The Kite Runner – A Book Review

Author – Khaled Hosseini

Publisher – Riverhead Books

Country – United States

Language – English

The Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini is a historical fiction which is set in Afghanistan and America at the times of the Soviet Afghan War. It is one of the most loved books by readers across the world. The Times describe the book as “Heartbreaking”. It was a number one New York Times bestseller for over two years, with over seven million copies sold in the United States. It has also been made into a motion picture after being a best selling novel.

The book is a beautiful and endearing tale of two friends, Amir and Hassan who grew up together in ”a peaceful but prejudiced Kabul”. They share a beautiful bond of friendship but the surrounding social prejudice intervenes in it. During their childhood years, they spend their days flying kites along the streets of Wazir Akbar Khan district. Amir occupies a special place in Hassan’s heart and he expresses his love for Amir in a few words, ”for you, a thousand times over”. These words happen to be the book’s most iconic lines. Hassan who was the servant’s son was a Hazara and suffered tremendous social and cultural discrimination for that. During a kite flying event, an incident changes their relationship forever. Eventually Hassan and his father move out of their house.

Their lives change dramatically when the Taliban arrives in Kabul and the Soviet Afghan War changes the entire atmosphere of the country. After 5 years, Amir and his father escape the country and move to America to start a new life. Amir continues to suffer with guilt for the past. It is after he grows up to be a successful writer that he receives a call from a familiar voice of the past and goes back to Kabul. The story takes a different turn at the end when Amir discovers the truth that his relationship with Hassan was deeper than he realised.

Born in Kabul, the author draws inspiration from his own life as well but the plot and characters of the book however are fictional. The characters of the book are beautifully woven and the story is unforgettable. Several conflicts within the plot makes the readers fall in love with the characters. The book created some controversy within Afghan readers as it portrayed Pashtuns as prejudiced towards Hazara people. The racial and religious extremism is deeply saddening and the violence is frightening. The kite has been portrayed as an important symbol which represents Amir’s guilt for his betrayal towards Hassan and thus he does not fly a kite after that incident until the very end.

The book encourages its readers to look at the world in a new way and provides a different perspective for a country which has long been stigmatised. The message conveyed by the book towards the ending offers some hope for its characters and also for war torn Afghanistan as well. The book is highly recommended and it is sure to make a lasting impression on readers.

The Voting…

Vote is the formal expression of the choice or opinion of a person. The voting is process to choose the a person in an election. Voting system
is set of rules or law that governs the conduct of the election. As human
need oxygen to survive likewise voting is necessary to existence of the
Democracy. Democracy has given people a powerful right- that is to VOTE. Voting is the fundamental basis of democracy’s ‘Of the people, for the people, and by the people’ Therefore, rather than enjoying it as a holiday, one must vote if he truly wants to contribute to the nation-building process and bring about a change. A Citizen should actually not need to find any reason to Vote. It must be done as a compulsive duty although there is no legal obligation to vote. In India the Voting is a Constitutional right if one is a citizen over 18 years of age.  In India National Voters Day is celebrated on 25th day of January every year to spread awareness and to  To ensure that new voter or the 18+ who gets registered, finds a way to understand that ‘voting is an important responsibility, and at certain point of time, they have to go to vote.

  • It induces the Sense of Empowerment: Through voting, people have a sense of ‘ownership of government’.
  • To make government more responsible and accountable: Indian voters have brought revolutionary changes, in that regard, through voting e.g. in 1967, when Congress Government was not working as per the aspirations of the people, people brought the Congress Government to very thin majority at the center and almost half of the State Governments were given to non-congress parties.
  • By voting, people can decide the direction of change and development.

The Voting system widely classified into two categories ie. Plurality System and the Proportional Representative system. Plurality or Majoritarian System in which party win directly by getting only higher proportion of the seats than the proportion of vote they got in election. This increases the chances of a single party to gain parliamentary
majority. In Proportional System which guarantees an equal relationship between seat won by party and the votes gained in election. So there is low probability to making government of a single party, generally it has multi-party or the coalition government.

Even now, we have to more contribute towards the improvements in the Voting pattern because the Voting Percentage is not up to mark. These can be overcome by following ideas

  • Some challenges like financing of elections, unfair use of social media in elections and proxy voting for NRIs are yet to be addressed.
  • Something should be done to facilitate inter-migrants to vote in the place, where they are living.
  • Political class and ECI need to come together to find the ways and means to decriminalize the elections. Entry of the criminals into politics should be taken in more serious manner.
  • Examining the relevance of alternative kind of methods like Proportional Representation System in Indian Elections.
  • Electoral Reforms should be introduced to handle coalitions.

