History of Chocolate

Photo by Delphine Hourlay on Pexels.com

The first thing which comes to our mind when we hear the word chocolate is a candy or a dessert which tastes sweet. At present, Chocolate is one of the most famous food items in the world. It is consumed worldwide in different forms and is loved by foodies. At first thought we think of it as something to eat and not drink. Chocolate has a very different history and the story behind its popularity is quite an interesting one. The history of Chocolate dates back to about 450 B.C. when it was originally consumed as a bitter drink mixed with spices or corn puree. It originated in Mesoamerica where the Aztecs believed that the cocoa or cacao seeds were the gifts of the God of wisdom. It was used as an aphrodisiac which gave the drinker strength. The sweet pulp of the cacao fruit surrounding the beans, was also fermented into an alcoholic beverage at that time. Today local folks of South Mexico are still known to make such drinks.  

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

The word chocolate came from the Aztec word “xocoatl” meaning a bitter drink brewed from cacao beans. The cacao tree has a Latin name “Theobroma cacao” meaning Food of the Gods. In pre-modern Latin America, the cacao seeds were considered so valuable that it was used as a currency. It was one of the essential items in rations of the United States soldiers during war. According to a 16th century Aztec document 100 cacao beans could be exchanged for a good turkey hen.  

The cacao tree is native to Mesoamerica where its cultivation, consumption and cultural use began. When pollinated, the seeds of the cacao tree form a sheath, within which 30 to 40 brownish-red almond shaped beans are embedded in a sweet viscous pulp. The beans are bitter but the pulp is sweet which may have been consumed by humans at first. The cacao pods grow in a wide range of colors, like pale yellow, bright green, purple and crimson. The texture may vary from sculpted to completely smooth. The plantation of the cocoa trees is a tough process. When in natural environment, the trees can grow up to 60 feet tall but in plantations they grow only up to 20 feet.  

Photo by Karolina Grabowska on Pexels.com

Chocolate was prepared as a sweet by the European people when it arrived there. It got popularized among the rich people and eventually among the common. Christopher Columbus first came across cacao on his fourth mission to America, when he and his crew seized a canoe full of native goods for trade. He took the beans back to Spain. After it got imported to Europe, it was used as a medicine for treating abdominal diseases because of its bitter taste. After getting sweetened with the addition of sugar or honey, it became a court favorite and chocolate established a foothold in Europe within hundred years.  

In 1828, a Dutch chemist found a way to make powdered chocolate and this product became known as the Dutch cocoa. This led to the creation of solid chocolate. The first modern chocolate bar was made by Joseph Fry in 1847 by making a moldable chocolate paste. By 1868, a small company called Cadbury was making chocolate candies in England. A few years later milk chocolate was made by Nestle. In the 20th century the word chocolate includes a variety of sweet treats. Modern day chocolate is made from the hardiest but least flavorful cocoa beans and it is often said that it has more sugar and additives than actual cocoa.  

Does Tech complicate or simplify life?

Tech frenzy. Would be an apt way of putting the world we live in as of now. From toddlers to the elderly. 

The folks down at the Research and Development departments of most leading consumer gadgets are so good at their craft, that we’d have often fallen short to realise about the latest tech advancements this week.

In the act of them pursuing the craft of their desire, we have found ourselves addicted to one thing or the other. People infected with consumerism ever greater than before. Some buy to impress, some buy to get more efficient, to get more work done; but with the corporates taking the win in the end.

 A quote in a birthday card I got some time back, went like, “ Today is the oldest you’ve ever been, and the youngest you’ll ever be again.” A subtle way of saying you’ve grown older and perhaps closer to the grave. Softening the blow couldn’t get easier than this. 

As much as it is relevant to ageing, it’s relevant to the tech we consume too.

That made me wonder when was the last time I received a card for my birthday, not anytime recently, obviously.

With the outbreak of everything turning digital, I believe the jobs of cards were taken over by a simple text, via whatsapp. 

Which intrigued me of how seldom we text people these days, the days of texting close acquaintances has long passed, spending almost a rupee for a text made us value texts more. It meant something. The rules of the nature are indeed best relevant to tech now, “survival of the fittest.”

