TREES

ABOUT TREES:

A tree is a tall plant with a trunk and branches made of wood. Trees can live for many years. Trees have a thick wooden central part from which branches grow. A single tree has many roots. The roots can carry nutrients and water from the ground through the trunk and branches to the leaves of the tree. The roots of trees bind the soil and help it from being washed away by water or wind.

BENEFITS OF TREES:

Trees are vital resources for the survival of all living beings. Trees are an important part of the ecosystem. Trees give off oxygen that we need to breathe. They give us oxygen, store carbon, stabilize the soil, and give life to the world’s wildlife. Trees provide fruits, wood, leaves, flowers, rubber, paper, and many other things to human beings. They also provide us with the materials for tools and shelter. Trees clean the air. Trees prevent soil erosion. Trees also provide food, protection, and homes for many birds and mammals. It also provides timber for construction. They also conserve water. They help in fighting back the climate changes by absorbing greenhouse gases which are the main cause of climate change. It helps to maintain balance and also acts as a valuable source of many resources – such as timber, medicine, shelter, raw materials, and more. Trees provide shade, which is needed during the summer months. Trees and their branches are used as a source of fuel. Trees are used to make furniture and other commercial products. We get many medicines from plants like Cinchona, aconite, coriander, digitalis, horehound, tulsi, neem, and garlic. They help in maintaining the right temperature on Earth. During rainy days, soil erosion is prevented with the help of trees. This process purifies the air and keeps the atmosphere clean. Trees also absorb other harmful gases to keep our environment clean. Trees help in balancing the water level in the atmosphere.

INTERESTING FACTS OF TREES:

Some of the interesting facts about trees are,

  • A large oak tree can consume about 100 gallons of water per day, and a giant sequoia can drink up to 500 gallons daily.
  • The rings in a cut tree don’t just reveal its age. They can also show signs of environmental changes, like a volcanic eruption or severe drought.
  • The tallest tree in the country is a Coast Redwood growing in northern California’s Redwood National Park. It is 369 feet tall and over 2000 years old.
  • The world’s shortest tree species is the Dwarf Willow. It is rare to find one more than 2 1/2 inches tall. They are also dioecious, producing both males, yellow-colored and female, red-colored catkins. They have been found growing on the frozen tundra in the Arctic.
  • Wind-blown cottonwood seeds can stay airborne for days before they land. In fact, they can fly longer than any other kind of tree seeds.
  • There is a tree called Rainbow Eucalyptus, with bark having blue, orange, and maroon colors. When the colors combine in sunlight, they give it a particular ‘Rainbow’ effect. This multi-colored tree grows in New Britain, New Guinea, Ceram, Sulawesi, and Mindanao.

Dowry system in India

What is dowry?
It is a cash or a goods that is given by the bride family as a gift to the groom family.

It has become a social evil in this society. The bride family has to go from many pressures with the demand by the groom family in their daughter’s marriage. This can become an issue with raising the girl child. That is why, the life of the girl miserable in some circumstances. If the demand is not fulfilled the marriage can be cancelled or tortured after becoming the wife.

Due to this, many parents abort their girl child or murder them after new born. Many girl child has been found thrown in the dustbin or rivers. The number of dead girl babies has increased in some areas. The number of boys exceed in comparison to girls in the entire population. Dowry has become a greed in today society.

The system of dowry was to give their daughter as a gift so that after the marriage she will be financially independent. The parents give their daughter with their own happiness. But when the demand came from the boy’s family, it has became an social evil.

Every girl should have the right to live their own life. Educate girls and women and make them aware about the social issue. Women can take action against the dowry system as various laws has passed by the government.

THE NEW NORMAL

After the COVID-19 pandemic, lifestyle of people have changed completely. It has placed the whole world at a standstill where nations are going into lockdowns and facing the crisis. Still there is no specific time and information that when will the situations stabilize and everything will become normal. However, people are learning valuable lessons through this global crisis and life after COVID is sure to change for the better.

People have learned to live with the bare essentials during the lockdown. Healthy home-cooked meals have replaced junk food. Closed shopping malls highlighted the futility of mindless consumerism. As pollution levels went down and nature flourished, people realized the necessity of a sustainable lifestyle for the health of the planet. In the future, more environment-friendly ways to operate will undoubtedly emerge, like remote working to save fuel and online paperless transactions. The people are more likely to get simple yet rewarding lifestyle, reducing consumption, increasing saving as precautions against future income uncertainties. The protection of the earth and the next generation is going to drive a majority of life-choices.