At last I request you to please vote for nation buildings and for strength of democratic values.


EIA 2020

The EIA draft 2020 have been doing the rounds on various online and social media platforms for a while now. People are doing everything in their hands to educate the rest and to put a stop to this draft from being implemented, which the national and most local medias have shut a blind eye towards.

This clearly depicts where their priorities are at, more on mainstream politics and other topics, putting the people who depend on such mediums in the dark. Unaware.

The very idea of people having to take to social media to get the word about such a devious plan is a clear depiction that we’re in the endgame now. It’s going to be every man for himself from now.

The EIA draft of 2020 is something we as the citizens of this great nation can’t afford to be a part in. It’s for a greater cause, for a better future. If neglected, the consequences coming generations will have to face will be a plenty. It’s now or never.

From elementary schools we are taught about the importance of conservation of mother nature and the dangers of pollution. We’re taught that the earth is our only home, yet and that we should do everything in our hands to protect it from such acts of fellow less concerned beings. 

Several movies and campaigns instituted by conservative environmentalists are more often that not given the spotlight to inform the masses of what we’re in store for. I for one, believe that an educated nation will be a better functioning nation.

The destructions of the Bhopal Gas tragedy needs no introduction. A grave tragedy. Post the Gas tragedy of ‘86, the Government of India brought into action the Environment Protection Act with a concern for the safety of the Public and the Nature.

The EIA under the aforementioned Act of 1986, constitutes a process which prevents the industrial and Infrastructural projects by Individuals and body corporates from being approved without proper oversight. It basically consists of a tool of environmental management forming a part of project approval and decision making.

It ensured that every project would go through the process for obtaining proper environmental clearance certificates , for a better, safer tomorrow.

The point of contention in the draft of  Environment Impact Assessment is post-facto clearance and less public participation of the affected communities. Making the voices of the already barely heard voices, totally mute.

The EIA (Environment Impact Assessment) draft 2020 by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change under the Government of India has a counter regressive approach towards protecting the nature of the Largest democracy in the World. 

The EIA covers numerous projects like mining of various minerals, infrastructure development, industrial projects, thermal nuclear and hydropower projects. The projects for which clearance was sought was allotted clearance by a panel of experts based on its potential impact on the environment.

It involves prospective changes suggested against the EIA notification of 2006. By embodying norms to weaken environmental norms and outright silencing the affected communities. 

This draft basically allows the various Infrastructural and Industrial bodies to go ahead with various projects and seek the approval later ( post facto clearance), which would certify the starting of various projects without proper clearance certificates, afterwards when the destruction would’ve been already done.

The point of emphasis is that the principles embodied in the draft is against the various principles that shouldn’t exist in such a democratic nation. It not only possess a grave threat to the environment but also takes away the fundamental rights of citizens to raise their voices and deliver criticism regarding such concerns.

Rather than strengthening the norms under the Act and allowing the people to participate and raise their concerns, this draft focuses on restricting the Public’s voice over such environmentally degrading projects.

It also curtails the right of the communities by legalising projects that has already caused a great deal of harm and the ones which are already existing without proper approvals under the EIA. Making potential threats of mass destruction legal.

However, the Government has commented that the proposed draft would further bring transparency and expedite the process of development. Experts in the field have commented that the only process expedited by such a drastic change would be dragging the country to the ground and crippling the powers of the common man versus huge industrial organisations.

Foreseeable accidents of Vizag Gas leak and the Baghjan Oil fire are grave examples of the gravity of destruction that can be caused by projects that are not run under proper EIA guidelines.

Sighting the present troubles already upon the citizens, the drafts brought to life should be of those which corporates building a greener and more sustainable future where the nature would be the heart of all operations.


The Majestic year 2020 is marked by two major events.One is the Onset of the worst pandemic that the entire world is reeling under and the other as the title suggests is Online learning!

The Use of Online Learning or E Learning has skyrocketed in the recent times as the only mode of education in a social distancing setup.Indeed it is a necessity as education cannot be put to rest halting the progress of millions of students.As a coin has two sides,similarly online form of education has it’s own perks and drawbacks.So lets find out more!

Online schooling is a popular alternative to attending a brick-and-mortar college or university. Though online students don’t get the face-to-face experiences of a typical on-campus student, there are many benefits and advantages to online learning, also known as distance learning or e-learning.

While not every program or school imaginable has an online option, a large number of them do, and many programs are nationally or regionally accredited. Students can learn through online lectures, projects and discussions. Online degree programs are available at every level, from certificates to doctorates.

Owing to the Covid situation,organisations that used to vouch for traditional methods of education are now radically shifting towards online education because there is no other alternative.Earlier online education used to be an alternative, now it is the only choice for those who want to desperately continue their education.