With everything turning cheaper, smaller, quicker; we’ve seem to have lost the joy of the little things. Making every single thing less significant but yet complex.

Time does really fly, we went from a time where logging onto the internet was an escape from reality, but now the tables have turned. Being able to shut out everything and taking our eyes off them, screens has become an escape from our realities. As much as I would love to not sound Cliche, the truth cannot be set aside.

Social media platforms went from simple socialising mediums to tools for marketing and making political stands. With people getting unbelievable power to express and do things like never before. Which yet again drags us back to the question, ‘has it made our lives complicated than easier?

James Franco, the brilliant Hollywood actor once joked , “My wife asked me why I spoke ever so softly in the house. I said I was afraid Mark Zuckerberg was listening! She laughed. I laughed. Alexa laughed. Siri laughed.”

If this doesn’t make you break a sweat, I don’t know what will. Our quest to socialise has cost us our privacy. A grave price to pay

There was a time, when we could’ve bored ourselves to death while being confined to our homes this long due to the pandemic . But times have changed, we no longer have the liberty or need to get bored. Unless we get bored of not getting bored that often.

The movies from the past, portraying the future have undeniably done a great job in predicting the backdrops magnificently. Setting aside a few cliche depictions like ‘flying cars’, ‘teleporting’, which are not here yet, but does seem just around the corner. 

Our cars can now self-drive, earphones are wireless, we make calls from our watches, everyone’s a photographer these days, and we can get answers for everything just with a few clicks now, these are all just from the top of my head.

Lives have been made simpler, but the question that springs to my head is whether, ‘we’ll all forget how to live, in our pursuit to live better?’.


Bullying is repeated aggressive behavior that can be physical, verbal, or relational, in-person or online. Bullies are often relentless, bullying over and over again for long periods of time. You may live in constant fear of where and when the bully will strike next, what they’ll do, and how far they’ll go.

Physical bullying – includes hitting, kicking, or pushing you (or even just threatening to do so), as well as stealing, hiding, or ruining your things, and hazing, harassment, or humiliation.

Verbal bullying – includes name-calling, teasing, taunting, insulting, or otherwise verbally abusing you.

Relationship bullying – includes refusing to talk to you, excluding you from groups or activities, spreading lies or rumors about you, making you do things you don’t want to do.

Boys frequently bully using physical threats and actions, while girls are more likely to engage in verbal or relationship bullying. But no type of bullying should ever be tolerated.

Cyber bullying:– Technology means that bullying is no longer limited to schoolyards or street corners. Cyberbullying can occur anywhere, even at home, via smartphones, emails, texts, and social media, 24 hours a day, with potentially hundreds of people involved. Cyberbullies use digital technology to harass, threaten, or humiliate you. Unlike traditional bullying, cyberbullying doesn’t require face-to-face contact and isn’t limited to just a handful of witnesses at a time. It also doesn’t require physical power or strength in numbers.

Cyberbullies come in all shapes and sizes—almost anyone with an Internet connection or mobile phone can cyberbully someone else, often without having to reveal their true identity.

Cyberbullies can torment you 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and the bullying can follow you anywhere so that no place, not even home, ever feels safe. And with a few clicks the humiliation can be witnessed by hundreds or even thousands of people online.

The methods kids and teens use to cyberbully can be as varied and imaginative as the technology they have access to. they might range from sending threatening or taunting messages via email, text, social media, or IM, to breaking into your email account or stealing your online identity to hurt and humiliate you. Some cyberbullies may even create a website or social media page to target you

Being bullied can leave you feeling helpless, humiliated, depressed, or even suicidal. But there are ways to protect yourself — at school and online—and deal with a bully.

While there are many reasons why bullies may be targeting you, bullies tend to pick on people who are “different” or don’t fit in with the mainstream. While your individualism is something that you will celebrate later in life, it can seem like a curse when you’re young and trying to fit in. Perhaps you dress or act differently, or maybe your race, religion, or sexual orientation sets you apart. It may simply be that you’re new to the school or neighborhood and haven’t made friends yet.

