our stress response without us being aware. This era of technology only became more complicated when cellphones were added to the mix. At this point, the stimulation became portable, and people could carry around devices that connected them 24/7.When they have to be away from the gadgets for a while, they become impatient and exhibit the symptoms of burnout, anxiety or depression.

The constant pressure to optimize their futures

The way teachers and parents force the students to think about their careers at increasingly young ages is quite alarming. It puts a lot of pressure on the children. In order to escape from this, they seek an outlet and get addicted to the social media or online games in mobile gadgets. In this e-learning age, children are even disturbed there by the reminders they received from their school about their assignments or projects meanwhile.

Signs of Burnt-out children

The children having a negative attitude or indifferent view is a sign of burnout. They just struggle to cope with the dynamic changes happening around them and the need to adapt to it for their survival. All the
hard work and stress can turn into overload and lead to burnout in school. And when it does, it can destroy the very motivation that keeps them working to improve. Knowing the signs of burnout in kids can help you protect your child from becoming exhausted and shutting down.
Here are seven common signs of burnout in kids:

  1. Procrastination: Your child used to be motivated to start schoolwork right away. Now, you have to give several reminders. And your child still complains and stalls.
  2. Fatigue: Their energy levels are depleted and fully exhausted by the burnt-out condition. These generation children are too sensitive and get burnt-out easily. They need to be kept engaged or busy, else they become restless.
  3. Negativity: Your child’s positive attitude and curiosity has disappeared. You often hear your child say, “What’s the point?” Activities your child used to like are now viewed as unfun or boring.
  4. Trouble concentrating: Your child seems to be restless, keeps pestering you with questions or sharing irrelevant information and can only focus for about 10 minutes before becoming distracted. It used to be for twice or more as long. They might be attention deficit and difficulty in focusing.
  5. Irritability: Your child seems to be easily annoyed or upset by little things that weren’t a big deal in the past. They could not remain patient and wait.
  6. Not confident: They are unable to do their work on their own and depend on others. For namesake, they involve themselves in school activities.
  7. Avoiding situations: Their innocence is screwed up by these pressures. They do not want to mingle with others or explore new things. They just want to be like a snail within its shell.
    Recognizing the signs can help you make changes at home to prevent burnout. Start by asking what kinds of emotions your child has been feeling. Explain what burnout is, and then brainstorm with your child about what might help. If it is left unnoticed, it may lead to severe anxiety and stress-related psychological disorders.
    Summing up ….
    Kids who learn and think differently often face more hurdles and stress than their peers. Talking about what your child is feeling is a good first step toward reducing burnout. Understandably, not every stress can be eliminated and the children should be taught to manage it with stress management techniques. You need to support them with the proper nutrition, supplementation, lifestyle and mindset. These four elements will help your children feel better , physically and psychologically.

Maladaptive Daydreaming

Daydreaming can be fun, harmless and beneficial but, not at all times. Growing up we’ve all day dreamed about a past event that took place in our life, or a future scenario, we wish that could take place. It’s all fun and happening if we can control it , if we don’t end up spending our entire time imaging them or if that does not disrupt our daily lives. But when someone keeps daydreaming excessively and cannot control them and this leads to them always being distracted from what they are required to do ,then that is a serious issue and is called Maladaptive Daydreaming. 

Most of the time, our daydreaming is voluntary, that is, we can control it and stop it whenever we want to, but sometimes it becomes excessive and tricky and we often find it difficult to concentrate on our real lives. If you have anxiety, then you think about every possible negative scenario, that can take place. Say for example, you have a class presentation, you start worrying and start daydreaming about how the presentation can go wrong. You often overthink something and start imagining awful stuff. Say like, you start imagining about, getting under a bus or falling from the terrace etc. People with depression end up daydreaming about every possible depressing scenario. 

Some people say that daydreaming is a form of escapism. This is not bad, but avoiding any situation can only make it bigger and worser, so it’s better to face problems, than avoid them. It’s our brain’s way of protecting us from stress and pain. It’s however possible that playing a sad scenario in your mind is just normal and not Maladaptive Daydreaming. Research says that people with this disorder end up spending at least 60% of their waking hours daydreaming and disconnecting themselves from the real world. People have often been fired from their jobs because they were often found daydreaming, this has affected a lot of people in a negative way.

Symptoms of Maladaptive Daydreaming:-

  • The quality of the daydreams are very high and vivid.
  • They are abnormally long.
  • They become hard to escape and return to the real world.
  • Daydreaming is triggered by an external event such as watching a movie or listening to music.
  • They cause insomnia.
  • There are certain unconscious movements while daydreaming. 

We can stop this by getting proper sleep, increase the amouyand the quality of your sleep. Keep someone informed about your symptoms, so that they can help you when you abnormally day dream for a longer period of time. Identifying the triggers and avoiding them can really be helpful and talking to a therapist about this would help you feel better. This is a serious disorder as it ruptures your mental health and you start avoiding the real world and spend more time in your imaginary world. But don’t freak out after reading this because I did too, it’s common for us to daydream, all of us do, but ensure that you can control it and it doesn’t disrupt your normal real life.

Body shaming: How ignorant are we?

Discriminating or criticizing someone for their physical appearance is called body shaming. How often do all of us face it?. We almost face it very often but we have become immune to such comments. Is this right? Well in some cases it is right to lock out the negativity of life, but in the long run we cannot choose to ignore them, we must take a stand for ourselves and others and tell the shamers that they are  wrong. Society has some norms of how one must look, anything more or less will attract attention and unwanted advice.

We see a lot of advertisements for weight loss, it’s not wrong to feel that you wanna lose weight, but the problem is that the advertisements are so disrespectful, they make chubby people look like they’re diseased. 

Have you noticed that a lot of sitcoms use chubby people always as side-kicks and constantly crack jokes on their weight? Don’t you feel disgusted to laugh at these jokes? But let me tell you something, even chubby people sometimes end up laughing not understanding the insulating sitcom. This is how society and it’s unwanted norms have made people do. This society should rather work on making people feel awesome the way they are. We are often told that changing your appearance would help or wearing some loose clothes will not show those extra inches or should cut on some food. There is a clear difference between people who genuinely care for you, and people who fake concern, just to thrash you down. 

Body shaming manifests in three ways:-

  1. Criticizing yourself:-  You often compare yourself with others, the way they dress up or how their body shape is often makes you feel insecure. You want your body to be like the other person’s body, this often leads to lack of self love and self confidence. You start to hate every part of you bit by bit.
  2. Criticizing another person’s appearance in front of them:-  You often tend to hurt or insult someone’s appearance directly. You make certain derogatory remarks about them on their face like how they might not end up having a boyfriend because of their weight. This is really demeaning, as this can break them down and make them feel worthless.
  3. Criticizing about a person to a third party:- You often comment about someone’s appearance or looks, to another person. You start making derogatory remarks about that person to someone else. This can also seriously affect the person if they get to know about this through a third person. You start commenting and making remarks such as:- ‘look at how fat her thighs are she needs to dress up more accordingly and stop wearing tight clothes’.

Body shaming should be stopped, people have the right to choose the way they wanna look and sometimes people don’t get to choose the way they wanna look. So we must stop being judgemental about them and help them love themselves. Encourage them and bring their self confidence higher than it can reach.

THE SANGAM AGE

Sanskrit word ‘Sangha’ means a group of persons or an association. The Tamil Sangam was an academy of poets and bards, who flourished in three different periods and in different places under the patronage of the pandyan kings. The Sangam literature speaks highly of three south Indian Kingdoms—Chola, Pandya and Chera. The earliest reference that we find about this era is preserved in three forms: Ashokan inscriptions, Sangam literature and Magasthenese accounts. The three important kingdoms of the Cholas, the Pandyas and the Cheras, combinedly was known as Tamilakam. The ancient literature of Tamils, known as the Sangam literature, is very massive, but it hardly fulfill is the demands of history and chronology.

THE CHOLAS

The kingdom of the Cholas with its capital at Kaveripattanam was started from Kavery delta to the adjoining region of modern Tanjore and Trichinopoly. One of their early kings, Karikala (A.D. 190), who figures very prominently in ancient literature, is credited with victories over the rulers of the neighbouring Pandya and Chera kingdoms and is believed to have even extended his authority over Ceylon. Towards the beginning of the fourth century A.D., the power of the Cholas began to decline mainly because of the rise of Pallavas on one hand and the continuous wars waged by the Pandyas and the Cheras on the other.

THE PANDYAS

The kingdom of the Pandyas with its capital at Madurai extended to the modern districts of Madura, Ramnad, Tinnevelly and the southern parts of Travancore. References to the Pandyas occur in ancient literary works like the Mahabharata and the Jatakas as well as in Indica of Megasthenes. According to Ashokan edicts, the Pandyas were independent people living beyond the southern border of the Maurya empire. A Pandya king is also known to have sent as embassy to the court of the Roman emperor Augustus and Trojan.

THE CHERAS

The earliest reference to the Chera (Keralaputra) kingdom can be traced in the Ashokan inscriptions. It comprised the modern districts of Malabar, Cochin and Northerm Travancore. Its capital was Vanji, which is identified by some with a site of Periyar River, by others with Karur or Karuvur located in the western most Taluq of the Trichinopoly district. The people of Chera Kingdoms were a sea-faring people who, established close commercial relationship with Egypt and the Roman Empire. Tondi, Musiri, Kaveripathanam and Korkai were among the well-known trade centres of Peninsular India.

SANGAM LITERATURE

Sangam was an association or assembly of Tamil poets held probably under chiefly or royal patronage. But we do not know the number of Sangams or the period for which they were held. The Sangam literature was compiled in circa A.D. 300-600. But parts of this literature look back to at least the second century A.D. The Sangam literature can roughly be divided into two groups, narrative and didactic. The narrative texts are considered works of heroic poetry in which heroes are glorified and perpetual wars and cattle raids frequently mentioned. The didactic texts cover the early centuries of the Christian era and prescribe a code of conduct not only for the king and his court but also for various social groups and occupations. All this could have been possible only after the fourth century A.D. when Brahmanas appeared in good numbers under the Pallavas.

Sangam literature consists of the earliest Tamil works (such as Tolkappiyam), the Ettutogai (Eight Anthologies) the Pattuppattu (Ten Idylls), the Padenenkilkanakku (Eightten Minor works) and the three epics. Earliest Tamil Works were the Agattiyam (a work on grammar of letters and life) by Rishi Agastya, Pannirupadalam (a grammatical work on puram literature) by 12 disciples of Agastya the Kakkipadiniyam (a work on prosody) and Tolkappiyam (a treatise on grammar and poetry). It is divided into three sections each consisting of nine sub chapters and has a total of 1,612 sutras) by Talkappiya. The last epic shows the dominance of Sanskrit style over the indigenous style of the previous epics.

SANGAM POLITY

The Tamils during the Sangam period were ruled by powerful kings. The kings were regarded as Vendar while the local chieftains were called Mannar. The form of government was hereditary monarchy. The eldest son usually succeeded the father. The crowned king held impressive courts to which the subjects were allowed. There was conspicuous absence of Privy Council or a Council Chamber. The king was regarded as God. The theory of divine right of kingship was accepted. But he was always assisted and guided by wise men whether a minister, or a poet or a purohitar. These wise men were divided into two categories—Aimperukulu consisting of Purohita, the army chief, the ambassador, the spies and the ministers; and Enperayam consisting of accountants, executive officials, treasury officials, palace guards, and the leading men among his subjects. Wars occurred on the pretext of cattle-lifting.