When Online Education is the new reality,it is very essential to keep in mind it’s advantages and disadvantages to take maximum benefits out of it and also minimize stress levels.


-Convenient Learning:It can be undertaken anywhere ranging from a tiny corner in the living room to a study table in the bedroom and without a particular dress code(still modest dressing is expected).

-No Infrastructure:No physical infrastructure such as building,classrooms and benches are required for online education.

-Less Travelling: In Online classes there is no need to undertake strenuous travelling routines as students can attend the classes from the comfort of their homes.

-Recordings:Unlike the Traditional Systems,Online Education system provides an option of class recording and hence students can re watch the class recordings to make concepts clear.

-Virtual Reality(VR):Teachers in the online mode can make use of Virtual Reality Techniques to make students understand complex topics in an interesting way.


-Motivation:The laid back nature of the online classes do not provide much motivation to the students.Students do not take online classes to be as serious as classroom and thus do not pay attention.

-Lack of Concrete Assessments:Online mode of education has so far not been promising for people with theoretical subjects as it is difficult to conduct heavy exams here.

-No practicals:People Who study medicine,chemistry and physics an understand how bad this can be!There are certain subjects which cannot be simply taught,practicals and experiments have to be performed to further the understanding.Online education does not support this.

-Stress on health:The negative impacts of online mode of education on the health of the students is indisputable!Several students have complained of migraines,back aches,eye pain and so forth.Students psychologically too have not been able to cope up with the sudden shift and are suffering.

Thus,Online mode of education is a tricky one and should be suitable for certain conditions,Since it is the only alternative now, educationists and policy makers should study the pros and cons to make amends in the present online education structure to suit the demands of students.We have to always remember that Education is fruitful only when it reaches learners effectively!

If you liked the article,do give it a like.


Stay Knowledgeable!

Psychological Impact of Covid-19

As a result of the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Chinese city of Wuhan, a situation of socio-economic crisis and profound psychological distress rapidly occurred worldwide.

So this blog will look into various forms of psychological distress bought in by this pandemic due to educate and sensitize the readers about these issues.

Many psychological problems and important consequences in terms of mental health including stress, anxiety, depression, frustration, uncertainty during COVID-19 outbreak emerged progressively.Common psychological reactions related to the mass quarantine which was imposed in order to attenuate the COVID-19 spread are generalized fear and pervasive community anxiety which are typically associated with disease outbreaks, and increased with the escalation of new cases together with inadequate, anxiety-provoking information which was provided by media.The psychological reactions to COVID-19 pandemic may vary from a panic behavior or collective hysteria to pervasive feelings of hopelessness and desperation which are associated with negative outcomes including suicidal behavior.Importantly, other health measures may be compromised by abnormally elevated anxiety.

As the general population became increasingly exposed, anxiety-provoking topics related to this emergence of the health and socio-economic crisis need to be rapidly identified to early detect dysfunctional processes and maladaptive lifestyle changes potentially leading to the onset of psychiatric conditions.

So let us discuss the most important psychological impacts of COVID which are the root cause of other mental disorders :

-uncontrolled fears related to infection

This is commonly one of the most frequent psychological reaction to pandemics. Several existing studies demonstrated that those who have been exposed to the risk of infection may develop pervasive fears about their health, worries to infect others and fear infecting family members.

-Pervasive anxiety

Social isolation related to restrictions and lockdown measures are linked to feelings of uncertainty for the future, fear of new and unknown infective agents resulting in abnormally increased anxiety.Anxiety may be directly related to sensorial deprivation and pervasive loneliness.

-Frustration and boredom

Distress, boredom, social isolation and frustration are directly related to confinement, abnormally reduced social/physical contact with others, and loss of usual habits.


The final effect of social isolation is pervasive loneliness and boredom, which have potential dramatic effects on both physical and mental individual well-being. Pervasive loneliness may be significantly associated with increased depression and suicidal behavior.Unfortunately, the isolation is progressively enhanced by anxiety, panic or collective hysteria. Cognitive functions and decision making are firstly impaired by hyperarousal and anxiety and later by disabling feelings of loneliness.

After looking at these gruesome psychological impacts,it is crystal clear so as to how psychologically damaging this pandemic has been!The protective factors against these impacts include social support and psychological support.

Implementing community-based strategies to support resilience and psychologically vulnerable individuals during the COVID-19 crisis is fundamental for any community.The psychological impact of fear and anxiety due to the horrible spread of pandemic needs to be clearly recognized as a public health priority for both authorities and policy makers who should adopt clear behavioral and interventional strategies to reduce the burden of disease and the dramatic mental health consequences of this outbreak.