Other reasons why kids bully:

  • To make themselves popular or to gain attention.
  • Because they’re jealous of you.
  • To look tough or feel powerful.
  • Because they’re being bullied themselves.
  • To escape their own problems.

Whatever the reasons for you being targeted, it’s important to remember that you’re not alone. Many of us have been bullied at some point in our lives

There is no simple solution to bullying or cyberbullying, or a foolproof way to handle a bully. But since bullying or cyberbullying is rarely limited to one or two incidents—it’s far more likely to be a sustained attack over a period of time—like the bully, you may have to be relentless in reporting each and every bullying incident until it stops. Remember: there is no reason for you to ever put up with any kind of bullying.

Don’t blame yourself. It is not your fault. No matter what a bully says or does, you should not be ashamed of who you are or what you feel. The bully is the person with the problem, not you.

Try to view bullying from a different perspective. The bully is an unhappy, frustrated person who wants to have control over your feelings so that you feel as badly as they do. Don’t give them the satisfaction.

Don’t beat yourself up. Don’t make a bullying incident worse by dwelling on it or reading cyberbullying messages over and over. Instead, delete any messages and focus on the positive experiences in your life. There are many wonderful things about you so be proud of who you are.

Spend time doing things you enjoy. The more time you spend with activities that bring you pleasure—sports, hobbies, hanging out with friends who don’t participate in bullying, for example—the less significance bullying or cyberbullying will have on your life.

Learn to manage stress. Finding healthy ways to relive the stress generated by bullying can make you more resilient so you won’t feel overwhelmed by negative experiences. Exercise, meditation, positive self-talk, muscle relaxation, and breathing exercises are all good ways to cope with the stress of bullying.

When you’re being bullied, having trusted people you can turn to for encouragement and support will ease your stress and boost your self-esteem and resilience. Talk to a parent, teacher, counselor, or other trusted adult—it doesn’t mean that you’re weak or there’s something wrong with you. And reach out to connect with real friends (those who don’t participate in any kind of bullying). If you’re new to a school or neighborhood, or don’t feel that you have anyone to turn to, there are lots of ways to make new friends. It may not always seem like it, but there are plenty of people who will love and appreciate you for who you are.

Unplug from technology. taking a break from your smartphone, computer, tablet, and video games can open you up to meeting new people.

Find others who share your same values and interests. You may be able to make friends at a youth group, book club, or religious organization. Learn a new sport, join a team, or take up a new hobby such as chess, art, or music. Or volunteer your time –helping others is a great way to feel better about yourself and expand your social network.

Share your feelings about bullying.Talk to a parent, counselor, coach, religious leader, or trusted friend. Expressing what you’re going through can make a huge difference in the way you feel, even if it doesn’t change the situation.

Boost your confidence. Exercise is a great way to boost your self-esteem and reduce stress. Go for a run or take a kick boxing class to work off your anger in a healthy way

Tips for dealing with cyberbullying—-

Dealing with cyberbullying is rarely easy, but there are steps you can take to cope with the problem. To start, it may be a good time to reassess your technology use. Spending less time on social media, or checking texts and emails, for example, and more time interacting with real people, can help you distance yourself from online bullies. It can also help to reduce anxiety, depression, and feelings of loneliness.

As well as seeking support, managing stress, and spending time with people and activities that bring you pleasure, the following tips can help:

Don’t respond to any messages or posts written about you, no matter how hurtful or untrue. Responding will only make the situation worse and provoking a reaction from you is exactly what the cyberbullies want, so don’t give them the satisfaction.

Don’t seek revenge on a cyberbully by becoming a cyberbully yourself. Again, it will only make the problem worse and could result in serious legal consequences for you. If you wouldn’t say it in person, don’t say it online.

Save the evidence of the cyberbullying,keep abusive text messages or a screenshot of a webpage, for example, and then report them to a trusted adult. If you don’t report incidents, the cyberbully will often become more aggressive.

Report threats of harm and inappropriate sexual messages to the police. In many cases, the cyberbully’s actions can be prosecuted by law.

