Quashing of F.I.R

The expression, first information report is not defined in the code of criminal procedure 1973, but these words are always understood to mean, information recorded under Section 154(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. It is the information given to the essential officer-in-charge of the police station in the form of compliant or accusation regarding the commission or suspected commission of a cognizable offence. It is given with the object setting the criminal law in motion and police starting the investigation. This report (F.I.R) forms the foundation of the case.

Section 154(1) of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 deals with the information in cognizable offence. According to this section every information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence if  given orally to an officer in charge of a police station, shall be reduced to writing by him or under his direction and be read over the informant and every such information, either given in writing or reduced to writing as aforesaid shall be signed by the person given it and the substantive there of shall be entered in a book to be kept by such officer in such form as the state Government may prescribe in this behalf.

The Inherent power under Section 482 in The Code Of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (37th Chapter of the code) is wide with no statutory limitation . It preserves the inherent powers of the High Court to prevent an abuse of the process of any court or to secure the ends of justice and therefore the High Court must have due regard to the nature and gravity of the offences.

 When a FIR is registered the allegation made in the FIR is correct and proved by the investigation done by the Police officials but the crime is not defined as per the law or else the crime does not fit any ingredients of law definition. Now, the FIR can quashed by the High Court. Mostly it depends from cases to cases and facts to facts High court can interpret the law depend upon the facts of the cases.

Cases

  1. Parbatbhai Aahir & Ors. Vs. State of Gujarat & Anr. (Criminal Appeal No. 1723 of 2017)

A full bench comprising of Hon’ble Mr. Chief Justice Dipak Misra, Hon’ble Mr. Justice AM Khanwilkar and Hon’ble Mr. Justice DY Chandrachud has laid down broad principles from various precedents in relation to Section 482 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) for quashing of First Information Reports (FIRs) in the judgment passed in an appeal against a decision of the Gujarat High Court.

The Gujarat High Court vide its judgment dated November 25, 2016, had dismissed an application under Section 482 of CrPC filed by the Appellants seeking quashing of FIR registered against them on June 18, 2016 with the City ‘C’ Division Police Station, District Jamnagar, Gujarat for offences punishable under Sections 384, 467, 468, 471, 120-B and 506(2) of the Indian Penal Code.

Before, the High Court, the plea for quashing the FIR was advanced on the ground that the Appellants had amicably settled the dispute with the Complainant, who had also filed an Affidavit to that effect. On behalf of the prosecution, application for quashing was opposed on two grounds:

The Appellants were absconding and warrants had been issued against them under Section 70 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

The Appellants had criminal antecedants.

The High Court observed that it had been given “a fair idea” about the modus operandi adopted by the Appellants for grabbing the land, in the course of which they had opened bogus bank accounts. The High Court held that the case involves extortion, forgery and conspiracy and all the Appellants have acted as a team. Hence, in the view of the High Court, it was not in the interest of society at large to accept the settlement and quash the FIR. The High Court held that the charges are of a serious nature and the activities of the appellants render them a potential threat to society. On this ground, the prayer to quash the First Information Report was rejected by the High Court.

The Hon’ble Supreme Court after discussing various precedents on the subject summarized the following broad principles in relation to Section 482 for quashing FIRs.

Section 482 preserves the inherent powers of the High Court to prevent an abuse of the process of any court or to secure the ends of justice. The provision does not confer new powers. It only recognises and preserves powers which inhere in the High Court;

The invocation of the jurisdiction of the High Court to quash a First Information Report or a criminal proceeding on the ground that a settlement has been arrived at between the offender and the victim is not the same as the invocation of jurisdiction for the purpose of compounding an offence. While compounding an offence, the power of the court is governed by the provisions of Section 320 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973. The power to quash under Section 482 is attracted even if the offence is non-compoundable.

In forming an opinion whether a criminal proceeding or complaint should be quashed in exercise of its jurisdiction under Section 482, the High Court must evaluate whether the ends of justice would justify the exercise of the inherent power;

While the inherent power of the High Court has a wide ambit and plenitude it has to be exercised;
to secure the ends of justice or to prevent an abuse of the process of any court;

The decision as to whether a complaint or First Information Report should be quashed on the ground that the offender and victim have settled the dispute, revolves ultimately on the facts and circumstances of each case and no exhaustive elaboration of principles can be formulated;

In the exercise of the power under Section 482 and while dealing with a plea that the dispute has been settled, the High Court must have due regard to the nature and gravity of the offence. Heinous and serious offences involving mental depravity or offences such as murder, rape and dacoity cannot appropriately be quashed though the victim or the family of the victim have settled the dispute. Such offences are, truly speaking, not private in nature but have a serious impact upon society. The decision to continue with the trial in such cases is founded on the overriding element of public interest in punishing persons for serious offences;

As distinguished from serious offences, there may be criminal cases which have an overwhelming or predominant element of a civil dispute. They stand on a distinct footing in so far as the exercise of the inherent power to quash is concerned;

Criminal cases involving offences which arise from commercial, financial, mercantile, partnership or similar transactions with an essentially civil flavour may in appropriate situations fall for quashing where parties have settled the dispute;

In such a case, the High Court may quash the criminal proceeding if in view of the compromise between the disputants, the possibility of a conviction is remote and the continuation of a criminal proceeding would cause oppression and prejudice; and

There is yet an exception to the principle set out in propositions (viii) and (ix) above. Economic offences involving the financial and economic well-being of the state have implications which lie beyond the domain of a mere dispute between private disputants. The High Court would be justified in declining to quash where the offender is involved in an activity akin to a financial or economic fraud or misdemeanour. The consequences of the act complained of upon the financial or economic system will weigh in the balance.

The Apex Court dismissed the appeal holding that the High Court was justified in declining to entertain the Application for quashing FIR in the exercise of its inherent jurisdiction.

2. Sunder Kumar v. State, WP (Crl) No. 787 of 2020, decided on 06-05-2020

Delhi High Court: C. Hari Shankar, J., addressed a petition with regard to quashing of FIR wherein petitioner was in custody for loitering around without wearing mask and assaulting a police constable, and held that,

charges against the petitioners are unquestionably serious.

Petitioner sought quashing of FIR for offences committed under Sections 188/269/186/353/332/506 read with Section 34 of penal Code, 1860.