LAW AND JUSTICE

Sangam literature does not describe any posts of Judge disputes were settled by learned men of high character, and the judgement was based on integrity and impartiality. The Cholas have gained great respect because of this. The king was the supreme magistrate. The town court was called ‘Avai’ and the village court was knonw as ‘Manrams’ which might have been pachayats, were distributed across Mandalam (kingdom) in Nadu (districts) and Ur (town).

SOCIAL LIFE

The Sangam society was based on binary fission, i.e.

  1. Vyarntoc (high born people),
  2. Ilipirappalar (low born people)

However, Tholkappiyan mentions, about four categories of castes–

  1. Andanar (Brahmanas)
  2. Arasar (kings)
  3. Vaisiyar (Traders)
  4. Velalar (Farmers)

Moreover, these were communities, called parciyas experienced untouchability among higher classes.

Position of Women
Women took part in various fields like–
• They contributed in literature, evidence is from their poetry.
• Women were allowed to choose their life-partners, i.e. love-marriage was permitted.
• Widows lived a miserable life and sati system was practiced in higher classes of society.
• The kings and nobles patronised dancers for their entertainment.

ECONOMY

The Sangam economy was most prosperous. The common people were included agriculturists or cow-herders, hunters and fisherman. Indigenous industries such as textile, weapon making, ship-building, carpentary, metal smelting, etc. There were also a large number of merchants who indulged in comprehensive trade with foreign countries particularly with Rome. Roman coins of Augustus Caesar’s period have been found in a large number in South India. But, South Indians did not have a system of coinage and they bartered their goods. Examples of honey and roots exchanged for fish-oil and of sugarcane and cornflakes for venison and toddy find its mention.

ART AND ARCHITECTURE

The temples of South India had a distinct Dravidian style which is different from the Nagara style of the North Indian temples. The Kailash Temple at Ellora, Hoysala temple at Belur and Halebid, Chennakesava temple at Belur, the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebid, Ratha and Shore temple at Mahabalipuram, Brihadeshwara temple at Tanjavur, Vithala temple at Hampi, and Meenakshi Temple at Madurai are fine examples of architecture.

International Friendship Day

“True freinds are never apart, may be in distance but never in heart.”

International Friendship Day is a day in several countries for celebrating friendship. It is celebrated on July 30 every year across the globe. The day is celebrated to mark the importance of friendships and friends in promoting peace in various cultures across the globe, to cherish friendship and value the people in our lives.

Friendship-Day-2020-Wishes-Images-in-English

The idea of World Friendship Day was first proposed by Dr. Ramon Artemio Bracho in 1958 in Paraguay. He coined this term when he was having dinner with his friends in Puerto Pinasco. The dinner hosted by Dr. Ramon Artemio Bracho gave rise to the World Friendship Crusade, which is a foundation that encourages friendships across the world irrespective of race, color, religion, and ethnicity.  In 2011, the Friendship Crusade, on April 27, 2011, the General Assembly of the United Nations declared July 30 as official International Friendship Day. It was initially promoted by the greeting cards’ industry, evidence from social networking sites shows a revival of interest in the holiday that may have grown with the spread of the Internet, particularly in India, Bangladesh, and Malaysia. Mobile phones, digital communication, and social media have contributed to popularize the custom. It is also celebrated by exchanging gifts and planning outings with friends. In India, people celebrate this day by giving colorful friendship bands and flowers to each other.

Those who promote the holiday in South Asia attribute the tradition of dedicating a day in the honor of friends to have originated in the United States in 1935 but it actually dates back to 1919. The exchange of Friendship Day gifts like flowers, cards, and wrist bands is a popular tradition on this occasion.

Friendship Day celebrations occur on different dates in different countries. The first World Friendship Day was proposed for 30 July in 1958, by the World Friendship Crusade. On 27 April 2011, the General Assembly of the United Nations declared 30 July as official International Friendship Day with the idea that friendship between peoples, countries, cultures, and individuals can inspire peace efforts and build bridges between communities. However, several countries celebrate friendship day in before and after the UN-designated date. In India, Friendship Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of every August. In Nepal, Friendship day is celebrated on 30 July each year. In Oberlin, Ohio, Friendship Day is celebrated on 9 April each year.

“Friendship is the base of every relation. It is the golden thread that ties the heart of all the world.” 

According to the United Nations’ website, “Through friendship — by accumulating bonds of camaraderie and developing strong ties of trust — we can contribute to the fundamental shifts that are urgently needed to achieve lasting stability, weave a safety net that will protect us all, and generate passion for a better world where all are united for the greater good.” The UN resolution places emphasis on involving young people, as future leaders, in community activities that include different cultures and promote international understanding and respect for diversity. To mark the International Day of Friendship the UN encourages governments, international organizations, and civil society groups to hold events, activities, and initiatives that contribute to the efforts of the international community towards promoting a dialogue among civilizations, solidarity, mutual understanding, and reconciliation.

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“Freindship is the only cement that will ever hold the world together.”

 

 

CRITICISM is a good thing for creativity

Realistically, criticisms are hard to deal with; after all, nobody likes to be told they’re wrong. But it’s not all bad news because sometimes you can use criticism to prove yourself strongly and give you a competitive edge.

A form of communication

If someone has a criticism it means they want to give you feedback on what you’re doing for them – that means an opportunity to learn more about the person who you’re working for and how to convert them into a satisfied customer or audience member. Take a moment to think before you respond to what they’re saying and act on criticism, in the sense, both parties can work towards a better outcome. It gives a chance to get to know what your audience actually want. Using that information, we can give a better service, though it makes us uncomfortable to listen to it sometimes.

It forces you to think about how you work

Constructive criticism can guide you away from bad practices and towards good ones. It positions you in the right track. You can just feel it by trying to be objective and looking at how you’re performing as though it’s not yours. This can be particularly difficult when you’re deeply involved in a project but, if you can take a step back, you might see how to improve your way of working and avoid any undesirable or negative consequences down the road. In order to make the situation smoother, try to use positive language and turn your words into action to show that you can listen to feedback, respond in the correct way and still get the job done for them.

It’ll give you new perspective

When you’re working on the same project for long periods of time, chances are you’ll lose sight of things that aren’t performing well and there might be scope for betterment. Inviting feedback into your project will help you gain a new way of looking at those things and improve the way forward.

It’s a negative motivation or drive for your growth

Remember, giving someone negative feedback is almost as hard as being on the receiving end. You know what you’re saying is going to hurt the person but you do it anyway. You can take it in a positive stride and challenge them. Hear what they have to say – they could be the difference between success or failure.

It teaches you a lot about yourself and other people

How do you react when someone starts with negative feedback? Receiving criticism helps you learn about areas of your work that could be improved but it also helps you manage your own emotional reactions, helping you improve your leadership qualities.On top of this, you’re also gifted insight into the other person. You can observe how do they approach difficult situations. This will improve your relationship with them as you find effective ways of communicating with them and work towards shared goals.

The final thoughts….

A good professional is able to take criticism on board and not respond immediately as though it’s a personal attack. They look at the problematic situation in different points of view and outweigh the pros and cons of it. They are also able to make it work to their advantage or, if all else fails, politely conclude and leave with their reputation intact.

Swami Vivekananda

If the modern world had not known Swami Vivekananda, who stirred up world thought with his short life span, we would probably have disbelieved the life of Adi Shankara, who completed his mission in just 32 years.

Vivekananda spoke to human beings only about the spirit and the essence of man. The very definition of ‘Man is Potential Divine’ can be considered as the heart of Vivekananda’s message. Gandhiji said: “I want to tell the youth not to return empty-handed to Vivekananda.”Swami Vivekananda, who presented the Upanishads in a modern style in the Western world, was shaking up Western thought itself, describing the value of life and the way to bring it out and express it. The notion that ‘sin is the greatest sin’ was enough to shake up the whole thinking of the West.Many Western geniuses inspired by Vivekananda are proof that this gospel of power has transformed the Western world. The French philosopher Romain Roland, Margaret Noble, Tesla and Maxller all enriched that column by saying that the wise men could be heard as electric shocks.Swami Vivekananda is considered to have achieved ‘universal victory’, perhaps because of his re-establishment of worldview in this way by highlighting the theories of the Vedas.

This influence on the field of thought can be summed up by borrowing the words of Nataraja Guru: ‘Swami Vivekananda has made a permanent investment in the West. Anyone can be there for the interest. ‘ An important truth accepted by the whole world about the message of Vivekananda is that, as Tagore said, ‘there is nothing negative in Vivekananda’. Even that form of Vivekananda is reminiscent of eternal youth and eternal inspiration.

Agency

In the hustle and bustle of everyday life it sometimes becomes impossible to do everything ourselves and hence it becomes necessary to employ people to perform our acts. The person employed is the “agent” and the contract by which he is appointed is called “Agency”. In an agency, an agent acts on behalf of his principal and often uses his name and his acts in that capacity are attributable of the Principal. The law of agency is based on the maxim “qui facit per alium facit per se” i.e. he who does an act through another does it by himself.

“Agent” and “Principal” defined: Section 182

Section 182 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872 defines an “agent” and “principal” as follow: An ‘agent’ is a person employed to do any act for another, or to represent another in dealings with third persons. The person for whom such act is done, or who is so represented, is called the ‘principal’.

The concept of “agency” has been thus explained by Ramaswami J. of the Madras High Court in Krishna v. Ganapathi, AIR 1955 Mad 648. In legal phraseology, every person who acts for another is not an agent. A domestic servant renders to his master a personal service; a person may till another’s field or tend his flocks or work in his shop or factory or mine or may be employed upon his roads and ways; one may act for another in aiding in the performance of his legal or contractual obligations to third persons…….In none of these capacities he is an “agent” within the above meaning as he is not acting for another in dealings with third persons. It is only when he acts as representative of the other in business negotiations, that is to say, in the creation, modification, or termination of contractual obligations between that other and the third persons, that he is an “agent.”…… Representative character and derivative authority may briefly be said to be the distinguishing features of an agent.

The essence of the matter is that the principal authorised the agent to represent or act for him in bringing the principal into contractual relationship with a third person. Representative capacity is the test of agency relationship, merely because the respondent had undertaken to supply machinery for certain period did not make him an agent to the petitioner.

Existence of Agency relationship

The test of determining the existence of agency relationship has been explained by Dhawan J. of the Allahabad High Court in the following words: “Agency depends on true nature of relationship. The use of the word “agency agreement” and “agent” by the parties in a contract does not necessarily establish the relationship of agency is not conclusive; if the incidence of this relationship as disclosed by evidence does not justify a finding of agency and that the Court must examine the true nature of the relationship and the functions and responsibilities of the alleged agent.

Co-agents and Co-principals

When the authority given to co-agents is joint, it would be necessary for them to act jointly and only then their principal would be bound. When the authority is joint and separate, any one of them would be competent to act for the principal. An agent who represents more than one principal in one and the same transactions, he should account to all of them jointly, for an account given to one may not absolve him from his liability.

THE PERSECUTION ON ROHINGYA MUSLIMS

900,000 Rohingya Muslims were driven out of Myanmar. The refugees fled the country due to persecution of Myanmar’s military. The refugees fled to neighbouring countries of Bangladesh, India, Thailand and other south-east countries. The Buddhist nationalist majority in the country, they consider the Rohingya Muslim minority as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and refer the immigrants as Bengalis. They are considered as illegal immigrants as the Burmese nationality law effectively denied them citizenship. Because they are denied citizenship, they can’t pursue higher education. The citizenship act of 1982 banned them from getting citizenship; they are the biggest stateless population. They are the most persecuted minorities in the world. The Myanmar government and its military have been accused of ethnic cleansing.