Prevent communication from the cyberbully, by blocking their email address, cell phone number, and deleting them from social media contacts. Report their activities to their Internet service provider (ISP) or to any social media or other websites they use to target you. The cyberbully’s actions may constitute a violation of the website’s terms of service or, depending on the laws in your area, may even warrant criminal charges




Though it depends on who you prefer to learn from and what you want to learn from your online course. Some of the must have features your online platform should have been-

  1. Easy to use software
  2. More emphasis on live sessions rather than recorded classes to clear your doubts then and there.
  3. Instant messages and doubt clearing capability.
  4. Online quizzes.
  5. Professional instructors.
  6. Grading/generates reports and analytics
  7. Assignment submission.


  1. Discussion pages-you should be provided with all the discussion papers created by the tutor while explaining things, so that you can pick up the topic again in case you forgot.
  2. Chat rooms with students- student-student interaction including the presence of the teacher, can discuss doubts for more clarification to the topic.
  3. Self-paced courses- should not limit the duration of the course to a very limited time, should be given abundant time to the student to complete the course. Advantageous for both intelligent student and average or weak students.
  4. Enables mobile learning-so that can continue with the learning process anytime and anywhere.
  5. Live feedback-student’s satisfaction as well as motivation to the teachers. Also teachers can improve every day.
  6. Provides demo classes-easy for course selection and judgement by the students.

Emotional quotient

When we are young we live our lives to the fullest, every emotion we have, every feeling we feel, is in its utmost intensity. we are still trying to figure out the nature of our emotions . in this process we often seem to give more focus on happiness. when every other emotion is being envied upon and tried to be avoided, sadness in particular. We develop our personality over experiences and these experiences should be most be taken care by parents. As we grow up we realize that every emotion is very well important for the overall survival of being. we should let every emotion take over when time comes but we must also be careful that we do not give the complete authority of control of our actions to any emotion in particular. Complete domination of joy can make us escape reality, complete takeover of sadness may make us loose meaning in lives, complete charge of anger can make us take wrong decisions, complete charge of disgust may make us loose our self love, complete takeover of fear may make us loose confidence and so on. While making any action we must expand our controller setup and make every emotion to contribute to make a well balanced output.

 People say you shouldn’t be emotion driven and take actions based on your emotions, after this movie I can say that you can take actions driven by emotions only if you can control your emotion and let each emotion give their valuable suggestion to you so you can take calculated actions calculated risks minimize risk.

Emotions are very  difficult to understand but what is clearly understood is that  emotions are very complex, and its so much complex that it actually knows what needs to be done. Unconscious emotions can sometimes be better than hours of scrutinized thought. because biology had it all figured out even before we knew there was something like this existed.

              End conclusion derived can be that to lead  a happy life emotions must be understood when they arise, then they need to be anylised and then Actions can be taken on a mixture of all the emotions.

OTHER IMPORTANT POINTS- every memory has the power of manifesting various emotions an memory can be happy at some point and same can get sad at some point based on the perception we have these make various emotions take over, also each individual has the power to take an memory/thought/experience and make themselves set any mood as they want and take advantage of that mood to take further steps.

  • We must keep the curious imagineative part of ourselves alive because these areas of personality which has the power to bring joy to our lives. in various circumstances we see that part of our personality dying and choose to not to do anything about it. This happens when sadness takes over. We must recognise it and get a well mix of emotions to plan out and trake actions to fix it.



Science is the systematic study of observations in order to acquire knowledge and forming empirical methods about the physical and biological world. Earlier in pre-scientific times, people were more likely to believe in magical and supernatural explanations for natural phenomena like eclipses, earthquakes, thunderstorms, etc. By contrast, scientifically minded people looked out for reasons to figure out the natural world through testing and observation. But Skeptics often question, why science can’t explain all the natural phenomena happening around the world? But, we need to keep it in mind that science is not magic, it couldn’t solve humanity’s problems but sure is the most powerful method for acquiring knowledge about the observable universe. Some of the essential elements of science are-

