8 Good habits to develop

Habits are a necessary part of our life. Most of us develop many habits throughout our lives. Although it may seem small or trivial habits can influence a person’s life in many ways. Some can lead to drastic changes in life over a period of many years while some can lead to changes in a month. Good habits can make one transform their lives with time and help to achieve new heights. While bad habits may slowly lead to reduction in the quality of one’s life. The following list features some of the habits you can develop in order to become a better person and achieve success in life.

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  • Maintaining a journal – Writing a diary or a journal is a very helpful practice for self-growth. It also helps you to improve your writing skills. Jotting down your thoughts or even writing about your daily life can be a simple yet helpful practice. It helps you to form the habit of gathering your thoughts and expressing yourself. Years after when you go through that journal it makes you realise how far you’ve come and also revisiting the past and engaging with memories is something which we all like to do once in a while.
  • Setting up a routine – Humans like to go about their day in an orderly manner. No matter what profession you take maintaining routine and order is something which is necessary for all. Setting a routine beforehand also helps you to have a look at your tasks and helps you complete them. You can also try and make a to-do list which is extremely effective for completing tasks.
  • Reduce procrastinating – Procrastination is a habit most of us have. Leaving our work for the last minute is a very common practice. Reducing procrastination can lead you to slowly move away from it and make you more punctual.
  • Reading habit – Reading a book everyday for even as little as half an hour can work wonders for your life. Books help you build vocabulary and helps you gain knowledge. It also makes you a better writer and story teller. People who have a habit of reading books from a very early age are found to have better memorization capacity.
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  • Exercise – Exercising often is a very healthy habit and helps to maintain a healthy mind and body. Doing simple exercises or yoga will also secrete hormones or endorphins which will boost your mental outlook and help you have a good mood. Exercises will result in a better posture too.
  • Meditate – – Meditating for a while helps us to calm our minds. There is no fixed rule as to how one should meditate. One can just sit and close their eyes for some time or follow a meditation guideline. According to some studies, painting or colouring simple shapes can also act as a form of meditation.
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  • Gardening – You need not know a lot about gardening. A small cactus near your desk or a simple flower plant can do magic. Watering them and taking care of them will help you make some time for yourself in a hectic or busy schedule. Plants can help you exercise the idea of effort. It helps you build patience and improves your life.
  • Smile – Having a positive outlook towards everything is a secret to having a happy and better life. A smile can help you brighten your day and maintain a positive relationship with people around you.

Mediation

  1. What is Mediation?

Ans. Mediation is used as a form of dispute resolution, known as Alternative Dispute Resolution. In mediation legal disputes are resolved between two or more parties where a neutral third person negotiates and settles the case outside the court of law. Mediation is thus, referred to as a party-centred process that emphasizes on the needs, rights, and interests of the parties involved.

2. Who is Mediator?

Ans. A mediator is a neutral third person who encourages those in the dispute to talk to each other about the issues. The mediator is not an advice-giver or decision-maker. The parties examine the real problems, large or small. They then create and agree upon an outcome that meets their needs and addresses their concerns.

Mediators use various techniques to open, or improve, dialogue and empathy between disputants, aiming to help the parties reach an agreement. It depends on the mediator’s skill and training.

3. Which types of disputes is suitable for mediation?

Ans. Mediation is suitable for resolving a wide range of disputes including:Business and commercial

Partnership

Family matters

Labour disputes

Personal Injure

Industrial and Construction

4. What is the difference between Arbitration and Mediation?

Ans. In an arbitration, the arbitrator looks into the legal rights and wrongs of a dispute and makes a decision. Once the arbitrator has arrived at a decision, it is binding on parties whether they agree with it or not. It is very much like the way a court case is decided by a judge, except that the process does not take place in a court room, and it is not open to the public. As in a court case, there is usually a winning and a losing party in an arbitration.

In a mediation, the mediator, essentially, helps parties to settle their disputes by a process of discussion and narrowing differences. The mediator helps the parties to arrive at an agreed solution. He does not decide the dispute. A successful mediation results in an agreement signed by the parties, whereas a contested arbitration results in a decision by the arbitrator himself without the agreement of the parties. In a mediation, there is no such thing as a winning or losing party, because there is no binding decision without both parties agreeing to one.

5. Why should we choose Mediation over Arbitration?

ans. Nature – Arbitration is formal and it follows almost same procedures as in litigation but out of court. Whereas, Mediation is informal.

Elements- Arbitration needs facts and evidence. Mediation does not require any such evidence.

Expenses- Arbitration is Expensive. Mediation is less expensive.

Modus operandi- Arbitration is exercised very similar like litigation, besides, its proceeding has to be performed officially by following proper steps of arbitration including filing application, facts, evidence, witness, or any such relevant documents. Whereas, Mediation is entirely friendly and there is as such no defined process, it can be done in any friendly manner as per the convenience of the parties.

Time- Arbitration is time taking. Mediation is less time taking.

