How the series defeat against India has put Australian coach Justin Langer under scanner

After the test series lost against India, Justin Langer’s coaching style has come under scrutiny. Sources close to the team told The Sydney Morning Herald that the Australia head coach style of management “wore thin” with players. According to the report, Langer’s intensity and mood swings have drained experienced players, who have spent months on end in either quarantine or bio-bubbles.

The reality sandwich

According to the report, during the final Test in Brisbane, Langer ordered a player to stop habitually stuffing a toasted sandwich in his pocket before walking onto the field.

“You’re walking on against India, we’re trying to win a Test match and one of our players walks on with a toasted sandwich in his hand,” Langer — whose contract as a three-format coach and selector lasts another 18 months — was quoted as saying. “I spoke to (the player) about it at length yesterday. I said, ‘How do you reckon it looks, mate?’ Is that not something I should say?”

Micro-managing bowlers

SMH also reports that some senior players are frustrated by the micro-management, with Langer bombarding bowlers with statistics and instructions during lunch breaks.

Langer denied the accusation: “It’s actually the opposite of what happens. I never talk about statistics to the bowlers, ever. I don’t go to any of the bowlers’ meetings. That’s what the bowlers’ coach is meant to be doing. And the learnings of the last few months are I should start looking at that more.”

Langer’s response

On Friday, Langer said any suggestion of deteriorating relationships with players “couldn’t be further from the truth” but added, “leadership isn’t a popularity contest”.

“If players just want someone to tickle their stomachs all the time then I’m not doing my job.”

Not the first time

A previous confrontation between Langer and his players over his coaching style — after Australia failed to regain the Border-Gavaskar trophy two years ago — was a prominent theme of the Amazon-produced documentary The Test: A New Era for Australia’s Team’.

The coach was given a stern message during a team meeting after the 2018 Boxing Day Test drubbing. Captain Tim Paine wanted Langer to be more positive and batsman Usman Khawaja asked him to not make things “too complicated”.

“We can’t always control the result. You get better as individuals, players, staff, everyone, be in better control of that emotion, be more level-headed, without trying to make it too complicated,” Khawaja was seen saying. “I think that’s what the boys are trying to say. Does that make sense? If it doesn’t then…”

When asked where the message was coming from by Langer, Khawaja replied: “Um, I think the boys are intimidated by you, Alf. I think there’s a bit of the walking-on-eggshells sort of thing. I feel like I think the boys are afraid to say it.”

An old New Year’s Resolution

After the 2-1 defeat in 2018-19, Langer resolved to be more mellow for the ODI series in India. Changing his approach, he allowed players to take more control over the training. The team came back from a 0-2 deficit to win a five-match series.

“(The Test series loss to India) was a massive wake-up call and a really tough time in my life,” Langer said on a podcast. “I’ve got no doubt in 10 years’ time, I will look back on that period and it will be the making of my coaching career.”

After the 1-wicket defeat in Leeds during the Ashes, Langer waited a day before conducting a post-mortem to avoid an emotionally-charged feedback session. Australia struck back to win at Old Trafford and, while they lost at The Oval, managed to retain the Ashes.

All seemed well last year. In October, after the opening round of Sheffield Shield matches was dominated by fringe players, Langer called it a tell-tale sign of a glorious era when “it’s harder to get into the Test side than out”.

Then India came visiting again…

The Maharashtra-Karnataka border dispute – the past and the present

Earlier this week, Maharashtra Chief Minister Uddhav Thackeray and Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) leader Sharad Pawar released a book published by the state government, titled ‘Maharashtra-Karnataka Seemavad: Sangharsh Aani Sankalp’ (Maharashtra-Karnataka Boundary Dispute: Struggle and Pledge). The book is a collection of articles, news, and other material on the demand that Marathi-speaking areas in Karnataka should be integrated into Maharashtra.

Until the Supreme Court gives is verdict on the dispute, the areas should be declared Union Territory, Thackeray said.

Pawar was more circumspect, saying that the government must make all legal efforts to ensure a favourable verdict in the apex court.

The matter has been in the Supreme Court since 2004.

The dispute

This long smouldering inter-state dispute resurfaces from time to time, rather like the issue around the demand for the renaming of Aurangabad. Maharashtra has staked claim to over 7,000 sq km area along its border with Karnataka, comprising 814 villages in the districts of Belagavi (Belgaum), Uttara Kannada, Bidar, and Gulbarga, and the towns of Belagavi, Karwar, and Nippani. All these areas are predominantly Marathi-speaking, and Maharashtra wants them to be merged with the state.

The genesis of the dispute lies in the reorganisation of states along linguistic and administrative lines in 1956.

The erstwhile Bombay Presidency, a multilingual province, included the present-day Karnataka districts of Vijayapura, Belagavi, Dharwad, and Uttara Kannada. In 1948, the Belgaum municipality requested that the district, having a predominantly Marathi-speaking population, be incorporated into the proposed Maharashtra state.

However, The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 made Belgaum and 10 talukas of Bombay State a part of the then Mysore State (which was renamed Karnataka in 1973). While demarcating borders, the Reorganisation of States Commission sought to include talukas with a Kannada-speaking population of more than 50 per cent in Mysore. But the opponents of the region’s inclusion in Mysore have maintained that in 1956, Marathi-speakers outnumbered Kannada-speakers in those areas.

Political parties in Maharashtra are united on the merger of the border areas with the state. The dispute features in every election manifesto of the Congress, NCP, Shiv Sena, and BJP Over the last six decades, every Governor’s address (which outlines the state government’s policies and programmes) to the joint session of the Maharashtra Assembly and Council has mentioned the border dispute to loud applause from members across parties.

Recent incidents

This is not the first time that this matter has arisen in the last 13 months of the Maha Vikas Aghadi (MVA) coalition government.

Bus services between Kolhapur (Maharashtra) and Belgaum (Karnataka) had to be suspended for a few days following tensions that flared on both sides of the border after Chief Minister Thackeray referred to the contentious areas as “Karnataka-occupied Maharashtra” in the Assembly.

He also named two senior ministers, Eknath Shinde and Chhagan Bhujbal, to a co-ordination committee to oversee the expeditious resolution of the case in favour of Maharashtra in the Supreme Court.

Late last year, the Maharashtra government asked all ministers to wear a black band on November 1, which is celebrated in Karnataka as Rajyotsava or state Formation Day, to express support for Marathi-speaking people in Karnataka.

Thackeray reiterated his commitment to redrawing Maharashtra’s borders to include areas that now lie in Karnataka on January 17, which is observed in Maharashtra as Martyrs’ Day, while paying tributes to those who died in the 1956 border struggle to join Maharashtra.

Deputy Chief Minister Ajit Pawar echoed the pledge.

The Mahajan Commission

The BJP government in Karnataka has accused Maharashtra of seeking to incite violence on the border dispute, and Karnataka Chief Minister B S Yediyurappa has vowed he would “not part with an inch of land”. The Mahajan Commission had “long ago settled the dispute”, Yediyurappa said, condemning Maharashtra.

The Mahajan Commission was set up by the Government of India in October 1966 to look into the border dispute. In its report submitted in August 1967, the Commission, led by former Chief Justice of India Mehr Chand Mahajan, recommended that 264 villages should be transferred to Maharashtra, and that Belgaum and 247 villages should remain with Karnataka.

Maharashtra rejected the report, calling it biased and illogical, while Karnataka welcomed it. Despite demands from Karnataka, the Centre never implemented the recommendations of the report.

Earlier this week, Sharad Pawar said the report was “100 per cent against Maharashtra”.

The BJP’s dilemma

At a time when the BJP has tried to corner Thackeray on the issue of renaming Aurangabad, challenging him to act on the old promise, the border row has handed the Shiv Sena an opportunity to hit back at its former ally.

The Maharashtra BJP had lain low for long, shying away from saying anything that would pit it against its own government and party in Karnataka. However, former Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis has now said that the Maharashtra BJP wants that the predominantly Marathi-speaking border areas should be merged with Maharashtra.

“Irrespective of the party in power, both states have from the beginning struck to their positions. The Maharashtra BJP’s stand remains unchanged,” Fadnavis has said.

What are Canada’s new Covid-19 travel restrictions

To address the threat posed by new and more infectious variants of the novel coronavirus, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau Friday unveiled a fresh set of Covid-19 restrictions for travellers who are planning to visit the country. “New variants of Covid-19 pose a real challenge to Canada,” Prime Minister Trudeau said at a press conference. “That’s why we need to take extra measures.”

The new restrictions are aimed at minimising the impact of the deadly disease ahead of the upcoming holiday season.

From suspending flights to a number of popular destinations, to making Covid PCR tests mandatory upon arrival — the Trudeau administration announced a slew of strict new measures to crack down on the spread of the coronavirus pandemic.

What are the new travel restrictions Canada PM Trudeau announced?

Prime Minister Trudeau announced that the country’s main airlines — Air Canada, WestJet, Sunwing, and Air Transat — are suspending all flights to the Caribbean and Mexico from April 30. The airlines are in the process of “making arrangements with customers who are currently on a trip in these regions to organise their return flights,” Trudeau said at the press conference on Friday.

In addition to this, all international flights will only be permitted to land in Vancouver, Calgary, Montreal, and Toronto from next week onwards. Travellers arriving in the country will also have to take compulsory Covid-19 Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests. While awaiting their results, they will be required to quarantine in a government-approved hotel at their own expense. According to Trudeau, the cost for this is “expected to be more than $2,000.”

“Those with negative test results will then be able to quarantine at home under significantly increased surveillance and enforcement,” he added. But those who test positive, will have to quarantine in a designated government facility to ensure that they are not carrying “variants of potential concern”.

He also urged Canadians to avoid all forms of non-essential travel. Trudeau said that nonessential travellers will soon have to present a negative Covid-19 test before entering the land border with the US.

“By putting in place these tough measures now, we can look forward to a better time, when we can all plan those vacations,” the Canadian Prime Minister said.

Non-essential travel to Canada by foreign tourists has been banned since the country first began reporting coronavirus cases in March, last year. Earlier, anyone entering the country for essential travel was required to undergo a mandatory self-quarantine period of two weeks. Travellers had to provide a negative Covid-19 test, taken within three days of their departure time, before boarding a Canada-bound flight.

What has led to the new restrictions?

Trudeau’s recent announcement follows weeks of furore in Canada’s provinces, where local authorities have been urging the Prime Minister and his administration to introduce stricter travel regulations to contain the spread of the deadly virus.

According to latest statistics from the Canada Border Services Agency, over 6.3 million travellers who entered the country since the onset of the pandemic did not have to complete the mandatory 14-day quarantine, Global News reported. The figure includes truck drivers and others involved in cross-border transportation of goods. A number of these workers travel to and from the United States — the world’s
worst-affected country — regularly.

But during his press conference yesterday, Trudeau noted that only 2 per cent of Covid-19 cases in Canada are due to incoming travellers — which he claimed was evidence of the effectiveness of the country’s strict coronavirus restrictions.

What sort of travel is permitted and what is not?

While tourism has not been allowed since the very onset of the pandemic, visitors are permitted to travel to Canada for ‘family-reunification’ in some cases. Most permitted travel is exclusively reserved for Canadian citizens and permanent residents only. Foreign nationals will only be permitted to enter if they are protected workers, asylum claimants, or if they have applied to travel to the country on other compassionate grounds.

While healthcare workers have strongly advised against non-essential inter-provincial travel, residents are permitted to visit most Canadian provinces, other than the Atlantic provinces and Arctic territories. Here, authorities have banned the entry of people from the rest of Canada, unless they are travelling for essential reasons, such as for school or work.

So far, Canada has reported over 7.74 lakh Covid-19 cases and 2.2 lakh deaths.

School Projects and Paper Wastage

Do you ever wonder what happens to your handwritten project file or your exam sheets after an academic year? Well, they are thrown away. I always feel bad, after all this hard work and research my projects are being thrown away.

The best medium of writing down information is paper. Paper is easily available, it is cheap, and it can be stored anywhere. From a student to a teacher everyone uses paper in their day to day lives. Paper is produced from trees. Throughout the world, about 900 million trees are cut down annually. This equates to about 2.47 million trees cut down every day. It is estimated that 24 trees are required to make 1 ton of standard office paper. 

In schools, paper is generally used for writing notes, exams, and projects. Projects are important for grading the students and they present the creativity and content writing skills of the students. Writing down the points taught in class gives the children a quick revision. The students solve various problems and equations in a notebook. During exams, everybody writes in an answer sheet provided by the school. Not only in schools but paper is used in offices, shops, banks, colleges, etc. 

With so much paper in use it is obvious that many pages get wasted. Students tear many papers from their notebooks, many other students play (make aeroplanes and balls) with a clean and unused sheet/sheets of paper. After correction of a test, the test papers and answer sheets are thrown away without even recycling. The old paperwork in many offices is discarded even if only one side of the paper is printed. 

The school projects and assignments also contribute to paper wastage. Unlike notes, notebooks and question paper sets these cannot be handed over to other students and serve no purpose after the assignment is graded by the teacher. Our projects with our best handwriting and best decorations are just kept in a school cupboard until the mass cleaning of all cupboards in the schools. 

I feel that these projects should be made as a digital documentor as a presentation. This will not only save paper but also improve a student’s skill in Microsoft Word and Powerpoint. Due to this ongoing pandemic most of our school projects were to be made in a presentation format. I learned to use many presentation making tools and also saved paper.

How else can we save paper in schools?
  • Re-Use Single-Sided Paper 
  • Do Away with Towel Dispensers in Wash Rooms
  • Settings on All Printers Should be Double-Sided
  • Use computers whenever possible. 
  • Make two-sided copies
  • Re-use printer paper
  • Ask your school to buy recycled or alternative paper products. 
  •  Write smaller and avoid leaving a lot of white space on the page.
  •  Use an erasable board for note taking
  • Reuse notebooks by writing on the unused pages
  • Email assignments rather than printing them out
  • Promote recycling, and have bins in classrooms, libraries, and any areas with copiers and/or printers for easy use.

Mental Health Awareness

Mental health is a much talked about topic these days. Earlier people barely talked of it let alone address it as a genuine problem. But this is changing. People are becoming more and more vocal about their mental health issues and sharing their stories over the internet with the hope that it might help someone. 

What is mental health?

Mental health is a total of our emotional, psychological and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act.

How we handle stress, relate to others and make choices also depends on our mental health.
But with growing restlessness and fast-moving life, we have neglected our mental health. Neglecting our mental health gives rise to many mental problems. It reflects in your mood, behaviour and thinking. 

Not just restlessness and life but there are other factors also that contribute to mental health problems. Including:

  • Biological factors like genes and or brain chemistry 
  • Life experiences like trauma and stress
  • Family history of mental health problems. 

A person with good mental health will be able to realise their full potential, cope with stresses in life, work productively and make meaningful contribution to the community as whole.

Early signs of mental health problems

Some you might know may be suffering from mental health issues without you being completely unaware about it. Notice the following symptoms and reach out to them if you think they need help. 

  • Eating or sleeping too much or too little
  • Having low or no energy
  • Pulling away from people and social activities 
  • Feeling helpless or hopeless
  • Yelling or fighting 
  • Severe mood swings 
  • Having unexplained aches and pains 

There are other symptoms as well but these are the most common ones. It is very crucial to identify these signs and help the one in need or get professional help before the situation gets worse. People who are suffering from mental health problems may also try to harm themselves. Before the situation gets to this, it is advisable to seek help from a professional. 

Mental health awareness

The pandemic had a big toll on everyone’s mental health. Apart from the people who died because of the coronavirus, there were hundreds of people who died because of mental health issues. It was also reported that the number of suicides increased during the lockdown. 

But our society has since very long considered mental health a myth and has continuously ignored the problem. And the main reason behind this ignorance is the lack of awareness. 

More than half of the people still consider depression as being just sad or crying. They are unaware of the fact that a person may look happy on the outside but may be suffering alone on the inside. They still don’t know that depression and anxiety are so much more than just being sad. 

This is where awareness comes in. People and celebrities have openly started talking about their struggles with mental health. This has encouraged many people to come forward and talk about their stories. Many helplines have also been set up for people who need to talk to someone or a professional. 

You can talk to someone you trust or a loved one. But if you feel like the situation is much worse which can’t be solved by talking out, seek professional help. 

It’s not always the person suffering from a mental health problem who has to reach out to help. If you know someone who might be suffering you can also reach out first. Check up on your loved ones once in a while because it might make a lot of difference. 

In the end, awareness is important but it is useless if not brought into action and implemented properly. 

Axiom announces crew for the first private space mission

It was everyone’s dream to go to space once. The dream started when we aspired to become astronauts but this dream changed as we grew up. Earlier it was only possible for astronauts to go to space. But Elon Musk had other plans. Currently, the world’s richest man, Elon Musk is preparing to send 3 people in space. Yes, you read it right. 3 people who are not astronauts will soon go on a journey to outer space and live the dream we all had.

Axiom Space announced on January 26 that it has selected a crew for the first-ever private mission to the International Space station. It is a crew of four people. One is a NASA veteran and three private paying customers. 

The proposed mission is set to launch a SpaceX Crew Dragon. But this mission will not happen before January 2022. The crew will stay at the International Space Station for a time period of eight days. The objective of this mission is to conduct extensive research and undertake “philanthropic projects”. 

The crew members are:

  • Michael Lopez-Alegria, a former NASA astronaut. He will be the flight’s commander 
  • Larry Connor will be the flight’s pilot.
  • Mark Pathy will serve as a mission specialist.
  • Eytan Stibbe will also serve as a mission specialist. 

Michael Lopez has logged a total of 260 days in outer space in his previous missions and is also the vice president at Axiom. Lopez-Alegria will be the first former NASA astronaut to return to orbit and visit the ISS. He will also be 63 when he launches. 

At the age of 71 years, Connor will become the second oldest person to fly to space. He is the head of the Connor Group, a luxury apartment investment firm with over $3 billion in assets. 

Pathy, 50, will be the 11th Canadian to fly to space after nine Canadian Space Agency astronauts and the co-founder of Cirque du Soleil, who became Canada’s first so-called “space tourist” in 2009.

Patthy is the CEO and Chairman of Marvik, a privately owned investment and financing company. 

Stibbe, who was born in Haifa, will be the second Israeli to launch into space, following his friend Ilan Ramon, who tragically died on the space shuttle Columbia in 2003. Stibbe founded the Vital Capital Fund, which is focused on business and financing ventures primarily in Africa. He is also one of the founders and is a board member of the Center for African Studies at Ben-Gurion University. 

Although Axiom did not disclose the price the three commercial astronauts paid to be on the Ax-1 mission. But according to internal sources, an estimate of cost-per-person is priced around $55 million. 

The mission now needs the approval from NASA. Axiom also proposed the potential of flying two per year. Axiom and NASA are currently working through a Basic Ordering Agreement that will enable private astronaut missions to the ISS. 

The Axiom space station modules will initially be attached to the Harmony node of the ISS. After the ISS is retired, the modules will be separated. It will then become the first free-flying commercial space station in low Earth orbit. 

Cyberbullying and Students

In today’s world, cyberbullying cases are common. Many students are negatively affected by it. Let us learn about it and know to stop it.

What is Cyberbullying?