  • Systematic observation- Scientists observe, record, and measure the data systematically. Recording the data is necessary so that our memory biases are not able to creep in.
  • Observations lead to hypothesis- Hypothesis and theories are such to be stated that they could be tested. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary pieces of evidence.
  • Democratic- Nowadays science has gone democratic, earlier people were willing to accept the views of their kings, pharaohs, or priests. But itis not so, nowadays it doesn’t matter how reputable one is if their theories do not conform to the data, it is invalid. Earlier scientists like Copernicus, Galileo faced discrimination, because of the autocracy of the priests of the church.
  • Cumulative- Science is cumulative. Today a physics student or chemistry would know more than Newton, Rutherford could ever know, despite being eminent scientists of their time. This is so because we learn from earlier advances, so as to build on them and move farther along the path of knowledge.
  • Relevant- It is related to reality rather than floating in space. 
  • Consistent- Science is consistent. It has consequences, answers relevant questions, and pursues promising leads.

There are many people who have made substantial positive contributions to humanity in modern times. Exempli Gratia, Dr. Edward Jenner, often considered the father of immunology since he was first to conceive of and test vaccines. His pioneering work led directly to the eradication of smallpox. Fritz Haber and Norman Borlaug created The Green revolution by producing hybrid agricultural crops and synthetic fertilizers due to which we are able to meet the needs of seven billion people on people. The starvation caused is due to the political and economic factors rather our collective ability to produce food. Earlier there were fewer cars, telephones, refrigeration or electricity but now tables have just turned. 80% of the population has televisions, 84% have access to electricity all thanks to the scientific community and their inventions. Average life expectancy has substantially increased from 47 years in the 90s to 75+ years in the contemporary world. Even average IQ has also been increased due to better schooling and nutrition. All these advances are going to continue, there would be no saturation in the foreseeable future. In a civilized society democracy is prevalent in every field, be it science or any other. Therefore people should be able to take criticism and not be ignorant and contribute most to the society rather than blindly following rituals that have been there for ages.

It won’t be tangible to talk about all the feats of science in such a short space and time. Science is vast than we could imagine, therefore we should introspect into our lives and look for ways in which we can contribute to it.


Humanity has always been fascinated by looking at the stars and thinking about their place in the universe throught history there have been many philosphers who gave their opinion to this answer. Initially humanity considered itself at the center of universe and thought everything revolved around them. Then some astronomers found out that isn’t the case and earth revolved around sun not other way around. Then People thought ‘ if we aren’t most superior there must be someone who is superior than us’ this gave birth to the concept of God and shaped most of the religions. Now when we have tools capable of retracing history we  see that there wasn’t a superior being as God who created us but actually we are products of evolution. When humanity got this answer instead of getting satisfied it became even more confused and asked more questions like “ so what is purpose of life?” “ why are we here in the first place”, “ is It that life inherently has no meaning and we are result of just a big coincidence?”

These questions are yet to be answered by science, hence here is where philosophy comes in. The fact that humanity don’t have any purpose gave rise to many ideologies, everybody triend to justify the statement in their on way.

Nihilism followers believe that with life there is only suffering and the best use of life will be to end it this philosophy has caused many suicides and has been cause of depression for many people. This philosophical thought is soo strong that popular apps like Instagram/ facebook actually give warning and counselling notifications to people reading these kind of ideologies.

Then there come existentialists who also believe that life inherently has no meaning but the people need to find their own purpose. They don’t believe in conventional thought of Good/bad, right/wrong, and think that one should chase happiness and die.

Both of these philosophies are beautiful and scary at the same time. For me I prefer mix and match of all of the thoughts. I don’t fear god at the same time I refuse to deny its existence. I love life but I am not afraid to die. I will conclude this essay by imbibing one thought in the mind of readers. “ I love life but I am not afraid to die because I have been dead for millions of years before I was born and all of my inconveniences arised after inception of ‘me’

Protected wetlands in Mauritius marred by oil spill boasts mangrove forests, coral species

The oil spill off the coast of Mauritius has imperilled protected wetlands that boast rare mangrove forests and scores of fish and coral species.