Rahul (Petitioner 2) was seen loitering without wearing a mask in violation of Compliance Advisory issued by Centre in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic.

On the complainant intercepting Rahul and querying him in that regard, Rahul retorted that the complainant had no right to stop him from walking in the area without a mask.

Further when the complainant with the help of a constable tried to control Rahul, he caught hold of the collar of the shirt being worn by the complainant and tore the shirt. Rahul also assaulted the constable by kicking him.

Rahul’s brother Petitioner 1 also joined him and started assaulting the complainant. Later both of them were take into custody and FIR was lodged.

Quashing of criminal proceedings by eviscerating them from their very inception, is an extreme step, to be taken with due circumspection.

Progress of the criminal law, once legitimately set in motion, should not be halted by judicial diktat, save in exceptional circumstances and with due cause.

Bench stated that, charges against the petitioners are unquestionably serious.

Breach of the lockdown restrictions, imposed by the Government, which, if permitted unchecked, may result in loss of lives of millions, and cannot be tolerated.

Court also added that the acts of petitioners are inherently inimical to public interest and may have catastrophic consequences and in these cases Courts cannot permit themselves to be carried away by the physical nature of the act as committed, unmindful of the results that would ensue, were such acts to be tolerated.

Conclusion

There are many cases related to Dowry where the women misuses her laws and register false FIR making allegations regarding her in-laws for dowry.  So her in-laws filed a case for quashing of FIR High court can quashed the FIR hearing both the parties. There are also cases where a FIR is registered for committing heinous crimes and then later on both the parties mutually decide to end up the dispute in this the court in his judgement explained that heinous crimes can’t be settled by the parties itself as the court said this kind of offences effect the society as a whole. Hence, the FIR cannot be quashed.

New Education Policy 2020

Constitutional Provisions:
Part IV of Indian Constitution, Article 45 and Article 39 (f) of Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP), has a provision for state-funded as well as equitable and accessible education.

The 42nd Amendment to the Constitution in 1976 moved education from the State to the Concurrent List.

The education policies by the Central government provides a broad direction and state governments are expected to follow it. But it is not mandatory, for instance Tamil Nadu does not follow the three-language formula prescribed by the first education policy in 1968.

The 86th Amendment in 2002 made education an enforceable right under Article 21-A.

Related Laws:
Right To Education (RTE) Act, 2009 aims to provide primary education to all children aged 6 to 14 years and enforces education as a Fundamental Right.

It also mandates 25% reservation for disadvantaged sections of the society where disadvantaged groups

Government Initiatives:
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid Day Meal,  Navodaya Vidyalayas (NVS schools), Kendriya Vidyalayas (KV schools) and use of IT in education are a result of the NEP of 1986.

Recently, the Union Cabinet has approved the new National Education Policy (NEP), 2020 with an aim to introduce several changes in the Indian education system – from the school to college level.

The NEP 2020 aims at making “India a global knowledge superpower”.

The Cabinet has also approved the renaming of the Ministry of Human Resource Development to the Ministry of Education.

The NEP cleared by the Cabinet is only the third major revamp of the framework of education in India since independence.
The two earlier education policies were brought in 1968 and 1986.

School Education:

  • Universalization of education from preschool to secondary level with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) in school education by 2030.
  • To bring 2 crore out of school children back into the mainstream through an open schooling system.
  • The current 10+2 system to be replaced by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively.
  • It will bring the uncovered age group of 3-6 years under school curriculum, which has been recognized globally as the crucial stage for development of mental faculties of a child.
  • It will also have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi/ pre schooling.
  • Class 10 and 12 board examinations to be made easier, to test core competencies rather than memorised facts, with all students allowed to take the exam twice.
  • School governance is set to change, with a new accreditation framework and an independent authority to regulate both public and private schools.
  • Emphasis on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, no rigid separation between academic streams, extracurricular, vocational streams in schools.
  • Vocational Education to start from Class 6 with Internships.
  • Teaching up to at least Grade 5 to be in mother tongue/regional language. No language will be imposed on any student.
  • Assessment reforms with 360 degree Holistic Progress Card, tracking Student Progress for achieving Learning Outcomes
  • A new and comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education (NCFTE) 2021, will be formulated by the National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) in consultation with National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT)
    By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4-year integrated B.Ed. degree.

Higher Education:

  • Gross Enrollment Ratio in higher education to be raised to 50% by 2035. Also, 3.5 crore seats to be added in higher education.
  • The current Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) in higher education is 26.3%.
  • Holistic Undergraduate education with a flexible curriculum can be of 3 or 4 years with multiple exit options and appropriate certification within this period.
  • M.Phil courses will be discontinued and all the courses at undergraduate, postgraduate and PhD level will now be interdisciplinary.
  • Academic Bank of Credits to be established to facilitate Transfer of Credits.
  • Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs), at par with IITs, IIMs, to be set up as models of best multidisciplinary education of global standards in the country.
  • The National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body for fostering a strong research culture and building research capacity across higher education.
  • Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be set up as a single umbrella body for the entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education. Public and private higher education institutions will be governed by the same set of norms for regulation, accreditation and academic standards. Also, HECI will be having four independent verticals namely,
    National Higher Education Regulatory Council (NHERC) for regulation, General Education Council (GEC) for standard setting, Higher Education Grants Council (HEGC) for funding, National Accreditation Council (NAC) for accreditation.
  • Affiliation of colleges is to be phased out in 15 years and a stage-wise mechanism to be established for granting graded autonomy to colleges.
  • Over a period of time, every college is expected to develop into either an autonomous degree-granting College, or a constituent college of a university.

Other Changes:

  • An autonomous body, the National Educational Technology Forum (NETF), will be created to provide a platform for the free exchange of ideas on the use of technology to enhance learning, assessment, planning, administration.
  • National Assessment Centre- ‘PARAKH’ has been created to assess the students.
  • It also paves the way for foreign universities to set up campuses in India.
  • It emphasizes setting up of Gender Inclusion Fund, Special Education Zones for disadvantaged regions and groups.
  • National Institute for Pali, Persian and Prakrit, Indian Institute of Translation and Interpretation to be set up.
  • It also aims to increase the public investment in the Education sector to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest. Currently, India spends around 4.6 % of its total GDP on education.