Cyberbullying is bullying with the use of digital technologies. It can take place on social media, messaging platforms, gaming platforms and mobile phones. It is repeated behaviour, aimed at scaring, angering or shaming those who are targeted. Unlike the normal face-to-face bullying, cyberbullying leaves a digital footprint – a record that can prove useful and provide evidence to help stop the abuse.

Cyberstalking is a form of online harassment in which the perpetrator uses electronic communications to stalk a victim. This is considered more dangerous than other forms of cyberbullying because it generally involves a credible threat to the victim’s safety. 

Internet trolls intentionally try to provoke or offend others in order to elicit a reaction. Trolls and cyberbullies do not always have the same goals: while some trolls engage in cyberbullying, others may be engaged in comparatively harmless mischief. 

Effects of cyberbullying

When bullying happens online it can feel as if you’re being attacked everywhere, even inside your own home. It can seem like there’s no escape. The effects can last a long time and affect a person in many ways:

  • Mentally — feeling upset, embarrassed, stupid, even angry 
  • Emotionally — feeling ashamed or losing interest in the things you love
  • Physically — tired (loss of sleep), or experiencing symptoms like stomach aches and headaches 

The feeling of being laughed at or harassed by others, can prevent people from speaking up or trying to deal with the problem. In extreme cases, cyberbullying can even lead to people taking their own lives.

Fighting cyberbullying 

If you think you’re being bullied, the first step is to seek help from someone you trust such as your parents, a close family member or another trusted adult. In your school you can reach out to a counsellor or your favourite teacher. And if you are not comfortable talking to someone you know, search for a helpline in your country to talk to a professional counsellor.

For bullying to stop, it needs to be identified and reporting it is key. It can also help to show the bully that their behaviour is unacceptable. If you experience cyberbullying, you may want to delete certain apps or stay offline for a while to give yourself time to recover. But getting off the Internet is not a long-term solution. 

  • Think twice before posting or sharing anything online – it may stay online forever and could be used to harm you later. 
  • Don’t give out personal details such as your address, telephone number or the name of your school.
  • You can decide who can see your social media profile, send you direct messages or comment on your posts by adjusting your account privacy settings. 
  • Besides ‘unfriending’, you can completely block people to stop them from seeing your profile or contacting you.
  • You can also choose to have comments by certain people to appear only to them without completely blocking them.
  • You can delete posts on your profile or hide them from specific people. 

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

What is vocational education?

Vocational Education and Training (VET) is a job-oriented technical training course for students who want to focus on a specific career opportunity. In this, the main focus is on a specific career opportunity. Students are provided training, instructions on a specific course. At the end of the course, they are given a certificate which ensures they are well-trained in their work. This type of education is a great asset to our country. Nowadays vocational schools are opened in which students are provided training according to their courses. Students can join such training in high school or even after their graduation. Here is a small list of vocational training:-

  • Architecture
  • Science
  • Art and craft
  • Business administration
  • Project management
  • Law 
  • Media studies
  • Leadership and management
  • Computer science and IT
  • Humanities
  • Hospitality and travel

There are several other courses available too. After this course, you will have excellent job offers in your field. Several colleges provide vocational training:-

  • Jai Hind College
  • SNDT Women’s University
  • GGSIPU
  • Meera Bai Institute of Technology
  • IIFA Lancaster Degree College
  • Pondicherry University
  • ST.Pauls Institute of Communication
  • Tata Institute of Social Science
  • Frameboxx 2.O Animation and Visual Effects
  • George College
  • Ambedkar University
  • Amity University

Like these, various number of colleges are there with vocational courses.

Top-rated courses which are available in vocational education :

  • Integrated B.A+B.Ed
  • Bachelor of Physical Education and Sports
  • Post Graduate Diploma in Counselling and family therapy
  • Bachelor of Education(B.Ed)
  • Nursery Teacher Training(NTT)
  • Early Childhood care and education

Benefits of vocational education

The most important benefit of vocational education is specialisation. After you complete your course you will walk out as an expert in your field.

You will perform better as you would have excellent knowledge of your work.

As you will be specialized in your work, you will have better chances of employment as compared to other people and also vocational courses may help you in getting higher-paid jobs.

It helps you a lot in your personal development.

vocational courses may help you in getting jobs in foreign countries also.

This is a very good source of earning for school dropouts or for the people who couldn’t attend college.

In vocational courses, a better learning environment is provided to the students. They provide thorough learning of the courses.

In agriculture, the vocational course gives you solid help. Technical training and knowledge of pesticides, seeds, irrigation are very much important. And in the vocational course, you get to know everything in detail about everything related to agriculture.

Historically vocational courses were done in the classrooms only. But in recent years the study has been shifted online also. Professionals provide education through online mode which helps students in remote areas to study at their homes. This became easy too because now anyone can attend their classes anywhere.

This type of education has helped a lot for young people. More people can be employed. More people can become independent. Their confidence builds a lot. Their lifestyle becomes better. 

What are soft skills? Why are they important?

Soft skills are as important as hard skills. They can be developed over time and improved with practice. They determine how you fit into a professional environment and how you handle your professional life.  But the question is what are soft skills?

What are soft skills?

Soft skills are interpersonal skills and include communications skills, listening skill, time management and empathy. They are the intangible and non-technical skills. Other names that are used for soft skills are transferable skills and professional skills. They are less about your education and qualifications and more about your personality.
They are especially important for the recruitment process for graduates. A professional environment asks for more transferable skills and potential over professional experience. 

Why are soft skills important?

All the jobs require employees to interact with people and build relations. An employee or person may be technically well aware but may fail to build relations and interact. This where soft skills come in handy and this is why they are important. Employers don’t expect you to have all the knowledge and experience of the job you are initially applying for. They look for a person who can grow, learn and adapt. 

They are not only crucial while dealing with clients but they are also in how you interact within your own office with your colleagues. Soft skills help a person to co-exist in teams and organization as a whole. 

Types of soft skills

These are the soft skills that one must possess and continuously strive to improve. 

  1. Communication:

An able communicator must be able to adjust their tone and style according to their environment. Communication is the most basic and essential soft skill. Communication skills help in fostering relationships that are respectful and productive. Communication skills not only include verbal communication but written communication as well. 

  1. Leadership:

A good leader should have the ability to inspire others and lead them to success. To have leadership qualities you need not be appointed as a leader. You can show leadership qualities even when you are not managing things directly.  

  1. Responsibility:

Responsibility is a highly-valued soft skill. Being responsible means taking ownership of your own goals as well as the company as a whole. A responsible person shows the following qualities:

  • Trustworthiness
  • Discipline 
  • Motivation 
  • Consciousness
  • Accountability 
  1. Teamwork:

Teamwork is a quality that is formed with the help of a set of other soft skills. A person who believes in teamwork shows leadership, collaboration and good communication skills. A good team player respects other opinions and works towards a collective goal rather than personal goals. 

  1. Problem-solving:

Problem-solving is the technique of finding a solution quickly and effectively. Here also teamwork comes in play. Because not all problems can be solved alone. Therefore, working as a team and solving problems irrespective of difference of opinion and finding a common ground is very essential. An employee should grow and learn with every problem he solves and adapt accordingly.

These are 5 of the many soft skills that one must-have. Other soft skills are:

  • Decisiveness 
  • Ability to work under pressure 
  • Time management 
  • Flexibility 
  • Critical thinking
  • Work ethic 

You can improve your soft skills by reflecting on yourself and making adequate changes and observing others. You can also look for courses online which can help you improve your soft skills. And lastly, practice is the ultimate key to honing your soft skills.

How does Diet Affect your Body?

Your Diet directly affects your body. You must have heard the phrase – What you eat is what you become. Let us see how a healthy diet influences your body.


Your diet affects the skin


Did you know a healthy diet can lead to healthier-looking skin? Many people these days are going in for fast foods or rather junk foods. These are not good for health. They contain a lot of fat and carbohydrates and one can put on weight. Also, oily foods are not good for the skin.

It prevents pimple breakouts, sun damage, fine lines and wrinkles
It makes your skin glowing and young.
Diet that lacks nutrients such as calcium, niacin, folic acid, copper can affect one’s skin tone. The skin will start looking pale.

A diet that consistently delivers a high load of refined carbohydrates has been linked to various health issues, including skin problems like pimples and acne. Antioxidants—compounds that are abundant in colorful fruits and vegetables—help to fight free radical formation. And there is a clear connection between the levels of antioxidants found in the skin and the texture of the skin itself. People who have low levels of antioxidants in the skin tend to have a rougher skin texture. Those with higher levels of antioxidants in the skin have a smoother textured skin.

It affects your height


Diet has the greatest (and potentially the most permanent) effects on height when a child is still growing, but can significantly affect adults whose skeletons have fully formed/reached their growth peak and the elderly. Diets poor in essential proteins, lipids, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, trace minerals, enzymes, etc. can adversely affect development and height.

Some high boosting foods are – (non veg) egg, chicken, fish, (veg) Tomato juice,banana, spinach, turnip, milk, yogurt, whey water (Whey is the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained), soya products such as soya chunks, soya beans, soy milk, tofu, etc.

It affects your weight


Being selective in what you eat is one of the most important lifestyle factors. Weight loss comes down to simple math. You have to eat fewer calories than you burn.Certain foods can help you shed body weight because they help you feel full longer and help curb cravings. Some even kick up your metabolism.

Whole eggs, green leafy vegetables, salmon, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, lean beef, chicken breast, boiled potatoes, tuna, lentils, black beans, kidney beans, cottage cheese, avocados, nuts, whole grains, chia seeds, yogurt and chilli peppers are some foods that can help in weight loss.

It affects your immunity


Feeding your body certain foods may help keep your immune system strong. If you’re looking for ways to prevent colds, the flu, and other infections, the easiest way is to eat the right kind of food. It is a proven fact that a good diet increases a person’s immunity.

Some immunity boosters are:

Spices – cinnamon, ajwain, ginger, garlic
Herbs – tulsi, coriander, mint
Superfoods like nachini, coconut oil
Probiotics foods such as curd, chia seeds
Immunity powders – almond powder, kali mirch, khus khus, haldi powder

Nutrition for teenagers

The diet plays an important role for the wellbeing of everyone. Taking proper care of your diet in the adolescent period will help you to remain healthy in older age.

A healthy diet is a healthy life. Everyone should consume a good diet in order to stay healthy. Eating the right kind of food is very important for adolescents because this is the most important growing stage of the body. There are many changes taking place in the body, these include mental changes, emotional changes and physical changes. At this age there is a sudden increase in the height of an individual and there is a gain in muscle mass. A right diet will help the body to develop these changes easily. It can help you maintain a healthy weight—and is better for your heart and body in general. A balanced diet for good health by definition consists of different varieties of food that offer all the essential carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins and minerals that our body requires for healthy functioning.

The most important nutrients


Iron – Iron is a mineral, and its main purpose is to carry oxygen in the hemoglobin of red blood cells throughout the body so cells can produce energy. Consuming vitamin C along with iron helps in more absorption of Iron by the body. Meat, seafood, poultry, spinach or other green leafy vegetables, beans and some fortified breakfast cereals are good sources of iron. Avoid eating highly processed food as it can decrease the absorption of Iron.

Calcium – Is mainly needed in our body to keep our teeth and bones strong. It also helps to perform many other activities in the body. To increase the absorption of calcium, vitamin D is needed by the body. Too much intake of sugar decreases the absorption. Dairy products like – milk, cheese paneer, chia seeds, almonds are a good source of calcium.

Vitamins


Vitamin A – Good sources of vitamin A are milk, eggs, darkly coloured orange, green vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, kale, orange fruits such as peaches, papayas and mangoes. This is a fat soluble vitamin.

Vitamin E – Vitamin E is found in corn, nuts, olives, green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils and wheat germ, but food alone cannot provide a beneficial amount of Vitamin E, and supplements may be helpful.

Vitamin C – Citrus fruits, bell peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli and sweet and white potatoes are excellent food sources of Vitamin C. this is also a fat soluble vitamin. The greatest source of vitamin C is amla.

Antioxidants


Antioxidants are compounds that are found in one’s body as well as in many fruits and vegetables. Their chief functions include protecting our body’s cells from free radical damage. This, in turn, prevents premature aging and various chronic diseases. Vitamins A, E, K, and C, copper, zinc, iodine, and manganese are rich sources of antioxidants. Certain proteins like glutathione and alpha lipoic acid also contain them.
Do try to include the following foods in your daily diets to obtain the goodness of antioxidants.
  • Dark chocolate
  • Artichoke
  • Green tea
  • Blueberries
  • Strawberries
  • Beans
  • Spinach
  • Pecans
  • Kale
  • Red cabbage
  • Goji berries
  • Raspberries
  • Beetroot
  • Purple or green grapes
  • Orange vegetables including sweet potatoes,carrots,acorn squash, and butternut squash
  • How CSR expenditure rules have changed for Indian companies

    The Corporate Affairs Ministry has amended the rules for Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) expenditure by India Inc to allow companies to undertake multi-year projects, and also require that all CSR implementing agencies be registered with the government. We look at some of the key changes.

    How do the new rules enable corporations to undertake multi-year CSR projects?

    All companies with a net worth of Rs 500 crore or more, a turnover of Rs 1,000 crore or more, or net profit of Rs 5 crore or more, are required to spend 2 per cent of their average profits of the previous three years on CSR activities every year. The amended CSR rules allow companies to set off CSR expenditure above the required 2 per cent expenditure in any fiscal year against required expenditure for up to three financial years. Experts do, however, note that there was ambiguity whether the rule would apply for expenditure undertaken prior to the amendment.

    “The government may consider allowing corporates which have in good faith incurred excess CSR expenditure in the past to set it off against future CSR expenditure requirements,” said Harish Kumar, partner at law firm L&L partners.

    What are the changes required for implementing agencies?

    A large number of companies conduct CSR expenditure through implementing agencies, but the new amendment restricts companies from authorising either a Section 8 company or a registered public charitable trust to conduct CSR projects on their behalf. A Section 8 company is a company registered with the purpose of promoting charitable causes, applies profits to promoting its objectives and is prohibited from distributing dividends to shareholders. Further, all such entities will have to be registered with the government by April 1.

    Experts note that the change would impact CSR programmes of a number of large Indian companies that conduct projects through private trusts.

    Kumar said the change would mean such private trusts would either have to be converted to registered public trusts, or stop acting as CSR implementing agencies “given that a sizeable amount of CSR is being contributed through their private trusts by many companies, including blue-chip companies.”

    An expert who did not wish to be quoted said private trusts such as the Reliance Foundation, Bharti Foundation and DLF Foundation, which handle a majority of CSR expenditure for affiliated companies, would be impacted by this change.

    What are other key changes?

    The amended rules require that any corporation with a CSR obligation of Rs 10 crore or more for the three preceding financial years would be required to hire an independent agency to conduct impact assessment of all of their project with outlays of Rs 1 crore or more. Companies will be allowed to count 5 per cent of the CSR expenditure for the year up to Rs 50 lakh on impact assessment towards CSR expenditure.

    What is Financial Literacy? Why is it important?

    Financial literacy is knowing how to handle your money and use it productively in more than one way. Often we spend our money carelessly and regret it later. Utilising your money in a way that proves useful in the present or sometime in future is why financial literacy is important. This is just a brief description of it. In a real sense, it is a very vast subject. 

    Financial literacy involves things like budgeting, saving, investing and loans and interest. This skill is developed when one gets involved in financial transactions. 

    What is financial literacy?

    It is the ability to understand and effectively use financial skills. Financial skills include:

    • Budgeting 
    • Saving
    • Investing 
    • Credit management 
    • Financial management

    You might deal with these in your day to life. But to acquire these skills one needs to understand the basic financial concepts. These financial concepts include the time value of money, compound interest, annualised returns and opportunity cost. 

    Why is financial literacy important?

    The answer is very simple. You are financially literate, you can manage your money more effectively. It increases your confidence to manage your money and allocates it towards your goals. 

    • Distributing your income in a way that your expenses get paid without disturbing your budget. Note how much income is coming in and distribute it accordingly. And make sure to keep a track of your expenses and make changes in your spending plan now and then. 
    • If you are financially literate, you know that while seeking a loan you look at for the one with the lowest rate of interest. Comparing different loan plans is very important. You also are well aware that paying credit card bills on time is for your good. Because after a certain time you get charged with interest. This will only increase your expenses. time
    • Emergency funds are very essential in today’s uncertain time. Start saving little by little separately for emergencies. If you are already a financial literate you know that saving money equivalent to your three or six-month income is a must. Use it when you are in dire need of money. 
    • Everyone has to stop working after a certain age. Maybe because of health issues or because of retirement. Thus, you need to have a retirement plan. You should be well aware of which accounts will help you secure a good life after retirement.

    How to improve financial literacy skills?

    • Manage your bills properly. Use the auto-debit option for recurring bills. Don’t postpone paying bills for late as it may affect the entire budget.
    • Maintain a good credit score. If you have a good credit score you can secure low-interest rates on loans and credit cards. 
    • Manage your debts properly. Stop spending lavishly and start saving and increase repayments. This will reduce your liability and pay off loans with high interests first.
    • Start saving and investing more. Investments are a good way to increase your saving. Invest where the rate of return is high. Also, don’t spend needlessly and save that money for something better and use it effectively. 

    Lack of financial literacy will lead to budget mismatch, higher expenses, accumulation of debt, poor credit score and financial frauds. 

    Acquiring financial skills will help you make major financial decisions. It ensures that you have a stable present as well as a future. It is a necessity.

    How to create the initial team for your startup

     Establishing a startup is not a one day task. It requires a lot of hard work, patience and most importantly, it requires an excellent team to work with you to achieve your goals. And building a winning team that rides your startup to victory is not an easy task. The people you choose have the ability to make or break your business. You need to take a few essential steps at your initial stage to begin your work. 

    • Identify Positions

     If you are not doing a sole proprietorship, you and your co-founder need to know the positives and negatives of each other. You can’t be perfect in every skill, so you both must do a self-evaluation and know what are your strengths and weaknesses. When you know about it then you both can categorize your work according to your skills.

     When things between you and your co-founder are settled, you should start identifying positions to complete your team. Marketing and sales, accounting and finance, research and development are just a handful of examples of positions that you may need in your team.

    • Selecting your team members
    •   The process of hiring of team members should be done very accurately for the firm.
    •  Try to find T- shaped people for the organization. These people are experienced in one specific area but can handle other tasks too. They are quick learners and ready to take new challenges. They will benefit you more as compared to the employees experienced in a specific area. This will also help in recruiting a few numbers of employees in the beginning. 
    • Hire people who understand the importance of customer service.
    • You can appoint advisors to guide on important matters.
    • If your capital is limited, then you can go scouting in different colleges. Choose interns from there. Explain your plan to them and convince them to join you.

    When you select your candidates, you must see that they fit in your startup culture, possess the right set of tools for your startup and should be passionate about what they do.

    After selecting your candidates, there should be hiring and training. After this, they should be assigned their roles and responsibility. 

    Always keep in mind whether you are choosing your 1st or your 100th candidate, you should know about the needs of your company and only then appoint someone who perfectly fits in that role.