The bulk carrier MV Wakashio, which struck a reef on July 25, has spewed more than 1,000 tonnes of fuel near two of Mauritius’ three “Ramsar sites”, named after the international convention to preserve wetlands.

Thankfully, salvage crews on Wednesday finished removing all the fuel that was in the vessel’s tanks, though another 100 tonnes remained on board elsewhere.

Prime Minister Pravind Jugnauth has warned, however, of a high probability that the 300-metre (984-feet) vessel will break up.

a body of water surrounded by trees: Mangroves used to be distributed all over the island but deforestation for hotel construction has left narrow belts in the North and in the West and thicker zones of trees on the Eastern coast. By 2003, the mangrove cover in Mauritius was estimated at around 2000 ha. Image credit: Yo Nature

Blue Bay

Trace amounts of oil have been found at Blue Bay, a 353-hectare (872-acre) Ramsar site featuring 38 species of coral including spherical “brain coral” that is more than a century old.

That oil was “immediately contained” as part of clean-up operations, said Sunil Dowarkasing, a former Greenpeace strategist and environmental expert assisting in the clean-up.

But a larger intrusion could deliver a hefty blow to the site abutting tourist-friendly Blue Bay Beach, he said.

“If Blue Bay Marine Park is polluted then we are going to lose a jewel for Mauritius,” Dowarkasing said.

Blue Bay’s mangroves, seagrass meadows and macro algae provide a habitat “for about 72 fish species and the endangered green turtle, as well as a nursing ground for juvenile marine species”, the Ramsar Convention notes on its website.

Pointe d’Esny

The shallow, brackish waters of the 22-hectare Pointe d’Esny site feature a mangrove forest, mud flats, threatened plants and native butterflies.

The area is more protected than Blue Bay, with a coastal road separating the mangroves from the nearby lagoon.

But mangrove roots are prone to trap oil, Dowarkasing warned, rendering Pointe d’Esny especially vulnerable if there is extensive intrusion.

Mauritius’ third Ramsar site, the Rivulet Terre Rouge Estuary Bird Sanctuary, is located on the opposite side of the country’s main island and is not threatened by the spill.

Covid-19 latest updates: 3 Indian vaccines under trial, Russia to allow civilian use this week

Pharmaceutical companies in India and around the world are putting in great efforts to treat the coronavirus disease which has infected more than 20 million people so far.

Many scientific studies are also being done as part of efforts to find treatments and vaccines for Covid-19, the illness caused by the Sars-CoV-2 virus.

A total of 26 vaccine candidates are being developed, according to the World Health Organisation, as a process normally taking up to 15 years has been squeezed into a matter of months.

Here’s everything you need to know about the global efforts being made to find a vaccine fast for Covid-19:

• In India, an expert committee on vaccine administration will meet on Wednesday to consider “logistics and ethical aspects” of procurement and administration of vaccines against Covid-19, the Uniomn health ministry said today. The committee will be chaired by NITI Aayog’s Dr VK Paul. The coronavirus disease has infected more than 2.2 million people and killed over 44,000 in India.

• According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), three Indian vaccines are in different phases of clinical testing at present. Two of these vaccines – Bharat Biotech vaccine and DNA vaccine of Zydus Cadila have completed phase 1 and will begin phase 2 clinical trials, said the ICMR.

• Oxford vaccine, being manufactured by Serum Institute of India (SII) got approval for phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, which are starting within a week at 17 sites, the institute said.

• Karnataka’s deputy chief minister Dr CN Ashwath Narayan said on Tuesday that the state government is very keen to establish an Immunology and Vaccine Research Centre in Bengaluru in collaboration with the Emory Vaccine Centre of Atlanta University.

• Serum Institute of India (SII) had said last week that it has entered into a new partnership with international vaccine alliance Gavi and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to accelerate manufacturing and delivery of up to 100 million doses of Covid-19 vaccines for India as well as other low and middle-income countries. SII CEO Adar Poonawalla told a TV channel that the company will start manufacturing the vaccines by end of August.