During these difficult times, families are working together to protect all its members from harm. Every member is assisting in household chores, along with caring for the children and the elders and developing stronger bonds. Post-lockdown as well, the virus will take time to be completely eradicated, making social distancing and other measures a part of the long-term future. Rather than going outdoors, people will choose to relax and unwind with their family members. Thus, the lockdown brought the importance of family into focus.

Even after the curve of coronavirus spread flattens, the virus will probably continue to exist. Wearing masks, using hand-sanitizers, and maintaining physical distances will be the new normal. In this situation, to reduce the chances of contamination, educational institutes will need to modernize their teaching techniques with smart technologies. During the lockdown, parents are homeschooling their children efficiently, and schools are taking online classes. As parents will prefer to shield small children from exposures until the coronavirus threat passes, virtual classrooms might take over conventional teaching methods.

As people work together in breaking the chain of coronavirus infection, a better world is emerging. The tough times are sure to pass, leaving behind the wisdom of practicing compassion and caring for what genuinely matters in life, like the welfare of the family members. People have realized the need for precautions and are taking steps against future contingencies to keep the future generations safe.

Could we ever pull enough carbon out of the atmosphere to stop climate change?

Nature has equipped Earth with several giant “sponges,” or carbon sinks, that can help humans battle climate change. These natural sponges, as well as human-made ones, can sop up carbon, effectively removing it from the atmosphere. 

But what does this sci-fi-like act really entail? And how much will it actually take — and cost — to make a difference and slow climate change

Sabine Fuss has been looking for these answers for the last two years. An economist in Berlin, Fuss leads a research group at the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change and was part of the original Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) — established by the United Nations to assess the science, risks and impacts of global warming. After the panel’s 2018 report and the new Paris Agreement goal to keep global warming to 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit (1.5 degrees Celsius) or less, Fuss was tasked with finding out which carbon removal strategies were most promising and feasible

Afforestation and reforestation — planting or replanting of forests, respectively — are well known natural carbon sinks. Vast numbers of trees can sequester the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere for photosynthesis, a chemical reaction that uses the sun’s energy to turn carbon dioxide and water into sugar and oxygen. According to a 2019 study in the journal Science, planting 1 trillion trees could store about 225 billion tons (205 billion metric tons) of carbon, or about two-thirds of the carbon released by humans into the atmosphere since the Industrial Revolution began. 

Agriculture land management is another natural carbon removal approach that’s relatively low risk and already being tested out, according to Jane Zelikova, terrestrial ecologist and chief scientist at Carbon180, a nonprofit that advocates for carbon removal strategies in the U.S. Practices such as rotational grazing, reduced tilling and crop rotation increase carbon intake by photosynthesis, and that carbon is eventually stored in root tissues that decompose in the soil. The National Academy of Sciences found that carbon storage in soil was enough to offset as much as 10% of U.S. annual net emissions — or about 632 million tons (574 million metric tons) of CO2 — at a low cost. 

But nature-based carbon removal, like planting and replanting forests, can conflict with other policy goals, like food production, Fuss said. Scaled up, these strategies require a lot of land, oftentimes land that’s already in use. 

This is why more tech-based approaches to carbon removal are crucial, they say. With direct air capture and carbon storage, for instance, a chemical process takes carbon dioxide out of the air and binds it to filters. When the filter is heated, the CO2 can be captured and then injected underground. There are currently 15 direct air capture plants worldwide, according to the International Energy Agency. There’s also bioenergy with carbon capture. With this method, plants and trees are grown, creating a carbon sink, and then the organic material is burned to produce heat or fuel known as bioenergy. During combustion, the carbon emissions are captured and stored underground. Another carbon capture trick involves mineralization; in this process, rocks get ground up to increase the surfaces available to chemically react with, and crystallize, CO2. Afterward, the mineralized CO2 is stored underground. 

The need to deploy these solutions is imminent. The global carbon budget, the amount of CO2 humans can emit before the global temperature rises 2.7 F (1.5 C) above preindustrial levels, is about 300 gigatons of CO2, Fuss said. 

RAIN

ABOUT RAIN:

Rain is liquid precipitation which is water falling from the sky. Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then become heavy enough to fall under gravity. Rain is part of the water cycle. A light rain of small drops is known as a drizzle. Spring is the rainiest season of the year as measured by the number of days with precipitation. Rainfall is measured by the depth of water that falls on a level surface without soaking in. Rainfall is measured with a rain gauge.

HOW RAIN IS FORMED? :

Clouds are made of water droplets. Within a cloud, water droplets condense onto one another, causing the droplets to grow. When these water droplets get too heavy to stay suspended in the cloud, they fall to Earth as rain.