Motivation:The background force

Why have i written this blog?why are you reading this blog?Why do you eat?Why do you love?

The answer to all of these actions is MOTIVATION!Motivation is the process that initiates, guides, and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. It is what causes you to act, whether it is reading this article, getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge.So this blog will critically analyse the concept of motivation and help all of you to understand the reasons behind your actions.So lets get started!

Motivation describes the wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal. It is an urge to behave or act in a way that will satisfy certain conditions, such as wishes, desires, or goals. Older theories of motivation stated that rational thought and reason were the guiding factors in human motivation; however, psychologists now believe that motivation may be rooted in basic impulses to optimize well-being, minimize physical pain, and maximize pleasure.

Motivation involves the biological, emotional, social, and cognitive forces that activate behavior. In everyday usage, the term “motivation” is frequently used to describe why a person does something. It is the driving force behind human actions.

So lets analyse the mechanism of motivation

Drives and motives

Motivations are commonly separated into drives and motives.

Drives are primarily biological, like thirst, hunger, sleepiness, and the need to reproduce—all of which lead us to seek out and take part in certain activities. Drives are believed to originate within a person and may not require external stimuli to encourage behavior.

Motives, on the other hand, are primarily driven by social and psychological mechanisms, such as work, family, and relationships. They include factors like praise and approval.

INtrinsic and extrinsic motivation

Motivation can be intrinsic (arising from internal factors) or extrinsic (arising from external factors).

Intrinsic:arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated crossword puzzle purely for the personal gratification of solving a problem.

Extrinsic:arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition, or praise.

In reality, our motivations are often a mix of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and the nature of the mix can change over time.Sometimes, intrinsic motivation can diminish when extrinsic motivation is given—a process known as the overjustification effect. This can lead to extinguishing the intrinsic motivation and creating a dependence on extrinsic rewards for continued performance.

Motivation v/s emotion

While motivation and emotion can be intricately linked, they are two fundamentally different things. Motivation describes the wants or needs that direct behavior toward a goal; in contrast, an emotion is a subjective state of being that we often describe as a feeling. Emotion and motivation are linked in several ways: both influence behavior and can lead us to take action, and emotion itself can act as a motivator.

The need to understand motivation

So at the end of this article,lets see what is the use of understanding the concept of motivation.Understanding motivation can:

  • Help improve the efficiency of people as they work toward goals
  • Help people take action
  • Encourage people to engage in health-oriented behaviors
  • Help people avoid unhealthy or maladaptive behaviors such as risk-taking and addiction
  • Help people feel more in control of their lives
  • Improve overall well-being and happiness

If you all liked this article,please do like it!

Thankyou!

National Handloom Day to be celebrated on August 7th

National Handloom Day is celebrated on the 7th of August annually in India. It is observed to create awareness about the importance of the textile industry in the economy. It began as an initiative to honour and provide work to handloom weavers and artisans. 7th August was declared as National Handloom Day by the Union Government in 2015 to generate awareness about the industry and its social importance. The day is celebrated through different functions and events across the country. Workshops are conducted to spread information about work opportunities among weavers and their families. Handloom fairs, exhibitions, parades, panels take place during various events.Through the celebrations of this day, handloom products get a wide recognition.

Handlooms have gradually emerged as the largest cottage industry. Almost 95% of the world’s handicrafts are from India. Weavers create from different natural fibres like cotton, silk and wool.While we celebrate the diversity of India’s art and crafts, its also important to address the problems and needs of the artisans. They should be provided with the knowledge of techniques, prices, and modern technology.

Photo by Skitterphoto on Pexels.com

Different schemes like Reservation of Articles for Production Act of 1985 and Handloom Census have been introduced so that artisans can benefit from them. Social media campaigns like #iwearhandloom have popularized the craft in recent times to an extent. These crafts should be included in contemporary industries so that younger generations can know about them and start supporting the cottage industries.

Historical Significance

Photo by Wallace Chuck on Pexels.com

August 7 was declared as the Handloom day in 2015 to revive the roots of handloom and to commemorate the Swadeshi Movement which began on the same day 115 years back. The first National Handloom Day was inaugurated on 7 August 2015 at the Centenary Hall of Madras University in Chennai. The movement was launched in Calcutta Town Hall on August 7, 1905 as a protest against the Bengal Partition by the British Government. The movement was started to facilitate the use of domestic products and production of goods within the country for boycotting British goods. There were also instances of burning British goods. When Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal in July 1905, the Indian National Congress started the movement. It led to the spread of revolutionary anti colonial and anti British movements across the country. Further movements like the Non Cooperation movement and the Satyagraha movement developed from the Swadeshi movement.

In recent times, the day is celebrated to spread awareness and develop consciousness of the public regarding textiles and the handloom industry which is extremely important for the socio economic development of the country. Handlooms and crafts empower artisans and represent the diverse cultural identities present in the country. They are eco-friendly and sustainable crafts which also function as the livelihood of so many people.

Celebrations this year

This year is the 6th National Handloom Day and the day will be celebrated through a virtual programme which will be conducted by the Union Ministry of Textiles. The textile minister Smriti Irani will be the chief guest for the event. The event will be observed with all the handloom clusters across India, 16 NIFT (National Institute of Fashion Technology) campuses, 24 Weaver Service Centres of different states and National Handloom Development Corporation.

HEALTHY MIND IN A HEALTHY BODY

Look to our past to find clues for healthy living today, and tomorrow. Civilisations understood there is a definitive link between our physical health and psychological well-being. In order to survive the 21st century we should look to seven simple daily habits in lifestyle choices. Here is a timeline of major inventions that have changed our lives since the 1800s:The steam engine and locomotive were invented in 1804,the telephone in 1876,the first electrical power plant in 1882,the production line automobile in 1902,the television in 1927,the jet airplane 1943,the ATM in 1967,the cell phone in 1973,the internet in 1983.Isn’t it amazing to realize how these changes have occurred considering the first primate fossils date back some 20 million years?

Personal computers and smart phones together with high – speed internet and social media have changed the way we live, work and communicate in ways that would have seemed unimaginable a decade ago. We are all scrambling to keep our bearings in this digital whirlwind.