    • Important things to keep in mind while building your startup:-
    • Be focused on your plan.
    • Make products keeping in mind what customers will be attracted to.
    •  Customer satisfaction must be a priority list.
    • You need to create a unique brand proposition of your product.
    • You must have good leadership quality.
    • Always communicate with your team members.
    • You must have a proper check on the cash flow of your company.
    • Never ignore or underestimate your competition.
    • Ability to listen and understand your teammates.
    • You should always be willing to learn and adapt to the changes happening around you.

    In conclusion, this African proverb sums up beautifully:

    If you want to go fast, go alone; if you want to go far, go together. 

    Building your startup is a ride of ups and downs. You need to be calm and positive in the initial period. Thus, if you want to make your startup into the leading company, you need to start by building a winning team that will take you far.

    5 PART-TIME JOBS FOR COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Education is very important but experience holds equal importance in life. It is not important that you complete your studies and then gain work experience. You can study and earn not only experience but also money. In your free time, there are many jobs that college students can do. Some can be done from home whereas you might need to step out for some.

    It has three benefits:

    • You gain work experience,
    • You earn and therefore learn what financial independence is.
    • You learn how the real world works and how you can survive it.

    Here’s a list of 5 simple jobs that college students can do. These are easy to do and do not require many skills or any prior experience.

    1. Baby-sitting: 

    Babysitting is the most flexible job for students because you can work when you have free time. It’s even better if you love kids. The tasks you need to do in this job may include.

    • Homework help for school going kids
    • Basic household work
    • Meal preparation
    • Attending to the child’s health
    • School pick up and drop

    It is one of the easiest jobs. There’s no set income for this job and depends on the parents of the kid and you.

    1. Call centre representatives:

    Call centres require a large workforce. There are a variety of people working at call centres. Students also happen to be in large numbers. You need to have good command over language and must be well-spoken. The salary may vary company to company and time dedicated towards the job. The work of a call centre representative includes:

    • Managing calls
    • Reading pre-determined script
    • Selling products or asking for donations
    • Input customer data
    • Researching customer data
    1. Pet-sitter:

    This is probably the most fun job on the list especially for people who love pets. You can search for this job yourselves or use apps like Rover. They connect you to the pet owner who needs a sitter. The income through this job also depends on the employer. 

    You might need to perform the following tasks:

    • Dog walking
    • Cleaning the pet
    • Taking care of medications
    • Vet visits 
    • Pet transport
    1. Online tutor:

    If you are academically strong and can teach other students. Online tutoring is the best job. You can hold classes yourselves or can join an institute as a teacher. This job will pay you good money. 

    As an educator, you will have to do the following things:

    • Prepare study material
    • Clear doubts of the students 
    • Check academic progress 
    • Dedicate at least an hour to teach
    1. Social media manager:

    This is one of the most rapidly growing jobs in today’s time. Social media has become a part of our lives. Businesses use it to promote their business. For this, they hire social media managers. This job is also well-paying and you can work according to your schedule. But make sure to meet the deadlines. 

    Your job as a social media manager will include:

    • Promoting business through social media 
    • Handling social media accounts
    • Posting regularly 
    • Increasing engagement 
    • Holding online events

    There are jobs as well which you can do as a college student. Some of them are:

    • Sales associates 
    • Content writers 
    • Translator
    • Web designer 

    All these jobs mostly require very basic skills. But if you specialize in something then it’s even better. Like not everyone can do web designing. Only people you have learned it can do it. 

    You can search for these jobs locally where you live or can surf the internet. There are many apps as well that connect students to employers who are looking to hire people. 

    In the end, all you need is the determination to do something and keep learning. 

    Social Media Detox

    Social media is a part of our daily routine. We spend hours looking at our phones, chatting and exploring things. We scroll endlessly until we go off to sleep at night. Our lives have somewhat started revolving around Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. We are curious to know what is happening around the world, the latest trends and keep yourself updated about the latest memes. On average a person spends 1 hour 40 minutes per day browsing through social media. 

    Although the world has come closer because of social media it has also increased restlessness in human beings. We start feeling anxious if we don’t check our social media handles every half hour at most. 

    Talking about the content of social media. There is a variety of content available to people. From funny to informative, social media has everything. But the lifestyle portrayed on social media can make people feel insecure about themselves. And this results in anxiety and depression. Because we desire to achieve that lifestyle instantly. We beat ourselves up and feel hopeless if we are not able to do that.

    Therefore, it is very important to take a break from social media once in a while. It is very essential to break the online walls we have created for ourselves and connect with reality.

    How to do a proper Social Media Detox?

    1. Deactivate your Instagram, Facebook and Twitter accounts. It will help you from not checking your social media accounts again and again. 
    2. Uninstall your social media apps. If the apps are not on your phone you will not feel the urge to use them.
    3. Replace social media with some other activity. The time you spend on social media, use it to do something else. Like rediscovering a long lost hobby or honing your skills. 
    4. Talk to your family and friends. The people you have been avoiding for a long time, it’s time to meet them and enjoy the moment like you did before social media took over you. 
    5. Practice meditation and mindfulness. Meditation gives you a moment to reflect on yourself and clears your mind up. Mindfulness will increase your attention span and you will not get distracted easily.

    Benefits of social media detox:

    There are many reasons how social media detox benefits our day to day life. Some of the benefits of social media detox are:

    • It breaks the comparison cycle. We usually compare ourselves to what we see online. A social media detox will help us break that comparison cycle and focus on ourselves completely.
    • It is not essential to post everything from your life on social media. It is because social media is a dangerous place and many cybercrimes happen through the stuff we post online. It is essential to maintain your privacy, and thus, you should refrain from posting for some time. 
    • We have become so anxious that we feel like we are running a race all the time. And this race is between who has a better life as portrayed on social media. This has made us very competitive. A social media detox will help overcome this feeling of continuous competitiveness. 
    • It will also improve our mood. We will have more time for ourselves and we can focus on other thighs that make us happy in real life. 

    According to scientists, a social media detox should last up to 3 months at least. But the dopamine levels can take longer to return to the normal level if someone is excessively addicted to social media.

    We have forgotten what it’s like to sit with our family and friends and live in the moment. We are so engrossed in our online lives that we forget how important human essence is. Maybe it’s time we switch off our phones and make real-life connections instead of online connections alone.

    TOUCAN

    ABOUT TOUCAN:

    The Ramphastidae are most closely related to the American barbets. Toucans are members of the Neotropical near passerine bird family Ramphastidae. They are brightly marked and have large, often colorful bills. Though the bill appears unwieldy, even heavy, it is composed of extremely lightweight bone covered with keratin—the same material as human fingernails. The family includes five genera and over forty different species. A baby toucan is actually called a chick. Toucans are known for their huge beaks, which can grow larger than their bodies. They use their beaks for reaching over and plucking fruit from branches of trees. The bright colors (usually orange) on the beak may help the toucans to recognize each other, and to scare off other birds. Toco toucans feed either individually or in small flocks in the canopy. They tend to hop more than they fly. These toucans nest in tree cavities and usually lay two to four eggs, which both parents take turns incubating.

    TYPES OF TOUCANS:

    There are different types of toucans. Some of them are,

    KEEL-BILLED TOUCAN: Keel-billed toucan is a species of a toucan with a huge, rainbow-colored bill. It is the national bird of Belize. The species is found in tropical jungles from southern Mexico to Colombia. Their feet are drawn up forward in flight. The flight distances are typically short. They live together in groups, often sharing cramped living quarters of holes in trees. Despite its large size and bright colors, can be difficult to see in the leafy canopy, where it moves deliberately in search of food.

    • GREEN-BILLED TOUCAN:

    The beak is mostly pale greenish-horn, leading to its common name. The Greenbilled Toucan, also known as the Red-breasted Toucan. The Red-breasted Toucan’s name is derived from the large area of red feathers found on its belly, while its chest is orangy-yellow with yellow sides.

    • WHITE-THROATED TOUCAN:

    Like other toucans, the white-throated toucan is brightly marked and has a huge bill. It has black plumage with a white throat and breast bordered below with a narrow red line. The rump is bright yellow and the crissum (the area around the cloaca) is red. The bare skin around the eye is blue. The bill has a yellow tip, upper ridge, and base of the upper mandible, and the base of the lower mandible is blue.

    • CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN:

    Mostly black with a dark bill (although some populations have a yellow ridge on top of the bill). Significant plumage variation across range: throat color varies from white to orange; bare skin around eye varies from blue to red. In the western part of its range, appearance is very similar to White-throated Toucan, but note voice: a grating croak, not a clear yelp

    • CHESTNUT-MANDIBILLED TOUCAN:

    The chestnut-mandibled toucan or Swainson’s toucan is a subspecies of the yellow-throated toucan which breeds from eastern Honduras to northern Colombia to western Ecuador. Small flocks, usually consisting of 3–12 birds, move through the forest with an undulating flight, rarely traveling more than 100 m at a time. The chestnut-mandibled toucan is a resident breeder in moist lowland forest.

    • BLACK MANDIBILLED TOUCAN:

    The Black-mandibled Toucan (Ramphastos ambiguus) can be found in the north of South America. Toucans have distinctive coloration, markings, and are particularly noted for their large colorful bills. They occur at altitudes of 100-2400 m – in humid montane forests, with a preference for the canopy and edge. The Black-mandibled Toucan’s bill measures 47 to 61 cm in length. Its bill is about 18 cm long.

    TORTOISE

    ABOUT TORTOISE:

    Tortoise is a reptile with a hard shell that moves very slowly. A tortoise can pull its head and legs into its shell to protect them. Tortoises live on land. They cannot swim in water while turtles can swim and even float in water. Tortoises can vary in size from just an inch or two to more than 6 feet. Tortoise is placid and very slow-moving, with an average walking speed of 0.2-0.5 km/h. Tortoises generally have one of the longest lifespans of any animal, and some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years. Most are quite small, but island tortoises have several times evolved to a large size.

    TYPES OF TORTOISE:

    There are different types of tortoise. Some of them are,

    INDIAN STAR TORTOISE: Indian Star Tortoises belong to the Kingdom Animalia. The Indian star tortoise is a threatened species of tortoise found in dry areas and scrubs forest in India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. This species is quite popular in the exotic pet trade, which is the main reason it is endangered. The Indian star tortoise can grow to 10 inches long.

    • LEOPARD TORTOISE:

    The leopard tortoise is large and attractively marked. Leopard tortoises can also climb and can float and swim slowly as their large, domed shell has a sizeable lung space that allows buoyancy. Their eyes are well developed and they have good eyesight.

    • RED FOOTED TORTOISE:

    The red-footed tortoise is a species of tortoise from northern South America. Red-footed tortoises have many common names: red-leg, red-legged, or red-foot tortoise (often without the hyphen) and the savanna tortoise. Their skin is mostly black with shells being typically black, gray, or brown. These long-lived tortoises have bright red, yellow, or orange patches on their legs, tail, and head.

    • GREEK TORTOISE:

    The Greek tortoise’s geographic range includes North Africa, Southern Europe, and Southwest Asia. The Greek tortoise, also known commonly as the spur-thighed tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. The Greek tortoise is one of the five species of tortoise from the Mediterranean. It can be a range of colors, including black, dark yellow, gold, and brown.

    • MARGINATED TORTOISE:

    The marginated tortoise is one of the beautiful species of tortoise. The marginated tortoise is herbivorous and hibernates for the winter. Its shell is oblong and has a notable thickness around the middle of the body. The posterior end of the shell has a saw-like formation, flanged outward like a bell.

    • ELONGATED TORTOISE:

    The elongated tortoise is a species of tortoise found in Southeast Asia and parts of the Indian Subcontinent, particularly Nepal. Females tend to be wider than males and more rounded. Males also have a tail that is much larger than that of the female. Coloration and pattern vary, and specimens can be found from a pale yellowish-tan overall to almost solid black.

    • ASIAN FOREST TORTOISE:

    The Asian forest tortoise, also known commonly as the Asian brown tortoise, is a species of tortoise in the family Testudinidae. Adults are dark brown or blackish. The Asian forest tortoise is the largest in mainland Asia.

    • ALDABRA GIANT TORTOISE:

    Aldabra giant tortoise is one of the largest tortoises in the world. The carapace is a brown or tan color with a high, domed shape. They are most active in the mornings when they spend time browsing for food. They have long necks, which helps with food gathering. The hind legs are cylindrical and columnar like those of an elephant; thick, often bony scales cover them. The toes are short and two-jointed. The head is relatively small, pointed, and covered by scales.

    How to Deal with Peer Pressure

    In the last article we saw that peer pressure has both positive and negative  effects on a teenager. Now, we will look upon the ways to deal with peer pressure.

    If you feel pressured by people to do things you’re uncomfortable doing, there are lots of ways to respond. Be prepared to deal with peer pressure by having a response ready.  Dealing with the pressure is important to prevent yourself from becoming an addict. Identify negative and positive pressures from peers and plan to overcome negative peer pressures in different ways. 

    Dealing with Peer Pressure

    Skills necessary in dealing with Peer Pressure are – 

    • Self-awareness about the consequences and the effects of the pressure. You should be aware that you are facing this and respond accordingly.

    • In this difficult situation, you should know to cope up with stress and emotions. If everyone is doing it then it is not necessary that you should also follow them. 

    • Quick decision-making ability is a must while dealing with peer pressure. You should be prepared to face these kinds of situations.

    • If you want to deal with peer pressure, then problem-solving skills are also required. Dealing with peer pressure boosts your problem solving skills which are very important in life.

    • You should know to select the correct kind of friends and know to break friendships with wrong kinds of friends who put a lot of pressure on you.

    Responding to Peer Pressure in the Moment
    • The most basic way to deal with peer pressure is saying ‘no’ like you mean it. Say no confidently and make eye contact while saying it. This will make the message loud and clear and they will never ask you about the same thing again because they know your answer to it. Be careful not to get baited into doing something by being called “scared.” Stay firm in your own decision.
    • Change the subject or make an excuse to leave the conversation. Avoiding the question might send the message that you’re still interested but don’t want to respond. While coming up with excuses is a great option if you’re feeling shy or intimidated, or if you don’t want to come off as being rude. Make sure that your excuse is believable.
    Anticipating Peer Pressure
    • Make your own decisions. Do things that make you happy and make those decisions on your own. While some people might ask you to do something that pushes you outside your comfort zone in a good way, be mindful of any negative consequences that could occur.
    • Plan a response. Whether you haven’t experienced peer pressure yet or you want to respond better for next time, think of a response you can use if you’re ever asked something you don’t want to do.
    • Choose positive friends. When dealing with peer pressure, start by choosing friends who won’t pressure you do things. Your friends should accept you for who you are without wanting to change you. 

    In a nutshell: You can resist peer pressure by thinking things through for yourself, and figuring where you stand on the risks of the situation.

    Essential Medical Check-ups

    We’ve always been told that health is wealth. Even then we forget to take care of bodies the way it deserves. We delay doctor’s appointments and eat whatever pleases not only our taste buds but also our eyes. We ignore the harmful effects it can have on our body. This ignorance does not pay off well as we grow old. 

    When we reach a certain age, doctors advice everyone to undergo some health check-ups according to different age groups at regular intervals. 

    They help in the early detection and treatment of diseases if any. Some of these tests are given below for your convenience and awareness. They may depend on the age group you fall in.

    1. Weigh yourself:

    Knowing your body weight is very important. You should not be more than the required body weight nor less. You might hate getting on the scale but it is a must. You don’t need to visit a doctor for this and it can be done at home.

    1. Blood Test:

    A blood test will reveal several things about your body. You may fear a needle but a blood test will only benefit you. It is not very expensive and very quick. It will help you keep a track of your haemoglobin levels, RBCs, WBCs and will also tell you if you have any blood-related issues. 

    1. Cholesterol profile:

    Now you will need to go through the painful process of withdrawing blood but keeping a cholesterol check is very important. According to physicians, screening once for the age group of 9-11 years, once between the age of 17-21 years and every 4-6 years after that. If you have a family history of cholesterol or suffer from obesity, cholesterol tests become even more essential.

    1. Pap and Pelvic Exam for women:

    Pap smears, pelvic exam and breast examination are very important for women after the age of 21 years. They might cause discomfort but help in detecting cancer cells and diseases that may result in infertility. Pap tests should begin at the age of 21 years and should be done every 3 years till the age of 65 years. Women who have normal results of the pap test can get the test done every five years after the age of 30. Women who are sexually active and are under 24 years and below should also get gonorrhoea, chlamydia and HIV screening. Women at average risk of breast cancer should get a clinical test every 1-3 years if they fall under the age group of 25-39 years. If they are 40 and above they should get it done every year. 

    1. Eye test:

    You might not have expected this test on the list and think that you only need to get an eye test when your vision becomes blurry. But no, eye test not only involves tests for eyesight but other eye-related problems as well. So it is recommended that before turning 40 you visit an eye doctor and get a detailed eye test once. If you have vision problems, you should go more often. 

    1. Blood Sugar Test:

    Usually, this test is recommended for people who are in their 30s. This test is done after 12 hours of fasting and helps in detecting diabetes. If your test results are <90, your sugar levels are normal. If the results say 100-110, it is pre-diabetes. But if the test is more than 110, the person is suffering from diabetes. If your reading is normal you can get the test done once in a year.

    1. ECG test: 

    This test is recommended for people who are 35 years and above. It is done to check if there are any heart diseases. It is advisable to get it done annually if the results are normal.

    1. Immunizations: 

    Make sure to visit your doctor and see if you need any immunizations. This can be done annually. Ask your doctor to update you regularly about the same. 

    All the above-mentioned tests are to give you a general idea about the tests that are essential to keep your health in check. This article is research-based and for more accurate information you should always visit a doctor.

    What is Peer Pressure?

    A friend’s advice helps everyone. But, we should not follow everything a friend tells us. This is peer pressure.

    Peers are people who are part of the same social group, so the term “peer pressure” means the influence that peers can have on each other. We all have experienced peer pressure in some way or another. If our classmate has a blue colour bag, then we also want a blue colour bag. Sometimes we are not tempted to play a game but if all our friends play that game, then we have to play it. Peer pressure is more common with teenagers all around the world. Peer pressure is the main reason for the individual to start smoking, drinking or drug abuse. Peer pressure can affect individuals of all ethnicities, genders and ages. Peer pressure has expanded from strictly face-to-face interaction to digital interaction via social media apps and websites like facebook and instagram.

    Positive Peer Pressure

    Peer pressure could influence a young person to become involved in sports. This involvement could be positive, leading to exposure to healthy lifestyles and role models, and eventually leading the young person to become a positive role model herself/himself. This is an example of how peer pressure affects an individual positively.

    Outcomes of Positive Peer Pressure:

    • As people become our role models we respect others as they inspire us to become like them.
    • Working hard is a part of positive peer pressure. We also have the aim to win or perform our best.
    • We participate in sports and join clubs because our peers also participate in these activities.
    • It also helps an individual in making healthy decisions about studies, personal life and health.
    • Achieving good grades due to hard work is an outcome of this positive peer pressure.
    • We volunteer in the community more often and help other people. This makes us feel good.
    • We also learn leadership skills by taking part in competitions and programs conducted in schools.