• Globally, Russia is racing ahead to allow civilian use of a potential coronavirus vaccine before clinical trials are complete. The government plans to give a vaccine developed by Moscow’s Gamaleya Institute conditional registration as early as this week, which would open the door to civilian use. This has led an industry body to call this rush dangerous for the common people. Yet less than 100 people had officially received the inoculation against the epidemic by early August and its widespread use could be dangerous, the Association of Clinical Trials Organizations said in a letter sent to Health Minister Mikhail Murashko on Monday.

• Meanwhile, Moderna has become the first company in the world to begin phase 3 testing of its coronavirus vaccine. The tests are being carried out at its facilities in the United States. The tests started on July 27 and the company plans to enroll 30,000 study subjects.

• Pfizer too started its combined phase 2 and 3 study on July 27 and hopes to enroll 30,000 volunteers by September. The company’s CEO Albert Bourla said they have vaccinated more than 2,000 people by first week of August.

Apple iPhone 12 likely to arrive in October: Here is everything you need to know

A few days after Apple confirmed that it won’t unveil the upcoming iPhone 12 series in September, a new report reveals that the smartphone would arrive in October. Noted tipster Jon Prosser has listed down the release dates of not only iPhone 12 but also the speculated iPad and Apple Watch. Although the dates leaked by the tipster are not confirmed by Apple, Prosser in his Twitter post has claimed that he had never gotten a product announcement date wrong.

As per Jon Prosser, the Apple iPhone 12 launch event would be held on October 12 while the pre-overs would take place later that week and the shipping would take place in another week. Prosser says that the iPhone 12 would be announced on October 12 while the shipping would start from October 12. Whereas the iPhone 12 Pro devices would go on sale somewhere in November, the exact dates of which is not known.

Not only iPhone 12, Prosser has also revealed that the Apple Watch Series 6 and the Apple iPad will be launched on September 12. The company would not hold any special launch event for the iPad and Apple Watch, the launch would be announced via press release. The leaker also claimed that he never gets product announcement dates wrong and also shared the list of Apple products that were launched on the dates leaked by him. As per Prosser, he got the launch dates of iPad Pro, iPhone SE, MacBook Pro and iMac right.

Last month, the company revealed that the iPhone 12 would not be unveiled in September as speculated. During a conference call, Apple’s Chief Financial Officer Luca Maestri confirmed that the release of the new iPhones have been delayed by a few weeks. He was quoted by TechCrunch as saying, “As you know, last year we started selling new iPhones in late September. This year, we project to supply to be available a few weeks later.” Chipmaker Qualcomm too had hinted at the delay of 5G Apple iPhones.

Without naming either the brand or the smartphone, Qualcomm revealed in its Q3 earnings report that “a partial impact from the delay of a global 5G flagship phone launch.” Notably, Apple and Qualcomm had entered into a $4.5 billion deal, Apple will use Qualcomm’s 5G modem for its upcoming devices and the delay in the release of the new iPhones would also impact Qualcomm’s business.

Apple is expected to launch Apple MacBook, Apple iPad, Apple Glass, Apple Power along with the iPhone 12 series this year.

Emergency Provisions

The provisions related to emergency are given in Part XVIII of the Indian Constitution. Article 352 to Article 360 deals with the emergency provisions. An emergency is imposed in the country or a state when law and order go out of control. To prevent the country’s unity, sovereignty, and brotherhood, an emergency may be imposed in difficult times.

There are three kinds of emergency:-

1. National emergency

2. State emergency

3. Financial emergency


1. What is National Emergency

2. What is State Emergency

3. What is Financial Emergency

What is National Emergency

National emergency is given under Article 352 of the Constitution of India. The President can declare a national emergency in a situation of war or if the country’s security is at stake and under threat, or armed rebellion. Indian President must be satisfied with the happening of these grounds to impose a national emergency. The President may impose national emergency in the whole of the territory of India or even in any particular territory or state as well. This power was given to the President by the 42nd amendment in 1976.

In India national emergency has been imposed three times:-

1. 1962 Indo-China war

2. 1971 Indo-Pak war

3. 1975 Internal disturbance

By the 44th amendment in 1978, the word ‘internal disturbance’ has been replaced by ‘armed rebellion.’

