Difference between Tort and Contract

Civil law is practised to uphold the individual’s private right and find suitable remedies for the violated rights. Civil law is classified into Contract, Tort, and Family Law. Criminal law is laws or rules created for the protection of the public against potentially serious crimes. Criminal offences are considered offences against the public. Criminal cases are punished by ordering fines, imprisonments or rehabilitation of the guilty or even death sentences. Criminal cases are always filed by the government as it is a crime against the public as a whole. 

 A tort is when a person defers from the conventional conduct and causes a disturbance or harms another person which leads to a civil action against the person causing the nuisance filed by the person who has been harmed.  There is a clear difference between tort and contract. The contract is understood as a legally binding document between two or more parties that consent and are obliged to follow the terms of the agreement.

 Contract law is rules are applied when two or more parties agree to enter into an agreement or contract; all parties in the agreement are required to respect the terms of the agreement. Any parties found to have broken the terms of the contract then they have committed a civil wrong and broken the contract. Whereas a tort is committed with or without the consent of the person. A tort is a duty that is imposed on the citizens. Thus it is a private right of an individual right of a person. A tort is a violation of a right in rem of a person which means that the right is available for the whole world. A contract is where two or more parties voluntarily sign a contract and are obliged to follow the terms of the contract. Any party who breaks any terms of the contract will be held guilty. A contract is the violation of a right in personam; the right is only available against a particular person or body. 

  1. The first area of differentiation between tort and contract is seen in the consideration of consent. A contract is signed willfully by the parties and the parties mutually consent to respect the terms of the case. An act of tort is committed with or without the consent of the other person or party. 
  • Tort arises from the rules and duties vested in man by law whereas contract occurs when the parties form rules created out of the contract. 
  • A tort is a violation of a right in rem of a person which means that the right is available for the whole world. A contract is the violation of a right in personam; the right is only available against a particular person or body
  • A contract cannot be signed by a minor and any contract signed by a minor is considered as invalid. A minority in age is considered as a good defence against the contract. In tort, a minor can be held responsible for the tort and can be made to pay for damages.
  • In tort, the motive for breach of duty is considered as immaterial and cannot be used as a defence. In contract, the motive is considered. If the person violates the contract in good faith, then the plaintiff is not liable.
  • The damages in tort are unliquidated and fixed after seeing the facts and situations of the case. The compensation in the contract is already determined by the terms and conditions of the contract.
  • The damages in a contract are compensatory in nature whereas in tort they are compensatory as well as punishing in nature 
  • The period of limitation in case of torts usually runs from the date when the damage is suffered and in the contract, the limitation starts from the breach of the contract 

Science- past and present

There is a persistent strain of thinking in the popular culture that certain human artifacts are too complex or sophisticated to have been created by ancient cultures, so they are more likely to be evidence of visits from advanced extraterrestrial beings. But the problem with this hypothesis is that it denigrates the capabilities of ancient cultures, who did build the pyramids and other impressive structures like Stonehenge with fairly simple technology. We have learned over the years how they did it, so there are no mysteries there. Carl Sagan once said, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.” While astronomers are confident there are many habitable Earth-like worlds in the Milky Way, there is no evidence yet of life on any of them, and certainly no evidence of advanced technological civilizations. To believe that we had been visited in this way, the bar of evidence must be set high. Ambiguous evidence or vague historical records that can be interpreted in several ways are not sufficient. It would take unambiguous physical evidence to convince astronomers, evidence that could be independently inspected by many scientists, evidence that could not be explained in any other way. There might be aliens lurking around the universe or keeping an eye on us as claimed, but there are no such shreds of evidence at present to bolster this hypothesis. People in antiquated times used stars as their GPS, calendar, etc. They didn’t have technology like us, so they had to study stars and their motions in order to locate themselves, know the harvesting and sowing time. Structures like pyramids, Stonehenge, are surely great and enchanting structures, the sheer meticulous nature of the structure is a marvel, but they weren’t built in one night. As it is said, “Rome wasn’t built in a day” these structures took lots of engineering minds and lots of trials. These weren’t the first to be built, rather one in a series who stood tall. They needed a lot of improvisations to look the way they are now. Also, the pharaohs for whom the pyramids were built, were merciless who enslaved people to build such marvelous structures, because they believed that these structures would carry them to heaven. But subconsciously they only wanted recognition even after they have been long gone, what better than such a creative idea to build structures that would stand tall against everything till eternity and would become a place of a visit, with their names engraved in it. More research is certainly required for many antique structures but claiming that these were built by aliens without any proof rather on the base that science is not able to prove them being built by humans is certainly puerile. Because believing in such claims hinders the path of curiosity and science. Instead of believing any superficial answer, question everything and don’t believe in claims rather theories. 