Regulating power- Arbitrators are the authority, very similar to judge and he she give decision based on the given facts, evidence and circumstances. Mediators assist parties to make their own decision, which should be beneficial to both the parties.

Result- In arbitration, result is win or loss one party wins and other loss. In mediation it is win-win situation so, result is mutually beneficial.

6. Ways in which mediation is classified?

ans. Statutory/Mandatory: According to law, there are certain disputes that require to be resolved through the process of mediation. For example, settling labour law and family law disputes require mediation. Section 5(f)(iii) of the Civil Procedure- Mediation Rules, 2003acknowledges for mandatory mediation.

Court Ordered: When cases are filed in India, both parties are given the option to select from a list of ADRs and pursue them until and unless it is very essential to move to court. Most of the jurisdictions in India recommend some sort of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) before they come to the court of law for trial. This particular type can further be classified as:

Court-Annexed: Here, the services of mediation are provided by the court itself. It is the court that appoints the mediator, sets the lapsing date etc.

Court-Referred: Under this system of mediation, the courts job is very direct. It simply refers to the mediator available at that time.

Private: In this type of mediation, the mediators function independently, i.e. not appointed by the court. This implies that such services are given away on private, by means of money. Such services are provided by the Court qualified mediators or some general public etc.

Contractual: It is often found in civil contracts that in case there is any dispute among either party, then it shall be resolved through mediation instead of fighting legal suits. This is known as the mediation clause.

7. What is the procedure of Mediation?

Ans. Mediation is a voluntary process in which the mediator facilities the disputing parties. Mediation can be accommodated. Mediation gives the parties the opportunity to discuss the issues. The mediator helps the parties to agree on a mutually acceptable resolution. Mediation must is strictly confidential

8. What is the current scenario of Mediation in India?

Ans. The 129th Law Commission of India report suggests courts to refer disputes for mediation mandatorily.  The Supreme Court observed that all cases, which are related to commerce, trade, contracts, consumer disputes and even tortious accountability, could normally be mediated. The amendment to the Commercial Courts Act 2015 (Section 12A) in 2018, made it compulsory for parties to go through the restoration of pre-institution mediation under the act before instituting a suit. High Courts have their own individual set of regulations governing Mediation and Conciliation by the websites of several High Courts. There are amendments made in other acts to make mediation part in the procedure like Consumer protection Act, 2019, Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016. Etc.

9. What is the scenario of Mediation in foreign countries?

Ans. Europe

The EU has adopted a Code of Conduct for Mediators and this is a very effective way forward.  A draft Directive on mediation was published in 2004, national attitudes, formulated by usage of the Civil Codes or Common Law, will determine the attitude of the respective judiciaries towards mediation usage in each of the member states of the EU.

Africa

In Lagos, Nigeria, CEDR has worked with the courts and a team of local people who wish to improve on current dispute resolution methods by speeding up and reducing the cost of the delivery of justice. In 2004 and 2005, a team of trainers has visited Lagos and Abuja to train mediators, train trainers locally and help to establish the Lagos-based mediation service. So effective has been the work done there that the Chief Justice of Nigeria has appointed a designated mediation High Court Judge (himself, now an accredited mediator) as well as agreeing to open up in each of the 33 national Court Centres the same Multi Door Courthouse system which is now operating in Lagos.

Asia

Singapore has become a serious player on the mediation scene, and other countries are developing a mediation capability. China is now a force to be reckoned with, not just for its economic growth and success, but because that very growth and success has generated the need to look outwards and to work in the style of their trading partners when trading relationships mean more than just a one-off deal.

10. Steps needed to promote mediation in India?

Ans. The public should be made aware of the benefits of mediation over traditional litigation. Mediation should be made easily accessible to the public at large. There is a need for Mediation Centres to have a good quality of infrastructure and a standard figure or pattern to make the parties feel comfortable. Inducements and remembrance to lawyers to enlighten the parties about the internal proceedings in the mediation process to make such notified choices. Exorbitant ethical standards (ethical code and code of conduct) to be obeyed.

Introduction to Cyber Bullying

Before going ahead firstly, what is bullying? Bullying is an act or the behaviour of a person who hurts or frightens someone who is smaller or less powerful, often force the people to do something that they do not want to do. Now Cyber bullying is online bullying. Bullying with the use of digital platforms or technologies. It can take place on social media, messaging platforms like as Facebook, Twitter etc., gaming platforms, chatrooms, emails and other mobile forums. It includes various things some of these are:

spreading lies about or posting embarrassing photos of someone on social media

sending hurtful messages or threats via messaging platforms

impersonating someone and sending mean messages to others on their behalf. 

Its Impact

It also leaves bad Impact on mind of the victims i.e Emotional problems, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, and stress for victims of cyberbullying. Even sometimes the victims commit suicide. If Cyber bullying is an intense form of psychological abuse, whose victims are more than twice as likely to suffer from mental disorders.

How to prevent Cyber Bullying?

Guardians should Be aware of their child’s online activities.

Adults should also teach children to recognize and be aware of the signs of cyberbullying themselves.

Never share passwords for their online accounts.