    Negative Peer Pressure

    The most common form of negative peer pressure among school children is to act and behave as per the directions given by a popular person of the group. The children are forced to dress and style in a particular way. Expensive clothes, gadgets and international vacations are demanded by the children of their parents. If the demands are not fulfilled then the child is ridiculed in the group. This stress affects the child’s school performance and social interaction. She/he becomes mentally unstable and weak. The other kind of negative peer pressure is starting up bad habits like smoking, drinking and drug abuse. This kind of peer pressure is also seen among adults and they are forced into these habits by their friends & boss. 

    Consequences of Negative Peer Pressure:

    • Losing sight of one’s goals because of no concentration towards the goals of an individual.
    • Spending money lavishly on useless things and addictive things such as alcohol or drugs.
    • Getting addicted to alcohol or drugs due to the pressure by friends to look ‘cool’ in the friend circle.
    • Becoming lazy and inactive and having less enthusiasm towards life. Living an unhealthy lifestyle due to laziness and inactiveness. 
    • Losing personal values. Usually people focus so much to become ‘cool’ that they forget about their values.
    • Becoming depressed and stressed due to our habits. Stress and depression can make anyone lose the spirit of life.
    • We should identify positive and negative peer pressure and deal with it accordingly.

    NASA Shares Beautiful Images Of Jupiter’s Northern And Southern Auroras

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently shared images that show Jupiter’s northern and southern auroras – stunning light shows in a planet’s atmosphere

    23 years ago this month, these views of Jupiter’s northern and southern auroras were taken in ultraviolet light by Hubble. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter’s upper atmosphere,” states the Instagram post by NASA Hubble. As per NASA, Jupiter has the most powerful auroras in the solar system. The image shared by NASA has already garnered over 1 lakh likes and 200 comments where people are awe-struck by the stunning images.

    For the uninitiated, Hubble, the observatory, is the first major optical telescope to be placed in space, the ultimate mountaintop, states NASA. Hubble has an unobstructed view of the universe and scientists have used it to observe the most distant stars and galaxies as well as the planets in our solar system.

    NASA Hubble keeps sharing new beautiful pictures of the universe and recently also shared image of a huge cluster of galaxies, called Abell 370.

    If you want to keep track of all the stunning images that NASA shares, make sure to follow the page on Instagram here.

    Also, since we’re talking about Hubble, you might be interested to know that you can check out what Hubble looked at on your birthday on the NASA Website. Pretty cool, right?

    PEN

    ABOUT PENS:

    A pen is a tool to write. A pen is a common writing instrument used to apply ink to a surface, usually paper, for writing or drawing. It has a mechanism by which ink is made to flow through the tip of the writing instrument in the way it is scribbled onto the surface. With the help of a pen, we can also write important information to read them later. The pen has been the need for humans for a long time. A pen is called the ‘Sword of a writer’. It is a tool used by the brain, hands, and the imagination to copy and physically transform lifeless ink into expressions of our minds and hearts. Pens have become one of the most important parts of our life.

    TYPES OF PENS:

    There are different types of pens. Some of them are,

    • QUILL PEN:

    A quill pen is a writing tool made from a moulted flight feather (preferably a primary wing-feather) of a large bird. The point of the feather is treated so it can be used for writing and a hollow shaft of the feather holds the ink which, from there, flows to the tip by capillary action. For almost 1,500 years, people used quill pens to write letters.

    • DIP PEN:

    A dip pen is a pen that has to be dipped in ink. Generally, dip pens have no ink reservoir, so the user must recharge the ink from an ink bowl or bottle to continue drawing or writing. There is a wide range of exchangeable nibs for dip pens, so different types of lines and effects can be created. The nibs and handles are far cheaper than most fountain pens and allow color changes much more easily.

    • REED PEN:

    Reed pen is made from a single piece of reed that is pointed into a square and split at the point. Reed pens were used for writing on papyrus and were the most common writing implement in antiquity. Reed pens are stiffer than quills and they lose a sharp point pretty quickly.

    • FOUNTAIN PEN:

    A fountain pen is a writing instrument that uses a metal nib to apply a water-based ink to paper. The ink from a fountain pen glides effortlessly over the surface of the page, meaning glorious strokes and less pressure on the paper. Some pens employ removable reservoirs in the form of pre-filled ink cartridges.

    • BALLPOINT PEN:

    For ballpoint pens, ink on the surface of the ball at the tip of the ball is transferred to the paper and written. The ink is fed by gravity from the tank (in the pipe). The ballpoint pen is also called as Biro pens.

    • GEL PEN:

    “Gel pen” is a type of ballpoint pen that uses pigmented water-based gel instead of ink. They are used for writing or illustration and they leave a much stronger mark on the surface than pens that use ink. The general design of a gel pen is similar to that of a regular ink-based pen, with a barrel containing the writing mechanism and a cap, and a reservoir filled within

    PENGUINS

    ABOUT PENGUINS:

    Penguins are one of the wonderful species of birds. Penguins are the sea-birds that live only in the cold areas and in countries of the Southern Hemisphere. Penguins may huddle together for several reasons. Penguins evolved to fly underwater. Their powerful flippers and streamlined bodies make them very accomplished swimmers. However, they lay their eggs on the land and raise their babies there as well. Penguins lay their eggs on land or ice to give birth to their offspring. There are 15 to 20 species of penguins that are known to the world. There are around 12 million penguins across the globe and their huge population is found in Antarctica. They spend roughly half of their lives on land and the other half in the sea. While other birds have wings for flying, penguins have adapted flippers to help them swim in the water.

    TYPES OF PENGUINS:

    There are different types of penguins. Some of them are,

    EMPEROR PENGUIN:

     The emperor penguin is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species. The species gather together into approximately 50 colonies that settle on ice shelves and landfast ice along the coastline of Antarctica. Wild Emperor penguins are only found in Antarctica. Like all penguin species, emperor penguins have streamlined bodies to minimize drag while swimming and wings that are more like stiff, flat flippers.

    • KING PENGUIN:

    King Penguins are the 2nd largest species of penguin. They have bare patches around their eyes to allow heat to escape to keep them cool. They have black backs and white bellies for camouflage purposes. King penguins have colorful feathers around their necks and heads, this makes them the brightest of all the species of penguin, there is an estimated world population of 2 million breeding pairs with some estimates up to 3.2 million.

    • CHINSTRAP PENGUIN:

    Instantly recognizable by the black band that gives them their name, chinstrap penguins are the most abundant penguin in the Antarctic, where they gather in massive breeding colonies. Other common names include a ringed penguin, bearded penguin, and stone cracker penguin, due to their loud, harsh call.

    • HUMBOLDT PENGUIN:

    The Humboldt Penguin is a South American penguin, that breeds in coastal Peru and Chile. They have a black head with a white border that runs from behind the eye, around the black ear-coverts and chin, and joins at the throat. Humboldt penguins are medium-sized penguins.

    • FIORDLAND PENGUIN:

    This species is a medium-sized, yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin. They have a very thick reddish beak and deep red eye irises. It’s easy to differentiate them from other crested species, just by looking at their plumage pattern at their head; a stripe of yellow feathers start from the base of the beak, and it continues to the head, revealing the loose feathers that look like long and bushy yellow eyebrows.

    • SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER PENGUIN:

    These gregarious marine birds are among the world’s smallest penguins, standing about 20 inches tall. It occurs in subantarctic waters of the western Pacific and Indian Oceans, as well as around the southern coasts of South America. This is the smallest yellow-crested, black-and-white penguin in the genus Eudyptes.

    Where does Ayurveda come from?

    All of us are pretty familiar with the term Ayurveda. It is a part of an Indian household and is used almost every day. Not only is it an essential part of our household, but is also an important part of our culture. But have we ever sat back and wondered how and when did Ayurveda origin?

    The term Ayurveda is derived from two Sanskrit words, ayur meaning life and veda meaning science of knowledge. Thus, the word Ayurveda as a whole means the science of life. 

    Its origin dates back to some 5000 years ago. It is an old art of treating various diseases and conditions that originated in India. It is not only the art of healing but it also teaches us that our health is in balance with the environment, body, spirit and mind. The entire concept of Ayurveda is drawn and based on these 4 factors. 

    Ayurveda was first put to practice by Dhanvantari, a physician to the gods in Hindu mythology. It is said that he received the art of Ayurveda from Lord Brahma himself. The first mentions of the Ayurveda are in the Vedas (manuscripts of Hindus), especially in Artharveda. The Vedas are filled with a thousand magical ancient practices of treatment.  It also mentions the ways to expel the demons out of one’s body which were traditionally thought to be the reason behind diseases. The primary conditions mentioned are cough, fever, diarrhea,  seizures, tumours, skin diseases and dropsy. 

    Ayurveda is a very wide subject and not only revolves around medication and treatments. It also includes subjects like astrology, government, politics, art and human behaviour.
    The recent knowledge of the Ayurveda can be studied through “the great triad” of texts called the Brhattrayi. It consists of three books: Charak Samhita, Sushurta Samhita and Ashtanga Hridaya. They describe the basic principles and theories through which the modern Ayurveda has evolved.
    Ayurveda has a deep impact on your body and can give you long term relief. It not only focuses on the symptoms of a disease but focuses on the root of the problems. Thus, an Ayurvedic treatment may show slow progress and maybe long but it shows good results and keeps you healthy for a long time. One of the key reasons why Ayurvedic treatment is considered healthy and safe is because all the medicines and herbs used are organic. They come from the same 5 elements our body is said to be composed of. That is, earth, fire, air, water and space. 

    There are several other benefits of Ayurveda.

    Benefits of Ayurveda:

    • Aids in weight loss
    • Acts as a stress buster 
    • Balances hormones 
    • Reduces inflammation
    • Removes toxins from the body
    • Reduces risks of diseases
    • Makes skin healthy 
    • Cures insomnia 
    • Reduces bloating 

    Some of the important Ayurvedic herbs are Ashwagandha, Brahmi, Turmeric, Cumin and Cardamom. There are hundreds of other herbs that are used in Ayurvedic medicines.
    Ayurveda is now begin recognised all around the world. Even WHO has recognised it as a traditional system of medicines. India has also signed an agreement with the WHO for promoting this traditional art. This agreement also includes the practices of  Unani and Yoga. 

    Earlier, Ayurveda lost its importance after the country was taken over by the British because they promoted the use of modern medications. This bruised this art form cruelly. 

    But now it has slowly begun to be recognised again. Modern medical practitioners have also begun to realise the value of this art form. They are now trying to find a link that will connect Ayurveda to modern science. It is not long that Ayurveda will also see further developments and help in treating people just like ancient times. 

    Education Systems Around the World

    Indian Education System is all about mugging up and children are taught to find a good job with a good salary and do that job forever (till retirement).

    World’s best education systems vs Indian education system

    There are many good education systems around the world namely, Finland, Denmark, Japan, South Korea. These education systems have their own advantages, disadvantages and specialties. They have understood that students are not machines and they have provided a number of methods to help the students to reach their true potential.

    From my point of view, Indian education only focuses on academics and theory. There is no opportunity for any vocational training, sports or hobby development. Due to this, there are many ‘limited’ career options according to the mindset of society – Engineer, Doctor, Lawyer, and any government job. Only some privileged students have an opportunity to follow their dreams.

    Indian education focuses more on theory rather than practical. Indian education system doesn’t allow creativity. Whereas in foreign countries; they focus more on practical based learning. And they allow creativity in education. Foreign education curriculum contains everything from arts to sports along with studies. The US has arts, sports, music and theatre in syllabus while Australia focuses more on sports.

    Some counties with best education systems
    • Finland – Each resident of Finland does not go to school until the age of 7. There is no standardizing test in Finland. They don’t get homework by the teachers. Children in Finland spend no more than four hours in school a day, this time also includes a lunch break. Teachers in Finland have to get a master degree. Every Finnish student is taught at least two foreign languages. 
    • Japan – Subjects such as mathematics, science, music, and physical education are taught, but morals is a separate subject complete with textbook and allocated time. This subject focuses on how students would react to a given situation. There are never wrong or right answers, they talk about the black, white, and grey areas in life.
    • South Korea  –  Kindergarten is optional in South Korea. However, at age 6 their child must move on to 6 years compulsory elementary education. The main difference between middle and high school in South Korea is the ability of students to choose specializations such as scientific activity, foreign language, art, history etc.
    • Denmark – Education in Denmark is compulsory for children below the age of 15 or 16, even though it is not compulsory to attend public school. Almost all educational institutes in Denmark are free. Not only are students charged no tuition fees, but all Danish citizens are offered monthly financial aid, known as “SU”.
    • Norway – Primary and lower secondary education covers children aged 6 to 15. Upper secondary education normally provides three years of general education or four years of vocational training. Tertiary vocational programmes are also there. Higher education is based on general admission, normally completed secondary education. The main structure is a 3+2+3 model.
    • United Kingdom – Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged 5 to 18. Students can leave school at 16 but must then do one of the following until they are 18:
    1. stay in full-time education, for example at a college.
    2. start an apprenticeship or traineeship.
    3. spend 20 hours or more a week working or volunteering, while in part-time education or training.

    Why Google might remove its search engine in Australia

    Google said Friday that it might remove its search engine in Australia if the country’s government went ahead with its plans to make online tech companies pay for hosting news content.

    So what’s this about?

    This development is related to the News Media Bargaining Code, a mandatory code of conduct developed by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) to address bargaining power imbalances between the Australian news media businesses and digital platforms, including Google and Facebook.

    The ACCC released a draft code in July 2020 allowing news media businesses to bargain individually or collectively with companies such as Google and Facebook over the payment for the inclusion of news on their services.

    So far, the Australian government has said that the code will be applicable to Google and Facebook only, and other companies may be added in case they were found to hold a significant bargaining power imbalance with the Australian news media businesses.

    This means that Google and Facebook would have to pay news websites whose links show up their platforms including Facebook News Feed, Instagram, Facebook News Tab, Google Search, Google News and Google Discover. “These services have been selected on the basis that they display Australian news, without typically offering revenue-sharing arrangements to all news media businesses that produce this content,” the draft code says.

    What is Google saying?

    Google says that while it supports the idea that the financial future of publishers needs to be supported, the way the government is trying to achieve this goal would break the way Google search works.

    The tech giant has maintained that code remains to be “unworkable” since it says that the ability to link freely between websites is fundamental to any search engine. If the code is implemented then Google will have to pay publishers of certain news media outlets so that their links show up as search results.

    Google has also said that the code requires the company to give news publishers special treatment, which means a notice period of 14 days informing them about algorithm changes and certain “internal practices”. “Even if we could comply, that would delay important updates for our users and give special treatment to news publishers in a way that would disadvantage everyone else,” Google has said.

    Therefore, Google has said that if the code were to become law it will stop making Google Search available in Australia.

    Previously, Facebook responded to the code becoming law by saying that the company would remove Australians’ ability to post news content on its platforms.

    On the other hand, Australian prime minister Scott Morrison has said that the government “does not respond to threats” and that the Parliament will decide what rules businesses must be allowed to follow in the country.

    There’s too much gold in the universe. No one knows where it came from.

    Something is raining gold across the universe. But no one knows what it is.

    Here’s the problem: Gold is an element, which means you can’t make it through ordinary chemical reactions — though alchemists tried for centuries. To make the sparkly metal, you have to bind 79 protons and 118 neutrons together to form a single atomic nucleus. That’s an intense nuclear fusion reaction. But such intense fusion doesn’t happen frequently enough, at least not nearby, to make the giant trove of gold we find on  Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. And a new study has found the most commonly-theorized origin of gold — collisions between neutron stars — can’t explain gold’s abundance either. So where’s the gold coming from? There are some other possibilities, including supernovas so intense they turn a star inside out. Unfortunately, even such strange phenomena can’t explain how blinged out the local universe is, the new study finds

    what about those odder, star-flipping supernovas? This type of star explosion, a so-called magneto-rotational supernova, is “a very rare supernova, spinning very fast,” Kobayashi told Live Science.

    During a magneto-rotational supernova, a dying star spins so fast and is wracked by such strong magnetic fields that it turns itself inside out as it explodes. As it dies, the star shoots white-hot jets of matter into space. And because the star has been turned inside out, its jets are chock full of gold nuclei. Stars that fuse gold at all are rare. Stars that fuse gold then spew it into space like this are even rarer.

    But even neutron stars plus magneto-rotational supernovas together can’t explain Earth’s bonanza of gold, Kobayashi and her colleagues found.

    “There’s two stages to this question,” she said. “Number one is: neutron star mergers are not enough. Number two: Even with the second source, we still can’t explain the observed amount of gold.”

    INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

    TYPES OF INDIAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS:

    There are different types of musical instruments in India. Some of them are,

    • Sitar:

    The word sitar is derived from the Persian word sehtar, meaning “three-stringed.” The sitar is a plucked stringed instrument, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in Hindustani classical music. It has a long, broad, fretted neck and a gourd-shaped body. The sitar’s signature sound is produced by the string vibrating on a flat bridge with a gently curved surface.

    • Saraswati veena:

    Veena represents the system of Indian music. Saraswati veena is one of the major types of veena today. The veena is played by sitting cross-legged with the instrument held tilted slightly away from the player. The word veena in India was a term originally used to generally denote “stringed instrument”, and included many variations that would be either plucked, bowed, or struck for sound.

    • Ghatam:

    It is a clay pot with a narrow mouth. From the mouth, it slants outwards to form a ridge. Made mainly of clay backed with brass or copper filings with a small number of iron filings, the pitch of the ghatam varies according to its size.

    • Flute:

    The flute is one of the most popular instruments in the band. The flute is a family of musical instruments in the woodwind group. The sound is created when the air is passed through the cavity and the holes in the flute. Over the history of the flute, the shape and size of the embouchure have been experimented with and changed from round to oval, oblong to square, big and small. The main 3 types of the flute are the standard, piccolo, and harmony flutes.

    • Tabla:

    Tabla is a pair of small hand drums, one of which is slightly larger than the other, used in Indian classical music. The tabla is the most commonly played drum set in North Indian music. The tabla consists of two drums, the baya or the left drum, and the Dayan or the right drum, but the collective name for both the drums is tabla.

    • Mridangam:

    The mridangam is a double-sided drum whose body is usually made using a hollowed piece of jackfruit wood about an inch thick. The two mouths or apertures of the drum are covered with a goatskin and laced to each other with leather straps around the circumference of the drum.

    • Nadaswaram:

    The nadaswaram, nadhaswaram, nagaswaram, nagasvaram is a double-reed wind instrument from South India. It is used as a traditional classical instrument in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala. The nadaswaram has seven finger-holes, and five additional holes drilled at the bottom which can be stopped with wax to modify the tone.

    • Tanpura:

    The tanpura is a long-necked plucked string instrument. The electronic tanpura was invented in the late 19th century. It has a resonator and 4 strings, but no frets, as the notes are always played whole.

    • Jaltarangam:

    It consists of a set of ceramic or metal bowls filled with water. The bowls are played by striking the edge with beaters, one in each hand. The instrument works on the principle of the motion of sound created or modified with the aid of water. When the edge of the bowl filled with water is stuck with wooden sticks it produces vibrations, that travel through the water and are transferred to the surrounding air to produce sweet melodic sounds.

