Cottage industries in India

Cottage indusries is also known as traditional industries. These are organised by individuals with the private resources.They produce simple products with simple technology. The cottage indusries play a vital role in the growth of Indian economy. Cottage indusries provide employment opportunities in village.They can raise extra income.Women wanting to work can also work in the cottage industry. These industries uses local resources available in that area.

Cotton weaving. Cotton threads are made by the rural people. They spin and weave by hand. Cotton is spun around a chakra.

Silk weaving :They produce silk from silk worms. They threads are then purchased by the local people at the low price.

Knitting:People in the rural area do the buisness of knitting sweaters in their home. They make products and then sell them at the market.

Handicrafts:The handicrafts maintains a unique character in India. In foreign countries Handicrafts are considered as luxury but in India it is considered as normal material.

Pottery:Pottery is used in making pots and diyas. This is made from clay with the help of wheel.

Problems faced by cottage indusries :

1.Lack of power :The people in the villages do not get 24 hours electricity due to which their work is not properly done.

2.Problem of finance: Poor people cannot afford to purchase raw material or new machines for their industry.

3.Old methods of production:People use old techniques due to which the product do not result in high quality.

4.Problem of marketing :They do not have marketing strategy or the marketing planning. Due to which they do not get the right price for their product and they incur losses.

We should stop using Chinese products and should start buying from the Indian traditional markets.



Birds are vertebrates. Their main characteristic is their feathers. The birds come in all shapes, colors, and sizes. Other important features of birds are wings, beaks, and hollow bones. Birds are basically warm-blooded. Birds lay eggs. Birds are found in almost all parts of the world. The bodies of birds are covered with feathers and their feet covered by scales. Different birds are found in different places as determined by climate. Birds bring a kind of beautiful addition to the scene. Most of the birds can fly in the sky and travel long distances in the air. It builds a nest on the trees and eats insects, fish, grains, etc. Birds migrate for several reasons. Migration is a necessary part of the survival of many types of birds. The sounds that birds make are some of the most beautiful sounds in nature. When birds communicate, they use songs and calls. There are migratory birds that fly from one country to another over the hills, lakes, and oceans during some particular season.


There are over 10,000 various species of birds across the world.The bird differs in size, communication skills, colors, shapes, migration patterns, etc….


Birds are important members of many ecosystems. They are important for the environment as well as for human beings, they play a vital role in every living thing present on earth. They play a vital role in controlling pests, acting as pollinators, dispersing seeds, and maintaining island ecology. Birds are greatly helpful to humans and nature. Due to pollution, excess use of pesticides, modernization, and widespread radiation many birds are getting extinct. Thus we need to protect them.


Some ways to protect birds are,

  • Use Natural Pest Control
  • Support Conservation.
  • Clean your bird bath and bird feeders regularly.
  • Avoid the use of pesticides in your yard.
  • Provide or protect bird habitat.
  • Prevent Bird Collisions with Your Windows Collisions are one of the most frequent causes of bird deaths. Birds see nature reflected in the window or mistake houseplants inside the building for outdoor plants and fly into the glass. Putting up curtains or window decals helps make the window visible to birds.
  • Support bird conservations.
  • Protect birds from pets.


  • Flamingo chicks are born gray or white and take up to three years to reach their mature pink.
  • To deal with the summer heat, birds have a behavior called gular fluttering. This is when the bird will open its mouth and “Flutter” the upper throat muscles to promote heat loss, similar to panting in dogs.
  • Birds have a third inner eyelid called the nictitating membrane, which sweeps horizontally across the eye. Blinking with this eyelid lubricates the eye, protects it from wind and dust, and assist aquatic birds with underwater vision.
  • Hummingbirds have 1,000 to 1,500 feathers, the fewest number of feathers of any bird species in the world. This keeps them more lightweight for easier flight.
  • Penguins can jump as high as 6 feet in the air.


People around the world have been waiting for two things: the end of Covid-19 pandemic and the end of 2020. While the pandemic continues to stay, 2020 ended for good.

2020 proved to be a year like no other. The starting of the year saw the Australian forest fires, the death of Kobe Braynat and the breakout of a global pandemic. To top it off, the world was almost about to witness World War III. Luckily, that did not happen but the world came to a halt because of the coronavirus. People were forced to stay at home, some lost their jobs and many lost their loved ones. People named 2020 “The cursed year”.