Never put something online that they wouldn’t want everyone to see.

Block communication with cyberbullies and do not read messages.

Children should have their screen time limited, and be encouraged to engage more in offline activities.

Thanks…

Indian Folk Art

India has always been portrayed as a land of cultural and traditional diversity. Every corner of the country has a distinctive cultural identity which is represented through different art forms. These art forms can be collectively put under the topic of Indian Folk Art. Each region has a different style and pattern of art which is practised by the rural folks. These art forms are colourful, simple and reflect the rich heritage. The country is home to around 2500 tribes and ethnic groups. So every state has a unique and interesting form of folk art.

Previously these were done using natural dyes and mostly used for decorating walls and houses. These forms which still exist today, have undergone many changes through all these years including change of medium, colours and pattern. Here are such art forms which give us a peek into the cultural heritage of different regions of the country.

MADHUBANI

Madhubani, also known as Mithila art, was developed by women of Mithila in Northern Bihar. It is characterised by line drawings, colourful patterns and motives. These were practised for hundreds of years but were discovered in 1934 by a British collonial officer during an inspection after an earthquake on house walls.

PATACHITRA

The word ‘patachitra’ derives from the Sanskrit words patta, meaning canvas and chitra, meaning picture. It is one of the oldest art forms of Odisha. It is done on canvas and portrays simple mythological themes through rich colours and motives. Some of the themes include Thia Badhia – depicting the temple of Jagannath, and Panchamukhi – depicting Lord Ganesh as a five-headed deity.

WARLI

Warli is the name of cultivator tribes belonging to Northern Maharashtra and Gujarat. Though discovered in early seventies, the roots of the art form can be traced back to as early as 10th century A.D. Mostly featuring geometrical shapes, they potray daily life, hunting, fishing and festival scenes. They show a common human figure through a circle and two triangles, which move in circles resembling the circle of life.

RAJASTHANI MINIATURE PAINTING

The art form is introduced by Mughals who brought in persian artists for creating the art. The Mughal emperor Akbar built an atelier for them to promote the artwork. They trained Indian artists who produced it in a new style inspired by the royal lives of Mughals. Eventually the paintings made by these Indian artists came to be known as Rajput or Rajasthani miniature. They are characterized by strong lines and bold colours made from minerals, precious stones, even pure gold and silver.

TANJORE ART

Orijinating in Tanjavore, about 300kms from Chennai, this art form evolved under the rulers of the Chola empire. Characterized by brilliant colour schemes, decorative jewellery with stones and remarkable gold leaf work, these paintings mostly consist themes of gods and goddesses.

KALAMEZUTHU

Simmilar to Rangoli and Kolam, this art form originated in Kerala. It mostly consists of the representation of deities like Kali and Lord Ayyappa on temple floors. Natural pigments and powders of mostly 5 colours are used by the makers and the art is done by bare fingers without the use of any tools. The 5 colour shades are made from natural pigments like – rice powder for white, burnt husk for black, turmeric for yellow, a mixture of lime and turmeric for red and the leaves of certain trees for green. Lighted oil lamps brighten the colours in the figures which usually feature anger or other emotions.

Multilingualism

Multilingualism a skill set exhibited by two-third of the population still is seriously misunderstood. It is a common belief that learning another language is just a waste of time, children should focus more on cramming books rather than exploring. It is also said that learning another language is of no use if the child/person speaks the language of the majority as this skill would not help to reap financial rewards. Many people also believe that being multilingual could confuse the child and lower their cognitive abilities. Such claims are false as learning another not only helps to flex our mind muscles but also increases our cognitive capabilities, better problem-solving skills, and also improves learning capabilities. Just like exercise is important for toning the body and enhancing its capabilities, similarly learning a language is the exercise which the brain requires in order to tone itself. Empirical studies have shown that multilingualism has great positive impacts on the gray matter of the brain. Language carries cultures, traditions, and thus able to speak more than one language enables one to take multiple sensibilities, tastes, and possibly even identities. Studies were carried out on bilingual women who could speak Japanese and English by psycholinguist Ervin-Tripp who found out that when given the same opening statements in different languages had different endings. This concluded that thought occurs in language, therefore knowledge of more languages refines the thought process too. Bilinguals tend to make more rational decisions because language contains nuance and subtle implications that influence your judgment subconsciously. Multilingualism is not a new skill rather it has been there for ages, aboriginal hunter-gatherers survived because they could understand and convey through their as well as other’s community, to know about the possible dangers lurking around. The rule used to be that one mustn’t marry anyone in the same tribe or clan to have a child. Marrying within one’s clan used to be taboo. The part of the brain that manages the cognitive skills is the ACC ( anterior cingulate cortex)  or the executive system. ACC is located on the frontal lobe that enables us to concentrate on one task while blocking out competing information. Learning languages developed this part, therefore, enhancing cognitive skills. Multilingualism also delays mental decline in old age, slows down the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s. Bilinguals who tend to develop Alzheimer’s tend to display less decay in cognitive abilities than monolinguals patients. It is also assumed that multilingual speak each of their languages equally. This is amusing as well as tragic because no matter how long you have been studying a language if you don’t use it around you might forget it. Learning language is as fun as it is useful therefore everyone should give it a shot. Find ways to learn languages, there is an ample amount of sources to learn languages online, and with the world connected better than ever, it has gone too lucid. 