What Boys Learn from Their Dads

Fathers are different from mothers. They look different, they sound different, they play in a different way, and they usually have a different approach to raising children than a mother does. And that’s a good thing. A boy learns from his father, without even realizing he’s doing it, what a man is and does. He learns about masculinity, about what men like and don’t like. Many adult men report that they either wanted to be “just like my dad”—or wanted to be his exact opposite. Fathers undoubtedly have a powerful influence on their growing sons, and it begins from the moment of birth.

Fatherhood in the Early Years

Imagine a couple who have just welcomed the birth of a son. Curt was thrilled when his wife Nancy announced that she was pregnant with their first child. He was even more excited when tests showed that the baby was a boy. Curt had wonderful memories of camping trips and fishing expeditions with his own dad, and he looked forward to giving his son a happy and loving childhood. He attended childbirth classes enthusiastically, listened to parenting books on tape as he drove to work each day, and was right beside Nancy when she gave birth to Alex.

Once Alex was at home, though, Curt began to feel unsure of how to behave. Alex was so small. Nancy nursed him and seemed to know just how to handle his burps, cries, and various physical needs. Curt loved watching his wife hold and care for him; Nancy laughed and said they’d need to build an extra room to store the photos Curt was taking. But when it came time for Curt to hold Alex, to feed him, or to bathe him, he felt clumsy and insecure. The baby seemed to be his mom’s territory, and suddenly those camping trips seemed a long time away.

Challenges for Dads

Fathers sometimes find their sons’ infancy challenging. They love the baby and delight in his noises and new activities, but infant care seems to be Mom’s province. Devoted mothers sometimes unwittingly prevent Dad from taking a more active role by insisting that the baby be held, fed, and rocked in a particular way (usually hers). Dads often disappear, falling back on work and providing for their new family. Sometimes they don’t reappear for years, if at all.

father’s role in the raising of his children has changed dramatically over the past century or two. In generations past, sons expected to follow in their fathers’ footsteps, apprenticing in their work and in their approach to life. During the nineteenth century, however, fathers began to go out to work, and the measure of a man’s success slowly changed. Rather than the closeness of his family and the strength of his family business, a man’s worth could be measured in his income, the value of his house, and the size of his car. Parenting became “women’s work”; fathers were just too busy earning a living. And generations of boys grew up hungering for closeness with a father they barely knew, someone who came home only to eat dinner, look over homework, hear about the day’s misbehavior, and watch a little television.

Fact

Ross Parke, Ph.D., at the University of California at Riverside, found that fathers are just as good at reading a baby’s emotional cues as mothers are, but they respond in different ways. A father’s active play and stimulation may actually help a baby learn to be aware of his own internal state and to tolerate a wide range of people and activities.

Research shows that without a doubt, fathers are an integral part of their sons’ healthy emotional, physical, and cognitive growth from their first moments of life. Boys whose fathers love them and can demonstrate that love in consistent, caring ways have fewer problems later in life with peers, academics, and delinquent behavior. One study tracked a group of boys and girls for twenty-six years, exploring the roles of both mothers and fathers in nurturing emotional health and empathy. While the mother’s role was important, by far the most influential factor in a child’s emotional health was how involved the father was in a child’s care. In fact, the benefits of having an active, involved father during infancy and early childhood appear to last well into adolescence.

Politics and Life

Educating the promises of tomorrow regarding politics in the society.

Human beings are social beings. Being a social being, I strongly believe one’s life has to indulge with politics or politics will definitely cross paths with theirs.

No one is born with full fledged  knowledge about the politics of the world. Knowledge in these matters arise from social interactions, which could and should be nurtured at a young age through healthy mediums.

Hindering the promises of tomorrow in this aspect is no different than digging an immaculate grave for all of us. In all honesty, I’d rather be informed than ignorant!