Sleep deprivation

Sleep, the most magical and vital activity of living creatures. It is like putting your body in energy-saving mode just as you do with your cell phone after hours of usage. The brain is convoluted, despite technological advancements no one has been able to unfurl the working of it. The rudimentary knowledge of the brain indicates that it needs a certain amount of sleep. This time is utilized by the body to build up the immune system, process information, resetting the body before a new day begins. Analogous to clearing the cache, you don’t forget/erase the memory but performance enhances due to the deletion of certain irrelevant data. Since all humans are unique therefore the demand for sleep is also variable. It is suggested to get 8 hours of sleep at night, but some get satisfied with 4-6 hours only. With the rush introduced in our lifestyle, many are forced to give up their sleep, consciously, or unconsciously. As said, nothing is free, Sleep deprivation also comes with its own costs. Sleep deprivation can lead to-

  • Skin issues- Visible wrinkles, fine lines, uneven skin tone, imbalanced moisture level, decreased pH levels, under-eye bags, dark circles. These are some of the most prevalent problems which could be resolved easily without buying those expensive creams.
  • Forgetfulness- Sleep resets the body, preserving the relevant information and dumping the irrelevant ones. Without sleep, the rearrangement is not possible, making a hodgepodge, reducing efficiency.
  • Respiratory issues- Sleep deprivation makes the body susceptible to flu and the common cold. These days this could lead you to in great problem.
  • Weight gain- The reduced level of leptin and an increase in ghrelin leads to a craving for pre-bedtime snacks.
  • Lower sex drive- Testosterone level in healthy young males can plunge by 10-15%. Women who are victims of sleep deprivation feel less aroused as compared to those who aren’t. 
  • Heart problems- Increased stress levels, decreased motivation to be physically active, the release of chemicals is alleged reasons behind inducing heart diseases in sleep-deprived. As the studies are still in the embryonic stage therefore nothing could be said for sure. 
  • Compromised Immune system- During sleep immune system releases cytokines that promote sleep as well as are required to fight off infection. But due to sleep deprivation, stress creeps along with adrenaline. This decreases the efficiency of the T-cells to fight off infection.
  • Diabetes- Insulin production dives down causing sugar levels to spike. Thereby increasing the chances of Type-2 Diabetes.
  • Mood swings- The restlessness, stress causes mood swings, irritability, paranoia, and in worst cases schizophrenia.

Some of the culprits include Insomnia, narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome, sleep apnea, circadian sleep rhythm disorder. The visible symptoms include fatigue, irritability, frequent yawning, excessive sleepiness. If left untreated psychological symptoms come into play like anxiety, impulsive behavior, depression, paranoia, in worst cases suicidal thoughts.The 8hour night sleep is termed as beauty sleep because of many reasons. Sleep keeps you sane, try to achieve it while possible. Keep away your smartphone, stop doomscrolling, limit your alcohol, tobacco intake.

National Handloom Day

Handloom is a type of Loom which is made manually, without the use of electricity. The products woven out of Handloom are especially known as Khadi. Handlooms are our country’s own property. It is a man-made process done using a spin wheel which was originally started by Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi i.e., our beloved Bapuji. At the time of Civil Disobedience Movement, before India gained Independence, Bapuji wanted to flourish something very Indian, hence he gave this idea of spinning handlooms and so Indians strongly opposed to foreign goods. Hence, centuries later on Handloom industries came into being, providing several options like Textiles, Clothing, Handloom Decorative e t c. August 7th is the official National Handloom Day, the Concept was launched by the Prime Minister of India on 2015, and celebrated to inspire the wavers and workers to support their hard-work and creativity. This was done also to let everyone know about the exceptional talents we have around the Nation. Handloom is widely accepted and loved all over the world, leading to a lot of Exports. Thus, it is beneficiary for India. Handloom Industries are basically run by the Weavers and Workers who crafts the Handloom materials into proper outcome. The Legacy of Handlooms is to be continued for generations. Bapuji forecasted that we shall not take inspirations from foreign every time, but instead do something of our home. Handloom as an industry is tremendously popular inn village areas, as of the most families contribute to country by spinning Handlooms and selling them into markets. Though expensive, Handloom products ensures excellent qualities. A huge sections of village workers earns their livelihood through these Handloom industries. Not just the men, but the women also get to work for these Industries, so Handloom Industries serves as an employment for both men and women. Handloom industries are preferred by all those who wants something extraordinary yet unique and original. Over 4.3 million people are some way or the other engaged into Handloom Productions. Handloom industries are popular especially in the rural areas as not many people get access to proper education due to low rate of literacy, hence most of them prefers to work from an early age, to sustain their regular needs. The raw materials are initially process and made use of properly, before taking the work of production any further, then the Infrastructure comes which is basically the use of products or machinery or the hand-work. The better the infrastructure and working conditions, better will be the productions. Then the theory of wages comes which means the amount of salary provided to those who contribute to the successful making of Handloom items. It must be ensured that these people gets maximum benefits from productions. The next concept is of the budget which is the exact sum of expenditure which consists of all the money need for procurement at least the minimal budget should be stated. The next step is the Patent, which signifies who shall own and have authority over the outputs been made. This is the second largest employment provided for the rural populations. Exclusively, these markets tend to infuse modern design, creating a trend. This process is much loved by the youth, because of its texture or class. Handloom industries promotes diversity and prosperity of Indians. This industry is particularly known for its distinctiveness. According to the Integrated handloom Development Scheme, The Government of India has introduced a new scheme IHDS. here, following Four components are included with assistance will be provided to Handloom Coop. Society, APEX body and Corporations.