до свидания 

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Bulimia-An Eating Disorder

In today’s instagram world,People especially adolescents are getting image and body conscious.They look at the perfect bodies of celebrities and aspire to be like them.In this aspiration,they are psychologically and physically wounded.Most of such people experience eating disorders where in they undergo extreme changes in their eating and exercise habits.Ultimately they damage themselves.

So,in today’s blog lets look at one of the eating disorders called Bulimia Nervosa,it’s causes and it’s impacts.Let’s get started.

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating—consuming a lot of food quickly—followed by compensatory behavior, most commonly vomiting or “purging.” People who are bulimic often feel a lack of control over their eating. A bulimic can consume as many as 3,400 calories in little more than an hour and as many as 20,000 calories in eight hours.

People with bulimia often know they have a problem and are afraid of their inability to stop eating. Bingeing is then followed by purging — namely, self-induced vomiting or the abuse of diuretics or laxatives. Bingeing and purging are often performed in secret, with feelings of shame alternating with relief.

The bingeing and purging cycle is usually repeated several times a week. As with anorexia, people with bulimia often have coexisting psychological illnesses, such as depression, anxiety, and substance abuse problems. Many physical dysfunctions result from the purging, including electrolyte imbalances, gastrointestinal troubles, and dental problems.

An estimated one to four percent of females have bulimia nervosa during their lifetime. The prevalence in males is unknown, but bulimia nervosa is far less common in males than females. Most cases begin in the late teens and early 20s, but can go undetected until the 30s or 40s.

SYMPTOMS

Bulimia signs and symptoms may include:

  • Being preoccupied with your body shape and weight
  • Living in fear of gaining weight
  • Repeated episodes of eating abnormally large amounts of food in one sitting
  • Feeling a loss of control during bingeing — like you can’t stop eating or can’t control what you eat
  • Forcing yourself to vomit or exercising too much to keep from gaining weight after bingeing
  • Using laxatives, diuretics or enemas after eating when they’re not needed
  • Fasting, restricting calories or avoiding certain foods between binges
  • Using dietary supplements or herbal products excessively for weight loss

CAUSES

Exact causes are not completely known and are believed to complex.Hence there is no single known cause of bulimia, but there are some factors that may play a part,such as:

  • Culture:As in strict body expectations:Slim and trim girls wanted for marriage in India.
  • Families:Constant pressure and criticism from parents on looks of children
  • Life changes or stressful events: can trigger bulimia.
  • Personality traits: Those with bulimia may have low self-esteem and feel hopeless.
  • Biology.:Genes, hormones, and other biological factors may contribute to development of bulimia.

Impact

Bulimia has a great impact on the individual and can lead to following complications:

  • Negative self-esteem and problems with relationships and social functioning
  • Dehydration leading to kidney failure
  • Heart problems
  • Severe tooth decay and gum disease
  • Absent or irregular periods in females
  • Digestive problems
  • Anxiety, depression, personality disorders or bipolar disorder
  • Misuse of alcohol or drugs
  • Self-injury and suicidal thoughts.

Management

If left untreated,bulimia can create major complications in life as mentioned above.Hence if you see your loved ones experiencing symptoms of bulimia,support them and console them.If the symptoms are unbearable,immediately consult a doctor and psychologist who will be able to help the patient successfully.

Please spread empathy and kindness.Acceptance and kindness can prevent bulimia in such insecure people.Every difficulty can be defeated with empathy,patience and willingness to improve and come out.

If you all found the article useful,do give it a like.

Thankyou!

Stay Kind!

Why it is easier to quit!

Hanging the boots and calling it a day is the easiest thing to do, whatever the duty maybe, there’s no denying that.

Kicking the adversities in the face and eagerly setting forth for excellence is what takes courage and dedication. 

Quitting is never the right way out of anything, no matter what ever it may be, quitting will never be the answer.

Lets face it, whatever the task at hand maybe, it’s always easier to quit than to strive for it. Making the clear distinction of the ones that do and that don’t, being the former ones the who worked towards it. 

Look for inspiration 

Falling short for inspiration to do something is common, it’s only human. Whenever you fall short of inspiration to strive more, take a break and bask in the motivation that’s around you. The world is an inspiring place if you look at it the right way. Be it fellow beings or even other species, nothing good ever happens easy.

Don’t take failure as an excuse to quit. The potential of a person is wasted when one succumbs to failures.

Be persistent be consistent. The world rewards the ones who work towards their dreams. ‘Rome wasn’t build in a day.’

Just because your efforts doesn’t show much results doesn’t mean you’re wasting your time, growth takes time. Keep at it, you might not know when you’ll make it.

Believing in your own self is everything, if you don’t believe in yourself, then who will?