The very generation that is bound to take over in a decade’s time are often found ignorant and ill- informed about what’s what in this ever evolving world. I don’t advocate upon political affairs being sternly exposed  to such individuals. But rather the mere essence of it will equip them of the basic knowledge required to sustain their life in a society.

Without an apt source for educating them about the order and history of politics and its relevance, these young minds wouldn’t have an authentic source for learning much about it; and will grow up as idealists. 

Easily influenced by the ideals of their acquaintances and their families making them unable to have an identity of their own. 

Being an individual, the need for having a personal understanding and stand has been outright frowned upon at times.

The world is indeed a cruel place, more often than not such unnecessary restrictions  leaves them unaware of the harsh realities of life in a society. Catering to such needs will not only save them from making a laughingstock of themselves but would rather provide for a better tomorrow to one and all. 

With the forward pouncing of most aspects of society- socially, politically and economically; more and more younger individuals are growing unaware of the nuances of the world. Making the need for educating about the same more perennial than ever.

It’ll also aid an individual blossom into a being, fully aware of the concepts of the society and might even strike an interest towards it. Making them the much needed change amongst around the ones who lead a society.

A generation sound with a strong foundation of the workings of the public domain.

Change is the only constant and those who dare to stand in the way shall not prosper. For revolution is impersonal.

Cyclone

Cyclonic storm is caused by atmospheric disturbances around a low-pressure area and is usually accompanied by violent storms and severe weather conditions. Cyclone is derived from the greek word cyclos – coiling of snake. Tropical Cyclone is a deep low pressure area from around the center the strong winds, spirals and pick up the speeds of 62 kmph or more. In Northern hemisphere these winds rotate counter clock wise and in Southern hemisphere clockwise. The tropical cyclones that are intense are known as huricanes Over the Atlantic Ocean and typhoons over the pacific ocean. They are know by different names for example dust devils, supercell thunderstorm, tomadoes, tropical cyclones, extra tropical cyclones etc. On the basis of the speed of the wind cyclones are classified into 5 different categories.

According to the category of the cyclone the wind speed varies that is from 60 km an hour to about 220 kmph and above. When the speed of the wind around the low pressure area reach upto 60 kmph it is known as tropical cyclone and the name is assigned. When wind speed settles between 89 and 118 kmph, it turns into a severe Cyclonic storm. When wind blows at a speed of about 119 to 221 kmph then it is known as very severe Cyclonic storm and when the speed of the wind exceeds 221kmph then the cyclone is known as supercyclonic storm. The word meteorological organization (WMO) has a well defined process to select the name of each cyclone.

A cyclone named fani is a massive Cyclonic formation over the south of bay of Bengal which made landfall in odisha.

Cyclone like ookhi hit parts of kerala, tamil nadu, sri lanka, and maldives at 185kmph with total fatalities of 245 in kerala that time around 80 fisherman were killed and 140 people were reported missing. In 2018 cyclone gaja also made landfall in Nagapattinam ‘s vedaranyam block and killed around 46 people. In 2019 vayu in the Arabian Sea.

The polar vortex is a large area of low pressure and cold air surrounding the Earth’s North and South poles in each Hemisphere. The term refers to the counter clockwise flow of air that helps the colder air close to the poles. Often during winter in the Northern hemisphere the polar vortex will become less stable and expand senting cold artic air southward over the East of US with the jet stream. One exist in the troposphere where we live and where the weather happens. The other exists in the second lowest, called the stratosphere, which is a shroud of thin air that gets warmer at higher altitudes. The tropospheric polar vortex is the one that affects our weather with piercing shots of cold, intense bouts of storminous and bitter wind chills reaching upto 80°Celsius.

CULPABLE HOMICIDE

Culpable Homicide under Area 299 has certain fixings. To pull in this segment, demise of a person probably been brought about by doing a demonstration, (I) with the aim of causing passing; or on the other hand (ii) with the goal of making such substantial injury as is likely reason demise; or (iii) with the information that such demonstration done is probably going to cause demise. ‘Information’ and ‘aim’ must not be confounded. The arrangement in characterizing initial two classes doesn’t manage the information though it does comparable to the third classification. It would likewise be pertinent to manage at the top of the priority list the import of the expressions “likely by such act to cause demise”. In this “possible” would mean most likely and not in any way, shape or form. Injury is probably going to cause demise, when the equivalent is adequate in the conventional course of nature to cause demise which thus it would imply that passing will be the most plausible result. “likely”- The blamed was sentenced for an offense of carrying on in a way liable to jeopardize the well being of an airplane by determined utilization of his cell phone.