We have to be proactive inorder combat the potential of digital technology to zap our minds and bodies of their vitality. Obviously digital advances have improved our lives in so many ways but there are so many uncertains. For example If a learning tool help raise a generation that is being spoonfed too much over processed everything or do they enhance learning and creativity. I think it is a dual edged sword.

Technology has the ability to grately enhance our lives. But it also has the ability to greatly enhance our lives but it also has the power to cause our bodies and brains to atrophy.What are the consequences to our biology of living in a virtual reality, where we don’t have to work physically to stay alive? Will the children be able to adapt to these changes better than we did or will it only get worse? The advice here in is a prophylaxis to help insulate your biology. So, you can continue to climb ever higher and maximize the potential of your body and mind. Humans are built to run. Utility, creativity and adventure are in our DNA. Now industrialization plus energy gluttony is causing global warming.

Habits for a healthy mind and body.

  1. Daily physicality:Exercise for at least 20 mins most days of the week. Brisk walking is the best medicine.
  2. Intellectual curiosity. Spend some time in focused thought exploring new ideas everyday.
  3. Foster creativity. Challenge your mind to connect unrelated ideas in new and useful ways.
  4. Human unity. Create and maintain close knit human bonds and a social support network.
  5. Energy balance. Balance calories in and calories out and reduce your carbon.
  6. Spiritual connectedness : Identify a source of inspiration that is bigger than you. God loves and cares about every area of our life. So we need to find the gifts god gave us body, mind and spirit. It is undoubting faith in God that instills inner peace and joy.

Domestic role of the Husbands

Gender Equality – A much relatable term these days. Gender Equality signifies that all men and women are equal, having the same duties towards the society, in no way one is superior than the other and is equal in all other aspects. This is the literal definition for Gender Equality. Earlier, girls had absolutely no scope to pursue higher educations, were forced to marry at a very young age and they were basically the home markers and treated as care- takes of the Family, and that was a normalized situation that time. Is this the Reality even now? Or do we see emerging mindsets supporting Gender Equality around us? Or is it just preserved in bookish terms. Till this era, our core believes hasn’t changed much. We show ourselves as cool or modern every time, but what about the man-made rules or superstitions of local people? The Hypocrisy tells us that women should cook food for the family, look after the child and is bound to perform much more household chores, even if she is a Chartered Accountant or the IPS Officer. Now why this biasness? The Patriarchal society makes the norms that husbands shall perform the duty of “an earning member” or as “head of the family”. Why is that the female has to be a ‘home maker’, In spite of having a degree or proper education? Just for the sake of the family? or the child? or the society? These customs portrayed long back, cannot be revolutionized in just one day. These are the loopholes of our systems, and we need to identify these as soon as possible for the betterment. Days are changing, the women are going to work outside their homes, they are becoming corporate officials manager, along with being a wife. They are fighting for their freedoms throughout. They are earning for family as well, balancing both the duties. If a woman can do so much why is that a male member just has to earn to contribute to the family. “Gender- assigned” roles should not be followed anymore, The responsibilities shall be shouldered equally. It is not just the headache of the woman to be in charge of the Family. The husband can take his time out to help, to cook for the family, not just for a couple of days, but as a routine. Work should be divided and shared, the husband shall also perform his tasks to support the wife. This will increase the love and affection for the family, ensure that peace and harmony prevails. These are smaller steps taken against the never-changing prejudices of the society. It shows the maturity of the male members to serve their counterparts, the husband shall find happiness from these household chores, and this is the perfect “gentleman” trait. Nothing is impossible on this earth. This small step taken is capable of making a drastic change of things a lot in the long run and is inspiring for the upcoming generations. If the husband starts assisting his wife, all the workings becomes 10times easier, as the burden is not just on one in this case. Suppose, both the parents are working, the wife has to reach her office within a fixed time, she cannot head out before once she is done with family duties, or may even her child could be late for school. In this situation, the concept of being “late” is considered as unprofessional. Maybe she won’t be in a position to pack her own tiffin, which is so much wrongful. If she has her husband as an helping hand, she never has to sacrifice her time or food. Also, the child will also reach his school within a fixed time, really the best solution for any Family. The Child especially looks up to the Father as the Role Model. Not just for the wife, the male member can also do domestic tasks to help their parents, or sister or they can sit down to teach the child. There is no harm in doing something for the family, this will definitely strengthen the bond between all the members of a family.

Cyber Crime

Now in modern era science and technology has reaching it’s new peak day by day. It is also advancing man is becoming dependent on internet for all his needs as it gives easy access to gaming, online studying, social networking, online jobs, shopping etc. everything at one place. Apart from other countries, India is also not far where the rate of incidence of cyber crime is increasing day by day. It makes our life easier than before. As people also face the incidences of the Cyber crime. Cyber crime is an illegal activity which involves a series of issues ranging from theft to using your system or IP address as a tool for committing a crime. It can be refers to the use of an electronic device (computer, laptop, etc.) for stealing someone’s data or trying to harm them mentally or physically like Fraud due to credit card, debit card, bank robbery, illegal downloading, child pornography, distribution of viruses using a computer.

There are many types of cyber crime mainly we can say that Cyber Crime are categorized into four different types. These are

The financial crime where they steal the money of user or account holders. Likewise, they also stole data of companies which can lead to financial crimes. Also, transactions are heavily risked because of them. Every year hackers stole lakhs and crores of rupees of businessmen and government. It also includes e-commerce fraud.

The Privacy Crime includes stealing your private data which you do not want to share with the world. It is common nowadays. Moreover, due to it, the people suffer a lot and some even commit suicide because of their data’s misuse.

In hacking they intentional deface a website to cause damage or loss to the public or owner. Apart from that, they destroy or make changes in the existing websites to diminish its value. This is different from ethical hacking, which many organizations use to check their Internet security protection. In hacking, the criminal uses a variety of software to enter a person’s computer and the person may not be aware that his computer is being accessed from a remote location.

Modern-day terrorism has grown way beyond what it was 10-20 years ago. But cyber terrorism is not just related to terrorists or terrorist organizations. But to threat some person or property to the level of creating fear is also Cyber Terrorism.

It can be saved by keeping our system update regularly, use strong and unique password. It cannot be written down on notebook or be disclosed to anyone. Data must be backed and don’t click suspicious links. We should follow the security protocols and other proper method to save us from Cyber crime.