The genocide had two waves, the first phase of persecution was from October 2016 – 2017, and the second phase was 2017. The genocide started in December 2016, where the military in northern Rakhine where more than 1,250 villages were burned down by the military. The crackdown caused arbitrary arrests, sexual assaults, gang rapes and violence against civilians. All of this violence was sanctioned by the government. According to a police document that was procured by the Reuters said that the Myanmar police that 423 Rohingya Muslims were detained and among the 423, 13 were children. From the interviews done by the office of the United Nation High Commission of Human Rights women said that sexual assaults and gang rapes were systematic and planned. Rape has been used as a weapon in the genocide and women are forced to watch their children, husbands and family members die in front of them. In January 2017, an online video surfaced in which the armed forces were violently beating Rohingya Muslims, the Myanmar government then detained 4 officers over the video. All these crimes amount up to war crimes. There have also been reports of using child soldiers in the ongoing persecution. Satellite images show that Rohingya Muslim villages were ransacked and burned to the ground.
The military-led government hasn’t taken any actions against the genocide but are a part of it. The first free elections were held in 1990 but it was annulled. The free elections held in 2016 elected Aung San Suu Kyi as its leader but the military still holds all the power behind this democratic facade. When cyclone Nargis hit the country, the government intentionally blocked attempts to aid the minority population, thousands died as a result. Despite, the international condemnation, the government has declined to stop or comment on the issue. It’s largely Buddhist population believes that the Rohingya Muslims are illegal immigrants thus it justified the actions of the government. This genocide has led to the world’s biggest stateless population and a huge refugee crisis. Most of the Rohingya Muslims flee the country and go to Bangladesh. Due to this Bangladesh has a high influx of refugee who then migrates to India, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries looking for refuge. Because most of these countries have a huge population they are reluctant to take it, refugees. Because no country is willing to take them in they must live in refugee camps till the issue gets resolved. The ongoing genocide has been a huge blow to human rights in Myanmar, the government refusal of acknowledgement and its participation in the genocide has garnered international criticism. Many reports of rape, assault, attack on the civilian population have made it very clear that there is a rampant violation of human rights. The crisis is currently ongoing with little efforts from the government to control it.

Emergency provisions

This article tries to explain briefly the emergency provisions of our constitution. The emergency provisions include Art.352 to Art.360. emergency is a situation which arises due to the failure of the government authority that causes immediate action from the authority.

The power of imposing all three types of Emergencies is vested upon the President of India. The concept of Emergency was borrowed from the Constitution of Germany. The three types are as follows –

Article 356 – President’s Rule

Article 352 – National Emergency

Article 360 – Financial Emergency.

Article 352 discusses about the Proclamation of Emergency.

During the times of such emergency the executive, legislative and financial power rests with the centre whereas the state legislature is not suspended. National emergency has been imposed thrice in the country- in 1962 at time of Chinese aggression, in 1971 during the India Pakistan war, in 1975 due to internal disturbances.

Article 353 discusses about the Effect of Proclamation of Emergency.

the power of Parliament to make laws with respect to any matter shall include power to make laws conferring powers and imposing duties, or authorising the conferring of powers and the imposition of duties, upon the Union or officers and authorities of the Union as respects that matter, notwithstanding that it is one which is not enumerated in the Union List is explained in this article.

Article 354 talks about the Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation which is by the President not extending in any case beyond the expiration of the financial year in which such Proclamation ceases to operate, as may be specified in the order, have effect subject to such exceptions or modifications as he thinks fit. Every order made shall, as soon as may be after it is made, be laid before each House of Parliament.

Article 355 discusses about the Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the Government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.

Article 356 Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States that is the President’s Rule.

 If the President, on receipt of a report from the Governor of a State or otherwise, is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the Government of the State cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution, the President may by Proclamation assume to himself all or any of the functions of the Government of the State and all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Governor or authority of the State other than the Legislature of the State and can also declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament.

The President can make such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the President to be necessary or desirable for giving effect to the objects of the Proclamation, including provisions for suspending in whole or in part the operation of any provisions of this Constitution relating to anybody or authority in the State, Provided that nothing in this, shall authorize the President to assume to himself any of the powers vested in or exercisable by a High Court, or to suspend in whole or in part the operation of any provision of this Constitution relating to High Courts. Article 357 deals with the Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356.

Article 358 says about the Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies.

Nothing in article 19 shall restrict the power of the State as defined in Part III to make any law or to take any executive action which the State would but for the provisions contained in that Part be competent to make or to take, but any law so made shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect as soon as the Proclamation ceases to operate, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the law so ceases to have effect. Article 359 deals with the Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies.

Article 359A that is about the Application of this Part to the State of Punjab is Repealed from the Constitution of India that was inserted in the 63rd amendment , 1989.

 Article 360 deals with the Provisions as to financial emergency.

The president under this Article 360 of the constitution has the power to declare financial emergency if he is satisfied that the financial stability or the credit of India or any part of its territory is threatened. It has to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament and ceases to operate at the expiration of two months unless meanwhile approved by the resolution of Houses.

During the operation of financial emergency, the executive authority of the union extends to the giving of directions to any state to observe certain specified canons or financial propriety and such other directions that the President may find necessary. The directions may include reduction of salaries or allowance of those serving a state, of all those in connection with the affairs of union including judges of high court and Supreme Court. There has been no occasion of financial emergency in India.


Citizenship

citizenship has become a controversial topic in all the heated debates in all forums and news channels by the implementation of the Citizenship Amendment Act that was passed in 2019. In this Article, I have tried to throw light on the citizenship provisions of our constitution.

The Part II of the constitution of India explains about citizenship. It includes articles 5 to 11.

Art. 5 “5. Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution At the commencement of this Constitution every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and

(a)who was born in the territory of India; or

(b) either of whose parents was born in the territory of India; or

(c) who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years preceding such commencement, shall be a citizen of India”

The article 5 of the constitution of India says that citizenship of an individual at the commencement of the constitution of India. It can be decided on the grounds as mentioned in the Art.5.  

The Art. 6 of The constitution of India 

“6. Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if

(a) he or either of his parents or any of his grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted); and

(b)

(i)in the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration, or

(ii) in the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July, 1948 , he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India or at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application.”

The article 6 of the constitution of India talks about the citizenship of persons migrated to India from Pakistan. This is mainly because there was a migration of a large number of people after the division of India and Pakistan after 1947.

The Art. 7 of The Constitution of India

“7. Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan Notwithstanding anything in Articles 5 and 6, a person who has after the first day of March, 1947 , migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India: Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of Article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July, 1948 “

This Art. Of the Constitution of India talks about the citizenship rights of people who migrated to Pakistan from India after the Division of the two nations.

The Art.8 of the Constitution of India states

“8. Rights of citizenship of certain persons of India origin residing outside India Notwithstanding anything in Article 5, any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grandparents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act, 1935 (as originally enacted), and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative, whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution, in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India”

This Art. Talks about NRI’s (Non-Resident Indians) and the rights that they possess in the Indian Territory.

The Art.9 of the Constitution of India

“9. Person voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 5, or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of Article 6 or Article 8, if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State. “

This Art. talks about the persons who are acquiring citizenship of a foreign state are not considered as the citizens of India. India does not allow citizens to have dual citizenship unlike other states.

The Art.10 of the Constitution of India

“10. Continuance of the rights of citizenship Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall, subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament, continue to be such citizen”

This Art. talks about the rights of people who are the citizens of India under the part 2 of the Constitution Of India will not restrict the parliament to make laws on citizenship.

The Art.11 of the Constitution of India

“11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS General.”

This Art. talks about the power that the parliament has the power to make laws and amend the laws made regarding citizenship.

“Importance of persistence in one’s life”

Well, everyone could answer what’s the exact meaning of persistence? it’s nothing but the continued or prolonged existence of something, or have a clearly defined goal stick to it assign yourself with a meaningful tasks to complete the goal with the given specific period of time. But, this little word has got a lot of thing to add in one’s life.

Persistence means being a leader in your own successful life, not a follower. Don’t follow trails, blaze them. Of course, that means you must know where you’re going. having persistence in any area of life can take you to greater heights but persistence without a plan is not worth it, a right planning, a good schedule, a learning mind, along with a good peer group are the factors responsible for your productivity with a good persistence.

The one step rule:

The secret to maintain persistence is to follow one step rule i.e one step at a time. If you meet an obstacle or a problem along the way, tackle it, solve it, then move on to the next. The way problems don’t become overwhelming. And, in clearing up one you may find that when you come to the next one it has already solved itself, Time solves an awful lot of problems. But, the best way to tell yourself that once is not enough, to get off the mat and come back for more, to develop the endurance you need to go to the distance on your feet, is go by that “one step a time” rule.

Persistence payoff:

Yes, practicing persistence payoff, we come across many real life inspirations where they devoted their entire life to contribute something to our society, to bring a change, many of our scientists, freedom fighters, and many more who persistently strived hard to bring about the changes in our society, and many who have made our lives easier by inventing new things and lot more. A persistence of hardwork in a student’s life can get them good academic grades, a persistence in a life of athelete can make them win olympic medals representing their country.

yet last but not least, for all the readers here remember, Ambition is the path to success, persistence is the vehicle you’re in, and Energy and persistence can conquer all things.

Thank you.

persistence is the key that unlocks potential.

Justice Delayed is Justice Denied

Justice delayed is justice denied is the perfect phrase that can describe the current judicial network that exists in India. The phrase means that when relief or redressal is available to the injured party, but this is not provided in the correct time, it the same as having no remedy or redressal at all. When justice is delayed due to various number of causes, it will always lead to the conclusion that justice is denied. A perfect judgment can only be given when the court of law takes the decision in same time frame as the case has happened.  We know that as the society changes, the law must change correspondingly, as law exists to protect the population, and it must by dynamic enough to change accordingly. In the same manner as time passes, the opinions, evidences, laws, etc might have high chances to change, and this will surely influence the decision which is taken by the court. There are many causes of delay, and one of the main reasons is due to delay in disposing the cases, pendency cause more pendency, and this leads to a whole lot of arrears. The reasons for the cause of delay in disposition of the cases have been discussed as follows:

  • The ratio of judges to the nimber cases and the population is very low in the nation. There have been a lot of cases and less number of judges. Not even 50% of the vacancies for the positions of judges and magistrates is filled in the nation. The reason behind less number judges is because they are not given incentives, especially the beginners. The legal profession should be given social security benefits and incentives. 
  • There is very poor infrastructure, especially in the lower and subordinate courts in the nation. These hamper the functioning of the judges and the courts, as there is proper libraries, inadequate staff, poor security systems to the judges and so on. Infrastructure plays an important role, if it is good, there will be speedy disposal of cases in the lower courts, which will reduce the burden on the higher courts. The bar council shall look into the matter, and give them necessary financial aid so that there can be proper functioning of courts,
  • Incompetence of staff in the courts, nowadays the trend of corruption has been taking place everywhere. The staff are delaying the process of doing simple actions, as they are demanding money for every small thing. They are not fulfilling their duties and obligations in a loyal way. Bribing has become a fashion, especially in public institutions, strict action shall be taken in this matter.
  • Delay is caused by all the investing authorities, especially the police officers. They take so long to file the evidence. Sometimes this is the reason where the government takes the decision to release the accused due to lack of evidence. The slow investigation process is also one of the major reasons to the delay of justice, especially in highly planned crimes where there very minimal evidence. Not only that but the investigation authorities do not consist of skilled and professional personnel. Evidence is best served in a case when its new and fresh, but if the cases are pending for a long time, the value and applicability of the evidence may fad away. Especially when the evidence is in the from of an eye witness, if they cases go on for years there is a slight chance that the person might forget the crime scene. 