Section 304 gives discipline to offense of at fault manslaughter not adding up to kill. Under this there are two sorts of disciplines applying to two distinct conditions:In the event that the demonstration by which passing is caused was finished with the goal of causing demise or such real injury as is probably going to cause demise, the discipline is life detainment or then again detainment of either portrayal for a term which may reach out to 10 years and fine.On the off chance that demonstration is finished with information that it is probably going to cause passing however with no aim to cause passing or such real injury as is probably going to cause demise, the discipline is detainment of either portrayal for a term which may reach out to 10 years or with fine or both.Section 304 Section I v. Area 304 Section II-Etymological qualification being obvious, there are two different qualifications too. One comparable to the discipline, while other is established on the goal of causing such act, with no expectation yet with the information that the demonstration is prone to cause demise. It is neither prudent nor conceivable to express any fixed model that would be generally relevant to every single such case. Each case must be chosen its own merits. The Court needs to play out the sensitive capacity of applying the arrangements of IPC to the realities of the case with an unmistakable division as to under which classification of cases, the case at hand falls and as needs be rebuff the accused.

Harry potter – A must read

Harry Potter is a story of a young wizard who fought against the Dark Lord, Voldemort and defeated hs penned down by J.K Rowling. As we are growing up, we are accustomed with choosing to watch series over going through the main Novel. The Novel depicts the characters Harry Potter, Hermione Granger and Ron Wealsey played by Daniel Radcliff, Emma Watson, Rupert Grint respectively showing the pure bond of friendship between the three. They stood strong, in spite of all the odds. The Genre for Harry Potter isn’t much specified, as it portrays Horror, Thriller, Drama, Romance, Friendship also Fantasy. While the series influenced the minds of youngsters a lot, this is for Good. There were 7 novels written Part by Part, starting with the Philosopher’s Stone (1997), Harry meets Hagrid, who came to take him away to the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, as ordered by Albus Dumbeldore, the Professor. He learns that his parents were killed by Lord Voldemort, but he somehow survived. Harry met his friends here and recognized his talents for Quiditch Game. He met Snape, the Potions master who disliked Harry a lot. the second novel was Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (1998), Ginny, Ron’s sister finds out the Tom Riddle’s Diary, through which Voldemort possessed her, she opened the chamber of Secrets. Harry learns that he can speak Parseltongue, snake’s language, with help of which he entered in Chamber to kill Basilisk, the ancient monster. The third novel was Prisoner of Azkaban (1999), Here Harry meets with Sirius Black, his father’s best friend who was a mass murderer, as stated by the Wizarding World, also Remus Lupin, a Defence of Dark Arts teacher, who was a warewolf by nature. Lupin taught harry a few Defences. The forth one was Goblet of Fire (2000), this is basically a tournament which was dangerous, for wining Triwizard’s Cup. He was mentored by Mad-eye-moody. Here, Voldemort tried to kill him by kills Cedric Diggory instead, another student of Hogwarts. The fifth book was Order of the Pheonix (2003), Ministry of Magic refuses to believe that Voldemort has returned, Harry and his friends form Dumbledore’s Army. Ministry appoints Dolores Umbridge, who turns the school into dictatorial regime. Harry had a face off against Voldemort’s followers, Series black dies in the conflict. The fifth novel was The Half Blood Prince (2005), Harry finds out, through a device that Voldemort has split his soul into pieces, and created a series of Horcruxes, hidden in various locations. Draco Malfoy, who was his classmate joined with the Death Eaters and attempted to kill the Professor, who was killed by Prof. Snape instead. The last novel Deathly Hollows (2007) was the final climax. These novels had attracted children a lot due to absurd creatures and magic elements present on, through there was a lot more to understand. How much positivity is incurred in Harry Potter, in spite of being such a young boy. The Wizarding world was related to the Fantasy world, having no practicality as such on its own and mostly based on imagination. According to Rowling, main was death, other than that there was Prejudice, Corruption and Madness. Novel also shows the angle of Harry’s cleverness and focus to remove all evils, whereas without his friends, he was nothing. He was all alone on his childhood, before he came to know his wizarding skills, and no one loved him as such, he was tortured by his Aunt’ Family. Harry potter has been one of the greatest Media Franchise of all times. Harry Potter became widely popular, for all age groups due to relativity. Like something we all face in our teenage, heartbreaks, betrayal, respect, loneliness and such feelings. Though, it is a fact that Positive energy conquers all sorts of negativity, how much powerful it is.