National Emergency Approval

Before imposing national emergency in the country, it must be approved by both the houses of parliament. After the 44th amendment 1978, The cabinet gives a proposal of emergency in writing to the President. The time duration given for approval is one month. If both the houses of parliament approve the proposal of an emergency, then it is imposed for a period of six months. And this time period can be extended observing the situation in the country. It can be extended after every six months. There is no maximum period or limitation prescribed for the continuation of national emergency. It can be continued for any period of time.

Effects of National Emergency

The emergency in a country affects people on a large scale. The sufferance can not be described in words. It affects the system as a whole.

Some effects of National Emergency are:-

  • The federal structure of the country shifts to the unitary structure. All the powers get vested in the union government.
  • States come under the direct control of centre.
  • The President can also make alterations in financial distribution and allocation.
  • Fundamental rights are suspended in the period of emergency. Article 19 automatically revokes. But Article 20 and 21 are never revoked.
  • During the period of emergency, no elections take place.

What is State Emergency

State emergency is also known as constitutional emergency or President’s rule. When the emergency is imposed in a particular state, it is said as a state emergency under Article 356 of the Constitution of India. When the constitutional machinery of a state fails, and it is seen that the government is unable to run a state constitutionally or the state is not obeying the directions given by the union government for law and order, then the President has to impose President’s rule.

State Emergency Approval

When the President proclaims national emergency in a state, both the houses of parliament have to give approval for it within two months from the date of the issue of the proclamation. The period of emergency continues for six months after the proclamation, and it may be extended up to three years and not beyond that. But the same 44th amendment 1978 laid down two conditions that need to be satisfied if the state emergency had to be continued or operated beyond one year:-

  • The national emergency must be in operation in India. It may be imposed in the whole of the territory of India or any part of the state.
  • If the report of election commission suggests that elections in that state assembly are not possible.

Sarkaria Commission Report on State Emergency

The report contained some suggestions in regard to the imposition of President’s rule in a state:-

  • The report opined that Article 356, which deals with state emergency, must be used as a weapon of last resort.
  • The President imposes the state emergency on the report of the governor.
  • In the breakdown of government, it is the role of the governor to make a healthy government. Every possibility must be looked out for majority support of the government in assembly elections.
  • Before imposing an emergency, an alert or warning must be given to the government to settle the matter amicably.
  • It was said that Article 356 must be used in rare situations and circumstances. It cannot be a handy tool to maintain peace and order.

Case Law

S. R. Bommai vs. Union of India, 1994

“In this case, the Supreme Court said that President’s rule under Article 356 is subject to judicial review. It is open to the court for enquiring about the grounds for imposing President’s rule. By putting state emergency under the eye of #judicial review, the court has tried to prevent arbitrariness and monotonous rule.”

Effects of President’s Rule

When the President’s rule is in operation in a state, it temporarily changes the structure of a state. The effects that take place are:-

1. All the powers of the state get vested in the President. He becomes a deciding authority in that state.

2. The parliament takes all the decisions instead of the state assembly and state council.

3. It does not affect the fundamental rights of a person.

4. The President of India makes all the laws for that state until the continuation of the emergency.

What is Financial Emergency

Financial emergency is given under Article 360 of the Indian Constitution. When the President feels that there is a threat or danger to the country’s financial stability, he can impose a financial emergency.

Approval of Financial Emergency

After the proclamation of the President, within the period of two months, both the houses of parliament must approve the emergency. There is no maximum limit for the operation of financial emergency in the country. It can be continued until the President desires it to be in operation, looking at the financial situation of the country.

Effects of Financial Emergency

The consequences of financial emergency are:-

  • All the finance matters come under the direct control of the central government.
  • The President of India may issue directions in the reduction of salaries of government employees.
  • All the bills related to finance shall be reserved for future consideration, like money bills, financial bills, etc.

In India, a financial emergency has never been imposed so far. Though there have been many phases when the economic situation of the country was not so good. But a financial emergency has never been imposed.