The above are the reasons for the delay in the justice, due to which indirectly justice is denied. Now lets look at some suggestions where this delay can be prevented. They will be discussed as follows:

  • Appointing more judges, and to make sure that they are qualified and skilled. Justice is best served when the judiciary is filled with highly intellectual and loyal judges and staff. 
  • We need to establish tribunals and courts in areas where there are many cases. Special courts only to delta special matters, like property, company disputes, etc.
  • Improve the physical and technological infrastructure in the courts. 
  • A time limit which has to be set, so that the cases can be solved within the specified time limit. This ensures that the cases are disposed in a timely, effective and efficient way. In the same manner unnecessary appeals and cases have to be restricted and limited. Not every case can be appealed, sometimes the case should bes solved in the lower courts, especially when they are simple cases and problems. 
  • Alternate Dispute Resolution also known as the ADR should be promoted. This type of mechanism involves various ways like mediation, negotiation, arbitration, etc. this are different other ways apart form the existing system of judiciary, where the problems and disputed can be solved. ADR reduces the burden on the courts of law.   
  • Establishment of independent investigation agencies, solely for the purpose of criminal investigation, so that the delay in the investigation process can be avoided. These investigation agencies shall not only be independent , but they must also have qualified personnel with high intellectual and problem solving skills. 

The above are some suggestions where the delay in the judiciary can be avoided, leeding to speedy and fair justice to all. One has to remember that even if justice is received after a long time, it means it has already been denied in the past, it makes no difference. This article gives information on all the causes, and possible suggestions which can be implemented by the government, hence bringing a change in the present system. The judiciary shall overcome all its difficulties, nad one day in the future we might see where very cases is disposed on time, with no more pending in the cases. The measures are already being taken, and in spite of all the challenges and difficulties, the judiciary will always remain in the most respectable and supreme position in the nation. Justice delayed always means Justice denied.  

Bad or Not: Cristiano Ronaldo’s Decision is still a Question for All

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

Just after the 2018 FIFA World Cup came to an end, the big news came from Turin, Italy that Cristiano Ronaldo has signed for the Italian giants Juventus, leaving Real Madrid after an illustrious career with the Spanish giants. The news came as a surprise for many of his fans and everybody thought that he was now on another brilliant journey with Juventus. Before joining Juventus, Juventus had already won the domestic Seriea title 7 times in a row. So, the main motive of Juventus was to win the Champions League, that’s what the fans expected when Cristiano Ronaldo arrived to Juventus. But the journey hasn’t been that pleasing for Cristiano Ronaldo so far it seems.

Yes, Juventus have won 9 titles in a row now, but they are too overly dependent on Ronaldo, and that dependence doesn’t always help win a tournament as big and massive as Champions League rather than Seriea. The 2018/19 Champions league saw Juventus being knocked out by a young Ajax team. The reason wasn’t Ronaldo, but the form of other players. Ronaldo was the one who made Juventus reach the Quarter Finals with his amazing 1 man show against Atletico Madrid but how long can a 1 man show win matches regularly. What the fans believe is that Ronaldo has made a big mistake going from Real Madrid to Juventus, basically wasting his talent. The form he has been, particularly at this stage of his career, where other players at this usually go to small leagues around the world and then retire, he has gone to one of the best teams to perform his level best their and bring the Champions League back to Italy. But for it to happen, the whole team needs to perform with a great enthusiasm which is shown by Cristiano Ronaldo himself. If at this age, he can perform like a beast, why can’t the other players of Juventus. If the Italian giants want to win the Champions League this season, they need to support Cristiano Ronaldo equally and then work as a team and win the Champions League.

The problem with Juventus is the fact that the players don’t really show the intent of scoring goals, rather they keep on defending and defending, and with their some what weak defence they concede and put even more pressure on Ronaldo to score. If it wasn’t for Ronaldo’s 30+ goals this season, Juventus might have lost the domestic title also, the way they have been playing. The mid field just doesn’t look that dominating and with the likes of Ronaldo and Dybala at the top for Juventus, the mid field needs to be more competent to make sure that they supply the right ball to the forwards, creating more chances. The form of Juventus after lockdown hasn’t been that great at all. Not for Ronaldo, it would’ve been a last day battle for the Seriea title also. Now, with the Champions league Round of 16 match with Lyon coming after just a week, the team needs to make sure that they put this all behind and start rejuvenated, so more enthusiastic so that they can atleast fight for a place in the Quarter Finals of the Champions League. With Juventus trailing Lyon 1-0 in the 1st leg, the 2nd leg will be a very crucial match for the Juventus team in general.

In the end, I want to say that the decision taken by Cristiano seems not very good, but we shouldn’t under estimate the Juventus team and players at all, because this team is counted as one of the best in business in European football. So, lets see how it goes on when the Champions League starts in just 1 weeks time.

Our Duties

We always claim our fundamental rights but we often tend to forget our fundamental duties. This article will give a brief explanation on our fundamental duties and help us in understanding what they say and who should follow them.

The fundamental duties are written In the part 4A of the constitution.

These are the duties of every person residing in the territory of India.

They are written in the Art. 51A which was Inserted as the 42nd amendment in the year 1976 of the constitution of India. The Article states the following:-

“51A. Fundamental duties It shall be the duty of every citizen of India

  • to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the national Flag and the National Anthem;
  • to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  •  to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  •  to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  •  to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  •  to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  •  to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  • to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  •  to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement PART V THE UNION CHAPTER I THE EXECUTIVE the President and Vice President.”

  The first fundamental duty of every citizen of India is to respect the national flag, national anthem and all the institutions of national significance and follow the constitution of India.

The second fundamental right is to follow the ideals and revolutionaries and ideas which inspired our national struggle for freedom.

The third fundamental duty is to uphold the principles that include sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.

The fourth fundamental duty is to defend the nation and render national service when required.

The fifth fundamental duty is to promote harmony and brotherhood of India transcending religious and sectional diversity.

The sixth fundamental duty to value and preserve the rich culture and heritage. 

The seventh fundamental duty to value and protect environment and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures.

The eighth fundamental duty is to develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform of the nation.

The ninth fundamental right is to safeguard public property.

The tenth fundamental right is to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual to achieve that helps in the constant rise of the nation.

We don’t have to be nationalists to follow out duties we just have to have the correct mindset and responsibility towards our fellow beings. So it is important for every citizen to know and follow these duties.

OUR FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

It is very important for us to understand our rights. the Fundamental rights are a part of the Part III of the Constitution of India. It is one of the most important parts of the constitution. The Art.12 of the constitution defines state as the only element that can violates the fundamental rights of an individual. Therefore, if one has to file a case foe violation of fundamental rights, the respondent will be state. the Art.13 of the constitution talks about those laws that are inconsistent with the fundamental rights. the clause 1 of the article talks about the laws that were in existence before the constitution came into force. It says that those laws in contradictory with the fundamental rights will be declared void. The second clause of the article says that the state or the parliament will not make any laws that are inconsistent with or are going against the fundamental rights and any law made so will be considered void. The clause 1 of the article talks about the pre- constitutional laws and the clause 2 of the article talks about the post constitutional laws. The clause 3 of this article attempts to define laws. Those laws under Art.13(3) are considered under Art.13(1) and Art.13(2). The fourth clause of this article states that the provisions of this article do not apply to those constitutional amendments made under Art.368 of the constitution. This part of the constitution covers Art. 12- Art.35 of the constitution. There are mainly 6 fundamental rights and they are: –

  1. Right to equality (art.14- art. Art.18)

the Art.14 of the constitution states” 14. Equality before law The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.”  This article talks about 2 main elements that is equality before law equal protection of laws.

Art.15 of the Constitution talks about prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, sex, place of birth, rase or place of birth.

Art.16 of the constitution talks about equality of opportunity in in matter of public employment. This article talks about reservation of appointments of backward classes.

Art. 17 of the constitution talks about abolition of untouchability shall be an offence.

Art.18 of the constitution talks about abolition of titles which includes titles like sir and does not include educational titles like Dr. 

  1. Right to freedom (Art. 19- Art. 22)

Art.19 of the is a part of the golden triangle. It talks about freedom of speech.

Art. 20 talks about protection in respect of conviction for offences.

Art.21 in also part of the golden triangle. It talks about protection of life and personal liberty.

Art.21A talks about right to equality.  The Art.22 of the constitution talks about protection against arrest and detention.

  1. Right against exploitation (Art. 23- Art.24)

Art.23 talks about human trafficking and forced labour of people.

Art. 24 of the constitution talks about prohibition of child labour.

  1. Right to freedom of religion (Art. 25- Art. 28)

Art.25 of the constitution talks about freedom of profession, practice and propagation of religion.

Art.26 talks about freedom to manage religious affairs.

Art. 27 talks about freedom as to payment of taxes foe religious affairs.

At.28 says that everyone has the right to religious worship and it cannot be forced upon anyone in any educational institutions.

  • Cultural and educational rights (Art. 29- Art. 30)

The Art.29 protects the interests of minorities and art. 30 gives the right to minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.

  • Right to constitutional remedies (Art. 32- Art. 35)

Art. 32 is called the heart and soul of Indian Constitution because it gives the remedies foe enforcement of rights conferred by the part 3 of the Constitution.

Art. 33 gives the parliament the power to modify the provisions of this part.

Art.34 talks about the restriction of fundamental rights when martial law is in force.

Art. 35 talks about legislation to give effect to the provisions of this part.


Personal Racism

We’ve all heard about racism, it is not something unheard of, but let’s put racism as ‘ Discriminating a person or group of people on the grounds of skin colour, ethnicity or even culture. ‘ Personal racism is the same, but the people to do so, are your own friends and family. Haven’t you seen people making fun of a person from the eastern side of India by calling them a ‘ Chinese’ or ‘Nepalese’ ? , Instead of correcting them, a lot of us have laughed it off. Let’s take another example, Indian parents often tell their own children, to use different facial creams or products for skin lightening. Why?, Because they feel that being dark is something to be ashamed of. 

Let me tell you my story, of the racism I faced , based on my skin tone. Growing up as a child with a darker skin tone, a lot of my relatives would ask my mother to change the skin product she usually gives me or change my diet. This utterly broke me down, I grew up with no self esteem and confidence. I would feel ashamed walking through the school gate or any public places. I would hide behind my mother and not let go of her. I was good at dancing during my school days, but no one even cared to take me in or even if they did, I would be placed behind someone in the last. There was no end to my silent wails because I did not want to constantly trouble anyone with my problems. One fine day I got selected for a dance and was even given a good position, on the day of the program I reached the school super excited, the teacher did all of our make-up and that’s when I realised they used the lighter make-up products for everyone and I looked like a disaster, I started tearing up when all of a sudden a teacher told me ” Why don’t you use some fairness cream ? You’ll start looking pretty just like the others”, do you know how much it broke my heart? I was just 10. I can say to you all that I have never faced racism outside, but I have faced it within my peers and family. 

Today I’m in college, but personal racism never left me. I’ve been mocked and made fun of my colour and when I get offended, it’s so easy for everyone to say that, I need to calm down as it was just a joke. But no, it’s not a joke for a person who’s broken by racism, who was not given equal opportunities as the others, because of racism. It can be fun to you, but not for the person who’s facing it. So let’s all be nice to each other and not mock someone for something they don’t deserve to be made fun of. It’s not an imperfection, as they say, beauty is in the eyes of the beholder. Tomorrow when you see your friends mocking your other friends or a stranger about their skin tone, don’t laugh it off, stand up and tell them they’re wrong and tell them why they shouldn’t bring a person’s self esteem down. You never know what you will face tomorrow, so let’s all help each other live a better life.