Losing sight of the fact that the only thing that’s stopping you from achieving what you want is only you at times.

It’s important to pick up from where you fell and not compromising on your values, reminding your own self that and walking the walk rather than talking the talk is what is necessary.

There’ll always be resistance, but pushing against such resistance is what is human nature is designed for. If a person constantly pushes himself against resistance and after a point, easily attains the tasks, it naturally means you’ve got better at it. Focused efforts towards the goals one wants to achieve should be the motto in life.

A lesson that you also learn from struggling is that not all struggles are meant to be won. Sometimes you win and sometimes you lose. Making fighting for a better dawn even more meticulous.

Perceiving the ones who often worked hard for their work as the luckier individuals is obviously bonkers. Not paying respect and attention towards their perseverance and their dedication! Luck happens when efforts meet the opportunities.

People are indeed wired wrong, they shy away from being open and embracing their weaknesses and shortcomings and working towards eradication of the same, for a better tomorrow. 

The success being evolving into a much better version of themselves. New and improved to be precise.

Successes and abilities paints a fancy picture of you are. But as humans we all know that ‘all that glitters is not gold’, we weren’t conceived to just be something that we are not. Growth comes from struggles, in our process to get better and more better at the things that we indulge in truly.

If we called it quits after the first fall, we as a species would’ve never achieved half the things we accomplished as of today. For a better day is just around the corner.

National Youth Day

United Nations celebrates International Youth Day as on 12th August every year. Youth – this term signifies the blooming faces, ongoing adolescence who are capable for bringing a change for any particular country. A country is actually based on the power of the Youth. It has been said that, if you can educate the youth and the women, you are educating the country. A man goes through the younger stage of his life, this is the time when he holds supreme power to revolutionize. If the younger generations of a country aren’t sorted enough, the country cannot develop. The “youth” sectioned are actually the ages between 15-24. According to the definitions of United Nations – “Youth is best understood as a period of transition from the dependence of childhood to adulthood’s independence. That is why, as a category youth is more fluid than other fixed age groups. Yet, age is the easiest way to define this group, particularly in relations to education and employment, because “youth” is often referred to a person, between the age of leaving compulsory education, and finding their first job.” “The Secretory General first referred to the current definition of youth in 1981 in his report to General Assembly on International Youth Year (A/36/215,para.8 of the annex) and endorsing it in ensuring reports it in ensuing reports (A/40/256,para.19 of the annex). However, in both the reports, the Secretory- General also recognized that apart from statistical definition, the meaning of the term “youth” varies in different societies around the world. When The General Assembly, by its resolution 50/81 in 1995, adopted World Programme Of Action for the Youth to the year 2000 and beyond, it reiterated that the U.N defined youth as the age cohort of 15-24. The General Assembly resolution A/RES/56/117 in 2001, The Commission for Social Development resolution E/2007/26 and E/CN.5/2007/8 n 2007 and the General Assembly resolution A/RES/62/126 in 2008 also reinforce the same age-group for Youth.” The Youth is stepping stone for a Country. They has the authority to form latest policies, they are the voices of tomorrow. The difference of youth from childhood is that, they are not qualified enough to take their own decisions for themselves, rather they had to depend on someone whereas the old-aged, though a lot more experienced, lacks physical and mental power. If the Youth section do not approve or appreciate any particular rule, they would protest leading to the downfall of the entire country. It depends on this section to educate themselves and lift up the conditions of the country. As in youth age, a person can always choose his carrier and work on it, as fresh talents are always welcomed by any aspects of the Country. They would contribute more for the benefits of a country, and has immense understanding of pointing out the flaws and drawbacks. Particularly, the young age is lucid and devoid of being influenced easily. They cannot be manipulated as they behold intelligence. The youth section has the privilege to mend himself up, till he reaches the middle age. This age group is not at all rigid to the dynamic changes happening around anyway. They can quickly adopt themselves according to the needs and requirements of the country. The Youth serves the country, the burden lies on their shoulders to level up the conditions of the society. Various activities are to be taken up by them, supporting the cause. The more a youth age involves themselves to hard work, the more a country upgrades. The perfect ‘youth’ not only draws himself close to perfection, but also embraces the inconsistency of working of the country and corrects them. This is obvious and needless to say, that youth is the Generation next and would find regular faults in the surroundings, and would also criticize. “Youth” can bring out a huge amendment or the modifications, for advancement of the Country.

Justice delayed is Justice denied

Justice delayed is justice denied” is a legal maxim. It means that if legal redress or equitable relief to an injured party is available, but is not forthcoming in a timely fashion, it is effectively the same as having no remedy at all.Today, it can take nearly 20 years if a case goes all the way from the subordinate court to the high court and then the Supreme Court. Twenty years means multiple generations of litigants, enormous cost and frustration — a case taking this long to be resolved is symptomatic of an inefficient and ineffective judicial system; any ‘justice’ delivered after a span of 20 years would be bereft of its true meaning. There are many problems that this process creates. First, judges, particularly those in the superior courts are dealing with cases from the previous decade and not today’s pressing issues. Second, the judiciary and the legal system at large, is inherently favouring the illegal actions of one party at the cost of violating the rights of the other. Further, a prolonged legal battle will have the effect of encouraging such illegal actions not only by the parties involved but across society, which in the long term lead to an erosion in the faith of people to get timely justice.