As for many, Prof. Snape was the real Hero of the series because he was exceptionally skilled, Wizard, who was extremely mocking and aloof was initially threat for the Wizards, Snape loved Harry’s mother, as shown later on through, was deeply attracted to Voldemort’s theories, who hated Muggles.

Lebanon Explosion: Massive explosion kills more than 100, thousands injured

There was a massive explosion in the port of Beirut on Tuesday, 4th August 2020. The explosion have resulted in the deaths of more than 100 people and 4000 injured. Much of the cities ports have been affected and buildings have been damaged. Hospitals have been filled beyond capacity and hospital authorities are pleading for blood supplies and generators. The injured had to be taken to hospitals outside Beirut. Streets are filled with ambulances and vehicles carrying the wounded and injured. The explosion has devastated the country, which was already in the middle of a financial crisis along with the corona virus pandemic. The economic condition was terrible with about half of the people living below poverty line.

Witnesses reported a massive mushroom cloud going into the sky and red fumes coming out of the site. At first people saw white dense fumes being emitted, after few seconds the big explosion happened sending a big white mushroom cloud and brownish red fumes into the sky. Residents said that they were thrown off their feet onto the ground by the tremors of the explosion. Windows and doors of building have been shattered across the capital. Local media have shown people being stuck inside rubble, damaged cars on the road and broken buildings. The port of Beirut has been heavily damaged. According to Germany’s geo-sciences centre, tremors of about 3.5 magnitude earthquake were reported to be felt and it reached as far as Cyprus, which is about 200 kilometres across the Mediterranean.

President Michel Aoun and Lebanon officials have blamed a warehouse, storing 2750 tons of Ammonium nitrate unsafely, close to the port for the blast. The Ammonium nitrate, which is used as a fertilizer and as an explosive, was stored in the site for about 6 years and there was a lot of negligence regarding the removal of it all these years. It was brought in by a ship which arrived at Beirut in 2013 and it was not allowed to leave due to some dispute. Since then the confiscated Ammonium nitrate was stored in the warehouse. It has been reported that a fire had started in one of the warehouses and then it spread to the warehouse containing the Ammonium nitrate. The explosion site is close to the place where a car bombing happened in 2005 which killed the former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri.

Army helicopters have helped in extinguishing the fires at the port. Emergency teams had started working. Red Cross has said that a search operation is working for finding over 100 missing people. Residents of Lebanon have reached the site and hospital and have started helping the injured. In a statement released by Unicef, it has been mentioned that their staff and their families have also been affected, some have been injured, others have had their homes damaged as a result of the explosion. Their child protection partners are providing psycho-social support to affected children and their families. Officials have informed that an investigation is being done to find out the exact reason behind the explosion and to know what had triggered the Ammonium nitrate. A number of port officials have also been kept under house arrest for the investigation. The future of the port is in danger as thousands of people have been left homeless in the middle of crisis. The President has declared 3 days of mourning and the government has declared 3 weeks of state emergency in the capital of Beirut. The Lebanon Prime Minister has requested for international assistance because there has been mass casualties and nearly half of the city has been damaged enormously.

FORGOTTEN VICTIMS……..COMFORT WOMEN

Around 150,000 to 200,000 women during the Second World War were coerced, abducted and forced into being sex slaves for the Imperial Japanese Army. These women were lured in with promises of nurse jobs, waitresses, to work in an office or to work as an entertainer but there taken to military bases and kept in comfort stations. The reason for this brutal and inhumane legally sanctioned rape was to mitigate or to reduce the rape crime by the Japanese Imperial Army due to rising anti-Japanese sentiment. The rising anti-Japanese sentiment was due to incidents like the rape of Nanking. By forming comfort stations where women were ready to service the Japanese army men then they could confine rapes and abuse to the military stations and such atrocities would not reach international news.
The first Comfort station was formed in Shanghai in 1932. The women working there were voluntary Japanese prostitutes or kidnapped Japanese women but later when the resources dried up in Japan, the army started to look beyond its country. Women from Japanese concessions and Japanese colonies were recruited. Women were falsely misled into thinking that they were about to get a job as a nurse or waitress or a simple office worker but were taken to Japanese military stations where they were made to learn a routine and were coerced into having sex multiple times with different people. Because of such inhumane conditions, most of the comfort women would contract sexually transmitted diseases. But the Japanese military doctors would carefully and regularly monitor comfort women to detect STDs and to stop it from reaching the troops.