Loving is a human right

We live in a world filled with diverse culture, people and values. What you might find attractive is not attractive to another person. If you look into the history of every country, you will find that every person on this planet had a battle of their own, be it fight for equality or humanity. Indians fought for freedom and against oppression of the downtrodden, Americans fought for the oppression of the coloured people. But during these times there were people who chose love over power or love over anything else. We should not forget a lot of whites supported the coloured people, a lot of Britishers helped Indians. They chose to love when they were given a chance to rule. There are certain things that can never be taught, it has to be experienced. People fought for respect, respect for their religion, sexuality or culture. Even till today, a lot of Muslims are looked upon as terrorists, Christians are looked like they do every good deed, for the sake of conversion and Hindus are laughed at, their culture. Why do we choose to hate people from another religion, when your own religion and your scriptures keep teaching you to love. Aren’t you just negating your own beliefs? The next time a religious person spreads hate, you tell them on their face, that they don’t belong to any religion. Religion teaches love not hatred. Atheists are no exceptions, just because they don’t believe in God, that does not give them a right to hate. 

Let’s talk about sexual orientation. People have the right to live the way they want, if you being a girl choose to love a boy is right, so does a boy who falls in love with another boy. Ultimately all we do is love. You can never restrict love. You cannot choose to love a person it chooses for itself. Let’s consider an example, how many of you know what’s k-pop? If you don’t, then stop, and then go check k-pop out. Boys’ in a k-pop boy band are usually referred to as ‘gays’, they mean it in a very disrespectful way. The term ‘gay’ or ‘lesbian’ or ‘transgender’ is used as a derogatory term. I don’t understand how, people can hate when we don’t have enough time to love. Our life is too short to hate and bully people, we need to spread love. Animals have the right to be loved, animals of every kind, even a snake or a lizard, they deserve love and we can give it to them. As human beings, we don’t understand the privilege we have to walk, talk, think, act and love the way we can. I bet animals would have done a better job in loving and making this place a better one to live , if they get to replace us. Let no one stop you and limit your love, love anything and everything you want. You just have one life to love and time’s running, so chase happiness and not success. Don’t forget , there are so many of them out there, craving for some love, and you have it, so just give it to them. Love is the only thing in this universe, which starts increasing, as you start giving it out.

Angle investors funds for start ups

Angle investors are the high networth individuals who invest in the early stage companies or start ups. Angle investors are high rich people who invest in the equity of the company. They are the experts in some area because of their experience so before their investment in the startups they will study about the chance of success of the business. Whether startup can get good customer and can attract the market or get the return on investment.after the proper study angle investors will invest the funds in the equity share of the business. Angle investors are the experts in some areas so they will give the good suggestion to the management of the company to make good decisions. Angle investors will make the investment for the long term, wait until the success of the business. When comapany get good return they will sell their part of share and get good return. For the startups these investors will give fund along with good suggestion for the decision making in the business.

The NRC

The National Register of Citizens is an official record of those who are legal Indian citizens. It includes demographic information about all those individuals who qualify as citizens of India as per the Citizenship Act,1955. It was first started in Assam where citizens were asked to submit the proof of citizenship themselves to NRC seva kendras and it was mandated through a special exception for the state in the Citizenship Act,2003

  The Assam Accord was a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) signed between representatives of the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement in New Delhi on 15 August 1985. A Six-year agitation demanding identification and deportation of illegal immigrants was launched by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) in 1979 concluded the signing of the Assam Accord.

Under Sec.5 of The Citizenship Act,1955

Citizenship by registration. —1

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section and such other conditions and restrictions as may be prescribed, the Central Government may, on an application made in this behalf, register as a citizen of India any person not being an illegal migrant who is not already such citizen by virtue of the Constitution or of any other provision of this Act if he belongs to any of the following categories, namely:—

(a) a person of Indian origin who are ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration;

(b) a person of Indian origin who is ordinarily resident in any country or place outside undivided India;

(c) a person who is married to a citizen of India and is ordinarily resident in India for seven years before making an application for registration;

(d) minor children of persons who are citizens of India;

(e) a person of full age and capacity whose parents are registered as citizens of India under clause (a) of this sub-section or sub-section (1) of section 6;

(f) a person of full age and capacity who, or either of his parents, was earlier citizen of independent India, and has been residing in India for one year immediately before making an application for registration;

(g) a person of full age and capacity who has been registered as an overseas citizen of India for five years, and who has been residing in India for 2[one year] before making an application for registration. 3[one year] before making an application for registration.”

Intention is to safeguard the art and culture

Article 29 of the Constitution states

29. . Protection of interests of minorities

(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same

(2) No citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them

Art 142[1] of the COI states that enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and unless as to discovery, etc 

( 1 ) The Supreme Court in the exercise of its jurisdiction may pass such decree or make such order as is necessary for doing complete justice in any cause or matter pending before it, and any decree so passed or orders so made shall be enforceable throughout the territory of India in such manner as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, in such manner as the President may by order prescribe

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Supreme Court shall, as respects the whole of the territory of India, have all and every power to make any order for the purpose of securing the attendance of any person, the discovery or production of any documents, or the investigation or punishment of any contempt of itself


[1] Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973) 4 SCC 225: AIR1973 SC 1461

CAA is constitutionally valid.

The CAA, 2019 was enacted by parliament and came into force. The CAA, 2019 was enacted by the parliament under the power given to the parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law under Art. 11 of the COI.

11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law

Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS General.

The sec. 2, sub section (1), clause (b) of the citizenship act 1955 was amended to state the definition of an illegal immigrant.

“Provided that any person belonging to Hindus, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, who entered into India on or before the 31st day of December, 2014 and who has been exempted by the Central Government by or under clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 or from the application of the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 or any rule or order made there under, shall not be treated as illegal migrant for the purposes of this Act;”.

The above amendment shows that the persons belonging to 6 religions(Hindus, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian) and from 3 countries (Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan) and entered India before a stipulated time (31st day of December, 2014) will not be considered as illegal migrants which means they will be given the citizenship of India.

 1 Whether CAA violates the Art. 14 of the COI?

14. Equality before law The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

The Art. 14 of the Indian COI talks about equal protection of laws and it says that all the equals are treated equally. The same principle is used while drafting The CAA, 2019. The act treats equal equally.

The CAA decides the citizenship of any person who was an illegal migrant according to the results of NRC (august 2019) on the following 3 grounds: –

  1. Religious basis

The act declares to give citizenship to give citizenship to illegal migrants (as per definition of citizenship act,1955) belonging to 6 religious groups namely Hindus, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian and it does not include Muslims because people of these 6 religions are religiously persecuted minorities in the neighboring countries of India and Hindus are the majority religion in these countries and therefore they would not face religious prosecution and thus they are exempted from getting the citizenship of India.

  • On the basis of the country of origin

The CAA includes migrants from only 3 neighboring countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh) and does not include the migrants from the other neighboring countries.

  • On the basis time

The CAA only includes the people, who have migrated on or before the 31st day of December, 2014 and the act does not include any person who has migrated after 31st of December 2014.

The Art. 14 of the Indian constitution says that the law only treats equals equally and not everyone equally.

2 The test for applicability of Art.14

 It is important for the government to classify the people into different categories for the public welfare. 

The 2 conditions of the test[1]are as follows

  1. intelligible differentia

This condition says that if any provision of any law is differentiating between people, then there should be a valid reason for the differentiation.  In this case the illegal migrants are differentiated on the basis of religion and there is a valid reason for this depreciation as it is explained below.

  • Rational nexus

This condition says that a provision of law should have a reasonable objective. In this case the objective of CAA is to give an identity to those who don’t have it and give the religiously persecuted minorities of the neighboring countries of India a home.

it is understood that CAA is not arbitrary and it ensures fairness and equality.


[1] 1 The State of Bombay Ors.. v. F.N. Balsara [Supreme Court of India] 25 May, 1951 AIR 318 1951 SCR 682

CAA is unconsitutional.

The CAA,2019 was enacted by parliament and came into force. The CAA,2019 was enacted by the parliament under the power given to the parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law under article 11 of the COI.

11. Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law

Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS General.

The sec. 2, sub section (1), clause (b) of the citizenship act 1955 was amended to state the definition of an illegal immigrant[1].

“Provided that any person belonging to Hindus,Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, Parsi or Christian community from Afghanistan, Bangladesh or Pakistan, who entered into India on or before the 31st day of December, 2014 and who has been exempted by the Central Government by or under clause (c) of sub-section (2) of section 3 of the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 or from the application of the provisions of the Foreigners Act, 1946 or any rule or order made thereunder, shall not be treated as illegal migrant for the purposes of this Act;”.

1 violation of article 14 of the constitution of India

The article 14 of the COI states

14. Equality before law The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.

It is understood that art. 14 is applicable to all the persons in India and not only the citizens of India but all the people residing in India have the access to right to equality under the constitution. Since right to equality under article 14 in a fundamental right, it is a part of the basic structure of the COI and therefore no law can be framed in the violation of art. 14.

The CAA violates the right to equality of any person in India on the following 3 grounds: –

  1. Religious basis

The act does not include people of all the religions and therefore this is the violation of right to equality under article 14 which is a fundamental right given to all the people within the territory of India.

  • On the basis of the country of origin

The CAA includes migrants from only 3 neighboring countries (Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh (Pedra)) and does not include the migrants from the other neighboring countries. This is a violation of article 14 because it does not treat all the migrants in India equally.

  • On the basis time

The CAA only includes the people who have migrated on or before the 31st day of December, 2014 and the act does not include any person who has migrated after 31st of December 2014 and this is also a violation to the concept of equality before law under article 14 of the Indian constitution.

Therefore, CAA is less inclusive in nature.

The article 14 talks about 2 main aspects namely equality before the law and equal protection before the laws. When these aspects are applied to the CAA, we understand that the act does not treat Balkis (majority religion of ) and Shirazis (minority religion of ) equally because the act does not consider Balkis who entered the territory of  before 31st day of December, 2014 as illegal migrants.

  • violation of the basic structure doctrine of the COI
  • The idea of secularism which means that the people of all the religions are treated equally by the law.
  •  The principle of equality and quintessence of equal justice is a part of the basic structure of the constitution.

Both these principles of the basic structure doctrine of the COI are violated in by the CAA. The CAA is against the idea of secularism because it does not provide equal rights to the people of all religions. The does not treat people of all the religions equally and it differentiates migrants on the basis of religion and creates religion as a ground for citizenship. This clearly violates the concept of secularity under the basic structure doctrine of the COI.

The principle of equality is also clearly violated by the act as explained under contention 2.1.

  • violation of article 29 of the COI in the state of Assam

The Art. 29 of the COI says the following

29. Protection of interests of minorities

(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.

Art. 29(1) of the COI gives the rights to the citizens residing in the territory of India to protect the language, script or culture of its own and they have the right to conserve the same. This is a fundamental right under part 3 of the COI.

Assam is a state that had illegal migrants for 7 decades and the people of Assam have always opposed this illegal migration. This led to the gradual depletion of the art and culture in Assam. This was a matter of serious concern to the people of Assam and it was important for them to protect their culture and arts. The CAA allows a part of these illegal migrants to be considered as the citizens of  and this would result in depletion of the art and culture of Assam and therefore indigenous Assam (a youth organization) can claim for the fundamental rights under Art. 29(1) of the COI.

13. Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights

(2) The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.

 Art. 13(2) of the COI says that laws that violate the fundamental rights of the COI are held void. The concept of doctrine of eclipse can be applied to the CAA,2019 since it is violating the fundamental rights.

However, there are counter arguments regarding the same. That is explained in another article.