IMPORTANCE OF RAIN:

Rain is a wonderful gift of Nature to all mankind. Rain is a major source of water to the inhabitants of the earth, and it also plays a major role in ensuring the water cycle is complete. Rain may be the most essential weather phenomenon for life to exist on Earth. The growth of plants also may depend on rain. Without rain, no crops would grow. If rainfall is less, there is water scarcity which sometimes causes a drought-like situation. It can improve the level of groundwater. Rainfall is also very important for the survival of plants and animals. It brings freshwater to the earth’s surface. With temperature, rainfall is perhaps the most important factor in defining climate. Rainfall is also the major source of energy that drives the circulation of the atmosphere. The rain waters the Earth and refills streams, rivers, lakes, and oceans, and provides the moisture trees and plants use to make their food. This water also gives wild animals the water they need to drink. Thus, Rain is very important.

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT RAIN:

Some of the interesting facts about rain are,

* Some regions of the world get rain nearly every day or every other day. Galway, Ireland gets this weather about 220 – 230 days or more each year. Similarly, parts of Hawaii and other tropical areas receive brief spurts of rain on an almost daily basis.

* The place that receives the most annual rainfall on average is a village in India called Mawsynram, Meghalaya, India. They receive about 467 inches each year, most of which falls during monsoon season.

*Drops are not shaped like teardrops as they fall, as is commonly depicted – they are actually dome-shaped.

* When raindrops fall on clay or dusty soils, they trap small air bubbles on the surface which raise upward and burst out of the droplet. This then produces pockets of scent into the air where they are then carried by the wind. This is what causes the familiar smell of rain, which is called ‘Petrichor’.

*Up in the clouds, rain most often starts off as snow. Clouds are made of freezing-cold water droplets and tiny crystals of ice. In most rains, this cold water adheres to ice, forming nascent drops that then fall out of the clouds. As they descend towards the relative warmth of the earth’s surface, they melt and become rain.

* Not all raindrops are made of water: Rain also consists of sulfuric acid or methane, which can also be found on other planets in the solar system.

Importance of Vocational Skills

The new Education Policy of India also focuses on vocational training of the students. But what are vocational skills? And why are they important? Let us find out.

What are Vocational skills?

Vocational skills are empirical skills that individuals acquire in a specific area of interest. These are the practical skills that one requires to learn in order to choose a career option. Vocational skills are more practical than theoretical skills and are equally important for a student. Individuals learn vocational skills from hands-on experience.The training takes place outside the traditional classroom setting. Students are placed in manual labor intern positions that coincide with their vocational career choice. It trains a student in training for his career and it is related to the theory part. Vocational skills are those which allow a person to master a particular subject or procedure that is applicable to a career. Vocational skills are also known as content skills.

Importance of Vocational training

When a student receives vocational education in college or an educational institution, they are not getting prepared just to study and pass the college. But they are also being prepared to get a job in the future.

Vocational training is very important. It develops many skills. Here are the types of skills that are developed by it-

  1.  Domain knowledge in fields such as carpentry, plumbing, electrical works, automobile service
  2.  Mechanical aptitude 
  3.  Problem solving skills
  4.  Creative skills

These skills are acquired by the students and help them immensely. Skills create various job opportunities. In today’s world, almost every job providing company or organization wants people to work for them who have proper skills that will benefit their company and organization. And these skills can not be obtained by only theoretical training.

Skill is the most valuable asset in an individual’s life. Vocational education gives people a new learning experience. It increases your level of expertise in a particular field. This makes it easier to choose a career in future.

Learning a skill takes less time than a traditional four-year university, and can be learned in a few months.. Due to its short period of learning it is very flexible and cost-effective for the students. The students even get time to do their other important work by training  part time from the teacher.

After learning, they do not become dependent on machines or someone else because it is their skills which are helping them to work. They become more efficient and self dependent. Also, they realise their capabilities and use their potential to achieve heights of success. 

Career options from vocational skills

We are exposed to various job opportunities by vocational training. Some career options are listed below –

Car mechanic, Car body repair technician, Car electrician, Quality test engineer, Firefighter, Paramedic, Police officer, Search and rescue officer, CPR and first-aid responder, Coastguard officer, Vocational nurse, Surgical prep technician, Medical technician, Dental hygienist, Dental assistant, Phlebotomist, Sonographer, Radiologist, Pharmacy technician, Mammographer, Laboratory technician, Veterinary assistant, Veterinary technician, Chef, Caterer, Food service manager, Bartender, Mixologist, Quality assurance specialist, Welder, Electrician, Plumber, Web designer, Carpenter, Construction manager, Pipe-fitter, Machining, Computer-aided drafting, Network administration, Civil engineering technician, Court reporter, Hair stylist. 

By choosing a subject that interests you, you can shape your career and create your own success.