    MOON

    ABOUT MOON:

    The Moon is the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System, and it is the second-brightest object in the sky after the Sun. The Moon has a radius of 1.737 kilometers / 1.079 miles and a diameter of 3.474 km / 2.158 mi. It is only 384.400 km / 238.855 mi away from Earth. The Moon orbits the Earth once every 27 days. The Moon is unique in that it is the only spherical satellite orbiting a terrestrial planet.

    MOON IS MADE UP OF:

    The Moon is made of rock and metal—just like the Earth and the other rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, and Mars). Like the Earth, the Moon has layers. The innermost layer is the lunar core. It only accounts for about 20% of the diameter of the Moon. Outside the core is the largest region of the Moon, called the mantle. The lunar mantle extends up to a distance of only 50 km below the surface of the Moon. The outermost layer of the Moon is called the crust, which extends down to a depth of 50 km.

    DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOONS PHASES :

    There are 8 different types of moon phases. Some of them are,

    • New moon:

    New moon occurs when the moon is on the same side of Earth as the sun. New moons generally can’t be seen. They cross the sky with the sun during the day, and the moon’s shadow side is pointed toward Earth. A new moon is visible only during a solar eclipse.

    • Waxing crescent:

    The waxing crescent phase is the moon’s first step toward fullness. In this phase, the moon is completely invisible (while it’s new) until a tiny sliver is illuminated. The moon is considered a crescent only when less than one half of it is visible.

    • First-quarter:

    First Quarter Moon is the second primary Moon phase when the Moon has reached the first quarter of its orbit around Earth, hence the name.

    • Waxing gibbous:

    The waxing (growing) gibbous Moon rises afternoon, transits the meridian after sunset, and sets after midnight.

    • Full moon:

    The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully. This occurs when Earth is located between the Sun and the Moon. A full moon occurs about once a month when the earth, sun, and moon are in a line and the earth is between the other two. The sun fully illuminates the side of the moon we can see from the earth. The full moon is the midpoint of the lunar cycle, which is the 29-day period from one new moon to the next.

    • Waning gibbous :

    The Waning Gibbous Moon rises after sunset but before midnight and doesn’t set until after sunrise.

    • Third-quarter:

    The Third Quarter Moon is when the opposite half of the Moon is illuminated compared to the First Quarter. Which half you see lit up depends on where you are on Earth. Only 50% of the Moon is illuminated during its third-quarter phase.

    • Waning crescent:

    The waning crescent is the last phase of the moon. During this phase, the illuminated part of the moon gets smaller and smaller, until the cycle meets its end, starting again with the new moon.

    Master Box Office Week 1: Thalapathy Vijay Starrer Crosses Rs 200 cr Worldwide, Rs 100 cr From Tamil Nadu Alone

    Master Box Office Week 1: Thalapathy Viay starrer and Lokesh Kanagaraj-directorial has crossed the big benchmark of Rs 200 crore worldwide. Smashing records everyday

    Thalapathy Vijay and Vijay Sethupathy starrer Master has taken over the Box Office with an unprecedented collection. The film has set the reviving tone at the ticket window and has already crossed the big benchmark of Rs 200 crore worldwide. After its one week’s collection, the Lokesh Kanagaraj-directorial is the fourth Vijay starrer to have reached Rs 200 crore at the worldwide Box Office after Mersal, Sarkar, and Bigil. Check out the worldwide Box Office breakup of Vijay’s films: Also Read – Master Box Office Day 7: Thalapathy Vijay, Vijay Sethupathi’s Film is Set to Cross Rs 100 Crore Mark in Tamil Nadu

    Master has registered a fabulous Rs 200 crore at worldwide Box Office within eight-day of its release. The film has crossed Rs 100 crore benchmark in Tamil Nadu alone

    Master has been an achiever in every sense at the Box Office. It has just not brought back the audience to the theatres but has also created hopes for filmmakers and exhibitors for the revival of cinema on the big screen. Apart from the ardent Vijay fans, it has invited the family audience to the theatres and that’s one of the biggest achievements of Master.

    The film ended up beating Hollywood biggies Wonder Woman 1984, and Tenet within three days of its release in the UAE. With back-to-back records it’s making at the Box Office, Master has emerged as the biggest pandemic release in the world so far.

    Watch out this space for all the Box Office latest updates on Master!

    MASTER THE BLASTER

    5 INDIAN MYTHOLOGICAL FICTIONS ONE MUST READ

    India has a very rich and diverse cultural heritage. If you study India’s history, you will see the lavish lifestyle of the people back in the days. But it is not limited to recent few centuries only. This richness goes way back to the times of gods and goddesses. All this is recorded in the books of literature of the Indian heritage. 

    India also has a wide range of books and scriptures one can read if they are into Indian mythological genre or simply mythological genre.

    It is a country famous for its wars and folklores and hundreds of things that make Indian history quite an interesting subject. Most of us have grown up listening to these stories by our grandparents. 

    Some of the authors have revamped these stories in their creative imagination. Some characters are taken from the most famous stories of Indian history and represent a different aspect of those stories. These have been widely appreciated and loved. Here’s a list of top 5 Indian Mythological fictions one must read at least once:

    1. The Pandavas series by Roshan Chokshi:

    An amazing book for the youngsters that tells the story of a young 12-year-old girl named Aru Shah. Her family runs the Museum of Ancient Indian Art and Culture in America. Things turn around for Aru when her friends force her to rub an ancient lamp which releases a sleeping demon. Next thing you see is Aru on an unexpected adventure to set thighs straight by finding the reincarnations of the Pandavas and her journey through the kingdom of death. The series has not yet been completed. But is humorous and full of adventure. The author subtlety and cleverly connects the ancient world to the modern world. 

    1. The Palace of Illusions by Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni:

    You might have heard the epic of Mahabharata many times. But have you heard it from the perspective of the one major cause behind the war, Draupadi? The Palace of Illusions tells this epic from the perspective of Draupadi, her feelings, how she struggled to find a loving home all her life and how she felt when she might have felt when she was gambled away in a game of chess by her five husbands. The book sums the story in 360 pages and tells her side of the story.

    1. Shiva Trilogy by Amish Tripathi:

    One of the most beloved books of people, the Shiva trilogy is a must on this list. Amish Tripathi is known for his storytelling and lucid writing. He intertwines the story of Lord Shiva with a fictional background. He beautifully narrates how a common man because of deeds and karma become a God for people. The first part is The Immortals of Meluha, the second The Secret of  Nagas and the third is The Oath of Vayuputras. This is a must-read for all the Shiva as well as mythological lovers. 

    1. The Ramchandra series by Amis Tripathi:

    Another brilliantly written series by the author Amish Tripathi is his second expression into the world of mythic-fiction. Like his previous work, The Shiva Trilogy, The Ramchandra series is also a bestseller. This time Amish explores the epic of Ramayana, each book from the perspective of the three main characters the epic revolved around. The series consists of two books Scion of Ikshavaku and Sita: Warrior of Mithila. This series is much better than the Shiva Trilogy in terms of storytelling and plot. The first part, i.e., Scion of Ikshavaku is from the perspective of Lord Ram, the second part, Sita: Warrior of Mithila is from the perspective of Sita, Lord Ram’s wife. Now the third book of the series is awaited which will be from the perspective of Ravana. 

    1. Asura: Tale of the Vanquished by Anand Neelakantan:

    Anand Neelakantan is famous for his books on the two most famous epics of Indian history, Mahabharata and Ramayana. The story follows the original storyline of the original Ramayana but what is different about this book is that it tells you the story from the perspective of Ravana. It gives you the story of the other side, the side which is never told while telling the Ramayana. It is a fresh approach towards the epic of Ramayana and is a page-turner.

    There are several other books which are worth giving a read. The list could go on and on. These Indian authors have brought a different perspective of the stories we have heard like a hundred times before.

    These books are worth your time. After all who wouldn’t love to divide into the royal, fantasy land even if you only get to experience it through a book and your imagination.

    How to Make a Presentable Resume

    Job selection depends on many things like education, experience, body language and a good resume. Most people do not know how to make a strong resume. So here is an article explaining this.

    A resume is a document created and used by a person to present their background, skills, and accomplishments. It is a documentary record of your contact details, educational qualifications, skills and employment history in a nutshell. As it establishes your details, it should be appealing and convincing. A good resume increases your chances to get employed in a company.  To build an attractive resume, you need to find out the best resume format. Resume format plays a vital role while creating a job-winning resume. You should be well-versed about the kind of resume format that suits your current situation. 

    Importance of a resume

    Employers use resumes to get a deeper understanding of candidate skills, strengths and experience. Your resume should reflect achievements, awards, education, experience and any other outstanding accomplishments that align with your career path and goals. Here are some reasons why you need a resume to get your next job. An effective resume:  

    • Outlines your relevant skills and experience. A well-structured resume clearly highlights your most attractive skills and experience to potential employers. 
    • Displays the benefits you offer employers. More importantly, it should tell employers what you bring to the company along with skills and experience.
    • Grabs the attention of employers. Usually the top quarter of the resume is considered the most attention-grabbing. Make sure to include important summarized information in this part.
    • Matches your skills to the position’s need. One way to do this is by making sure your resume contains the same keywords found in the job description.
    • Can lead to an interview with the employer You’ll likely need to conduct at least one interview to be offered a position, so having a resume is essential.

    What does a Resume Contain?

    • Name with contact Information- Your postal address, email and mobile number.
    • Objective: It appears just below the contact information. It briefly describes the type of job you want and also skills that make you the best candidate for the job. The skill related keywords should be present in this section e.g. – Software languages known etc.
    • Education- All your educational qualifications, the most recent first.
    • Work Experience-the company, job title and responsibilities etc. with most current experience on top.
    • Achievements, Training & Certifications if any
    • Other Skills, Interests and Hobbies.

    Tips for Writing a Resume:

    • First write down all the details that you want to include in your resume.
    • Select a format
    • Be simple, brief and straight
    • Do not lie about your qualifications and experience
    • Sometimes resumes are filtered by keywords, so see that the words associated with the job are included.
    • Don’t leave unexplained gaps in the timeline. (a year off etc. )
    • Do not copy someone else’s Resume
    • Ask your friend or a teacher to review the content. Revise and Edit.
    • Avoid fancy fonts and colours
    • Print it on one side of the sheet only. Limit it to one page if possible, else 4 pages should be the maximum.
    • Use A4 size paper to write the resume.

    DESERT ANIMALS

    ABOUT DESERT ANIMALS:

    Animals living in deserts have special qualities, or adaptations, that allow them to live in harsh temperatures and use less water. Desert animals mostly feed on plants, insects, carcasses, and other animals. Smaller animals tend to thrive in the desert as compared to those that are larger in size. This is because food and water in the desert are scarce while the climatic conditions are quite extreme. Some of the most iconic desert animals have obvious physical characteristics that have enabled them to adapt to their environment.

    DESERT ANIMALS:

    There are different desert animals. Some of them are,

    • CAMELS:

     Camels have a series of physiological adaptations that allow them to withstand long periods without any external source of water. Camel may survive weeks without drinking water. . Actually, it maxes out at about 15 days. They need this ability in their desert environments. A camel’s thick coat is one of the many adaptations that aid it in desert-like conditions.

    • FENNEC FOX:

    The fennec fox is a small crepuscular fox native to the Sahara Desert and the Sinai Peninsula. Its most distinctive feature is its unusually large ears, which serve to dissipate heat. Its coat, ears, and kidney functions have adapted to the desert environment with high temperatures and little water.

    • RATTLESNAKE:

    Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes. Rattlesnakes are found in almost every part of the continental United States, but they’re especially common in the Southwest. Mexico, Central America, and South America are also homes to rattlesnakes. Rattlesnakes receive their name from the rattle located at the end of their tails, which makes a loud rattling noise when vibrated that deters predators or serves as a warning to passers-by.

    • COYOTE:

    Coyotes tend to be nocturnal but may also be active in the early morning and at sunset. Coyote populations are also abundant southwards through Mexico and into Central America. Other historical names for the species include the prairie wolf and the brush wolf. Coyotes living at high elevations tend to have more black and gray shades than their desert-dwelling counterparts, which are more fulvous or whitish-gray.

    • GROUND SQUIRRELS:

    The ground squirrels generally live on or in the ground, rather than trees. They are highly variable in size. The squirrel then curls its paws flat against its chest and sends a screeching call to warn other family members about the presence of predators.

    • BIGHORN SHEEP:

    Bighorn males, called rams, are famous for their large, curled horns. Bighorns from the rocky mountains are relatively large. The Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep occupy the cooler mountainous regions of Canada and the United States. In contrast, the desert bighorn sheep subspecies are indigenous to the hot desert ecosystems of the Southwestern United States and Mexico.

    • ARMADILLOS:

    Armadillos have leathery armor shell and long sharp claws for digging. Armadillos have short legs but can move quite quickly. All species are native to the Americas, where they inhabit a variety of different environments. Armadillos live in temperate and warm habitats, including rain forests, grasslands, and semi-deserts. Because of their low metabolic rate and lack of fat stores, cold is their enemy, and spates of intemperate weather can wipe out whole populations.

    • MONGOOSE:

    A mongoose is a small terrestrial carnivorous mammal belonging to the family Herpestidae. Mongooses have long faces and bodies, small, rounded ears, short legs, and long, tapering tails. Mongoose, any of nearly three dozen species of small bold predatory carnivores found mainly in Africa but also southern Asia and southern Europe.

    Thyroid Awareness Month

    January is the Thyroid Awareness Month of the year. But do we know what thyroid is and how it affects our body?

    According to research by the American Thyroid Association, 1 in 10 people suffer from a thyroid disorder. As many as 20 million Americans suffer from a thyroid disorder. More than half of the cases are undiagnosed.

    What causes a thyroid is still unknown but if left undiagnosed, can cause various problems. Like an increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and infertility.

    The thyroid plays a major role in our body. It regulates metabolism, body temperature and other physical functions. The thyroid produces hormones to keep our body functioning at a certain rate. 

    What is the thyroid?

    It is a small butterfly-shaped gland found in the lower neck. The gland produces the hormones T3 and T4. It is located above the collarbone and in front of the windpipe. The role of these hormones is to help regulate metabolism, manage body temperature and control heart rate. 

    If these hormones are overproduced or underproduced, they can cause serious health issues. 

    The two most common diseases related to the thyroid are:

    Hyperthyroidism 

    Hypothyroidism 

    What is hyperthyroidism?

    When the T4 (thyroxine) hormone is overproduced in the body, it causes hyperthyroidism. It is also known as an overactive thyroid. This disease causes an increase in metabolism which leads to weight loss and an irregular heartbeat. It affects about 1% of the population. It is five times more common in women than in men. It usually affects people under the age of 50 years and results in enlargement of the thyroid gland. 

    It also causes insomnia, increased appetite, excessive perspiration and diarrhea. 

    Even though it is associated with more energy, it can sometimes lead to a body break down and make one feel more tired. 

    Other symptoms of hyperthyroidism are:

    Anxiety

    Oversensitive to heat

    Increased sweating

    Palpitations

    Dry, thin skin

    Hair loss

    Trembling 

    What is hypothyroidism?

    It is more common than hyperthyroidism. It happens when the body cannot produce enough of the thyroid hormone. It results in a slow down of the body functions. It is also known as under-active thyroid. It affects heart rate, body temperature, and metabolism. 

    It mostly affects people over the age of 60 years and increases with age. In older people, it can cause memory impairment, weight loss and loss of appetite. These happen because of old age as well, therefore, hypothyroidism is relatively difficult to diagnose in older people and remains under-diagnosed. 

    The possible causes of hypothyroidism are autoimmune disease, certain medicines or surgical removal of a part of the thyroid gland.

    Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

    Fatigue

    Sensitive to cold/heat

    Weight gain and inability to lose weight


    Depression

    Anxiety

    Constipation

    Numbness in limbs 

    Other diseases that can happen because of improper functioning of the thyroid gland are Hashimoto’s disease and thyroid cancer. 

    Thyroid cancer is of four types:

    Papillary thyroid cancer is the most commonly differentiated thyroid cancer. It may spread to the lymph nodes of the neck even though it grows slowly.

    Follicular thyroid cancer is the second most common thyroid cancer. It grows near areas where there is a high iodine deficiency in the body. It is easiest to cure. 

    Medullary thyroid cancer is rare and mostly hereditary. It has higher chances of spreading to the lymph nodes of the neck than other types.

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer and is the rarest of all. It grows rapidly and spreads easily, therefore it is the most dangerous one. 

    How to diagnose thyroid disorders?

    They can either be self-diagnosed at home first and later consulting the doctor is the best way to be sure.

    For self-diagnoses, one can perform the following:

    Stand in front of the mirror or take a hand mirror above the collarbones where the area below you Adam’s Apple is visible. 

    1. Tilt your head back and take a sip of water.
    2. Swallow the water and watch your neck for signs of bulging.
    3. Repeat a few times to make sure you don’t see obvious signs of bulging.
    4. If you see a huge bulge, nodule or an enlarged gland, contact a physician.

    The only way to confirm you have a thyroid disease and which one is it, it by going through a blood test. 

    Treatment:

    The treatment usually includes medication to regulate hormone production. Doctors usually treat it with medications, iodine or hormones. In some cases, one may also need to undergo therapy or surgery. 

    Thyroid awareness month is recognised to increase awareness about the disorders related to thyroid and their possible symptoms. The symptoms of a thyroid disorder are common in other disorders as well. Therefore it can become difficult to diagnose it and remain ignored. Thyroid disorders are not curable or preventable but are treatable. Consulting your doctor and getting regular health checkups can improve the quality of living to a great extent.

    Interview Skills

    We all are nervous while attending an interview, even with full preparations our hands start sweating. Here are some tips to ace an interview and get your dream job.


    Whether you are applying for an entry-level position or a senior role, you will probably have an interview with a potential employer before receiving a job offer. Since a job interview gives you a chance to show your qualifications and make a good impression on the hiring team, you should know to perform at your best during this important meeting. It is not only your qualifications and experience which matters but also your positive attitude, your ability to work in teams and positive aspirations which matters in the selection process. 85% of the interviews are decided in the first two/three minutes. So be careful about your handshake, eye contact, body language, and right posture.There are 4P’s to have success in an interview – Prepare, Practice, Present, and Participate.
    You should prepare for the interview by learning about the significance of body language. Also you should improve your public speaking and linguistic skills. Also, learn as much as you can about the company and the position.You should practice the frequently asked questions by the interviewer (I have listed those questions in the end of the article). You should also practice some puzzles because in many interviews one or more IQ based questions are asked. And finally participate in the interview; express your views confidently and don’t be afraid to share your opinions to them. On the day of the interview carefully consider what to wear and how to present yourself professionally. Here are some do’s and don’ts during an interview:

    Dos


    Organize all the required material neatly.
    Have a good dress sense, groom well.
    Reach the place of interview well in advance.
    Be cheerful and expressive.
    Have positive body posture.
    Be honest, sincere and simple in your talk.
    Be assertive and confident.
    Be polite in answering.
    Leave a good last impression by saying “thank you.”
    Replace the chair and other things in the original place when you leave the room.