Thanks….

NEW AGE OF ONLINE LEARNING

Getting educated has never been this easy. Putting the relevance of colleges under the spotlight.

A few decades back, not everyone had the liberty and the opportunity to go to college. The huge numbers of people joining colleges rather than the workforce was not the thing back then. 

The expensive college system paved the way for such a trend, which was also aided by the lack of infrastructure and other opportunities in most sectors which are quite relevant now.

The brick and motor system of people finishing school and then going to college to get a job has been changing slowly but significantly for the past few years. Lesser and lesser people have been seen shutting the eye towards getting a college degree to have a guaranteed successful career across the industries.

The current pandemic status quo is sure to have put a dent to this trend on a larger scale. With the ever fluctuations in the job market and the downward scaling of businesses, employees in most industries are scrambling to make sure that they will have a living by the end of the pandemic. 

Making the fear of the pandemic second to the fear of having a job to hold on to sustain a living. The hardships of having a job did not seen this hard in a while.

The upscaling of technology has certainly impacted the education system the most. With the widespread of internet and other gadgets, it has allowed people to even resort to remote learning; from upskilling to even pursuing degrees these days.

Aiding schools and universities to function on with their course structures to an extend.

It has also paved the path for people building up and pursuing shorter courses, which helps in building up certain skills and foundations in almost all the sectors of business. Contributing to a more conscious and productive workforce yet to have hit the floors.

People now have the liberty to sit from the comfort of their homes and with a few clicks be able to start doing a course to up skill their own person. Making the opportunities to learn a plenty and the easiest it has ever been.

The pandemic and shifts in the education system has promised that the system is never going to be the same again.

With people resorting to digital measures to eliminate their shortcomings of knowledge regarding different spectrums, it has started giving major companies sound grounds to even consider candidates without a proper degree for various job opportunities.

With the ability to receive information and answers regarding almost everything with just a click of a few buttons, has shown that the people are going the extra mile to incorporate additional skills that might help them become more educated to handle the tasks at work and also developing as professionals. Paying homage to the age old saying, “with great powers, comes great responsibilities.”

These all have made the jobs of the recruiters much easier, by letting them have the freedom to have a chance to hire people with the right skillsets, which would let them employ the workers without further training or other actions. Making the pace of the workplace faster than ever.

Bagheera’s Shadow

The pictures of Saya (Shadow) going viral means nothing,” says Shaaz Jung, a professional wildlife photographer, cinematographer and big cat specialist, who, after tracking and documenting leopards for 10 years in Nagarahole National Park, became an overnight sensation with his pictures of Saya, a melanistic tiger.

He explains why he sounds dismissive of the pictures being shared by the who’s who of the celeb world. “These pictures should mean nothing because we live in a digital age where the power of social media is huge. I clicked these two and a half years back and today, there is a story which is packaged well. The internet needs something every day and found this. The photographer’s job is to be at the right place at the right time and click the picture.” He gives credit to the forest department for working to ensure that enthusiasts can get a glimpse of these animals and the locals for safeguarding the forests against the fire.

He has grown up amidst the jungle as his parents ran a wildlife lodge close to Bengaluru. Jung, who is related to three royal families, — the Pataudis, the Nawab of Hyderabad and Bhopal — first heard about Saya in 2015. “Melanism in leopards takes place because they lack the gene which regulates colour. He is double recessive which means he has an abundance of melanin and that is why he is black. It is not a different species, as many believe,” he says of the leopard which many have compared to Bagheera from The Jungle Book. What made the find unusual was that melanistic leopards are usually found in extremely thick and dense jungles, like Malaysia, where they’ve been documented with trap cameras. “What made Saya very unique was that he was thriving in a forest where he didn’t belong against the odds of natural selection,” says Jung. There are several reasons which makes the survival of a melanistic leopard in South India difficult. “For six months, the forest is dry, making it next to impossible for him to camouflage and hunt. Moreover, a black coat ensured that he absorbed heat so, in summers you would see him becoming thin and extremely sleek where his ribs would show,” he explains. However, Saya was aware that he was different. “These animals perceive colour differently. It comes from the heightened sense of awareness that its survival depends on it. This made him twice as aggressive. He often courted several females at the same time — something which was never seen before,” says Jung. Since his black coat made him much easier to be spotted by prey, Saya used the shadows to his advantage, sometimes lying completely flat and almost lifeless in shade — which has been captured by Jung for a National Geographic documentary, The Real Black Panther.

Tracking the melanistic leopard taught Jung the art of being patient. “We spent hours in the park in search of him and we felt lucky if we saw Saya once a week. This sighting could last 15 seconds or couple of minutes or if he was on a tree, a couple of hours. There was always an element of luck and that is the beauty of wildlife. It is unpredictable and that is what draws me to it. Wildlife writes its own script,” says Jung thoughtfully.

Jung, an Economics graduate, gave up a corporate career in favour of staying in the jungle, as he believes he was not cut out for it. “I was creative. I loved being in nature. I was a people’s person. I wanted to use my language skills to raise awareness,” he recalls. He headed to his family lodge, saw a leopard which reignited his love affair with the forest which had been brewing since childhood. “While tracking leopards I discovered new corners of the jungle and different species. I started learning more from animals than humans. I could have never understood the lessons I learnt by being in nature’s lap. I changed and was aware of my surroundings. I became a better person. That’s what made me stay on,” he says. He started guiding people on safaris. “It was a beautiful experience when people who’d never seen an elephant or a leopard or never switched off the car to listen to the birds did so for the first time. They came upset due to their environment and I just loved watching the way they transformed during their stay.”

Jung keeps on going back to the forest as it makes him feel insignificant. “It is important to feel small because that keeps us grounded. I come to the city and I see materialism and economic growth being prioritised at the cost of environmental damage,” he says and points out that Nature is way more powerful than we credit it to be. “I see the human race down on its knees due to a tiny organism. That’s the power of nature. This organism has destroyed economies and completely changed who we are,” says Jung who elaborated on the concept at a webinar organised by WeWork recently.

But there are lessons to be learnt. “We should emerge as a wiser and a stronger race from this pandemic. But most important, as a more educated race, that values nature.”