Justice is one of civilisation’s foundational goals. It is therefore imperative for the judiciary to perform its duty properly for any society to continue its pursuit of peace, harmony and progress. Unfortunately, the Indian judiciary, despite its many successes, suffers from severe structural problems that prevent it from functioning properly. The judiciary’s travails, specifically those relating to delays and backlog are well documented and don’t need repetition. However, it is only in the last few years that these structural problems have been better understood empirically thanks to the availability of better data.

It is now possible to assess, in a fairly detailed manner, the judiciary on parameters such as budgets, human resources, workload, diversity, infrastructure, and trends over the years. We can also accurately diagnose the pendency and backlog problem not only at district and taluka level but also at court complex levels.

We know, for example, that while pendency is a nationwide problem, it varies vastly from state to state, with the average pendency being anywhere in the range of two years to nine years in the district judiciary, as the India Justice Report 2019 reveals. We need to work on the problems that lead to delay on a daily basis, by increasing certainty of outcome in each hearing and avoiding burdening a judge in a manner that encourages adjournments. On an average, a district judge has about 50-60 cases listed before him each day. It is impossible to meaningfully hear such a high number of matters, and therefore at least 40 of these cases will be adjourned by the judge without any significant movement. This happens every day in each court across the country throughout the year. Naturally, there will be delay and backlogs at the end of the year. It is these daily problems that magnify over time and transform into structural problems crippling the functioning of the institution.

From a larger perspective, judicial delays also lead to uncertainty regarding laws and their application — the ongoing case in the Supreme Court regarding the application of the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation, and Resettlement Act, 2013 and the determination of compensation thereunder has practically halted land acquisition litigation in the country. Cases related to land acquisition in the subordinate courts remain pending for six years on average and are a category of cases that take the most time to be resolved in court.

How then must the judiciary proceed to ameliorate the effects of delay? Foremost would be to efficiently manage judicial time. Listing an optimal number of cases to be heard on a daily basis is vital to ensuring that judicial time is not spent on unnecessary adjournments and that lawyers are prepared for their cases knowing that they will be heard with certainty. Courts must work towards better case management frameworks to ensure that cases are scientifically listed taking into consideration the stage of the cases and the amount of time they would require to be heard. The Delhi high court recently took the lead on this through a pilot project in the district judiciary; the results of the project show that it is possible to decide cases in a short time frame with better case and judicial time management.

A critical reform required is the need to appoint a full-time judicial administration cadre. Internationally, judicial administration is seen as being ancillary to the work of judges and is carried out by dedicated and specialised personnel to help judges efficiently perform their judicial duties. The establishment of a dedicated and trained cadre to provide support to the judiciary through case management, assistance with budgeting, handling administrative tasks, and ensuring maintenance of court infrastructure will go a long way in enabling the judiciary to focus on the administration of justice. Currently, judicial administration is essentially managed by judges themselves. This is not only unsustainable, but also unfair to judges whose primary skill and responsibility is to decide cases.

The most critical mantra is to embrace technology with vigour. Many of our court rules and processes were conceived of in the 19th century and need a thorough overhaul as they have become a hindrance to the delivery of justice. We should change these processes to meet today’s societal realities, particularly to harness technology in the better delivery of justice.

Pollution

Air pollution has been linked to many health problems. Among them are lung and heart diseases. Most earlier studies had looked at how tiny air pollutants affected rates of illness or death. But when you talk about such rates, “you see people’s eyes glaze over,” says Joshua Apte. He’s an environmental scientist at the University of Texas at Austin. By instead looking at life expectancy, his team had hoped to make the threat easier to understand.“People,” he explains, “care not just about whether you die — we all die — but also how much younger are you going to be when that happens.” Pollution makes a difference even in countries with relatively clean air, such as the United States and Australia. Even the low levels of PM2.5 in them costs their average residents a few months of their lives.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends limiting PM2.5 to 10 micrograms per cubic meter of air. Apte’s group calculated how holding pollution to this low level would help people. Some high-income countries, including Canada, already keep their air this clean. But others, typically in fairly poor countries, have far higher pollution levels.

But meeting the WHO standard won’t eliminate health costs from dirty air. That’s because even below 10 micrograms per cubic meter, pollution still causes significant risks.

Reducing air pollution could increase life expectancy. what would happen if every country limited fine particles in the air to 10 micrograms per cubic meter. That’s the limit the World Health Organization recommends. In countries with very dirty air, that change would lengthen people’s lives. In countries whose air already meets this standard, That’s because even very low levels of pollution can still harm health.