The Importance of Solitude

Human beings are social creatures who seek to be in community. Relationality is an important aspect of our selves as we tend to develop our perceptions of ourselves through others. However, that is not the only thing necessary for us to have a healthy conception of who we are and what matters to us. We currently live in a world where constant interaction is privileged over taking time alone. We are always called to act, to do things quickly, to be efficient, and to be productive. Add to this equation the phenomenon of social media where we are continuously being exposed to the lifestyles and opinions of others, it is certain that we are more socially connected than ever. Yet, we find that all this boom in productivity and immersion in socializing has not really helped us better our relationship and communication skills. Rather, it seems to have done the opposite with more people finding it more difficult to maintain any relationship and social media considered one of the loneliest spaces to be in. It is in this context that we have to regain the concept of solitude, of healthy retirement from constant socializing, and of learning to understand oneself.

cheerful young woman with red leaf enjoying life and weather while reading book in autumn park
Photo by Andrea Piacquadio on Pexels.com

People often tend to confuse solitude and loneliness, and that is a mistake we should not make. To put it simply, we can say that loneliness has a negative connotation and is to indicate a situation where one longs for company but is unable to find it. Solitude, on the other hand, is contentment in a state of being alone where one is not seeking for the presence of another but the presence of oneself. Taking time for oneself comes easily for some, particularly for character types like introverts who thrive in their own spaces and are able to channel their energies well without external interventions. It might be harder for others who are social butterflies and they might not even consider it necessary. However, it is important to realize that solitude is more of a discipline that has to be developed rather than an inclination, because it does have tangible effects. It is more than just liking to be alone which would differ from one person to the other, but the requirement of time and space for quietness and rest.

Solitude is necessary for us to confront and process our own emotions as well as opinions and prejudices. It is easy for us to constantly move from one topic to another superficially, and thus be unaware of what we ourselves might be unconsciously endorsing or defending. It also limits us from completely placing our worth on something as fickle as the opinion of others or their treatment of us. It is vital that we spend time effectively switched off from the rest of the world so that we can choose how to spend our energies as well. Otherwise, we will burn out and be unable to contribute well to those around or be a good friend to someone who needs us. Solitude, since it allows us to acquaint with our own selves better, helps us in the way we are able to relate to others. Unless we know ourselves alone and who find ourselves to be, we will be less capable of meaningfully bonding with another. Thus, solitude has a dialectical relationship with community. It allows for introspection and thereby, better engagement with those around us, letting us see them in newer and deeper ways.

In a world where we are constantly bombarded by voices telling us to do and to be a million different things, the practice of embracing solitude is essential now more than ever. We have to find time to log off, to read, to sit in quietness, to think, or just be. This is an effective measure against being pressured into being what everyone else would want us to be and to realize who we are, where our interests lie, and what we care about, so that we can be more intentional and empathetic in our approach towards society and individuals.

Did you think after you?

did you ever think what of you after you? I think it is really important for every one to think of what would happen not only to their money but also to their knowledge skill and body after they pass away. I always think of this story that was written by my teacher and this is how it goes,

Venkatapuram is a village having the temple of Lord Venkateswara. People who Could not go to Tirupati, would go to that temple give their offerings. There was a big oak tree under the shade of it, a very old woman beggar manned Anandamma. Devotees visiting the temple

used to give her some as money, food etc., after seeing her position. The beggar woman every day early in the morning finished her bath at a well nearby, plucked some flowers in the garden and offered them to Gods photo there and sat at the foot of the tree. She used to wear the old Sarees given to her and prepared a soft bed with them and spend life by eating whatever others given and never stretched her hand to anyone. Always she spent her time by chanting the name of God and by wearing Vibhuthi on her forehead. She used to keep all the old sarees given to her in a small bag and used it as a pillow. She uses to through a smile when others advised her to sleep on a platform inside the temple instead of in the open-air suffering chill.

As days passed by the management of the temple wanted the Construct a choultry for the benefit of pilgrims and the works started slowly due to paucity of funds. They wanted to complete the work as early as possible, as they decided to celebrate functions as was done in Tirupati. Devotees started giving funds according to their might. No one left the place without giving anything to that old woman. The construction work picked up speed and some rooms were completed. One of the woman there asked that old woman to go and sleep in one of the completed rooms for some time instead of spending in the open air. The old woman replied that it would be a sin for her to stay inside the rooms constructed for the benefit of pilgrims in the evenings of her life, and did not want to make the temple unholy by her death inside. She already spent most of her life under the shade of that holy tree and requested the woman to do some work for her as a token of her goodness. She said that she stored some money inside the soft bed she made and requested that woman to bury her body under that tree keeping her head towards God as it was a little away from the temple premises and also do some poor feeding with money she saved. The woman accordingly promised the old woman for the job.

To every one’s surprise, the beggar woman died that holy night of Ekadashi. Next day morning the temple priest who came early noticed the old woman’s lying dead under the tree and at once sent a message to all the Committee members of the temple. They assembled there and the lady to whom the old woman entrusted the work also joined the. Asper the be wish of the old woman, the lady requested the committee members to bury the dead body under the same tree. She took the soft bed and bag of the old woman and turned upside down. To their surprise a lot of rupee coins slipped down and piled up as a heap.  All of them were surprised at that. The Priest said that he that the reason for her not accepting the suggestion for sleeping inside the room perhaps might be the same one not leaving her old soft bed and bag containing money. The Sarpanch of the village suggested to complete the work of funeral first clean the temple before opening the doors and then only count the money piled up there and do the work as requested by the dead woman. Accordingly while they were digging the grave they heard a big sound and to their surprise they found a very big old and rusted iron box with a lock. As the lock was rusty, it was broke open in front of the Sarpanch and all other members and found old gold coins full of box. All of them

decided to use those coins joyfully for the construction of the choultry and name it with the name of the dead woman as Ananda Bhavan. They also built a Samadhi on her name. This is the result of the act of previous birth in which she did not do any charitable work or use it for herself, but stored it as a treasure. That is why elders always say to use some of our earnings in charitable works.

the old women who was not educated had a noble thought and she could think of others not only when she was alive but also when she was no more. organ donation is one such aspect that we should think of. this will give a new life to people even after our death.

This is the only place in the world where you can see tigers in the mangroves

The Sundarbans is the only place in the world where you can see tigers in the mangroves. Situated on the shores of the Bay of Bengal, this mangrove forest stretches across India and Bangladesh. Sunderbans is located at a distance of about 120 km from the city of Kolkata.

The area where the river and the sea meet is rich in mangroves. Sunderbans is the most diverse mangrove area. 78 species are found here. Sundarbans or Sundarbans got its name from the abundance of mangroves called Sundari.

Declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1977, the area was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1987. The place has also been declared a Tiger Reserve to protect the tigers.

The tigers here can be considered as ‘amphibians’ that can easily land and water. Their behavior has changed to suit the life in the mangroves. They can travel long distances through the water. These tigers are also good at hunting fish and crabs from the water.

Sunderbans are more dangerous than the Bengal tiger in general. They have a habit of crawling behind and attacking. Every year, many villagers are injured in tiger attacks. Some even die.You can take a boat ride through the small islands and see the sights. There have also been incidents of tigers swimming near the boat carrying tourists. In addition to tigers, the Sundarbans is home to deer, a variety of crocodiles, other reptiles, and a variety of birds.The Royal Bengal Tiger Tour, the Sunderbans Weekend Tour, the Tigers & Renault Tour and the East India Wildlife Tour are some of the packages available for visitors.

How To Reach

By Air: Nearest Airport: Jodhpur (280 km / 5 hrs)By Rail: Jaisalmer station has connections to Jaipur, Delhi, Mumbai, Ahemedabad and Jodhpur. Good options are Delhi-Jaisalmer Express, Jodhpur-Jaisalmer Express and Surya mail linking Mumbai and Ahemedabad.

By Road: Luxury buses from Jodhpur, Jaipur and Bikaner serve Jaisalmer daily

smartness lies within

To explain what I mean by smartness lies within and it is up to us to find out, I would like to quote a story that my teacher told me. here is how it goes,

Kaveri is a 8th Class girl student recently joined in kamalapur high school. Her father is a government employee transferred to that place as per governement orders and policy. He always prefers governement schools for his children. Kaveri is a very sharp girl, grasps things instantly. In the very first week of her joining she observed a very Strange thing in the school.

All the children used to gout for a shot break every day and after their return to class they found that one of their lunch boxes and water bottles got emptied. As a result, that student would be without lunch. To avoid this, other students would help him sharing from their lunch boxes. The students were in a confusion to know the secret behind this and & started fearing of a ghost’s act. This fear of students prompted Kaveri to unearth the secret and started bringing an extra lunch box and water bottle separately in a bag daily and take it with her when she goes out,

Kaveri understood from the conversation of students that they were fearing of a ghost’s act and noticed that some children even getting fever. She also noticed that even teachers were also started fearing of the ghost’s entry into the classroom and as a result teaching and learning became dull. Kaveri decided to put an end to this at any cost.

One day Kaveri came to school half an hour early. While talking to the servant maid she noticed a lot of dust covering the window and understood the problem there. The next morning, she along with other children went out of the classroom during the short break and walked towards her class window from behind the school building and started looking inside her class room hiding from behind a tree. To her surprise she saw the real ghost emptying the lunch box in a hurry and at once decided to catch the ghost redhandedly to show the teachers as proof. That day evening, she had a secret talk with the headmaster and he immediately agreed to whatever Kaveri said since he observed her smartness from the day of her joining. The next morning all the children kept their lunch boxes in the Headmasters’ room as advised by Kaveri and went out for the short break as usual. Kaveri also went out along with them and after some time she came to her class window from behind and hid behind a tree bush. The headmaster also stood a little away from the window and both of them kept watching. As usual the same ghost entered the room and started searching every bag for lunch box, but could not find any lunch box. Finally the ghost opened Pramila’s box and started eating the lemon rice hurriedly. After Eating five spoons, the ghost started feeling very spicy with the sixth spoon and shouted spicy, spicy. With an indication from Kaveri the headmaster came near the window and saw what was happening in the room. Both of them came inside the room and saw the ghost searching the bags for the water and lunch boxes.

The Headmaster then identified of the ghost boy as Praveen, one of the students of the same class and shouted out to the other children that Praveen from their class was the same ghost whom they were fearing off and who was emptying the boxes daily. On instructions from the Headmaster, Pramila went and brought a bottle of water for Praveen who drank it later.

The Headmaster then told Praveen how generous was Kaveri in saving him by giving drinking water in times of need Ignoring all his unwanted acts. He also told that It was a great shame for him to spoil all the books and other material of the students all these days and the present act of the lunch box episode. He also warned that children would look him down if he continued the same to further. He also warned that he would call his parents and give them his TC and send him away from the school.

Kaveri requested the Headmaster to forgive Praveen and told him that he would prove himself a Good boy thereafter. Then Praveen told her that the main reason for doing becoming like that was that the main reason for becoming like that was other classmates daily insulted him and heckled at him as a timid boy. Kaveri offered him help in understanding subjects and in doing homework as and when he required and Praveen promised her that he would consult her frequently, and become a good boy. He also said that all he did till now was only to teach other students a lesson and not with any mollified intention. The Headmaster praised Kaveri and said that the name Kaveri was very apt for her as her actions which would encourage friendship.

from this story we can understand that everything including smartness is within us and it is important for us to realize and recognize the same and implement it in our lives to solve the problems that we come across and make our lives more satisfactory and happy.