Indoor plants

We all know, how plants are helpful to us, why are they vital. With the rise in carbon emissions, greenhouse gases, the only way to tackle it is by, either reducing the emissions which seem implausible due to industrialization, or the other is by planting more trees, which comes with its problem of land use. But plants can also be planted indoors, which is a pretty efficient way to keep pollution outside the boundary walls of the home. Not only the pollution from outside but, several VOCs like formaldehyde from furnishings, carpets, paints, etc.  With so many people coming to cities for better jobs, a better lifestyle, lands for trees have become sparse. Indoor plants don’t only help in relating pollution inside the house, but also helps to boost the members of the house emotionally and mentally. Plants promote mindfulness, calmness, serenity because plants tend to make you care for the moment instead of the rest of the world. Plants also remind us to keep moving, as different plants have different needs, and caring for them requires learning about their different peculiarities.  Also, they provide “low expectation” companionship, reaching friends or family can’t be feasible all times so a partner whom you can talk whenever you like to, is not bad, they never sound judgy or tell whatever you are feeling is true or not. In totality, indoor plants can’t do any possible harm except for occupying some space of your room and some time, but it could be worth it. The positive outcomes vanquish the negatives by a large difference. Some of the indoor plants that everyone should try on are listed below.

Snake plant (Sansevieria)- Also known as the mother-in-law’s tongue, this gorgeous multi-hued leaved plant is a great health booster and can thrive in low light too and prefers drier conditions. It absorbs carbon dioxide and release oxygen even at night and is also helpful in absorbing toxins like formaldehyde and benzene.

Chinese evergreen (Aglaonema)- Its beautiful two-toned leaves are hard to miss and comes in different varieties. This beauty needs a warm and moist climate to prosper, and a moderate temperature year-round.

Lucky bamboo (Dracena Sanderiana)- Popular in Feng shui, can survive in soil or water alone and prefer a moderate amount of indirect sunlight. Good for decorative purposes but its leaves are slightly toxic, thus should be kept away from children and pets.

Monstera (Monstera deliciosa)- Also called the Swiss Cheese plant because of its glossy tropical holed leaves. Due to its enormous size, it requires slightly large spaces to thrive. But provided with moderate temperature and low light ensures content plant. The beauty comes with a cost as it is poisonous so it is advised to keep pets and youngsters away.

Arrowhead plant (Syngonium podophyllum)- The leaves change shape as they grow and thus provides with great varieties. The vines are often used for indoor hanging baskets but could be trained to grow on poles. Isn’t picky about light but of water, remember never to overwater else you would be left with an unhappy plant.

Boston Fern (Nephrolepis exaltata)- They prefer to clean the air with high humidity and indirect sunlight, easy to grow and needs watering once a month.

Aloe Vera- The multitasker. While planted helps to clean the environment by absorbing toxins. Also, it’s leaves contain a gel full of vitamins, enzymes, Amino Acids that have anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial properties.

COVID19 Not Yet Gone Away: Staying Home is the Best Option

With the Indian administration slowly and steadily opening up the Indian economy, the question that arises is the fact that has the threat really gone away? The answer is a big NO. With many reports and studies suggesting that the peak in India still hasn’t arrived, the threat is very much there. What I feel is that government of India have to make sure that people don’t put their guard off against the fight with Covid19 virus. People should not venture out unnecessarily and should stay safe at home and the employer should make sure that if not too important, work from home should be encouraged.

The fact of the matter is that the government will slowly open up everything because the government needs to make the economy run. But the people need to understand and follow the SOP’s laid by the government for protecting the lives of everybody. The people first need to understand that the virus is still there, so avoid going to relatives houses for whatever occasion it be, be it some festival or some casual get together. The people of the country need to understand that India is a country where festivals are celebrated throughout the year and people celebrate festivals with their family members and relatives, but this year isn’t the same as previous so many years. With the pandemic still not reached its peak, its better for the people to understand that if they celebrate the festivals at their home, it will be safe and better not only for them, but for others also. One year not celebrating with others and gathering around would make a huge difference in terms of the safety of the people. The first priority of people should be safety of themselves and others rather than celebrating. Celebrations should be done at home, not by going out for a party.

With the educational institutes closed, its pretty sure that the kids will be safe at home, but what about the adults? This needs to be taken into consideration while employers open up offices and call their staff members, making them risk the lives of their employees. So, in my view the employers need to make sure that their employees are given the option of working from home while the pandemic is going on. Also, the people of the country need to understand that going out for long drives at this time when the whole world is battling a pandemic, isn’t the right option. Even if you wear a mask, various studies have termed that just wearing a mask can’t help you be safe from the virus. We have seen many political personalities getting coronavirus positive eve when they are out doing their duties wearing masks, so to have an argument saying you are going out while wearing a mask is totally baseless according to me.

In the end, I would like to say that the virus as stated by WHO is here to stay, so make sure that you are following all the guidelines and SOP’s laid down by the government, making sure that going out of your home unnecessarily would mean making yourself and others around you in a place of danger of carrying the virus. That’s why STAY HOME, STAY SAFE.

Controlling Parents – A serious threat.

Parents are the role mode for any child, his primary support system. A parent is a person who guides his/her child and teaches him to be better in life. While a child faces any problems or difficulties in his life he deliberately runs to the parents for utmost care and love. Parents are the one whom a child looks up to. It is the duty of the parents to constantly motivate their children and make them learn social and moral values. Parent’s are the core of a child’s survival, child seeks blessings from their parent throughout. Parenting is a crucial phase of one’s life. Undoubtedly, a parent can make or break a child’s life. Improper parenting can result in the downfall of the carrier or personal life of the child. If the parenting isn’t implemented properly, there is the highest chance for the child to get self-centered i.e., becoming a spoiled brat. Too much care is certainly not necessary though, overdoing anything turns the whole situation toxic. It is mandatory to give freedom to their child, so that he never feels pressurized or overburdened. One of the foremost rule of parenting is to give the child a proper space, and treating him as another individual. In spite of the age of a person we all seek leisure, specially a child would love to spread his wings and fly, literally. This is the time for his growth and enrichment. He needs to get socialized, play outside, meet new friends, talk more, have fun, as this span of innocence is never going to come back later on. It is wrong to take away the freedom from him, in the name of restrictions.