Environmental pollution is increasing with each passing year and inflicting grave and irreparable injury to the world. Environmental pollution is of different types namely air, water, soil, noise and light-weight. These cause damage to the living system. How pollution interacts with public health, environmental medicine and the environment has undergone dramatic change. Since the 1950s, environmental medicine has been discussed more frequently through a greater awareness in public health and preventive medicine; although today, there is now a focus on occupational medicine. Environmental and occupational medicine are however more commonly viewed as an integrated subject, with emphasis given to industrial issues. Certainly, pollution problems have been recognized in the distant past but were more easily mitigated by nature due to the limited complexity of the pollutant, its degradability (e.g. biodegradable organics) and lower industrialization. Health-related effects from environmental pollution have been well known, but were not fully realized until highly notable events like the Donora (Pennsylvania) smog occurrence in 1948 resulting in later public health programs including in their training a discussion of environmental medicine. There has been an increased awareness of how pollution is observed regarding its health impact and attitudes toward public health and environmental medicine. Damage from oil spills will not only influence public health but overall disease rates for years to come. As environmental pollution increases so will the importance of environmental medicine in managing its consequences.

MS DHONI: The Trend Setter who kept Indian Cricket 1st than anything Else

2011 started really brightly for India, winning the ICC Cricket World Cup after 28 years was a dream come true for not only the Indian team, but for the whole nation. But that was when the transformation was needed. The next two away series in 2011 saw India been thumped down by England and Australia both in test and ODI series. That was the time when MS Dhoni brought the point of axing the seniors and bringing in the youth, knowing that in two years time they had to travel to England again for the Champions Trophy before the 2015 World Cup in Australia began. So, now we will see what prompted MS Dhoni to take these decisions and were these decisions correct or not?

According to me, the decision to axe the seniors was a good one and for the benefit and long term future of the Indian cricket team. During the away tours in England and Australia, the Indian team were hammered both in tests and in ODIs. The test series defeats were acceptable because of the fact that the Indian batting lacked technique to play in tough English conditions and couldn’t handle the swinging ball from James Anderson and Stuart Broad. But the main problem were the ODI defeats. With the seniors not too good in fielding and with the bowlers not having enough pace on offer, the system had to change. With the likes of Rohit Sharma and Virat Kohli given more opportunities and them performing well and with their amazing fielding skills were big assets for the team as a whole. Not to forget the role played by Suresh Raina, with both his batting and bowling and also with his amazing fielding skills. The time had arrived for a change.

Not to forget that the bowlers also had to be changed. For a long period of time India had seen only medium pace bowlers emerging and spinners were to be depended upon even when travelling abroad. That had to change and that’s what MS Dhoni did with the emergence of new fast bowlers in the domestic circuit and also in the Indian team. That’s why we now see a pace battery consisting of Ishant Sharma, Shami, Bhuvi, Umesh Yadav and Bumrah reeling down batsman all around the world. So, the change was for the betterment of the Indian cricket.

With the changes made, the result was their to see for everyone. India won the 2013 Champions Trophy is emphatic style with the youngsters coming to the helm. The change to make Rohit Sharma open the innings was a master stroke by Dhoni not only for Indian cricket but also for Rohit Sharma himself, making or should I say turning him into a world class opener. The emergence of all the fast bowlers mentioned above is because they were given due chances and now they are performing their best for the country, under Virat Kohli also. So, in the end I would like to say that what MS Dhoni has done for Indian cricket is tremendous, be it with his bat or captaincy or thinking of the future, taking such difficult decisions and making sure that Indian cricket is at the top.

After Beirut, alert out for ammonium nitrate, TN stockpile on radar

A 740-tonne consignment of ammonium nitrate lying at a Chennai port Customs warehouse since September 2015 has set alarm bells ringing after Tuesday’s catastrophic Beirut blast. An estimated 2,750-tonne stockpile of ammonium nitrate, stored reportedly for six years in a port warehouse, blew up killing over 100, injured over 5,000 and ravaged the Lebanese capital city.

Referring to this blast in a note, the Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC) has “urgently directed” Customs and its field formations to “immediately verify and confirm within 48 hours that any hazardous and explosive material lying in warehouses and ports across the country meets all safety and fire standards and presents no danger to life and property.” After the Beirut blast, the Chennai stockpile, sources said, was the red flag for the alert. A senior Customs official said that “ways to shift out the ammonium nitrate at the earliest” are being explored.

“There’s some difficulty in taking action keeping safety regulations in mind. We are going through details. The e-auction will be conducted as per law…like for any other confiscated or seized goods or goods which are lying for a long time,” the official told The Indian Express.

The stockpile at Chennai port relates to a case involving the seizure of an import consignment of Karur-based Sri Amman Chemicals five years ago. The company had, in September 2015, filed for Customs clearance for the chemical packed in 37 containers, with the declared assessable value of Rs 1.80 crore claiming for use as fertiliser inputs.

The company claimed it had the required licence for the import while Customs authorities alleged misclassification and resultant evasion of duty after which the Madras High Court, in November 2019, ruled in favour of Customs authorities.

Result: the ammonium nitrate consignment continues to be stocked with Customs.