The women were 80 per cent Koreans and the rest were Chinese / Filipina /Dutch/women who were abducted. Many such women were taken in and were raped 30 -40 times every day. Those who refused were beaten severely. Girls who were virgins while entering the stations were broken in or raped. So Tetsuo who was a medical physician in the Imperial Japanese Army wrote that comfort was referred to as female ammunition and was seen as things to be used rather than human beings. Comfort women were also forced to donate blood to save wounded soldiers. When a soldier would enter a comfort station, where photographs of comfort women were displayed and soldiers could choose from there. Women who got pregnant were forced to get abortions. Any human being with a little shred of humanity would know that this is wrong but this issue went unnoticed. Most comfort women were told and the theory that white men were cannibals were indoctrinated into them. When the Allied forces came close to capturing Japanese military stations, most of these women were forced to commit suicide or were killed by the soldiers. Many comfort women killed themselves as they didn’t want to be eaten by white men as this fact that white men were cannibals were drilled into them.


The Japanese military used the drug called salvarsan which was used to sterilize women; many condoms were given out for free to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Japan has issued apologies to the countries where it had forcefully taken women from. Prime Minister Shinto Abe stated in a newspaper interview that there was zero evidence that the Japanese army had used sex slaves but the fact that the Japanese government had admitted that they used brothels in a statement issued in 1993. But the country had issued an apology for the inhumane treatment of women and the deep psychological trauma that it had inflicted on the countries citizens.

Test Cricket and Covid19: The Changes Need to be Adopted

                                                                                                  -SHUBHANKAR

Cricket is back and with the pandemic still going on, the new normal needs to be adopted and adopted well so that players play in a safe environment. With cricket played with the new norms, lets look at what the new changes would be and what affect would it have on the gentleman’s game. According to the new norms, the most affected format would be the test format, and this is the main format which has to make itself bloom again in this darkness. Why I’m saying darkness is because of the fact that test cricket needed a rejuvenation but with the pandemic hitting the world, test cricket could be again on the fringes.

Test cricket as all cricket lovers know is the best format and the most testing formats of all. This is the ultimate test for all players. But with the introduction of twenty twenty cricket and ODI format, most people have forgotten test cricket. They find it boring to play for 5 days. That’s why we in the last many years never saw too much of crowds in stadiums for test matches. With the players finding it not interesting, they came up and spoke about this issue openly in the media to encourage spectators to watch test cricket in stadiums, giving a natural lift to the players to give their 200% on the field. The change was starting to happen, with many spectators now going to watch test matches in the recent years. Especially when talking about the Indian crowds, they have lived upto the expectation of the current Indian Men’s cricket team captain Virat Kohli and come to watch test cricket in huge numbers whenever India plays, be it away or at home.

But now with the Covid19 restrictions in place, what it holds for test cricket is the fact that with restrictions on entry of people into the stadiums, will test cricket get the same reception back by the spectators? This question arises because according to the WHO this Covid19 virus is here to stay and with people not looking to risk their life at all, will cricket boards be able to bring back spectators for watching test cricket again in stadiums? The answer to this question could be instrumental in saving test cricket from fading away. The next thing which could harm test cricket and in particular the bowlers is the fact that saliva can’t be used to shine the ball. Those of who have played test cricket or are cricket enthusiasts know that saliva is one of the main weapons for a fast bowler to swing the ball as it helps in shining the ball. If the use of saliva is banned, which off course is now, the bowlers will face a lot of problem while they bowl in test cricket. The saliva ban will affect test cricket of all the 3 formats because of the fact that the red ball needs to be shinned more as test cricket is played for 5 days whereas in T20 or ODI cricket, its just a day’s game where swing doesn’t really have that much impact on the game and also with these two formats really fast paced and played with a white ball, the saliva ban would certainly not impact the shorter formats of the game.