Suppose, two kids are friends, one is having a scheduled time to talk to his peers over phone, and also studies for a fixed time, but for another kid has to study for the whole day, getting absolutely no fixed time. This is extremely wrong on the parent’s part. Due to not getting the time to open up, the child gets cooped up and his voice remains unnoticed. He has not got anyone to share his feelings with, no one listened to him, turning him to become narcissistic and egocentric. This type of Parenting is known as “Controlling Parents”. ‘All work and no play, makes Jack a dull boy’ – we all have come across this line. A child should never feel threatened by their parents. If not given validations by the parents, this hurts the child making him more aggressive. To worsen the situation, just as the child grows up, he won’t be in a situation to listen to the parents anymore, out of fear, or would lie to the parents, which is worst, or will become extremely rude. The parents cannot deny the responsibility this time, as they have never allowed the child to bond with others. It is much difficult to believe that such a child would listen to the parent’s scolding and won’t protest against it. If he cannot share his problems like a friend with his parents, he will slowly get depressed and detached from his family, leading to him getting jealous of his peers. The parents can make up a routine for him to follow, scheduling timetables for studies and recreations as well. He can watch a movie, go to gym classes, pursue his passion, or go for some extra curricular activities according to his choice. It is a must for the working parents to take some time out and spend it with the child, or going for some entertainment together outside, this will strengthen the relationship and create dependence, which is beneficiary both ways. It is okay to scold a child for wrongdoing, but locking him in a room and not allowing him to go out and play, is inhuman. If the parents understand the logic that everyone needs some time for recreations, and it is healthier for the child’s mindset, the parents would be trustworthy enough, and would get a lot of respect from the child. It is then the duty of the child to look after the parents and show empathy, dedication and care towards them.

WE WILL DROWN BUT NOT MOVE

A life for a life, water is a very essential part of our life, without it there is
no survival of any humans. Drowned Out is a 2002 documentary by Franny Armstrong about
family’s standing against a government dam project which is set to destroy their home and their
village.
The villages of Jalsindhi, in Madhya Pradesh on the banks of the
Narmada River, lived a fulfilling life. With the holy water of Narmada they enjoyed fertile
agriculture and fruitful meditational herbs. The place not only provided them employment but
was a bearing home for many. This utopian was only short lived, with the introduction of Sardar
Sarovar Project laid out by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 5 April 1961. Their dreams
shattered and they were remained stranded.

The Sardar Sarovar Project is one of the largest dams in the world. It is a
gravity dam on the Narmada River near Navagam, Gujarat in India. Four Indian states, receive
water and electricity supplied from the dam. The project took form in 1979 as part of a
development scheme funded by the World Bank through their International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development, to increase irrigation and produce hydroelectricity,
The construction of the dam was a very ambiguous matter it was
simply a communication gap of ideas among government and the common people. Government
provides them no viable alternatives – they offered unusable unfertile land a hundred miles away
or a small sum of money in compensation for their river-side land. They lost their livelihoods
and way of living. Some people were just left on the banks of the river without any shelter to
cover. This angered the people, they started hunger strikes, rallies, and a six-year Supreme Court
case got issued. Arundhati Roy became an active spokesperson behind this people.
In May 2002, the Narmada Construction Authority gave clearance
for the dam to be built up to a height of 95 meters. At this height, there are 8,000 families who
will be submerged and not yet have been resettled. Humans are just killing humans not because
they don’t have a voice but simply because they are poor. It’s costing their lives. People are
getting drowned out to save other families, but who will think about their own family?

It is said that the Narmada River is sacred to the people of India; legend has it that while one
must bathe in the Ganges River to purify the soul, and one need only look at the Narmada River
to get the same healing. The same Narmada cannot be so cruel to mercilessly kill people.
Governments should have been more careful while they had implemented a project; they would
not have been so much of lost of life if a clear framework was prepared beforehand. The life of a
human is precious and no one has the right to take it!
As monsoon season approaches, we do not know whether it is the ending of the last civilization
of the bank, we don’t know the story yet? Will the houses survive or will Narmada gulp them
with the water?
Whatever the ending be, we won’t run away from our home, we will drown, but we will not
move.

Where is Humanity ?

Throughout the entire existence of humanity social structures, customs, generalizations and frames of mind about ladies and their job in the public arena, they become especially defenceless against specific wrongdoings. Fundamentalist bunches frequently focus on controlling ladies, utilizing social contentions against ladies’ privileges. Also, most ladies in creating nations are ignorant of their fundamental human rights. It is this condition of numbness which guarantees their acknowledgment and, thus, the propagation of unsafe conventional works on influencing their prosperity.

This subject has not been thoroughly examined yet we realize that from the beginning of time, ladies in different landmasses of the world have been considered as the physically flimsier sex. Wrongdoing against ladies is affirmation of predominance over them and originate from the baser impulses of society. It not just speaks to the more noteworthy physical quality of men over ladies yet additionally appears as the attestation of strength of influence and of wealth over the ladies of the less fortunate classes. In current situation some humiliation includes Female genital mutilation and son preference (Female Infanticide and Foeticide).

Female genital mutilation involves the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical purposes. It interferes with the natural functioning of the body and has no known health benefits. FGM is regularly done on little youngsters, from new born children to teenagers as old as 15 years old. Every so often it is done on grown-up ladies. It is hard to acquire precise data on the greatness of FGM, yet as indicated by the WHO, somewhere in the range of 100 and 140 million young ladies and ladies around the globe have just experienced some type of the training. As indicated by the WHO, female genital mutilation is rehearsed in at any rate 28 nations in Africa and is generally broad in the Sahel and the Horn. It is polished for a wide range of socio-social reasons. Regularly the individuals who practice it call attention to that it is established in neighbourhood culture and has been passed starting with one age then onto the next. In reality, inquire about recommends that ethnicity and the act of FGM are firmly connected. In other communities, the practice is seen as necessary to ensure marital fidelity and to prevent “deviant” sexual behaviour. The most immediate consequences include death and the risk of death from haemorrhaging, and shock from the pain and level of trauma that may accompany the procedure. Heavy bleeding can be particularly life-threatening in a context of limited access to emergency health care. All types of FGM have numerous acute and chronic physical health consequences, including implications for reproductive health.