1) Clusters, having Handlooms in the range of 300-500 per cluster.

2) Group approach for development of Handlooms.

3) Assistance to Handloom organizations

a) Marketing incentive b) Strengthening of Handloom Organizations.

4) Others like innovative ideas and publicity, Monitoring, Supervision, Training and Evolution of the Scheme.

Bayern Munich v Barcelona: A Thriller on the Cards

The race for the Champions league title is heating up and upcoming week will see two of the giants of European football clash with each other. Yes, the quarter finals of this season’s champions league would see Barcelona face off against German champions Bayern Munich. Bayern Munich thrashed another London club, this time Chelsea in the Round of 16. Barcelona easily came past a determined Napoli side and booked their place in the quarter finals of the tournament. Now, it would be safe to say that this quarterfinal should be the game of the season considering the lineups of the two top class clubs. With both Robert Lewandoski and Lionel Messi in top form and both scoring in the round of 16 games. This game will be a treat to watch for all football fans.

Now, with these two teams in top form, the thing is who will qualify for the semis of the elite tournament. With this season’s Champions League slightly changed due to the Covid19 pandemic, the tournament is open for all with many upsets already happening in the tournament. With this year’s Spanish champions Real Madrid already out of the tournament and with Cristiano’s Juventus also bowing out in the Round of 16, the tournament is bound to give many more surprises. With all the matches post round of 16 matches to be played without any 2nd legs, upsets will be on the cards for all to see. With Barcelona relying too much on their talisman Lionel Messi, Barcelona could end up losing to a determined Bayern Munich who could clinch the treble this season. And when talking about Bayern, how can’t we not talk about the scoring machine Robert Lewandoski. The striker has scored an unbelievable 50+ goals this season and if Ballondor had been given this year also, no doubt that Lewandoski would have won it hands down.

I feel that Bayern Munich have a great chance to overcome Barcelona and go into the semifinals. But with no 2nd leg, Barcelona have an equal chance of winning the game against Bayern Munich. But for that, Barcelona need all their players to perform well on that particular day, knowing that they would not get any second chance this time because of the altered Champions League tournament due to the pandemic. Players need to make sure that they support their talismanic captain fully so that he doesn’t alone has to do all the things on the football pitch and in that pressure his game could also suffer. Players like Suarez, Pique need to step up big time when they face Bayern Munich in the quarterfinals.

In the end, I would like to say that the tournament is fully open and many surprises are still left to be seen. So, nobody to rule out, this match is going to be a thriller of a contest.  

Make in India Movement

Make in India is a major national programme of the Government of India designed to facilitate investment, foster innovation, enhance skill development, protect intellectual property and build best in class manufacturing infrastructure in the country. The primary objective of this initiative is to attract investments from across the globe and strengthen India’s manufacturing sector. It is being led by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India. The Make in India programme is very important for the economic growth of India as it aims at utilising the existing Indian talent base, creating additional employment opportunities and empowering secondary and tertiary sector. The programme also aims at improving India’s rank on the Ease of Doing Business index by eliminating the unnecessary laws and regulations, making bureaucratic processes easier, making the government more transparent, responsive and accountable.