    Don’ts


    Don’t search for anything in an interview as it creates a bad impression.
    Don’t fold arms or close palms.
    Don’t drag the chair and make a noise.
    Don’t be rigid. Don’t cross your legs.
    Don’t tell lies.
    Don’t be very submissive or aggressive.
    Don’t argue, confront, challenge.
    Don’t feel frustrated if you lose the interview.

    Tips for great body language


    Your body language expresses your confidence. Here are some tips for a great body language.

    1. Smile
    2. Don’t cross your arms
    3. Make good eye contact
    4. Keep your body pointed vertically towards your guest
    5. Nod at key points
    6. Stand up straight

    Frequently asked questions:


    1. Introduce yourself.
    2. What are your strengths and weaknesses?
    3. Can you tell something about our company?
    4. Why should we hire you?
    5. Are you willing to relocate/travel?
    6. What was the toughest decision you ever had to make?
    7. Would you lie for the company?
    8. On a 10 point scale how do you rate yourself in communication skills?
    9. How long would you like to work for us if we hire you?
    10. How much salary do you expect from us?

    NASA shares pic of huge cluster of galaxies called Abell 370. Can you guess how far it is from Earth?

    It isn’t every day that one gets to see a stunning snapshot of a massive cluster of galaxies. However, today isn’t like every other day. Today is any space enthusiast’s lucky day because today NASA has posted a picturesque image of Abell 370, a huge cluster of galaxies. An informative caption accompanies the picture. If you’re someone who generally enjoys learning about space, then you must check out the entire post.

    NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope shared this image on its official Instagram account on January 19. The text shared alongside the picture describes what it depicts. It reads, “Smears and streaks of light cover this #HubbleClassic image of a huge cluster of galaxies, called Abell 370. The massive gravity of this cluster causes even light to bend as it passes through, which distorts our view of the galaxies behind Abell 370, creating the warped shapes seen here. This cluster is located a mind-boggling 4.9 billion light-years from Earth”.

    Did seeing that picture of the galaxy cluster about 4.9 billion light-years from Earth make your jaw drop? If so, then know that you’re not alone. Since being shared on the photo and video sharing platform merely three hours ago, this post has captured netizens’ attention. The share currently has over 43,100 likes and has also amassed many comments. These numbers are quickly rising.

    Here’s what Instagram users had to say about the share. One person said, “Awesome”.

    Another individual wrote, “Beautiful”. “Yes, mind-boggling indeed,” read one comment under the share.

    Donald Trump Leave White House for the Last Time

    President Trump’s reign comes to an end after a rollercoaster of a journey. On Wednesday, he left Washington DC three hours ahead of the inauguration ceremony of the next US President, Joe Biden. He stated that it has been an “incredible four years” and promised his supporters and everyone else that he will be “back in some form”.

    A small group of people waved goodbye to Trump and the First Lady Melania Trump as they walked out and boarded the Marine One helicopter at 8:15 am. The Trump family flew a short journey to the airbase from where they boarded a flight to Florida on Air Force One as Frank Sinatra’s “My Way” played on loudspeakers on the tarmac on a sunny but chilly day

    “I just want to say goodbye but hopefully it’s not a long-term goodbye,” said Trump as he addressed a small group of people. 

    Trump plans to stay at his Mar-a-Lago in Florida when the US will inaugurate its new President, Joe Biden. 

    After the 21 gun salute and a serenade of “Hail to the Chief”, Trump said to his supporters “this has been a great journey”. He further added, “We’ve accomplished so much together. I will always fight for you.”

    He also said, “it is my greatest honour and privilege to have been the president.”

    Before departing the White House, Trump issued scores of pardons to people convicted of crimes or facing charges, including some prominent allies. 

    Influential former Trump aide Steve Bannon — charged with defrauding people over funds raised to build the Mexico border wall, a flagship Trump policy was among 73 people on a list released by the White House.

    The 74-year-old Trump has hinted at running for president again in 2024 but faces a trial in the Senate over his role in the January 6 storming of the US Capitol by his supporters and a potential ban on holding office in the future. 

    After breaking his long silence, he also addressed the US citizens via pre-recorded video for the first time and urged the American to “pray” for the success of the incoming administration. 

    Biden and Vice President-elect Kamala Harris will take the oath of office at the very spot where pro-Trump rioters clashed with police two weeks ago before storming Congress in a deadly insurrection.

    Although the inauguration ceremony will go as it has for the last two centuries, this will be a little different from the rest because of the events that took place a few days ago at the US Capitol. 

    Official Washington has taken on the dystopian look of an armed camp, protected by some 25,000 National Guard troops tasked with preventing any repeat of this month’s attack.

    Because the pandemic is still raging in the US, the general public is forbidden from attending the inauguration ceremony. The National Mall seems unprecedentedly empty because of the said reason on Inauguration Day for the first time. Some 200,000 flags have been planted to represent the absent crowd.

    9 Profitable Skills that you can Learn Online

    The pandemic has made us stay at home and we all know that staying at home is boring. We can kill this time productively by learning new skills online. 

     Coding

    Technology is vast and there are plenty of job opportunities available if you know how to code. Programmers are high in demand all over the world. Learning and doing programming is an exercise for your brain that eventually improves your problem solving and logical ability. There are many apps and websites which teach coding for free.

     SEO 

    SEO stands for Search Engine Optimization, which is the practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to your website through organic search engine results. SEO is the best way to market and it can boost your public visibility. If you are a Freelancer or a business owner then you really can’t conduct online business without knowing about SEO.

     Microsoft Excel

    Microsoft Excel is a software program included in the Microsoft Office suite. It is used to create spreadsheets, which are documents in which data is laid out in rows and columns like a big table. Excel training just doesn’t help you get things done quicker and more efficiently it also increases the effectiveness of the reports and analysis that you do.

     Languages

    Learning a foreign language, even as little as a handful of phrases, will make your travel experiences better. It also boosts the confidence of an individual and improves the probability of getting employed in a company. Learning a new language helps us to discover a new culture and this is an immensely enriching experience for us. 

     Photography

    You can capture a beautiful moment by learning photography. It also increases your creativity. Moreover, photography provides an enjoyable hobby. Earning a certificate online shows that you’ve had formal training, practical experience and critical assessments. This can open doors to a broader range of job opportunities where a degree is a minimum requirement.

     PhotoShop

    Adobe Photoshop is one of the most famous and all-round image editing software existing in the market today. Photoshop skills are often listed in a lot of job descriptions these days. Learning Photoshop gives you an added advantage over other applicants who are not skilled in Photoshop. Using Photoshop one can transform pictures to unimaginable heights of creativity. 

     Public Speaking

    Public speaking is not just standing on a stage and speaking into a microphone to an audience. Public speaking includes speaking at meetings, with potential clients, colleagues, and customers. Mastery of public speaking will empower numerous other skills, abilities and personal enhancements will be the result.

     Video Editing

    Video is the best marketing and promotional tool ever in the modern market. Videos attract the people to watch. They stop for a movement and see the video.  In this technological age, people watch videos as they are easily accessible. So if you want something across, pushing out your message or promotion to the people, make videos.  

     Digital Marketing

    Digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands using electronic devices or the internet. It also includes text messaging, instant messaging, video, apps, podcasts, electronic billboards, digital television and radio channels, etc. Digital marketing gives a huge scope and multitude of job options. Digital marketing will also help you to promote your startup at very low cost.

    Qualcomm reclaims the clock speed title with the Snapdragon 870 5G chipset and its 3.2 GHz CPU

    Qualcomm introduced new powerful flackship processor between 865 and 888 It’s performance and feature are down👇

    Its CPU reaches the highest clock speed in the mobile world – the prime core now runs at 3.2 GHz, up from 3.1 GHz on the 865+ and 2.94 GHz on the vanilla 865. Those two were surpassed by the Kirin 9000 and its 3.13 GHz prime core, but now Qualcomm has reclaimed the clock speed crown.

    The Snapdragon 870 still uses Kryo 585 cores, which are based on ARM’s Cortex-A77 with some in-house tweaks. The Snapdragon 888 CPU is based on the newer Cortex-X1 and A78 instead, so while it runs at lower frequencies (2.84 GHz for the X1), there’s more to the performance story. We’ll have to wait for the first benchmarks to see how all these chips compare, though.

    The Adreno 650 GPU makes a comeback, but it’s not clear if it received a clock boost of its own and, if not, whether it’s running at the 865 frequency (587 MHz) or 865+ (670 MHz). The Hexagon 698 and the Tensor Accelerator deliver the same 15 TOPS as the two 865 chips so that definitely did not get a boost.

    The display driver can run 1440p class panels at up to 144Hz (or 4K at 60 Hz) and supports HDR10+ (Rec. 2020 color gamut). The Spectra 480 ISP is unchanged as well, with support for sensors up to 200 MP, 8K video capture at 30 fps (and 4K at 120 fps), high dynamic range videos using the HDR10+ and Dolby Vision standards.

    There’s no onboard 5G modem, instead the chipset will be paired with an external Snapdragon X55 with sub-6 and mmWave support (up to 7.5 Gbps downlink speeds).

    The Snapdragon 870 will be used in phones by Motorola, OnePlus, Oppo, Xiaomi and iQOO. Motorola says it will launch its phone “soon”, but there are no exact dates for any of the upcoming devices. The companies did give a few hints what kind of phones they are working on, though.

    A supermassive black hole suddenly vanished. Scientists think it’s floating through space.

    Black holes continue to elude scientists, with a lot about the celestial objects still shrouded in mystery. Now, a cosmic event has shaken astronomers!

    A supermassive black hole earlier believed to be situated in the centre of a far off galaxy has suddenly vanished.

    The galaxy officially called “A2261-BCG” seems to have lost its black hole. Scientists now believe that the black hole might be floating through space, marking the first such instance ever recorded.

    The first ever “recoiling” black hole may now be floating through the universe.

    Scientists posit that this implies that a powerful force emanating from somewhere in the galaxy may be behind the ejection of this supermassive black hole. The power of the force would have been strong enough to push the black hole far away!

    According to scientists, every galaxy in the universe has at least one giant black hole at the centre. This includes our very own Milky Way.

    Recently, a team from the University of Michigan published a study about recoding black holes in the American Astronomical Society Journal.

    Lead by Dr Kayhan Gultekin, the team found that a black hole had suddenly went missing. He had had been studying A2261-BCG for quite some time when the unexpected event occurred.

    In conversation with Motherboard, the doctor claimed that he was sceptical about seeing anything at the centre of the far-off galaxy, but found nothing.

    The team of scientists observing it also believe that the black could be hiding somewhere in the galaxy where it cannot be detected.

    A massive force is required to push a black hole from its position, and scientists claim that it could be owing to the collision of two supermassive black holes.

    Even then, proving this remains difficult, as we have never been able to observe the collision of two supermassive blackholes

    How to Cope up with Stress? (for students)

    Ashton Eaton’s key to dealing with stress is simple: just stay cool and stay focused. Stress can cause many ill-effects to our body and mental health. Therefore, we need to cope up with stress that is caused by the challenges in life. 

    Stress can be caused in students by various factors like examinations, surprise tests, deadline of an unsubmitted assignment, noise pollution, etc. There are two types of stress – distress and eustress. Stress affects us mentally and physically. It causes various diseases. It decreases our confidence and makes us lonely. I have written about this in detail in my previous article. 

    Steps for stress management

    1. Identify the cause of stress. You need to know what has caused the stress. The cause can be a presentation, a speech, a dance performance, etc. In students, the most common stressor is an examination or a stage performance at school. Some students get stressed during preparing for the examinations, they are a prey of self doubt and low self esteem. 
    1. Reaction to a stressful situation plays a key role in managing it. Identify how you are dealing with this situation emotionally. This is the second step and the easiest step to regulate stress quickly. You should know about the emotions that you are feeling, if you know this then you can share this with anyone or can deal with it faster.
    1. Seek solutions for avoiding stressors. Stressors are the challenges and the situations due to which we acquire/experience stress. However, avoiding stressors in every situation is not a good thing and this will eventually decrease your self confidence. If you feel stressed by delivering speeches in front of the public, then you can imagine that there are no people in the room. You can also focus on only one person in the room and then deliver the speech to them.
    1. Identifying symptoms of stress is as crucial as the reactions to it. For example, during a presentation to an audience, and you have blanks of memory, you are uncomfortable, and you are distracted. These are the symptoms of stress and they can derail your presentation in front of the audience.

    Management techniques 

    • Exercise. It can help to improve your sleep. And better sleep means better stress management. Exercise also seems to help mood. Part of the reason may be that it stimulates your body to release a number of hormones like endorphins and endocannabinoids that help block pain, improve sleep, and sedate you. People who exercise also tend to feel less anxious and more positive about themselves. 
    •  A healthy diet can lessen the effects of stress, build up your immune system, level your mood, and lower your blood pressure. Lots of added sugar and fat can have the opposite effect. And junk food can seem even more appealing when you’re under a lot of stress.
    • Do Yoga. This is a form of exercise, but it can also be a meditation. There are many types of yoga. The ones that focus on slow movement, stretching, and deep breathing are best for lowering your anxiety and stress. Here are some asanas that can relieve stress – child pose, bridge pose, corpse pose, camel pose, cobra pose. Here are some pranayamas that students should practice – bhramari, nadi shodhan, shitali, and anulom- vilom.

    In a nutshell – slow down, keep calm, be positive, take it easy, unplug, enjoy life, have fun, breathe, go outside, relax and meditate.

    Why President Biden could cap the Keystone XL pipeline project?

    After US President-elect Joe Biden takes office on Wednesday, one of the first actions the Democrat might take is cancelling the permit for the $9 billion Keystone XL pipeline project, a Canadian Broadcasting Corp (CBC) report said.

    The controversial XL pipeline, if built, will become part of a larger pipeline network that is already in existence. This functioning network, which is also called Keystone, connects oil sands in Canada’s Alberta province to refineries in the US states of Illinois and Texas

    What is the Keystone XL proposal?

    Keystone XL is the proposed fourth phase of the Keystone Pipeline network between Canada and the US, which aims to cut short the distance between Alberta’s oil sands and the Texas Gulf Coast, where most of North America’s refineries are situated.

    The first three phases of Keystone are complete, and are currently carrying 5.5 lakh barrels of oil every day to the US from Canada via a longer route.

    The planned 1,897 km XL pipeline’s more direct route, as well as larger diameter, would boost the oil supply from Canada, potentially carrying 8.3 lakh barrels of oil per day. It would be privately financed, with costs of building shared by Canada-based TC Energy and other oil companies. The XL pipeline would carry both Canadian and American oil to refineries in Texas, from where it can be exported.

    So, why build a shorter route?

    A key reason is that the oil sands in Canada are landlocked, and a direct connection to international markets through the Texas refineries and ports would mean that they can be further developed. This would benefit the energy industry in both Canada and the US.

    Another important reason stated is that if North America increases its own supply of oil, it can further reduce its reliance on imports from the Middle East, thus providing fuel at lower prices for domestic consumers. President Donald Trump has claimed that 28,000 jobs would be created for the pipeline’s construction.

    Then, why is there opposition to the project?

    There are a number of groups that have a problem with the XL proposal.

    Environmentalists claim that building the pipeline would signify a commitment to developing the Alberta oil sands, where oil production is set to double by 2030. They argue that if the pipeline is built, it would increase North America’s reliance on fossil fuel. This would not only take away the focus from developing renewable sources, but also end up exacerbating climate change.

    There are complaints about the carbon footprint of extracting Canadian oil, too. The fuel extracted from Alberta’s oil sands is bitumen, an inferior quality of petroleum. Its extraction process is more akin to mining than conventional oil drilling, and generates 15 per cent more greenhouse emissions compared to the production of one average barrel of oil used in the US, as per The Washington Post.

    There is also opposition in the US state of Nebraska, where leaks from the pipeline could threaten the Ogallala Aquifer, among the world’s largest fresh water reserves which provides drinking water to 20 lakh people in eight US states. Experts say the Canadian bitumen could be especially harmful to the waterway, because unlike conventional crude, which floats on top of water in case of a spill, some of bitumen’s heavy elements settle to the ground, rendering conventional cleanup technologies redundant.

    Native American groups have also opposed the project, saying the pipeline construction would affect water supplies upstream of many of their reservations.

    And, how did this issue play out politically?

    Because the proposed pipeline crosses the international border, it requires the approval of both national governments. Although Canada approved the XL project in 2010, former US President Barack Obama, a Democrat, axed it in 2015, saying it would increase greenhouse emissions, and that Canada would reap most of the project’s benefits.

    Then in 2017, Republican President Trump, who openly questions the veracity of climate change, reversed Obama’s decision soon after taking office, allowing the pipeline to move forward.

    According to a Reuters report, the XL pipeline’s construction is currently underway in Canada, and the border crossing with the US is complete. In all of the US states that the pipeline passes through, construction is taking place on pump stations, the report said.

    Now, as the White House again returns to Democratic hands, the project could again get in jeopardy. In the past, Biden has already declared that he would cancel the XL pipeline’s permit if elected.

    Career options in Journalism and Mass Communication

    Mass communication and journalism is a rapidly growing field of study. The world is now connected through the media. The information we get daily is the hard work of the mass communication industry. They are constantly working to provide us with the latest happenings around the world every moment of the day. 

    But this is not a job of just a handful of people. Thousands of people work day and night on-screen and off-screen.

    Earlier it was assumed that the only career option after a degree in mass communication and journalism would land you a job as a reporter or an anchor. And it was not considered a cup of tea for everyone.
    But today, people are becoming well aware of the different roles people in this industry play and choosing to opt them as a career. 

    If you are confused as to what are the many job options in this industry, below is a list of some of the jobs other than the commonly known ones. 

    1. Public relations:

    These are the people who serve as a representative for businesses, institutions, persons and government bodies. PR executives launch campaigns through print, electronic, and online media. Their main role is to create and develop a brand and help them build a positive image and communication in public. You also have to make sure that correct information about your client is being conveyed to the people at the right time.

    To become a PR executive you need to have good communication skills, creative, reliable and tech-savvy. Moreover, you need good written and oral skills, strong command over language and good organising skills.

    1. Photography:

    As a professional photographer, you will be responsible to manage artists/products, set lights, manage time and create quality content. Your job is not limited to clicking photos only. You can pick one or more than one genre of photography. The genres include candid, food photography, photojournalism, wildlife, fashion or interior. 

    If you have a passion for photography and make a career in it, this is the job for you. You must be tech-savvy and willing to learn on the go. The main aspect of this job is to capture emotions and moments.

    1. News Editor:

    The job of news editor involves deciding which news stories need to be printed. He manages and produces news to present information with flow, accuracy and within a time frame. They work as a coordinator with other team members and other departments. 

    1. Sound engineer:

    They work in films, music, television and radio. They can also work for live performances and shows. They handle tasks like adding sound effects to recordings, resolving technical problems, performing duties assigned by directors and producers. Qualities you must have are, editing techniques and different audio recordings to perform well with the various tasks appointed.

    1. Art director:

    The look after the creation of visual material for print, advertisement, film production and other related things. The see how to present the concept visually and which photographs or design elements in the best way possible. Their role is to develop the overall style of publication, television and advertising campaign. They understand the designs elements of projects and keep the projects on budget within the given time frame. 

    There are other job opportunities as well. The list is long and this is a field that people are not ready to explore completely. 