Moreover, female feticide is “a training that includes the recognition and premature birth of female hatchling because of the inclination for male children and from the low worth related with the introduction of females.” This should be possible at the command of the mother, father, or under family pressure. the selective abortion of female foetuses- and infanticide are largely responsible for this disparity. This marked gap between males and females has nationwide implications.  It is basically more costly to raise a female than a male, as the female youngster should be given an endowment upon marriage. It is broadly realized that expanded share instalments prompted the further decrease of the status of ladies. Ensuing upon the advances in therapeutic science, the end of undesirable kids, particularly female hatchlings through premature birth, has become basic in families to fulfil their inclination for children. Certain people group need to dispose of female kids as a result of dehumanizing neediness, joblessness, superstition, and lack of education. The inclination against females is additionally identified with the way that “Children are called upon to give the pay; they are the ones who do the greater part of the work in the fields. Along these lines’ children are looked to as a sort of protection.

Most women in creating nations are uninformed of their fundamental human rights. It is this condition of numbness which guarantees their acknowledgment and, therefore, the propagation of hurtful customary works on influencing their prosperity and that of their kids. In any event, when ladies obtain a level of financial and political mindfulness, they frequently feel feeble to realize the change important to take out sexual orientation imbalance. Enabling ladies is essential to any procedure of progress and to the end of these destructive conventional practices.

The untouchable

                                    According to Wikipedia Dalit means “broken/scattered” in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term mostly used for the ethnic groups in India and Nepal that been kept depressed (often termed backward castes). Dalits were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and were seen as forming a fifth Varma, also known by the name of Panchama.

If was popularise by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar (1891-1956), who included all depressed people irrespective of their caste into the definition of Dalits.

In the 1900s Untouchable was considered so impure that any contact with them by a cast member would contaminate the member. The polluted person would have to bathe and wash his or her clothing immediately. The untouchables historically did work that no one else would do, like scavenging animals’ carcasses, leather-work, or killing rats and another pest. Untouchable could not eat in the same room as caste members and could not be cremated when they died. Dalits were segregated in housing, schools, and access to public services. The condition of untouchables was so bad that they were denied access to land, forced to work in degrading conditions, and routinely abused by the police and upper-caste members. As human being they have no legal or social right to protect themselves. Outcasts suffer caste-motivated killings, rape, and other kinds of psychological and physical abuse on a daily basis. At the time of Dr. Ambedkar Dalits were agonize discrimination in education, health care, housing, property, freedom of religion, free choice of employment, and equal treatment before the law.

In today’s date untouchability still exist in our community. As per the facts in 2001-2002 there was 58000 registered egregious abuse against Dalits and tribal. In the modern caste system, people born in specific castes were given more benefits, education was 100% reserved for them as backward classes were not allowed to gain an education, and also specific posts like priests, kings, ministers were reserved for the upper castes. These castes were rigid so that once a person is born in a specific caste he is given all the benefits that people of other castes do not get. Whereas, today seats are reserved for SC, ST, and OBC.  As the person born in a reserved community will enjoy the quota even if becomes prosperous and does not deserve it. Also, people from the general cast cannot get the favors of reserved category even if they are very poor. The people of lower caste are exploiting the government, as even they have basic necessities because of their caste, they take all the reservations and benefits which the economically backward people should get. Most of the minority people are rich and fortunate. High-class poor people do not have any right to ask the government any necessity, and the government would not even provide one as they belong to the so-called high class.

We know that untouchability still is a basic practice that exits in India, but many people are misusing the facilities. So many needy people are unable to get anything because of this practice. Humans should be treated equally and no blood relation will define how we should treat a human being in a social and legal manner Everyone should be accepted in society and no other human has the right to judge the other being. As per the reservation norms, they need to be relooked and reformed as per the current economic and social condition, otherwise, it will create some serious riot in the near future.

The day India burned

The day India burned is a documentary by BBC published on 14th August, 2007. It basically deals with the partition of India and Pakistan.

Partition of India provides a good overview of the fateful events leading to that cataclysmic decision by the British and the catastrophic suffering of ordinary people caught in the crossfire of communal hatred.

 It described in detail British motivation for leaving India after world war 2 in a quick and face-saving number; the underlying distrust of Hindus and Muslims of each other despite centuries of living together; Muslim educational and economic backwardness relative to Hindus and their fear of Hindu domination in a united India; the failure of the march 1946 Cabinet Mission in Shimla on account of Nehru’s refusal to a agree to a decentralized subcontinent.

The beginning of the Hindu-Muslim communal riots with Jinnah’s call for direct action in Calcutta in August 1946; the desperate attempts made by Gandhi to effect Hindu-Muslim unity via appeal to their humanity; and the pressure exerted on most Princely States to agree to ascension to India.

It also describes: the manipulation of people by political leaders in the name of religion; the slaughter looting, raping and mayhem among different communities from forcible ethnic and religious cleansing; the horrific price paid by human for defending their honor.

The utter lack of governmental preparation for a mass migration of people; the needless human carnage caused by Mountbatten’s decision to expedite the planned partition; and the decline of hitherto culturally rich and cosmopolitan cities like Lahore by loss of other communities

According to my opinion this documentary is based on the story of those bloody months of 1947 through various testimonies of people who were forced to leave their ancestral homes after living together for centuries, despite all the religious disparities. The documentary also has some dramatized reconstructions which are sure going to surprise the youth who might not be knowing or have read much on the most unfortunate happening in the history of India.

To give an idea, it tells you how the British officials hurriedly took many major decisions disregarding the possible dangerous outcome in various regions of the country, especially Punjab. the well-directed film clearly shows cases that how it was earlier decided that the split will be there in the summer of 1948 after long negotiations between Lord Mountbatten, Mohammed Ali Jinhua and Jawaharlal Nehru. But then it was suddenly announced that the British empire would actually be granting the freedom a year ahead than planned in August 1947. It further reveals how the border line of this partition was drawn by a person, who had never been to India and knew nothing about the religious and cultural diversification existing in the country. Moreover, it also tells the fact that how numerous Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims were being slaughtered all over, since the British army was too small in numbers in front of the huge mobs and therefore couldn’t stop it well in time

The plague to humanity has killed many and has targeted rages in many minds which will take years to endanger and distortion.