It targets 25 sectors of the economy which range from automobile to Information Technology (IT) & Business Process Management (BPM)

It also seeks to facilitate job creation, foster innovation, enhance skill development and protect intellectual property. The logo of ‘Make in India’ – a lion made of gear wheels – itself reflects the integral role of manufacturing in government’s vision and national development. The initiative is built on four pillars which are as follows:

  1. New Processes: The government is introducing several reforms to create possibilities for getting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and foster business partnerships. Some initiatives have already been undertaken to alleviate the business environment from outdated policies and regulations. This reform is also aligned with parameters of World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business’ index to improve India’s ranking on it.
  2. New Infrastructure: Infrastructure is integral to the growth of any industry. The government intends to develop industrial corridors and build smart cities with state-of-the-art technology and high-speed communication. Innovation and research activities are supported by a fast-paced registration system and improved infrastructure for Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) registrations. Along with the development of infrastructure, the training for the skilled workforce for the sectors is also being addressed.
  3. New Sectors: ‘Make in India’ has identified 25 sectors to promote with the detailed information being shared through an interactive web-portal.  The Government has allowed 100% FDI in Railway and removed restrictions in Construction. It has also recently increased the cap of FDI to 100% in Defense and Pharmaceutical.
  4. New Mindset: Government in India has always been seen as a regulator and not a facilitator. This initiative intends to change this by bringing a paradigm shift in the way Government interacts with various industries. It will focus on acting as a partner in the economic development of the country alongside the corporate sector.

Since the launch of Make in India in September 2014, FDI inflows of USD 77 billion including a equity inflows of USD 56 billion has been received for the period October 2014 to March 2016. This represents about a 44% increase in FDI Equity inflows over the same corresponding period.

‘Zero defect zero effect’ is a key phrase which has come to be associated with the Make in India campaign. In the words of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, “Let’s think about making our product which has ‘zero defect’… and ‘zero effect’ so that the manufacturing does not have an adverse effect on our environment”. Thus, sustainable development in the country is being made possible by imposing high-quality manufacturing standards while minimising environmental and ecological impact.

“Come make in India. Sell anywhere, [but] make in India.” Prime Minister Narendra Modi said while introducing his vision to the public. And it seems that the world is more than ready to embrace this vision, which is already set on a path to become a reality.

Former President Pranab Mukherjee Tests Positive For COVID-19

Coronavirus India Updates: In a tweet, Pranab Mukherjee, who was India’s president between 2012 and 2017, urged all those, who have come in contact with him in the last week, to isolate themselves as a precaution and get tested for COVID-19.

New Delhi: 

Former President Pranab Mukherjee this afternoon said that he has tested positive for coronavirus. In a tweet, Mr Mukherjee, who was India’s president between 2012 and 2017, urged all those, who have come in contact with him in the last week, to isolate themselves as a precaution and get tested for COVID-19. The outbreak has affected over 22 lakh people in the country.

“On a visit to the hospital for a separate procedure, I have tested positive for COVID19 today. I request the people who came in contact with me in the last week, to please self isolate and get tested for COVID-19. #CitizenMukherjee,” the 84-year-old Congress leader tweeted today.

India’s coronavirus tally crossed 22 lakh cases this morning with over 62,000 new patients recorded in the last 24 hours, the government said today, adding that more than 44 thousand deaths linked to the highly contagious illness have been recorded since the beginning of the pandemic.

Over 15.3 lakh Covid patients in the country have recovered so far, the Union Health Ministry said today. The recovery rate stood at 69.33 per cent this morning. 

This is the fourth consecutive day that India has recorded more than 60,000 fresh infections in a day. More than 2 lakh cases have been recorded since Thursday (August 6) when the country’s coronavirus cases passed 20 lakh, just three weeks after crossing the 10 lakh mark. 

W.C.C vs T.C.

The expression “office wrongdoing”, carefully, has no legitimate noteworthiness. Notwithstanding, it was authored and advocated by Edwin H. Sutherland, an American humanist, in his exemplary paper “White Collar Criminality” somewhere in the range of sixty five years back. In the paper he characterized this wrongdoing as “one submitted by an individual of decency and high economic wellbeing throughout his occupation”. By such definition Sutherland would have liked to bring up shortcomings in the regular wrongdoing hypothesis by bringing into sharp center the sociological contrasts that existed between customary violations, for example, murder, assault and burglary where the violations were characterized without reference to the economic wellbeing or control of the wrongdoer, and different violations, for example, misappropriation, misrepresentation, antitrust infringement, value fixing via cartels, abuse of open and corporate assets, personal tax avoidance, maltreatment of political and legitimate procedures and far reaching infringement of managerial guidelines, which were all almost continually, as per his investigations, submitted by those with power, high societal position and occupation, for example the decent resident. Sutherland noticed that the individuals who controlled equity saved the wealthy and persuasive by hypothesizing that huge numbers of such offenses were harmless or the casualties didn’t consider themselves to be survivors of wrongdoing; that guilty parties were not so much hoodlums or that the offenses were of a peaceful sort or that a unimportant ramifications of an individual of high status in an illicit demonstration was adequate discipline as such individual would lose his status or his expert permit or benefit. Burden of a prison sentence was uncommon. He additionally observed by and large average camouflage of offenses inside the hierarchical routine prompting challenges in distinguishing the offenses by the people in question and the police. A portion of the fault, he surrendered, most likely, lay in the condition of the law which had until the twentieth century delivered partnerships resistant from criminal obligation.