New year celebrations are a sight to watch around the world. But this year the celebrations shifted to television only. The world watched the clock turn to 12 and the big celebrations but only from home.
We can say that the impact of the pandemic did not leave the new year celebrations alone as well.

Starting with the US, the new year celebration of Times Square, New York is said to be one of a kind. Everyone wishes to see it once in their lifetime. But this year only a handful of people were allowed to enter the Times Square. The frontline workers, first responders and their families were the only few people who saw the midnight ball drop. Celebrities performed through a televised event as usual.
Use of fireworks remained suspended in the cities of San Francisco and Las Vegas.

Australia witnesses new year first around the world. It was also under strict restrictions on movements, gatherings and internal borders. Yet, the fireworks over the Opera House and Harbour Bridge went on like every year.
Melbourne imposed harsh restrictions and cancelled the fireworks altogether.

Germany is under a lockdown till January 10. The government has banned the sale of fireworks and has limited the number of people in public gatherings.

China, which is believed to be the birthplace of the coronavirus saw a scaled-down new year’s celebration. The light show in Beijing was also cancelled. Wuhan however, saw a grand celebration where thousands of people gathered to release balloons in the air.

Russia also complied with the coronavirus restrictions and banned the celebrations. Yet, the fireworks at the Red Square happened like every year. On Thursday, the bars, restaurants and clubs remained closed. They are set to reopen on Friday as Russia starts weeklong festivities that span over Orthodox Christmas.

Italy imposed an 8:00 pm curfew. Bars, restaurants and clubs remained closed.
People stayed at home and continued closed celebrations.

Ireland imposed the highest level of restrictions and banned all celebrations. Household visits were cancelled, travel was limited to 5kms. All the non-essential shops remained closed as well.

England is currently tackling the new coronavirus variant. No celebrations were seen in London. The traditional London Eye celebration shifted to various locations across London.

Hong Kong continued to celebrate the new year indoors for the second year. Earlier it was due to security reasons but this time it was due to coronavirus.
Japan also cancelled the traditional new year’s celebrations.
The South Korea government banned visit to the Gangneung beach where people gather to witness the year’s first sunrise.

In India, Delhi announced a night curfew and restricted public gathering to five people. In Maharashtra, clubs, restaurants and hotels closed at 11 pm. No celebratory events or gatherings were allowed.

The fear of the coronavirus still looms over people. It could be clearly seen all around the world. Even though the celebrations shifted indoors, enthusiasm was seen in people. Some celebrated with families while some were away from home. Everyone prayed that 2021 makes things better around the globe.

People cheered and hoped 2021 brings happiness throughout the year.
I hope 2021 brings lots of happiness to you all. May you achieve all your goals and fulfil all your dreams.
Wishing everyone a very happy new year!


We all are humans we all have those days when we lose it. We lose that little temper we had and end up saying or doing things that we regret and then we keep running around justifying our actions to the world. Getting angry isn’t all that bad but from my personal experience anger surmounts to absolutely nothing. You get angry you shout at something and someone and then you end up wishing you hadn’t and then you feel even more miserable. So, how should we stop it? How should we make our nature more likable?

Quotes About Anger - Awesome Quotes About Life

INTROSPECTION – before doing anything or saying anything take a deep breath and ask yourself why? Why am i so damn angry? Maybe it’s because you’re having a bad day or maybe you didn’t sleep well or maybe you’re just hungry or thirsty.Maybe you’re letting someone’s words get to you. So are you technically really angry or are you just venting at somebody else for no damn reason? Sit down and begin asking some serious questions.

JUST STOP REACTING– There are some people in this planet that are the epitomes of devils. They are born just to torment us and make us irritated as hell and are the true test of our patience. As easy as it sounds it’s awfully hard to control our emotions from overflowing on their face but we are the individuals who want to change ourselves so instead of just giving them a piece of our mind and telling them to bugger off which usually doesn’t work we will now use a different approach we’ll just smile and ignore. Just let them be. Let them say what they want to say let them make fun of us just stop reacting the way they want us to react. Someone threw coffee at your white shirt just say “i look prettier like this”. someone’s driving rashly just say “God is watching rest in piece”. Instead of always shouting at your kids just laugh it off for once just close your eyes to the world and become comatose and stop reacting.