Introduction to the contract law

A contract is any agreement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law. Knowingly or unknowingly, we get into a lot of contracts in our day to day activities, for example, we get into a contract with the restaurant when we go to the restaurant and order food. We are obligated to pay the restaurant bill. similarly, we are getting into a contract with the shopkeeper when we go to the shop to buy some goods, we are obligated to pay for the foods purchased. The law that governs all such contracts is called contract law. Contracts are an inherent part of our life. The contract law was officially enacted through the Indian Contracts Act,1872 in India. It came into force on the first day of September 1872. The Indian contracts act earlier contained the partnership act and sale of goods act within itself.  Contract was defined by Salmond as an agreement creating and defining obligation between the parties. Halsbury defined contract as an agreement between two or more persons which is intended to be enforceable at law and is contracted by the acceptance by one party of an offer made to him by the other party to do or abstain from doing some act. The major intention behind entering into a contract is to gain some sort of benefit. If there was no benefit then why would any one what to get into a contract. It is also understood that all the parties are gaining some kind of benefit from the contract. One can wonder that contracts are for the benefit of two or more parties and what does law have to do with it? It is important to know that all agreements do not become contracts. This means that only those agreements that are legally valid are considered to be contracts. For example, if A enters into an agreement with B to sell Drugs (in a country where drugs are considered illegal), then this agreement will be considered illegal and will not be considered as a contract because it is not enforceable by the law of the land. The first provisions of The Indian Contracts Act,1872 says that it is applicable to the whole of India. The Indian contracts act gives various steps to explain the process of entering into a contract. The second section of the Indian Contracts act says that one person makes an offer by conveying his/her willingness to do or abstain from doing anything, to obtain the assent of the other party/partiers (section 2(a)). Then the person to whom the assent is made, responds to the offer made by the offeror by accepting the offer (section 2(b)). After accepting the offer, the parson who makes the proposal or offer is called the promisor and the person Accepting it is called promisee (section 2(c)). As explained earlier both the parties enter into a contract to gain some benefit from the contract and this is called quid pro quo, which means something in return for something. The parties give something or perform an act to receive something in return. This is called as the consideration for the act. It is explained in the section2(d) of the Indian Contracts ac,1872. Consideration is the one of the most important elements of a contract. An agreement is a promise or a set of promises having a consideration for each other (section 2(e)). Section 2(h) of the Indian contracts act,1872 defines a contact as an agreement enforceable by Law. and if the agreement is not enforceable by law, it is considered to be void (section 2(i)). If an agreement in enforceable by law as to one or more parties and not enforceable by law as to the other parties, then it will be considered as a voidable contract (section 2(j)). A contract may initially be valid and may become void.

 An agreement must have some essential elements to make it a valid contract. these elements are written given in the Section 10 of the Indian Contracts Act,1872. There are five elements that are called essential elements of a contract. the first element is consent. It is important for the parties to willingly enter into a contract and not with any external force or pressure or any other reason. The consent of the parties must therefore be freely granted by their will. This also means that both the parties are agreeing to the same aspects of the contract in the same sense. Consent is explained in the section 13 of the act and further elaborated in the section 14, section 15, section 16, section 17, section 18, section 20, section 21 and section 22 of the Indian Contract Act ,1872. The parties must be competent to contract to enter into a valid contract. this means that a minor or a person who is of unsound mind or a person disqualified by the law to contract cannot enter into a contract. this concept is explained in the section 11 and section 12 of the Act. As explained under section2(d) there must exist a valid consideration between the parties. The consideration may not be unlawful of illegal. this is explained under section 24 and section 25 of the act. There must be a lawful object behind the contract and if not, the contract will not be considered void. Another essential element is that the contracts must not be expressly declared to be void by the law. This is explained under section 26, section 27, section 28, section 29, section 30. The chapter 3 of the Indian contracts act,1872 talks about contingent contracts. This includes sections 31 to 36. The chapter 4 of the Indian contracts act,1872 explains the performance of contracts. This includes sections from 37 to 67. The chapter 5 of the Indian contracts act,1872 explains about certain relation that resemble those created by contracts. This includes sections from 68 to 72. The chapter 6 of the Indian contracts act,1872 talks about the consequences of the breach of contracts. This includes sections from 73 to 75. This is the general contracts. Special contracts are contained in Sections 124 to 238 of the Indian Contract Act. The special contracts are guarantee, bailment, pledge etc.. and such contracts may not strictly follow the essentials of contract as according to sec.10 of the Indian Contract Act,1872.

Serum Institute asked to revise protocol for Covid-19 vaccine clinical trial

A  Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) expert panel has sought clarifications from Serum Institute of India (SII) over its application to the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) seeking permission for conducting phase 2 and 3 human clinical trials of the Oxford vaccine candidate for COVID-19, official sources said on Wednesday. The CDSCO has advised the Serum Institute of India (SII) to submit a revised protocol to perform the clinical trials in India for potential Covid-19 vaccine.

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The move comes when the Subject Expert Committee evaluated the submitted protocol by SII. The Subject Expert Committee (SEC) on COVID-19 which held its meeting on Tuesday deliberated on the application by SII and asked the Pune-based firm to revise its protocol for the phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, besides seeking some additional information. On Wednesday evening, SII submitted a revised protocol for conducting the trials to the DCGI. The firm plans to start phase 2 and 3 human trials in India in August. The domestic pharma giant has partnered with AstraZeneca for manufacturing the Oxford vaccine candidate for highly infectious disease Covid-19.

“The company on Tuesday was asked to clearly define phase 2 and phase 3 part of the protocol and resubmit their application for evaluation by the SEC,” an official source said. The panel also recommended that the proposed clinical trial sites be distributed across India, the source said. “They also have not given justification for the proposed enrolment of 1,600 subjects during the trial,” the source added. Additional Director, Government Affairs, SII, Prakash Kumar Singh said, “We have submitted our revised protocol to DCGI office today evening for further action by SEC and DCGI.”

The SII which has partnered with AstraZeneca for manufacturing the Oxford vaccine candidate for COVID-19 had submitted its application to the DCGI on Friday, seeking permission for conducting the phase 2 and 3 trials of the potential vaccine ‘Covidshield’.”According to the application, it would conduct an observer-blind, randomized controlled study to determine the safety and immunogenicity of ‘Covishield’ in healthy Indian adults. The firm said that around 1,600 participants of more than 18 years would be enrolled in the study,” a source had said.  A Lancet medical journal report has stated that a vaccine candidate developed at the University of Oxford has shown encouraging results and it appears to be “safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic. Initial results of the first two-phase trials of the vaccine conducted in five trial sites in the UK showed it has an acceptable safety profile and homologous boosting increased antibody responses, the source said.

To introduce the vaccine, SII, the world’s largest vaccine maker by the number of doses produced and sold, has signed an agreement to manufacture the potential vaccine developed by the Jenner Institute (Oxford University) in collaboration with British-Swedish pharma company AstraZeneca. On the partnership with AstraZeneca, Serum Institute of India CEO Adar Poonawalla had said, “Serum Institute of India has entered a manufacturing partnership with AstraZeneca to produce and supply 1 billion doses of the COVID-19 vaccine being developed by Oxford University.”

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These vaccines will be for India and middle and low-income countries across the world (GAVI countries), he had said. Last week, Oxford University announced the satisfactory progress with the vaccine, making it one of the leading ones among the dozens of vaccine candidates being developed around the world. The clinical trials of a potential Covid-19 vaccine on humans began in April. There was no immediate response from SII when ANI contacted them to make their version.

Retained earnings of the company

Retained earnings is the amount that comapany keeps in itself after paying dividends which is from the profits earned by the comapny. When comapany makes good profit I will give dividend after that if the fund left it will convert it in to the retained earnings which the company can use such fund in the future companies needs. If comapany is making profit from many years it will have good retained earnings which company can use such funds for capitalisation, purchase of new assets, purchasing new company or merging with other companies. When comapany has good amount of retained earnings it can use such funds for future uncertainty in the business.if business one day face the losses the company can use this fund for the business. If company face the funds problem for any purchase this fund can be utilised. As innovation is important for any kind of business from the profit business can spend retained earnings on the innovation or researches. This fund will help the company in uncertainty times.

Organisational Climate

“Research shows that the climate of an organisation influences an individuals contribution far more than the individual himself.”

W. Edwards Deming

An organisation must have a proper organisational climate to achieve its objectives and goals effectively and efficiently. Organisational Climate is a behavior that organisation encourage and discourage from employees. It is about the perception of the climate and about absolute measures. The concept of organisational climate is not very clear but practically it is related to work performance, job contentment and self-esteem of the employees. Now the organisational climate has become a very useful metaphor for thinking about and describing the social system. Organisational climate is also referred to as the “situational determinants” or “environmental determinants” as it affects the human behaviour. The climate of an organisation is determined by the distinct qualities of an organisation which jointly include its customs, method of action, culture, etc. Generally the organisational climate reflects a person’s perception towards his organisation to which he belongs. It includes a set of unique characteristics and feature which the employees perceive about their organisation which serves as a major force in influencing there behaviour. Organisational Climate may be defined as quality of internal environment which is experienced by its members, employees, influences there behaviour and can be termed as the value of a particular set of characteristics of the organisation. It is normally observed that there may be as many climates as there are people in the organisation. Organisational Climate is a general expression of what the organisation is. It generally conveys the thought, impression or image that people have portraits in their minds regarding organisational internal environment within which they work. Organisational Climate is a qualitative concept. It is very difficult to explain the concept of organisational climate in quantitative terms. Organisational Climate gives a distinct identity to the organisation. It shows that how one organisation is different from the other organisation. Organisational Climate cannot be built suddenly. It can be built up over a period of time. Organisational Climate is a multi-dimensional concept. The various dimensions are authority, individual autonomy, leadership style, communication, etc. Organisational Climate influences the performance of the employees to a great extent because it has a major impact on motivation and job satisfaction of individual employee. It also helps in determining the work environment. As the work environment is the most important thing which encourages and motivates the employees and they feel satisfied or dissatisfied. And the employee who is satisfied with his organisation will really perform effectively and efficiently. Organisational Climate is important due to following reasons:-

  • Improves Employee Performance – Organisational Climate clearly indicates the performance of the employees and the organisation. If the culture of the organisation is good there employees performance will be best.
  • Builds Confidence – In an ideal organisational climate, the employees are very confident and committed. They are ready to show their hard work and commitment through their work to their superiors. They are ready to work according to the expectation of their superiors and the organisation.
  • Strong Relationship – It also helps in building a strong relationship between the management and the employees. If the managers are able to know that what motivates there employees, they will be able to boost their morale easily. Hence, it helps in establishing a strong and positive relationship which ultimately helps in achieving the organisational goals successfully.
  • Indicates Success or Failure – Organisational Climate helps in determining the success or failure of the organisation. As if an organisation has positive climate, healthy work environment the employees will willingly perform their work and are satisfied with the organisation.
  • Work can be Done Easily – An organisation where there is a positive culture, the manager faces lesser challenges in getting task completed by their subordinates. The employee to show their respect to their seniors and are also willing to work.

So, Organisational Climate helps in increasing the production, resource conservation, building healthy organisation and minimising labour turnover.

Educate The Underprivileged Children

“The main hope of a nation lies in the proper education of it’s youth.”

– Erasmus

Education is a necessary tool as it plays a vital role in one’s life. It provides us with the skillset to survive and thrive in this world. It shapes our ideas and brains so we can have critical thinking skills; and enables us to differentiate ourselves mindless sheep. Education is essential as it constitutes a means to eradicate the various social evils that prevail and plague our society like poverty, racism, gender discrimination, differentiation based on colour, caste, creed, religion. It’s quintessential in leading a good and healthy life, enabling us to learn and practice rules & regulations while making us responsible citizens of the nation. It is rightly said that education is the foundation upon which we build our future.

Children are inherently valuable as the pillars of the nation, and, therefore its extremely important that they’re encouraged and provided with resources to study & attain good education.

However, as unfortunate as it is, our global culture has stolen the rightful priority of children and placed it squarely on the wants of the adults. Our laws, our media, our investments; all favour the desires of adults first, second, third, and fourth, before ever considering youth. Our adult-centric society takes bets and loans against children, leveraging their future without consent. Thus, it’s essential that we realize that every child should be educated because each child is precious. Even though people have started realizing this gradually, the path of educating the underprivileged and enabling them a means to build a secure future still remains rocky nevertheless.