    But as people are becoming aware, they are seeking jobs in this field. Some other jobs you can try in mass communication and journalism are:

    News reporter 

    TV correspondent 

    Producer 

    Radio jockey 

    Content writer 

    Sound mixer 

    Screenwriter 

    Film writer 

    And the list goes on. Some qualities are specifically important in people working in the mass communication industry. They should be inquisitive, alert, confident, patient and enthusiastic. 

    If you are looking to pursue a career in mass communication and journalism, these are some of the options out of the many that you can opt for. The jobs are well paying and you get to learn something new every day. 

    DOLPHINS

    ABOUT DOLPHINS:

    Dolphin is aquatic mammals. There are 36 dolphin species, found in every ocean. Dolphins live in complex social groups and have evolved to have highly-developed brains. Dolphins are extraordinarily intelligent animals who also display culture, something which was long-believed to be unique to humans. Dolphins are altruistic animals. Dolphins play an important role in keeping their environment in balance. Without dolphins, the animals they prey on would increase in number, and their predators wouldn’t have as much to eat. Dolphins have a reputation for being friendly, but they are wild animals who should be treated with caution and respect. Dolphins are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

    TYPES OF DOLPHINS:

    There are different types of dolphins. Some of them are,

    • Common bottlenose dolphin:

    The common bottlenose dolphin or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is the most well-known species of the family Delphinidae. Common bottlenose dolphins are grey. Common bottlenose dolphins and other dolphins are thought to be some of the smartest animals.

    • Striped dolphin:

    Striped dolphins are among the most abundant and widespread dolphins in the world. Striped dolphins are relatively small, streamlined, and colorful. Striped dolphins are known for their distinct and striking coloration pattern, which includes bold, thin stripes that extend from the eye to the flipper and another set of stripes down the side of the body to the anal region. Striped dolphins are extremely active and fast. Striped dolphins are widely distributed throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans.

    • Dusky dolphin:

    The dusky dolphin is a dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. The dusky dolphin has a long, light-grey patch on its foreside leading to a short, dark-grey beak. The throat and belly are white, and the beak and lower jaw are dark greys. Two blazes of white color run back on the body from the dorsal fin to the tail.

    • White-beaked dolphin:

    White-beaked dolphins are found throughout the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They are active swimmers. The white-beaked has a short beak. The upper body and flanks are dark grey with light grey patches, including a ‘saddle’ behind the dorsal fin, while the underside is light grey to almost white.

    • Spinner dolphin:

    The spinner dolphin is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. Spinner dolphins earned their name because of their ability to spin multiple times in one jump. Scientists believe they spin for several reasons, including communication, removing parasites, and simply for the fun of it.

    • Irrawaddy dolphin:

    The Irrawaddy dolphin’s color is grey to dark slate blue, paler underneath, without a distinctive pattern. It has a large melon and a blunt, rounded head, and the beak is indistinct. Irrawaddy dolphin Communication is carried out with clicks, creaks, and buzzes at a dominant frequency of about 60 kilohertz, which is thought to be used for echolocation.

    • Long-beaked common dolphin:

    The long-beaked common dolphin is a species of common dolphin. Long-beaked common dolphins generally prefer shallow, tropical, subtropical, and warmer temperate waters within 15 nautical miles of the coast and on the continental shelf. The long-beaked common dolphin is generally larger with a longer beak than the short-beaked common dolphin and has a longer rostrum. They are also highly vocal.

    • Rough-toothed dolphin:

    The Rough-toothed Dolphin is a fairly large dolphin that can be found in deep warm, tropical, and subtropical water from the western Pacific to the Mediterranean. Their flanks are light grey and the back and dorsal fin a much darker grey. Rough-toothed dolphins have sharp, serrated teeth.

    STARS

    ABOUT STARS:

    A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma. Stars are held together by gravity. They are huge in size and have very high temperatures. They give out heat and light because they are very hot. Sun is also a star.

    WHY DO STARS TWINKLE? :

    The stars twinkle in the night sky. When starlight enters the atmosphere, it is affected by winds in the atmosphere and by areas with different densities, and temperatures that cause light from the star appear to twinkle when seen from the ground.

    TYPES OF STARS:

    There are different types of stars. Some of them are,

    • RED GIANT STARS:

     A red giant star is a star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the sun. A red giant will expand outward many times its original size. Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a well-known example of a Red Giant Star.

    • WHITE DWARF STARS:

    A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. A white dwarf is very dense. White dwarf stars, so-called because of the white color of the first few that were discovered, are characterized by a low luminosity, a mass on the order of that of the Sun, and a radius comparable to that of Earth.

    • SUPERGIANT STARS:

    Supergiant is among the most massive and most luminous stars. A star classed as a supergiant may have a diameter several hundred times that of the Sun and a luminosity nearly 1,000,000 times as great. The temperature range of supergiant stars spans from about 3,400 K to over 20,000 K.

    • NEUTRON STARS :

    Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stellar objects, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars. The properties of neutron stars are utterly out of this world — a single teaspoon of neutron-star material would weigh a billion tons. Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses.

    • YELLOW DWARF STARS:

    A G-type main-sequence star often called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star is a main-sequence star of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and a surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., Tables VII, VIII. Yellow dwarf stars live for about 10 billion years, and at 4.5 billion years old, our middle-age sun is about halfway through its lifetime. Once its hydrogen supply is depleted, the sun will start consuming its heavier elements. 7.5% of stars are yellow dwarfs and they are brighter than 90% of all other stars.

    • BLUE GIANT STARS:

    A blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant). Rigel is a blue giant star close to zero magnitudes in Earth’s sky, making it a bright star, and is best visible in the winter northern sky. It also has somewhere between 265 and 315 solar masses, making it the most massive star yet discovered.

    • BROWN DWARF STARS:

    A brown dwarf is a type of substellar object that has a mass between the most massive gas giant planets and the least massive stars, approximately 13 to 80 times that of Jupiter ( M J).

    • BLACK DWARF STARS:

    When a white dwarf exhausts its own supply of carbon, oxygen, and free-flowing electrons, it will slowly burn out, transforming into a black dwarf. A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light. Black dwarfs take quadrillions of years to form.

    Students and Stress

    In the exam hall or before the exams everybody feels the butterflies flying in the stomach. This is how we experience stress during examinations.

    What is stress?

    Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demand made upon it. It is the result of our reaction to outside events. Stress is an outcome of:

    1. Examinations and surprise tests. We get stressed during our examinations. Most of the time we get nervous we don’t know the answer to some questions. Our hands start sweating and our mind blanks out at that time.
    2. When we don’t complete a particular assignment at the given time, we panic because of the little time left with us. We cannot give our best at this point of time.
    3. Returning to studies after a long break also is one reason for stress in students. We forget many topics that we had previously learned and read.
    4. Because of poor time management many students suffer from a great loss. Sometimes they study very much, sometimes they play too much or sometimes they spend most of their day on screens.
    5. Various problems at home also gives us a lot of stress. We cannot focus on studies or any other work. The fights between parents impacts a child in a negative manner.
    6. Noise pollution is also a cause of stress. Students are not able to relax while listening to continuous sounds coming from a party, construction site and neighbourhood.

    Types of stress

    • Eustress – It is the positive cognitive response to stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. The goal is not too far out of reach but is still slightly more than one can handle. This fosters challenge and motivation since the goal is in sight. The function of challenge is to motivate a person toward improvement and a goal.  Eustress is indicated by hope and active engagement.
    • Distress – A range of symptoms and experiences of a person’s internal life that are commonly held to be troubling, confusing or out of the ordinary. Mental distress can potentially lead to a change of behavior, affect a person’s emotions in a negative way, and affect their relationships with the people around them. Certain traumatic life experiences such as: stress, lack of sleep, use of drugs or alcohol, assault, abuse or accidents can induce mental distress. This type of stress is negative and can deplete or destroy the energy for life.

    How does stress affect us?

    It increases our heart rate and muscle tension and causes headache, jaw ache, insomnia. It causes many diseases like asthma, hyperactivity, etc and the digestion slows causing ‘butterflies’ in stomach effect. It mentally affects us more. We start thinking negatively. it slows decision making ability and stunts the problem solving skills. There is a decrease in our concentration and focus. We often start forgetting about many things. We experience loneliness and worry about the future or the past. Increase intake of alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine to relax. We tend to isolate ourselves from our family members, friends and neighbours. We feel utterly unmotivated and lose our sense of humor.

    We should not let stress affect us immensely. We should cope up with stress. Talking to anyone about our mental health can help. There are many methods to prevent stress which I will discuss in the next article.  

    World’s oceans continue to warm, despite reduced carbon emissions

    Despite reductions in global carbon emissions due to the COVID-19 lockdown, the world’s oceans in 2020 were the warmest in recorded history, according to a new research.

    Published in the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences earlier this week, the study was conducted by 20 scientists from 13 institutes in China, the United States and Italy.

    Compared with 2019, the upper 2,000 meters of the Earth’s oceans have absorbed a greater amount of heat, enough to boil 1.3 billion kettles, each containing 1.5 liters of water. The increase in heat within the oceans is responsible for the increasing trend of record-breaking global ocean temperatures, said the research.

    Cheng Lijing, lead author of the study and researcher at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said ocean heating is a key indicator for quantifying climate change, since more than 90 percent of global heat ends up in the oceans.

    “However, due to the ocean’s delayed response to global warming, the trend of ocean warming will persist for decades at least,” said Cheng, explaining that the world’s ocean temperatures kept rising last year, despite reports that global carbon emissions fell as people stayed indoors due to COVID-19 restrictions

    The study also found that over the past eight decades, the world’s oceans have been warmer in each decade than in the previous one. The effects of ocean warming manifest in the form of more typhoons, hurricanes and extreme rainfall.

    In addition to ocean temperatures, researchers involved in the study calculated the salinity of ocean water. They found that areas of high salinity had increased in salinity, whereas the opposite was true for areas of lower salinity.

    Researchers also shared data recorded by China’s IAP and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the study.

    CORONAVIRUS ON ICE CREAM CARTONS

    After declaring itself Covid-free last year, China is witnessing another wave of corona cases.

    And according to the latest reports, the novel coronavirus was found on an ice cream carton coming in from eastern China. 

    The Daqiaodao Food Co, Ltd in Tianjin, adjacent to Beijing, was sealed and its employees were being tested for the coronavirus. But there was no indication that anyone among the employees had contracted the virus. 

    The batch contained more than 29,000 cartons and most of it was not yet sold. Only 390 cartons were said to be sold to Tianjin. They are now being tracked and authorities elsewhere were notified of sales to their areas. The government said that they have recalled the cartons from the same batch. 

    The ingredients included New Zealand milk powder and whey powder from Ukraine, the government said. 

    On Saturday, the Health Commission of China blamed the travellers and imported goods saying they brought the virus from abroad. 

    Whereas on Sunday, China reported 109 new confirmed cases of Covid-19, two-thirds of them in a northern province that is close to national capital Beijing, though no deaths have been reported. 

    Currently, its death toll stands at 4953 and total cases at 88,227.

    China was the first country to report a case of coronavirus in Central Wuhan in late 2019. The pandemic is said to have originated from that very place. 

    Earlier this month, a team of WHO scientists travelled to China to discover the origins of the novel coronavirus.

    According to reports, the Chinese government has banned the entry of two scientists. The Chinese government is of the view that the disease came from abroad and has highlighted what it says are discoveries of the coronavirus on imported fish and other food. But this theory has been rejected by various economies around the world.  

    The WHO team says that the motive behind the investigation is not to blame some but to find the scientific answers. It is about studying an important interface between the human kingdom and the animal kingdom.

    The investigation will apparently take months to complete even in the best circumstances. The team must also navigate attempts by China to politicize the inquiry.

    The novel coronavirus has killed nearly two million people since the first outbreak first emerged in Wuhan. 

    Thousands of mutations in the virus have taken place as it has passed from person to person around the world, but new variants recently detected in Britain and South Africa are seemingly more contagious.

    Britain has imposed a lockdown for the third time since the first outbreak in the country. Other countries have also reported cases of the new variant and have imposed a strict check on the people entering the country. Adequate measures are being taken all around the world to control the mutant variant.

    India’s Favorite Beverage – Chai

    Every Indian household has one thing in common – a tea in the morning, a tea in the evening. But how much do we know about our Chai ?

    Origin of Tea

    Tea was first drunk in China as far back as 2700 B.C.! In fact words such as tea, ‘chai’ and ‘chini’ are from Chinese. There are various legends about the origin of Tea. There is one about the Chinese emperor Shen Nung who always boiled water before drinking it. One day a few leaves of the twigs burning under the pot fell into the water giving it a delicious flavour. It is said they were tea leaves. There is also an Indian legend about the origin of tea. Bodhidharma, an ancient Buddhist ascetic, cut off his eyelids because he felt sleepy during meditations. Ten tea plants grew out of the eyelids. The leaves of these plants when put in hot water and drunk banished sleep.

    Masala Chai

    Masala Chai originated in India. In India, many herbs and spices are added to the tea. Each family has their own version of making tea. It is a tea beverage made by boiling black tea in milk and water with a mixture of aromatic herbs and spices. Tea plants have grown wild in the Assam region since antiquity, but historically, Indians viewed tea as an herbal medicine rather than as a recreational beverage.

    In the 1830s, the East India Company became concerned about the Chinese monopoly on tea, which constituted most of its trade and supported the enormous consumption of tea in Great Britain. Then, british colonists noticed the existence of the Assamese tea plants, and began to cultivate tea plantations locally. However, consumption of black tea within India remained low until the promotional campaign by the Indian Tea Association in the early 20th century, which encouraged factories, mines, and textile mills to provide tea breaks for their workers. It also supported many independent chaiwalas throughout the growing railway system. The official promotion of tea was as served in the Indian mode, with small added amounts of milk and sugar.

    Indian varieties of Tea

    • Masala chai – It is the most popular beverage in India
    • Noon chai – The pink tea is a traditional tea beverage from Kashmir and also served in many parts of Rajasthan and Nepal.
    • Green tea – it has been used in Ayurveda and it has also become a part of the modern India lifestyle.
    • Black tea – Black Tea is stronger in flavour and produced by all tea producing regions of India. Large leaved Assamese plants are mainly used for black tea.
    • White tea – White Tea harvested in India, Sri Lanka and China, It’s one of the styles of tea made from the buds and immature tea leaves.
    • Herbal tea – Herbal Tea made from hot water and served hot with varieties of plant material such as hibiscus, rose, etc.
    • Iced tea – It is a common drink in India, mostly available as ginger lemon iced tea or lemon iced tea. Lipton and Nestle brand of tea are two most popular brands of iced tea in India.
    • Irani chai – Irani Chai are masala chai with some spices and a popular quick weekend breakfast.
    • Tandoori chai – It is made in tandoor where clay pots also known as kullhads are preheated in tandoor and again served in fresh and clean kulhads.

    Indians and their Chai can never be separated from one another. Now,  I am also going to drink a refreshing cup of chai with tasty and crispy pakoras.

    Studying Chaos Phenomena With One of the World’s Fastest Cameras

    There are things in life that can be predicted reasonably well. The tides rise and fall. The moon waxes and wanes. A billiard ball bounces around a table according to orderly geometry.

    And then there are things that defy easy prediction: The hurricane that changes direction without warning. The splashing of water in a fountain. The graceful disorder of branches growing from a tree.

    These phenomena and others like them can be described as chaotic systems, and are notable for exhibiting behavior that is predictable at first, but grows increasingly random with time.

    Because of the large role that chaotic systems play in the world around us, scientists and mathematicians have long sought to better understand them. Now, Caltech’s Lihong Wang, the Bren Professor in the Andrew and Peggy Cherng department of Medical Engineering, has developed a new tool that might help in this quest.

    In the latest issue of Science Advances, Wang describes how he has used an ultrafast camera of his own design that recorded video at one billion frames per second to observe the movement of laser light in a chamber specially designed to induce chaotic reflections.

    The camera makes use of a technology called compressed ultrafast photography (CUP), which Wang has demonstrated in other research to be capable of speeds as fast as 70 trillion frames per second. The speed at which a CUP camera takes video makes it capable of seeing light—the fastest thing in the universe—as it travels.

    But CUP cameras have another feature that make them uniquely suited for studying chaotic systems. Unlike a traditional camera that shoots one frame of video at a time, a CUP camera essentially shoots all of its frames at once. This allows the camera to capture the entirety of a laser beam’s chaotic path through the chamber all in one go.

    That matters because in a chaotic system, the behavior is different every time. If the camera only captured part of the action, the behavior that was not recorded could never be studied, because it would never occur in exactly the same way again. It would be like trying to photograph a bird, but with a camera that can only capture one body part at a time; furthermore, every time the bird landed near you, it would be a different species. Although you could try to assemble all your photos into one composite bird image, that cobbled-together bird would have the beak of a crow, the neck of a stork, the wings of a duck, the tail of a hawk, and the legs of a chicken. Not exactly useful.

    Wang says that the ability of his CUP camera to capture the chaotic movement of light may breathe new life into the study of optical chaos, which has applications in physics, communications, and cryptography

    Unrivaled View of Brilliant ‘Planetary Nebula’ NGC 2899

    Its distinctive butterfly shape is caused by one star interfering with the gas expulsion pattern of another

    star at the center of this tie-dye apparition is collapsing, a process scientists have watched and measured for decades. In 2020 astronomers overcame the 3,000 to 6,500 light-years separating us from this celestial beauty, named NGC 2899, for the clearest picture of it yet.

    Though the phenomenon is called a planetary nebula, the term is a misnomer. These cosmic clouds appear when a star burns through the hydrogen at its core. The outer layers of the star separate while the center falls inward, transforming into a white dwarf. As it caves, the core generates ultraviolet radiation and six-million six-million-mile-per-hour winds. Clouds of gas, laden with elements ejected by the star through its lifetime, glow under the heat of the radiation and are shoved outward by the winds. In the image of NGC 2899, oxygen (blue) is surrounded by hydrogen (pink).

    The expelled gas is normally fairly round, so early astronomers in the 1700s assumed the spectacle came from a planet—hence the phenomenon’s name. Discovered in 1835 by English astronomer John Herschel in the constellation Vela, NGC 2899 looks like a butterfly because it is made of two stars. Scientists think that one of them is collapsing andthat the second is interfering with the normal gas expulsion pattern, creating the symmetrical form of only 10 to 20 percent of planetary nebulae. The spectacular sight will eventually show up closer to home: our own sun should reach this phase of its life span in several billion years.

    What is Michigan state’s Flint water crisis?

    On Thursday, nine former officials who served the state of Michigan in the US, including the state’s former governor Rick Snyder, were charged in connection with a criminal investigation into the Flint water crisis.

    Michigan’s Solicitor General Fadwa Hammoud and Wayne County Prosecutor Kym L Worth announced that after 12 months of jury proceedings, the nine officials were indicted on a total of 42 counts “related to a series of alleged actions and inactions that created the historic injustice of the Flint Water Crisis”.

    “We must remember that the Flint Water Crisis is not some relic of the past. At this very moment, the people of Flint continue to suffer from the categorical failure of public officials at all levels of government, who trampled upon their trust, and evaded accountability for far too long,” Hammoud was quoted as saying in a statement

    Former governor Snyder was charged with two counts of willful neglect of duty. “As Governor of the State of Michigan, a public officer did willfully neglect his mandatory legal duty to protect citizens of this state against disaster and/or emergency,” his indictment mentions.