Sutherland, along these lines, in testing the worldview of customary

guiltiness which accused wrongdoing for the oppressed and the lower class

who were viewed as risky components of society, required that the

general hypothesis of wrongdoing clarify cushy wrongdoing with the goal that the establishment for

decency and equivalent equity for all could result.

Sutherland’s definition, however, had a shortcoming as it was predicated

on the status of the guilty party and not the qualities of the offense. A

rival school of sociologists clamored for another definition that could

underline this last part of the offense. This was important so that

professional wrongdoing would be better comprehended in the entirety of its implications and

endeavors made to control it. In 1970 Edelhertz , a humanist, offered a

redefinition of professional wrongdoing by not recognizing it with any social class.

His definition picked up favor with the US Justice Department and reshaped

thinking regarding the matter. Edelhertz’s definition stressed on “unlawful acts

submitted by non-physical methods and by disguise so as to acquire

cash or property or to acquire business or individual favorable position.”

Significance and helpfulness of this idea is significant as a device to show the persistent move of wrongdoing to the salaried sort among the informed and advantaged social classes on a much bigger scope than previously, particularly in the light of innovatively adroit culprits among these classes. It causes to notice the unmitigated results of such wrongdoing on general society.

Today, office wrongdoing is viewed significantly more as a wide umbrella that means ‘business wrongdoing’, ‘business wrongdoing’ or ‘monetary wrongdoing’, all terms that have increased incredible cash and use at both the national and global level. All things considered, whatever the clear terms that are utilized, the abrogating ideas basic to these offenses are extortion, cheating, deceptive nature and debasement submitted by specialists, conmen, political or open authorities by both complex and rough techniques.

For accommodation of conversation, professional wrongdoing portrayed by its different names has been extensively partitioned into two classes by the sociologists Appelbaurn and Chambliss , to be specific:

(a) word related wrongdoing

(b) corporate or hierarchical wrongdoing.

(an) Occupational wrongdoing is a greater amount of a ‘specially appointed’ nature and is submitted by a wrongdoer in his occupation or exploiting his occupation to advance his private, narrow minded interests. In such a wrongdoing, the guilty party rarely needs to confront his casualty and the normal offense would cover demonstrations of insider exchanging, debasement, changing of records by bookkeepers, cheating by proficient men, undermining charges, submitting Visa fakes and maltreatment of trust by the individuals who have authority over others’ properties.

(b) Corporate or authoritative wrongdoing is submitted by corporate work force to profit their organization as opposed to themselves and spreads a plenty of unlawful acts and bad behaviors, for example, value fixing, disregarding antitrust laws, creating poor or sub-par products, imperiling the earth through contamination and non-recognition of administrative industry guidelines, taking part in bogus and deceiving portrayals and the expressing of bogus loads. This class of wrongdoing has been depicted by Edelhertz as the “most irksome” everything being equal. These kinds of wrongdoing are about consistently challenged. Once more, the buyer showcase during the 1990s in the our nation has added new classes of wrongdoing to the above with the right now progressing divulgences of enormous scope trickery rehearses by business stock investigators and venture investors.

At last, there might be included a class of clerical wrongdoing that stands without anyone else, that is directed as a business by a full-time conman or a gathering of conmen covering a wide range of tricks and cheats.

The Scope of White Collar Crime

As it is critical to recognize two particular types of cushy offense. The primary kind of offense is, traditionally, misrepresentation by some other name. Business fakes absolutely vary in the subtleties of how they are executed, in the complexity of the individuals who execute them and, authentically, in the trouble that examiners have in unwinding them. In any case, at their center, business cheats are the same in kind as any misrepresentation happening in the city. They are called clerical offenses essentially as a result of the financial status of the entertainers and the methods they have decided for perpetrating their criminal offenses – not as a result of anything one of a kind or innately unique in the idea of their lead. Such a professional wrongdoing has been around for quite a while. Fake cubicle wrongdoing is no less genuine today. This sort of barefaced false cubicle wrongdoing is a channel on the economy and a noteworthy concern. At the point when it goes unpunished, regard for the standard of law is decreased.