LET IT OUT PRODUCTIVELY : If you want to live a happy life learn how to vent in different ways. Learn how to calm your mind and how to use that pent up anger for someone or something in a way that helps you to move on. The best way is to play sports, to start running and just don’t stop till that image of you shooting your neighbor with a gun doesn’t disappear from your brain or just write it down write all the emotions on a piece of paper and torch it. Burn it and feel good it is much better than burning that house down.

BE A SAINT – If something is happening to you repeatedly just tell them. Tell them how you feel in the nicest way possible almost like a speech.Tell them that their dog pooping in front of your house is NOT COOL. Their kids breaking your windows and making so much noise is not cool or that person who keeps parking in your space is definitely NOT COOL. Try to solve a problem with a nice tone first. Pen is mightier than a sword, be cunning be innovative you’re not a beast who lunges at anyone who disturbs you. You were with God’s grace made a human use your brain instead of your fists. Every problem can be solved if one tries to solve it patiently.

11 Anger Quotes For When You're Really Pissed Off

SAY SORRY – What about the times when you mess up? When you were the one who broke the headlights of that car and it’s owner is shouting his brains out at your face with no signs of mercy or that irritating guy who has brains smaller than that of an ant and gets angry at everything, what should you do? Bow down and say you’re sorry. Instead of getting angry just listen to their words that are sharper than a jagged glass and try to not let them pierce your heart. Be brave and just apologize there’s no point in two men/women shouting at each other because the quarrel will never end. You have to take the first step and just finish it for the sake of your sanity.”Fighting doesn’t prove which one is stronger but avoiding a fight definitely proves which one of is smarter”

Women In Labour Force : Challenges and Reform.

India’s female labour force participation (FLFP) rate is low and reducing consistently. National Sample survey (NSS) shows that between 1983 and 2011, India’s married women participation in labour force is declining even when the economy grew and fertility fell. Surprisingly, these trends are visible in high skill profession like senior officer, legislator and managers. Among engineers the female unemployment is five times more than men.

Reasons for low FLFP rate

High labour market barrier for socially and economically marginalized communities can increase the transmission of disadvantages across generation. Here we look at why participation of women labour force in economy is on a declining trend even when they have access to better education. These main reasons for decline in FLFP rate :

  1. Women are being overlooked among the unemployed people. Majority of them are outside labour force but are willing to work.
  2. Majority of women generally work in low paying or socially accepted jobs many of them are offshoots of domestic helps and childcare.
  3. Women are still entrusted to look after household duties and families across the social status.
  4. Existing skill and employment generation programme ignore the additional needs and constraint of women worker keeping them in disadvantage as compared to others.

Steps needed to be taken

Over the years both sate and central government have taken several steps to increase the participation of women in labour force so that they can contribute to the nation economy. In doing so they must undertake these policy reform

Strengthening existing policy

Both Central and State government use reservation as a policy to increase the representation of marginalized community in their workforce. Almost all states in India provide reservation to female child. Several survey has increased the SC / ST, OBC representation by around some percentage point. Its been observed that there is increase in female employment in education after operation blackboard reserve the post of teacher for women. These steps change the prejudice and bias against women. But these steps should be well monitor and well targeted.

Redesinging policy strategy

Recently, both states and central government has starting using the policy of Direct benefit transfer that is they are started transfering the social security amount direct beneficary bank account. The government should transfer the benefit amount directly to the bank account of women in the household as it leads to proper utilization of that amount.

Changing policy approach

Policy to increase FLFP and job creation can’t be viewed differently. This means that FLFP fails to create the level playing field for example job creation and skilling programmes often ignores safety, mobility, and other special needs of women which posses a big labour market barrier for women. Skilling and job creation programme should pay special attention to women needs and should break other entry barrier for women.

Influencing the private sector

Firms do not have incentive to support policy that benefit government and society at large. The great example is India’s recent maternity leave policy, where cost of leave is borne by private firms. This has led to low hiring or in some case no hiring of women in private firm which is just unacceptable.