    Snyder, who is a Republican became Michigan’s 48th governor and was sworn in on January 1, 2011. He remained in this position until 2018.

    What was the Flint Water Crisis?

    The Flint water crisis is an ongoing public health crisis that began in 2014 when the City of Flint in Michigan–which has a population of roughly 100,000–changed its water supply from Lake Huron to the Flint river. This switch caused the water distribution pipes to corrode, as a result of which lead and other contaminants were leached into the municipal drinking water.

    This led to an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease, a serious type of pneumonia caused by the Legionella bacteria and other health complications in thousands of its residents. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), people can get sick from this if they breathe in mist or accidentally swallow bacteria-containing water into the lungs.

    While the water supply was switched back in 2015, the damage was long-lasting and many residents of the city continued to suffer.

    In January 2016, the state of Michigan declared a state of emergency and in October the same year, residents of the city were advised not to drink the municipal tap water unless it was filtered.

    As per an article published in the American Water Works Association (AWWA) in 2016, which described the water crisis, a few weeks after the water source was switched despite warnings and concerns from some officials, residents started complaining about the colour, taste and odor of their drinking water. In May 2014, some residents informed officials that the water was causing rashes, especially in children.

    As per a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) conducted by the CDC in May 2016, over 66 percent of the households in the city reported one or more adult members experiencing at least one behavioural health issue “more than usual” and 54 percent of the households reported that at least one child experienced at least one behavioural health issue.

    But why was the water source changed?

    The AWWA article notes that in order to reduce costs for treated water Flint officials decided to join the newly formed Karegnondi Water Authority (KWA) in 2013, which was constructing a pipeline to transmit water from Lake Huron.

    In the meantime, the city of Flint had the option to either purchase treated water from the Detroit Water and Sewage Department (DWSD), which was sourced from Lake Huron or treat water from the Flint river on its own.

    After officials failed to strike a short-term agreement with DWSD, Flint officials decided to use water from the Flint river and treat it at the Flint Water Service Center (FWSC). But the water wasn’t treated properly at the FWSC, resulting in lead contamination.

    The article also notes that while the Flint river water is difficult to treat, “oversights and missteps” combined with “inherent chemical conditions” set the stage for the water crisis.

    A report published in 2017 by the Michigan Civil Rights Commission said that race and racism played a role in causing the water crisis even though both black and white residents were victims. The report is based on the testimony of over 150 residents, community leaders, experts, academics and government officials

    We are not suggesting that those making decisions related to this crisis were racists, or meant to treat Flint any differently because it is a community primarily made up by people of color. Rather, the disparate response is the result of systemic racism that was built into the foundation and growth of Flint, its industry and the suburban area surrounding it,” the report said.

    ”The crisis has been the subject of a film and a documentary film. A 2017 TV film called Flint directed by Bruce Beresford starring Queen Latifah featured her as a woman dealing with the effects that the contaminated water had on her and her family. A documentary on the subject, also titled “Flint”, was released in 2020 and is based on half a decade of research into the crisis and the failure of officials to respond to it.

    Why WhatsApp is giving users more time to accept its privacy policy

    Accepting that it had led to “confusion” and spawned a lot of “misinformation”, messaging service WhatsApp Saturday announced it will be delaying the implementation of its new privacy policy until May 15. This, the Facebook product hopes, will give users more time to “review the policy at their own pace”.

    Why has WhatsApp delayed the implementation of the new privacy policy?

    Ever since it announced the new policy in early January, there was confusion over whether this means parent company Facebook, which has been facing some trust deficit globally, will get to access user messages. As this confusion, partly caused by a hard-to-understand privacy policy which chose to not spell out how the changes will play out on ground, gained ground, millions of users across the world chose to look at options, even as WhatsApp gave users the option to accept or leave the service

    What happens now?

    Nothing really changes in the privacy policy, which WhatsApp later clarified does not change anything when it comes to personal messaging and only impacts some new messaging with businesses. However, now users have till May 15 to read through, internalise and accept the new policy and its changes. Earlier, the deadline was February 8, which had added to the panic among users and fears that something drastic is on the anvil.

    WhatsApp has also reiterated in the new post that users have nothing to be worried about. “WhatsApp was built on a simple idea: what you share with your friends and family stays between you. This means we will always protect your personal conversations with end-to-end encryption, so that neither WhatsApp nor Facebook can see these private messages. Which is why we don’t keep logs of who everyone’s messaging or calling. We also can’t see your shared location and we don’t share your contacts with Facebook,” it says.

    Will this help WhatsApp end the exodus of users?

    To a certain extent, yes. But the damage has been done. What the new privacy policy has done is remind users about the linkages between Facebook and WhatsApp, which many would not have taken seriously so far. With Facebook’s not-so-great record in privacy, users seem to be rethinking if they want to be messaging everybody from their parents to bosses via a service owned by the social network.

    Both Signal and Telegram have benefited from this exodus, so much so that both services seem to be struggling to handle the influx of new users — Signal services were disrupted on Friday. What could come to WhatsApp’s advantage in the long run is the network effect, which will gradually sink in as users realise that those who they want to chat with have not moved along with them to the same alternative option. And this could be what WhatsApp might be hoping from with the delayed adoption of the privacy policy.

    CHESS

    ABOUT CHESS:

    Chess was invented in India around the 8th century. Chess is a board game. It is played by two players. It is played in a square board, made of 64 smaller squares, with eight squares on each side. Each player starts with sixteen pieces: eight pawns, two knights, two bishops, two rooks, one queen, and one king. The colors of the pieces are black and white. Chess is one of the world’s most popular games, played by millions of people worldwide. It is such a great game because unlike any other games it only uses logic. The goal of the game is for each to try and checkmate the king of the opponent. Playing chess may improve learning, thinking, analytical power, and decision-making ability. Chess may also Chess helped me in getting my thoughts and ideas focused. Chess elevates your creativity. Chess leads to better planning skills.

    ABOUT CHESS PIECES:

    The six different types of pieces are king, rook, bishop, queen, knight, and pawn.

    • KING:

    The king is the most important piece in the game of chess. It can never be captured and if it is in danger then it must be made safe immediately. If it is not possible to make the King safe then the game is lost. The King may move one square in any direction. In the diagram, the King can move to one of the highlighted squares.

    • QUEEN:

    The queen is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Each player starts the game with one queen, placed in the middle of the first rank next to the king. The queen is the only piece on the board during a chess game that represents a woman, and she is the most powerful piece of the game.

    • ROOK:

    The rook is a piece in the game of chess resembling a castle. The rook symbolized a chariot. A rook can move horizontally or vertically. The rooks begin the game in the corners of the chessboard. The rook is the second most powerful piece (behind the queen). The rook can capture an enemy piece by moving to the occupied square.

    • BISHOP:

    The bishop is a piece in the game of chess. Each player begins the game with two bishops. One starts between the king’s knight and the king, the other between the queen’s knight and the queen. The bishop chess piece moves in any direction diagonally. Bishops capture opposing pieces by landing on the square occupied by an enemy piece.

    • KNIGHT:

    The knight is a piece in the game of chess. It is represented by a horse’s head and neck. Each player starts with two knights, which are located between the rooks and bishops in the standard starting position. A knight can move only in an L pattern. It is meant to jump over other pieces. The Knight piece can move forward, backward, left, or right two squares and must then move one square in either perpendicular direction.

    • PAWN:

    The pawn is the most numerous piece in the game of chess. They move forward but capture diagonally. Pawns can only move forward one square at a time, except for their very first move where they can move forward two squares.

    EAGLE

    ABOUT EAGLE:

    Eagle is one of the wonderful birds. Eagles are large, powerful Birds. They are Diurnal Birds which means that they are most active during the daytime. Most Species of Eagles have subdued feather colors, mainly browns, rust, black, white, and some blues and greys. An Eagle’s Wings are Long and Broad, making them effective for Soaring. Eagles catch prey with their razor-sharp talons. Eagles have heavy heads and large hooked beaks to enable them to rip flesh from their prey. It flies high above the ground looking for prey with its keen eyes. Eagles’ eyes are extremely powerful. They mate for life and use the same nest each year. There are several species of eagles, which differ in size, looks, and habits. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey. There are over 60 different species of eagle. Eagles build their nests on high cliffs or in tall trees. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, some of which are closely related.

    TYPES OF EAGLES:

    There are different types of eagles. Some of them are,

    • BALD EAGLE:

    A bald eagle is a large eagle with a white head that lives in North America. It is the national bird of the United States of America. The bald eagle has a snowy-feathered head and whitetail.

    • GOLDEN EAGLE:

    Golden eagle a large Eurasian and North American eagle with yellow-tipped head feathers in the mature adult. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Golden eagles are sometimes considered the best fliers among eagles.

    • HARPY EAGLE:

    Harpy eagle a very large crested eagle of tropical rainforests. Harpies have a crown of irregular feathers atop their heads, giving them a disheveled appearance. Their legs are covered in white feathers with black stripes to the feet, which are yellow with large black talons.

    • WHITE-TAILED EAGLE:

    The white-tailed eagle is a very large species of a sea eagle. The white-tailed eagle is a very large bird and one of the largest living birds of prey. The white-tailed eagle is also called the sea eagle, erne, and white-tailed sea-eagle.

    • WEDGE TAILED EAGLE:

    The wedge-tailed eagle is the largest bird of prey in Australia and is also found in southern New Guinea. It has long, fairly broad wings, fully feathered legs, and an unmistakable wedge-shaped tail. Young Wedge-tailed Eagles are mid-brown in color with reddish-brown heads and wings.

    • STEPPE EAGLE:

    The steppe eagle is in many ways a peculiar species of eagle. The steppe eagle is a large, bulky, and robust-looking eagle. It is mainly dark brown with a longish but very thick neck and a relatively small head that nonetheless features a strong bill and long gape-line. It appears long-winged and has a longish and rather rounded tail and markedly well-feathered legs.

    • SHORT-TOED SNAKE EAGLE:

    The short-toed snake eagle, also known as the short-toed eagle, is a medium-sized bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. The short-toed snake eagle is found in open cultivated plains, arid stony deciduous scrub areas, and foothills and semi-desert areas. These are relatively large snake eagles.

    How Does Music Help Students?

    I guess everybody likes music, at least everybody I know likes music. But most of us don’t know how music affects us and especially students. 

    According to my dictionary, music is the sounds that are arranged in a way that is pleasant or exciting to listen to. But to me music is more than that. It is a way of life. Music freshens up my mind and provides a new energy. There are various types of music around the world but I like Indian classical music the most. It can be a little boring at first but as the tempo increases, the singer also starts singing faster and at that time I start dancing (mostly dancing in my mind). 

    What happens when we listen to Music?

    • The brain treats the music differently. When we listen to music, many activities occur all around the brain  involved in movement, motor planning, attention and of course, the auditory cortex.
    • If the music feels good to your brain then it releases dopamine. It is basically your brain telling you whether you should or not listen to music.
    • It changes your mood and also changes your perspective about the world. A study showed that people see happy faces when they listen to happy music, but if they happen to listen to sad songs, they are likely to see sad faces. 
    • Music can control your fear and makes you ready to fight. It also stimulates memory from the hippocampus.
    • Music enhances frontal lobe’s function, which is used in thinking and decision making.
    • Song lyrics activate Broca’s and Wernickle’s area which improves the ability to communicate.

    Music and Students

    Music can create a mood. Study music can be relaxing and help students beat anxiety or stress while studying. Background music is likely to help students improve their focus during long study sessions.

    Music can help with memorisation – that is the basis of “the Mozart effect” which suggested that listening to Mozart study music could actually enhance intelligence.

    Study music is considered to be beneficial for the intake of vital information. Relaxing music for studying can help to ease nerves and help you beat pre-exam anxiety.

    Studies have shown that Music can even increase your performance. A study done by Cambridge University showed that hip-hop music provides an uplifting effect on its listeners that can help them accept, manage and deal better with mental health issues

    Perhaps one of the most compelling reasons to listen to music during a study session is because music is proven to help improve cognitive performance.

    Music engages the areas of the brain involved with paying attention, making predictions and updating the event in memory. It helps us to improve our focus.

    It can cure pain. Similar to how a lullaby would calm you, studies show that music can meaningfully reduce the intensity of pain, especially in geriatric care, intensive care, or palliative medicine. 

    Music also increases motivation to do our work. It also improves our immune functions.

    Due to so many benefits of music, Plato says, “Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.”

    Wind turbine maker Vestas halts batch of V150s after Sweden collapse probe

    Vestas has temporarily taken around 150 of its V150 machines out of service “in an abundance of caution” after identifying a blade fault as the cause of a turbine collapse in Sweden late last year.

    A investigation into the V150 4.2MW collapse at the Aldermyrberget wind farm found a bonding failure on blade-root inserts due to a manufacturing issue at a single supplier, confirmed a spokesman for the Danish wind giant.

    Vestas has halted around 150 of the turbines that could potentially be exposed to the same issue, which caused a loose blade to destabilise the Swedish turbine and collapse, he added.

    “Vestas is taking this step out of an abundance of caution and is working to put a solution in place to get the turbines safely operating again,” the spokesman told Recharge, adding that the company is liaising with customers over options for repair or replacement.

    No other operational turbines have been affected, and the fault is not related to two other V150 blade incidents in the US and Australia last year, said Vestas.

    Nobody was hurt in the incident at the Aldermyrberget project, which is owned by Wpd and was ramping up for full commissioning when the turbine collapsed in November.

    The V150 has been a huge commercial success for Vestas over the last few years, with thousands of the turbines ordered for deployment in markets around the world as developers move to more powerful machines. The OEM had booked more than 10GW of orders for the V150 4.2MW by mid-2020

    5 Best Websites for Online Courses

    Everything is available online nowadays, be it food, clothes or furniture. Everything is just one click away, even education.

    We’ve all wished to gain education from the top universities but were unable to do so for unforeseeable reasons. Some found interest in a subject they were completely unaware of. While others just want to gain some extra skills and learn something new.

    With the availability of online education, your dream to acquire a degree from top universities has come true.
    Thousands of courses are available on these websites to choose from and they have flexible hours. So you can complete the course according to your own pace.

    Here’s a list of top 5 websites for online courses:

    1. Khan Academy:

    Started in 2006 by an educator named Salman Khan, Khan Academy is a non-profit academy. It aims to provide free education to everyone and all around the world. 

    It is free for both teachers and students. It provides education from the root level, i.e., kindergarten to early college level. 

    All the subjects are available on Khan Academy. Be it maths, grammar, history, science and even SAT exam preparation. 

    The lectures are not very long and do not make studying boring or monotonous. 

    It has some of the most famous partners as its founding partner. Namely, Google, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Reed Hastings.

    1. Coursera:

    Coursera is one of the most famous and loved websites by students. It has over 35 million learners and has partnered with 150 top universities from around the world. To name some, Yale, Stanford and the University of Michigan.
    Talking about the courses available, Coursera has 2700 courses, 250 specializations and four degrees. Some courses also provide certificates on completion. 

    It is the leading provider of massive open online courses.
    Some of the courses are free and the paid courses mostly range between $29-$99. But the specializations and degrees have high prices. 

    1. Udemy:

    Udemy has around 30 million students and 100,000 courses for you to choose from. Courses are taught in over 50 languages.
    It has some of the most expert faculties. With 42,000 instructors and 22 million minutes of video instruction, Udemy is a widely loved website for online education. 

    Courses on Udemy are not free but don’t cost much. The price ranges between $9 to $500 depending on the type of course. 

    It does not partner with universities but it allows independent creators and educators to create courses and teach online in the subject of their specialization. 

    1. edX:

    A non-profit education platform, established by Harvard and MIT, edX aims to break the three barriers in education: cost, location and access.

    It has 20 million learners from all around the world. And provide 2400 courses, the majority of which are provided by top-ranked universities in the world.
    Some of the courses are free while you may need to pay for some. One of the best things about using edX is that on completion of your course you are rewarded with an official certificate as proof.

    1. Stanford Online:

    It offers free online as well as professional certificate, advanced degrees and executive education. Currently, Stanford Online is imparting education to millions of teachers and students. 

    It offers courses from Stanford Law School, Stanford Business School and Stanford medical school and many others. 

    Many other websites provide online courses that are free or paid. These were some of the most loved and preferred ones. 

    Education should be accessible to all and everywhere around the world and that’s exactly what these websites aim for. 

    They are simple to use websites and accessible to people of all ages because learning has no age. 

    It will not only help you learn something new but will also add skill to your professional career. 

    Happy learning!

    BEES

    ABOUT BEES:

    Bees are small and wonderful insects. Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants. They collect honey from flowers and store it in their hive. Bees have four wings. Its body has three parts head, abdomen, and abdomen. The color of its body is yellow and black. They are one of the hardworking insects. Bees live in a hive in a swarm. It lives in its community. Bees are very useful to human beings. They give honey and beeswax. One healthy Honey Bee would approximately lay 2,000 eggs in one day. Bees are mainly found in habitats such as tropical rain forests and woodlands, grasslands, and Gardens where there are more flowers and green matters available. Honey bees are small flying insects whose lifespan varies between 170 to 180 days. Honey bees usually live in groups and their queen has a lifespan of more than two years. One bee may fly up to more than 90 thousand miles to collect one pound of honey. In a colony there are three types of bees namely worker bees, drone bees, and queen bees. . Worker bees are the most familiar-looking member of the honeybee hive. Worker bees are all female, and they do almost everything for the hive. The worker bee is given different tasks to do during different stages of her life. Worker bees are responsible for everything from feeding the larvae (the baby bees), to tending to the queen, to cleaning the hive, to collecting food, to guarding the colony, to building honeycomb. Drones are male bees and their sole purpose is to mate with the queen. Unlike the female worker bee, drones do not have stingers and gather neither nectar nor pollen. You can identify drones in the hive by their big round bodies and large eyes. There is one queen bee per hive – she is the mom of all the other bees. She is the only fertile member of the colony and lays about 1,500 eggs a day during spring and summer. The queen will not leave the hive again unless the colony swarms (looking for a new home). Queen bees are distinguished from the other members of the hive by their long abdomens and small wings.

    IMPORTANCE OF BEES:

    Bees are important to humanity and the world we live in because they provide the most efficient way to pollinate plants. They are especially important because they pollinate our agriculture for free. It’s their work as crop pollinators. This agricultural benefit of honey bees is estimated to be between 10 and 20 times the total value of honey and beeswax.

    INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT BEES:

    • A bee produces a teaspoon of honey (about 5 grams) in her lifetime.
    • There are over 20,000 different species of bees. To produce a kilogram of honey, bees fly the equivalent of three times around the world in air miles.
    • Each bee has 170 odorant receptors, which means they have one serious sense of smell. They use this to communicate within the hive and to recognize different types of flowers when looking for food.
    • If the queen bee dies in a honeybee hive the workers can create a new queen bee. They do this by selecting a young larva and by feeding it special food called ‘royal jelly’ the larva develops into a fertile queen.
    • The Honey Bee is the only insect that makes food which human can eat.