In the end, I would want to say that whatever happens, I feel that test cricket is well and up and running and the people need to make sure that it stays there. Because cricket is nothing without a format of it, known as TEST CRICKET.

POVERTY IN INDIA

India lifted 271 million people out of poverty in a decade. Poverty is a state of economic status where employment or financial resources of a person isn’t enough to meet the minimum standard of living and basic human needs aren’t met. A person needs basic shelter, food, access to health care and education as these are basic human needs to lead a life. But a poor person does not have access to most of these needs. Though India has pulled millions of people out of poverty but yet the distribution of wealth is extremely uneven across the population. In India, 1 per cent of the population holds 73 per cent of the wealth.
Poverty is a problem that all countries are facing but India had done an exceptional job lifting people out of poverty. In India, most poor people who can’t afford food can’t also afford shelter. Over dependency on monsoon with no proper irrigation makes people come to cities which have much stable employment opportunities. Poor people in India depend upon subsidized food rates provided by the government and free food given by organizations and temples. They end up sleeping on the streets with zero access to proper and safe food and basic health care. Urban poverty is higher than in rural poverty. The rural population migrates to cities in search of better job opportunities. Because of the lack of education, most jobs that they find are labour intensive and underpaid. Large numbers of people who live below the poverty line live in slums where there isn’t proper sanitation, infrastructure and no safe access to drinking water.
There are multiple causes of poverty is high employment levels. But the main causes of poverty are the lack of funds to invest in education and limited access to bank systems. Corruption, the growing population which means fewer job opportunities, clears dependency on irregular rains for agriculture and illiteracy. A large portion of the population is dependent on agriculture but agriculture doesn’t pay well low agriculture and many crop failure leads to farmers in debt traps some farmers go to banks or some go to other illegal methods. Historical causes are colonialism, slavery and frequent wars. Because the parents aren’t earning the children usually go get jobs. Children get jobs such as waitressing, mining and other such jobs. When the children are working their education is at pause thus the poverty circle continues. The government has incentives like Indira Awas Yojana which provides housing to the poor. The government has mid-day meal schemes to attract children to stay in schools and the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act secures the citizens right to work. The state governments offer food, rations as a cheap and subsidized rate to people owning a below poverty line card. There are also government schemes which allow subsidized school rates for people who own a below poverty line card.
Poverty is an issue for the entire country. India has an annual growth of 7 per cent for 15 years and has put more than 271 million people out of poverty. Elimination of poverty has been India’s priority and should continue to be.

No Promotion For MBBS Students Without Exams: Medical Council of India

The Board of Governors of the Medical Council of India (MCI), medical education regulator, said in an advisory that no batch should be permitted to move to the next level of the MBBS course without an examination.

New Delhi:

The Board of Governors of the Medical Council of India (MCI), medical education regulator, said in an advisory that no batch should be permitted to move to the next level of the MBBS Course without an examination. The Board in supersession of MCI, after considering various representations received from students, colleges and universities raising various queries about reopening of medical colleges and conduct of university examination, has released an advisory today after a meeting through video conference held last month.

The advisory also said the colleges should aim to complete the first MBBS course (including practicals, lab, demonstrations etc.) within two months of reopening of the colleges as and when permitted by the government, and, thereafter, the first MBBS university exams should be completed as soon as possible, preferably within a month.

The pending supplementary examinations for final year MBBS students which were scheduled during the first half of 2020 should be conducted as soon as possible, as the students are waiting to appear for the examinations having completed the course once already and need not have to wait for the formal reopening of the colleges, the advisory said.

Such students will be joining the medical colleges or hospitals for doing internship just after passing final exams, it added.

“Regarding the conduct of 2nd/3rd (Part 1) and Final year MBBS examination for 2020, the time required for completion of the course would depend on the timing of the re-opening of the medical colleges,” it said.

The Board of Governors anticipated that as for the first year MBBS students, these students would also need about two months to complete the remaining course curriculum and training.

“Consequently, the University exams for 2nd and 3rd (Part 1) MBBS students may have to be delayed by two to three months beyond their scheduled dates,” it said.

It also advised that relaxations provided for the conduct of final year postgraduate examination in terms of the appointment of examiners and the exam patterns, would also be applicable for the conduct of MBBS University examinations.