The government should fund the cost of maternity leave to the firm especially for less education and women who hails from weaker and marginalized sector. Laying off women for just their biology it not unique to India this trends have been observed in all the countries around the world.

The way forward

Women need must be addressed and their participation must be increased not just in labour force but also in all sectors of the sectors. The dream transforming in to developed economy cannot be achieved if without the contribution of women. Not just government but private should come forward and implement gender parity and equal payment for equal work in their firms. Women contribution in society can be better understood by Gandhi quote : “If you educate a man you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman you educate a family (nation)”.

How can the youth make an impact?

Youth can bring a great change, they can change this world. Indian teenagers are yet to realize their full potential. They think that they can make an impact only after getting a job.

How can a teen make an impact?

The very first thing that we as youth can do is to know our rights. Know about your right to information, right to equality, right to freedom and other rights. These are important because this will assist you to determine those people whose rights are being suppressed. You can even make people aware of their rights.

To change the world you need to understand the world and its complex systems. For being capable of this understanding, education is very important. Every youth must be educated. Education increases a family’s standard of living and promotes economic development. More educated people will mean more economic growth. Education also helps to eradicate poverty.

Gender and race based stereotypes have always existed in our society. We can make an impact by even stopping one small stereotypic comment. We should even educate the people that every person deserves equal respect in this world. Education also helps in breaking this stereotypic perspective and teaches that each individual is unique in his/her own way.

We should always be aware about local and state issues. We can discuss these issues with our friends, families and teachers and find the solutions to it. When we learn about some issues, we can share our views on more similar issues. We also ponder upon the reasons because of which this problem became such a big issue. Knowing more about our locality urges us to be a responsible resident.

Just learning about various issues is not enough. We should speak up whenever we see anything wrong happening. We should speak up when we want to ask something. We should speak up even for others. We should speak up when we don’t feel well. Suppressing thought and feelings will make us unhappy. Speak your views and opinions confidently. 

We can join many organisations and groups as volunteers to share our views to others. Organizations influence many people and society. As a volunteer you can visit the households and make the issues/concerns be heard by all the people and also gather direct feedback from them. These groups generally take actions faster. You will not feel alone while protesting and campaigning.

You can even join many campaigns to protest against gender inequality, climate change, racism and any other issues. By campaigning against any wrong decision or thing, governments will have to review its decision and also stop any action that is not right according to the constitution. A peaceful rally is also a good means of protest but you have to make sure that it does not turn violent.

We all are aware of climate change. We can together combat and reverse it by organising rallies. We can even take digital actions like storming twitter, sharing posts on a single hashtag. Online campaigning is the new trend.

We should volunteer whenever we get a chance. Volunteering helps various people and organizations. We meet many people while volunteering. Each of our experiences are very special and they teach us something new.

And together we can change the world.

India hockey great and Olympic medalist Michael Kindo dies at 73

Former India hockey player, an Olympic medalist and World Cup-winner, Michael Kindo passed away on December 31 due to age-related complications.

  • Former India hockey player Michael Kindo passed away at 73 on 31/12/20 , Thursday.
  • Michael Kindo was part of the 1975 hockey team that won the World Cup in Malaysia
  • Kindo was also part of the 1972 bronze-medal winning hockey team in Munich

India hockey legend Micheal Kindo passed away aged 73 on December 31 in Rourkela, Odisha after a prolonged illness. Kindo was part of the 1972 bronze medal-winning Indian Olympic team in Munich.

Michael Kindo, who played as a full-back was also part of the 1975 hockey team that won the World Cup in Kuala Lumpur. Kindo was part of the squad that defeated Pakistan in the final to win its maiden World Cup gold medal.

According to his family members, Kindo was suffering from age-related complications and breathed his last at 3:30 pm IST on Thursday. Kindo is survived by his wife and two daughters.

Hockey India and Odisha Sports took to social media on Thursday to condole the death of Michael Kindo, who was also the first tribal to don India colours at the highest level in hockey.

We are deeply saddened by the demise of our former hockey player and 1975 World Cup winner, Michael Kindo. We send out our heartfelt condolences to his family,” Hockey India wrote.

@TheHockeyIndia, 👈 tag at Twitter.