Awareness still remains an issue as the underprivileged communities are not well aware about education or importance of it, thus, they don’t understand or realize the need to send their children to schools. There’s a severe lack of role models modelling good learning practices and sharing the understanding that schools are indispensable in providing a space where skills are obtained and that the more skills obtained the greater chance at future successes. The next major hindrance is the accessibility to the education institutions. For some, obtaining the inexpensive education resources such as books, copies, pens, etc. too might appear a distant dream. The next impediment lies in the feedback received from those who are educated, yet unemployed or under-employed. This is partly because many educated are, in fact unemployable and others struggle to get a job even when they are employable. In the eyes of parents, therefore, education is either luxury or a palliative. The poor parents cannot afford luxury. The expected value of education, at least from their perspective, remains low.

And thus, due to the aforementioned reasons, the underprivileged communities remain perpetuated in the vicious cycles of poverty and misery for generations altogether. The only way for them to escape from repeating the cycle is acquiring an education and building a safe, secure and stable future on the basis of it.

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“If we nurture the dreams of children, the world will be blessed. If we destroy them, the world is doomed!”

Chasing The Rainbow: A New Era And A New Fight for India’s LGBTQ Communities

“Openness may not completely disarm prejudice, but it’s a good place to start.”

-Jason Collins

India’s Supreme Court last year struck down Section 377, a colonial-era law that outlawed same-sex relations, sparking hopes of equality for the country’s lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population. Hundreds of students with rainbows painted on their faces descended on a New Delhi college on Friday and others held parties in major Indian cities to commemorate the overturning of the ban on gay sex.

However, once all the celebrations and merrymaking faded into the background and harsh reality set in, it became apparent that homosexuality in India wasn’t going to be about unicorns and rainbows anytime soon. Even those beating drums and dancing warned that the fight for equal rights, including same-sex marriage and serving in the military, had not been won.

After all they still cannot marry, they still cannot adopt. They have many, many years before any of this is over. The harsh truth still remains that even though LGBTQ activists are growing in numbers, acceptance is still elusive as they continue struggle against internalized homophobia.

So, “where does this homophobia stem from?” and “how bad can it be?” you may ask.

One of the root causes of homophobia is that we, as a society, are unaware of homosexuality. We live in a time and place where people call each other gay to mock and insult them. A decade ago, gay and eunuch were used interchangeably and people were highly ignorant and intolerant towards homosexuality. My classmates often gossiped about (Bollywood producer and director) Karan Johar and (actor) Shahrukh Khan. It was a subject of ridicule and mockery. The stereotypical portrayal of gay and effeminate men in Johar’s movies was in unfair representation of the queer community. Even the popular sitcom FRIENDS was riddled with casual and sometimes blatant homophobia. “Gay” and “LGBTQ” still conjure images and connotations of loud, cackling men in gaudy drag costumes in India, partly because that is the only representation LGBT people get to have.

There’s also lack of sensitisation about the LGBTQ+ community. If they had a dime for each time someone told them that it’s “just a phase” or “why someone from the same gender, it’s not like you are deprived”, they probably could afford to move to a more accepting country. When I was in school, there was a guy who was often severely bullied by the “masculine” classmates because he was effeminate. Kids who weren’t “manly enough” were often a subject to ridicule and bash. No one stopped that. People thought it was normal and the right thing to do. This isn’t surprising though, given that even now there are people who find hijras scary.

The LGBTQ+ community also suffers from lack of support from their family. As a result, their only options are either getting excommunicated if they come out or remaining closeted which can be extremely draining.

They suffer from religious dogmatism. India is a secular country. Every major religion in India condemns homosexuality. It must no doubt be petrifying to live in a place which has more than 330 million gods and yet you can count on neither one of them for their blessings.

The arduous journey to acceptance becomes even more strenuous when you try discussing and rationalizing homosexuality to those intolerant towards it and reach the realization that the minds of recalcitrant homophobes are incapable of processing things beyond black and white. They need that sharp dichotomy. Without it, they panic. They feel adrift, as if nothing is sacred anymore. Which is, of course, ridiculous. But anyway, that whole thing comes from an “us or them” mentality, in which they’re the righteous and anyone who disagrees with them is clearly a secret homosexual out to convert their children to dance around a fire with Satan.

It appears that we have become obsessed in this toxic society with the labelling of others, especially with an intense and revolting over- interest in the sexuality and gender orientation of others what happened to the idea of loving our neighbours unconditionally and paying more attention to developing our own selves in good ways? After all, to change the world we change ourselves in ways that enable us to love others all the more. So let us drop the facade of “morality”, the wilting fig leaf over such garish homophobia, and have no agenda on the LGBTQ community.

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Diversity is good, and it’s okay to be different from the norm.

 

Joint venture

Joint venture is the entity created by two or more companies for the particular purpose, the companies will put the fund in the beginning and in the future days they will share the profits of the entity accordingly. The joint venture may happen one comapany may good in technology so it will help the another company. By adopting joint venture one comapany from other country can produce with the company and enter in to the market. The comapany can increase its market share by joining with other company by joint venture. Joint venture can help when new innovative products are offering in the market where high technology is needed where companies can share their technology. Joint venture will reduce cost by economies of scale and increase the financial position of the entity. By this new technology can be brought in to business and can attract new customers to the business.joint venture will help the companies to face the tough competition in the market.when both companies come together for the particular purpose that can share their infrastructure where it will help in reduce the cost.

The Rights of the Disabled

In the plethora of problems, the world and different nations are dealing with, one of the most prominent ones is the rights of disabled people. Ironically its highly unspoken of people today regarding these rights, it may be due to lack of awareness that even though disabled people have special rights they are unaware about it and are exploited out of it. It would be better if we rather call them “specially abled people” than disabled as I feel that in such people there is some other quality given to them which overpowers their disability. They should be treated unequally to that of normal healthy human beings, as there is a saying that equals should be treated equally and unequal should be treated unequally. So, how can one exactly define specially abled people it can be a person who has physical or mental impairments maybe even both and the person isn’t able to carry out day to day functions like a normal person and this affects him on a long term basis, they are said to be called specially abled or disabled people. As I have mentioned earlier that they should be treated unequally it meant that we have to give them rights so that they can be living with dignity like any other person around, and this requires the intervention of law so that these people could live a normal happy life. Persons with difficulty face barriers that restrict them from doing certain things on equal basis that is commonly done by normal people like to be employed, participate in activities, access justice, etc. It is so true that all over the world specially abled people are usually faced with gross human right violation by denying them the rights of equal participation, legal capacity, voting rights and the freedom to live free in the community. In many nations such people are often living in extreme poverty or are in the margins of getting into poverty, this usually happens to a large extent in developing nations, and in some other nations people with disability are deprived of their rights, liberties and they are usually excluded from the society. Hence , regarding the situation above that has been created there was a need for the nations to provide special provisions for the disabled people, but this was usually always initiated firstly at an international basis where there exists some sort documentary which can be a signatory and all the nations that have signed up for it usually start implementing the objectives that has to be achieved which is clearly stated in the document. We will be discussing the rights from an international and national perspective

There have been many supportive conventions and conferences internationally, which generate a link between human rights, and the rights of the disabled, which all have a common aim to make sure every person no matter how and what they are should not be deprived of any basic human rights.  The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) which has come into effect in the year 1948 has given 30 human rights which every nation has to follow. UDHR is the basis for all the other treaties, conventions and conferences, they cannot be violative of any right specified in the UDHR. Article 1 of the UDHR states that every human being shall live with dignity and rights. Article 2 mentions that every right mentioned in the UDHR shall be applicable to everyone, without any sort of discrimination. All the other rights in the article support the fact that every human being should be equal everywhere, and indirectly supports that every disabled person is no less than a normal human being, they both shall be tested in the same way. Other international conventions, treaties and conferences like the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), Convention Against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT)1949, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) 1979, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 1989, and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 1966. All the conventions have provisions which all support the fact there shall be no discrimination in the way people are treated, especially when it comes to especially abled, one should respect them. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) which is an effective measure which was taken by the United Nations Generally Assembly has been adopted in the year 2006.   The CRPD has come into force with the sole purpose to protect the rights of the specially abled people, and it has been fulfilling its purpose over the years in an efficient manner. The World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1982, which is a global strategy that has been initiated to equalise the opportunities of specially abled people, increase their participation towards the development of the nation, and especially to prevent cases od disability with proper health care and safety. There are many other efforts taken to improve the situation of the disable but the above were some of the major ones. 

Now lets look into the provisions for especially abled people in India. This nation has also taken a lot of efforts to improve their position in the society, they will be discussed a follows:

  • Article 14 of the Indian constitution states that every person is equal before the law, article 15 states that doscrmination shall not take place anywhere in the nation, article 17 states that no person can be treated as an untouchable, and article 21 guarantees right to life and personal liberty to all the citizens of the country. In the same manner articles 23, 24, 25, 32 talk about equality and no exploitation. These articles make sure there is no distinction between people. The specially abled people have been given special and separate provisions in family law, health law, education and were given relief in the form of income tax concessions and so on.
  • The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 was brought into effect in the year 1996 which aimed at providing equal opportunities to specially abled people. This is a step taken by the government in correspondence to the ratification in the international treaties and conventions.  The Act provides various measures and spects in various field in order to achieve their equality in the society. 
  • Some other important acts where special provisions were provided are the Mental Health Act, 1987 for mentally ill persons, the rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992, the national trust for welfare of persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities Act, 1999.

The above provisions did bring a change in the way specially abled person was treated, they were given the motivation and were encouraged to come out and portray their self in the society by giving them as many possible opportunities.  In spite of the exiting provisions there have to be more facilities for these people in regards with transportation and they have to have special arrangements made in all the places the are a part of. One main suggestion to the whole world out there is to treat them equally, we should stop thinking about them in a wrong way, as at the end of the day we all are human beings and we should treat our fellow ones with equal respect. We have no idea which lead to their disabilities, they must’ve been struggling a lot with it, if we can’t help them, we should at least no make the situation worst by making them feel bad about themselves. How many ever provisions are brought up for them, extra special should be taken, changes have to be made according to the situation and new laws should be brought up for their welfare. Law is the only tool which can make a person act or behave in the right way and it is the best way to bring change. Not only in the books but it should practically happen in front of the eyes

Inventory management in manufacturing companies

Invesntory is the total of raw materials , work in progress and finished goods which company holds for sales in the future. Company will purchase the raw material and process on it and convert it in to finished goods and sell it in the market. But it requires time it lead to idle of resources. So comapany need to make the proper inventory management. Need to adopt the EOQ techniques so the ordering cost and the holding cost of the materials and damage on the material can be reduced. By adopting EOQ comapany can make order of how much required to company for a time. By adopting ABC analysis company can devide it’s rawmaterials in to 3 category according to that order can be placed and most important in production to campany can be given more importance. So the wastage of material can be reduced. So by following inventory management properly the cost of inventory and idle of resources can be reduced.

Working capital of Business

The business requires funds to purchase and sell the products, the fund which is required to run the day to day business is called working capital. If current liabilities removed from current assets then we can get the working capital. Total current assets of the business is called gross working capital, when current liabilities removed from current assets it is called as net working capital. So business need to maintain the liquidity position in the business to maintain the working capital. To manage working capital business need to manage its cash, Inventory, Receivables and payables properly. When inventory was purchased need to be sold as early as possible so the idle of fund can be reduced. Business need to collect the receivable in time. And should pay payables in time. Should have more current assets than the current liabilities.