In a tweet Thursday PMK leader S .Ramadoss flagged this: “There is a risk of a similar explosion due to ammonium nitrate in the Chennai warehouse. To prevent this, the ammonium nitrate explosive substance in the warehouse should be safely disposed of and used for other purposes such as composting.”

In a statement Thursday evening, Chennai Customs said that the seized cargo is at a container freight station at Manali, 20 km from the city with no residential locality within 2 km. “The seized cargo is securely stored and safety of the cargo and the public is ensured considering the hazardous nature of the cargo…the disposal of the said cargo will be done within a short period, following all safety measures,” it said.

The Central government had, in July 2011, declared ammonium nitrate as an explosive under the Explosive Act, 1884, after which the CBIC issued Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012, for its import/export.

AMMONIUM NITRATE:

Import of ammonium nitrate — or any combination containing more than 45 per cent of ammonium nitrate by weight — including emulsions, suspensions, melts or gels (with or without inorganic nitrates), and classified under Explosives Act, 1884, is subject to license from Chief Controller of Explosives.

In the Chennai case, Customs said the company had just a P-3 licence for possession and sale of 1000 tonnes of the chemical but not the P-5 licence it needed for its import. Customs authorities also alleged that some actual users/firms to whom Sri Amman Chemicals sold ammonium nitrate were explosive dealers.

Queries e-mailed to Sri Amman Chemicals did not elicit a response.

In its petition in the Madras High Court, the company said that it had applied to the Chief Controller of Explosives, Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organisation (PESO) for a P3 licence which it got in December 2014.

It applied to PESO for a P5 licence in August 5, 2015. The company claimed that PESO, without putting it on notice or hearing its view, passed an order on August 19, 2015 rejecting its application but by then, the 740 metric tonnes of ammonium nitrate had already arrived at Chennai.

In its order, the court referred to explosions in various parts of the country in which ammonium nitrate was a common ingredient. It noted that as per the police, over four years since 2013, nearly 16,000 tonnes of ammonium nitrate went missing. The Court ruled that accumulating smaller quantities of ammonium nitrate would result in gathering larger quantities in the hands of “unknown and unidentifiable” persons and such trade would not be in interest of national security, adding that the authorities rightly rejected the claim of the company for a P5 licence.

Ammonium Nitrate is not an explosive by itself but is one of the ingredients used for manufacture of explosives. It is classified as an oxidizer as per UN classification for Dangerous Goods. Other ingredients like fuel, etc., have to be added to make it an explosive and for such explosive mixtures to explode, initiators like detonators are required.

How to Handle URL parameters for SEO?

URL parameters can be problematic for SEO as combinations of parameters can create
thousands of URL variations out of one piece of content. However, URL parameters play a crucial role in the website’s user experience. Therefore, it is important to know how to use them in an SEO-friendly manner. First, let’s know what parameters are.
Parameters follow the question mark in the part of a URL. It also has other names: query strings, URL parameters, and URL variables. It includes a key and a value pair, separated by an equal sign. Multiple URL parameters can be added to a single webpage using the ampersand.

SEO problems caused by URL parameters
URL parameters cause several issues, including:
 Waste crawl budget
 Create duplicate content
 Make URLs less clickable
 Split page ranking signals

Assess the level of the URL Parameter Problem
It’s necessary to find out which parameters are used on your website. Few steps will help in understanding which parameters need handling, what is the scope of the problem, how search engines crawl, and to know the value it brings to users.
 Run a crawler to find any instance of a question mark in the URL.
 Take the help of Google Search Console URL Parameters Tool to find if Google has auto-added any query strings.
 Review the logged files and see if Google bot is crawling parameter-based URLs.
 Search using the site: URL: advanced operations to find how Google is indexing the parameters.
 Check Google Analytics All Pages report to search for question marks and how they are used by users. Also, ensure that URL query parameters are not excluded in the view setting.

All this information can help one decide how to handle the website’s parameters in a better way and address any SEO related problems.

Solutions
Few solutions to handle URL parameters for SEO:

 Rel=” canonical” link attribute can be used to find out if a page has the same content on another page, encourage search engines to merge ranking signals to the URL specified as authorized. Although this technique is not the best option when the parameter page content is not similar, it does have some benefits. That includes the ability to safeguard against the duplicate content and the consolidation of ranking signals to the canonical URL.

 Meta robots Noindex tag
This allows us to set a no index directive for any parameter page that adds little or no SEO value. Meta robots Noindex tag lets you stop search engines from indexing the page. It also has other advantages like the ability to safeguard against duplicate content, easy technical implementation, and removal of existing parameter-based URLs from the index.

 Robots.txt disallow
Robots.txt file is a great solution to block crawler access to all parameter-based URLs. It has a very easy technical implementation. This avoids duplicate content issues, allows crawl budget to be used more efficiently, and is suitable for all parameter types.

So now that you have gone through the possible solutions use the one that works best for you. Unfortunately, you can’t use all of them at one time as these SEO solutions can conflict with each other and cause unnecessary complexity.