The second kind of cushy offense is, nonetheless, very extraordinary. It includes arraignments for infringement of decides and guidelines that are a piece of a bigger legal structure. They include infringement of the guidelines of the Companies Act, MRTP Act and different sculptures. Three doctrinal improvements characterize this second sort of cushy offense and separate it from the great cheats First, this kind of cubicle offenses includes the criminalization of direct that, in many examples, isn’t characteristically unfair similarly that misrepresentation and pay off are. Or maybe there is a development in the class of “open government assistance offenses” – a classification originally made with unassuming punishments and now progressively felonized. Second, and of unique hugeness in gauging moral culpability, the rules include offenses where the psychological component (or mens rea prerequisite) is generously decreased, if not wiped out. For instance, we currently rebuff as exacting risk offenses like shame of debatable instruments-regardless of whether done totally coincidentally. Third, this kind of desk offense progressively includes criminal arraignments of administrative officials for, basically, vicarious risk. Subsequently, for this classification of office offenses, the criminal law is progressively being utilized conversely with common cures.

On the off chance that all fixings are same in conventional and clerical violations, at that point for what reason are two considered as various. Is there a dissimilarity in authorization and condemning for cubicle wrongdoings (of the two sorts) and “road” or manual violations in the lawful arrangement of the nation? As such, do judges disregard the rules and decrease the sentences in cushy offenses or are the rules sentences for clerical violations normally forced? The appropriate response is that the courts don’t seem to withdraw from the rules with any more prominent recurrence in office cases than in road wrongdoing cases.

On the off chance that we see the development of both customary and cubicle wrongdoings, at that point we locate that both owe their rise to custom-based law standards and are variation of standards of robbery, misrepresentation and so forth to current financial foundations.

In any case, in the event that we center around the distinctions in the two, at that point they are in particular :-

  1. In hands on wrongdoings casualty is promptly found and is himself mindful that a wrong has been perpetrated against him which isn’t so if there should be an occurrence of cushy violations. Casualties regularly don’t realize that what brought about unexpected accident of market or why that bank or organization shut down out of nowhere. Here the effect might be circuitous to the point that the casualty doesn’t understands the ramifications of a news and is uninformed until certain reveals to him that the connection in news and his misfortune.
  2. Second distinction is because of deciding of Mens rea in the two cases. If there should arise an occurrence of industrial wrongdoing It is seen that mens rea must be there basically though in the event of cubicle wrongdoing it has been that contentions of numerous sociologists that regardless of whether it is demonstrated that there was no mens rea in the event of any clerical violations it must be rebuffed harshly in order to give a sign to such lawbreakers that society has gotten mindful of such violations and harsh move would be made to hold back .


Tension is an inclination of anxiety, disquiet, or stress that commonly happens without an up and coming danger. It varies from dread, which is the body’s regular reaction to impending peril. Anxiety is a piece of the body’s characteristic response to push, so it tends to be useful now and again, making you more ready and good to go. Uneasiness issues and ordinary sentiments of nervousness are two unique things. A considerable lot of us get restless when confronted with specific circumstances we find upsetting, yet in the event that those emotions don’t die down, the tension could be more interminable. At the point when sentiments of dread or apprehension become over the top, hard to control, or meddle with every day life, a tension issue might be available. Tension issues are among the most widely recognized mental issues in the United States. It’s not unexpected to consider tension in a manner that may obstruct our capacity to conquer it. “The greatest confusion about tension is that it’s to be dreaded and maintained a strategic distance from no matter what,” says Noah Clyman, an authorized clinical social specialist and the overseer of NYC Cognitive Therapy, a private psychotherapy practice in New York City.

Your heart thumps quick, and your breathing rates up. Your chest may feel tight, and you may begin to perspire. In the event that you’ve at any point felt it, you realize that uneasiness is the same amount of a physical state as a psychological state. That is on the grounds that there’s a solid organic chain response that happens when we experience an upsetting occasion or start to stress over likely stressors or threats later on. Other physical side effects incorporate cerebral pains and sleep deprivation. Mental side effects may incorporate inclination fretful or tense, having a sentiment of fear, or encountering ruminative or fanatical contemplations. Probably the most widely recognized indications of tension issues include: Sentiments of anxiety Envisioning the most noticeably terrible Crabbiness Quakes or jerks Visit pee or the runs Queasiness or steamed stomach.

At the point when the side effects of uneasiness and the related practices are detrimentally affecting your life and everyday working, it’s critical to find support. Suma Chand, PhD, the overseer of the psychological conduct treatment program in the branch of psychiatry and social neuroscience at St. Louis University School of Medicine in Missouri, says an individual who has alarm issue is “very avoidant of numerous circumstances that could trigger [their] alarm indications” and the frenzy issue is affecting their capacity to go to work routinely, go out to shop, go to chapel, and so forth. The capacity to work while in these circumstances is adversely affected also. In case you’re keeping away from circumstances that trigger your uneasiness or you experience huge distress and can’t work viably when you’re in those circumstances, it’s important to look for treatment.