Career options in Journalism and Mass Communication

Mass communication and journalism is a rapidly growing field of study. The world is now connected through the media. The information we get daily is the hard work of the mass communication industry. They are constantly working to provide us with the latest happenings around the world every moment of the day. 

But this is not a job of just a handful of people. Thousands of people work day and night on-screen and off-screen.

Earlier it was assumed that the only career option after a degree in mass communication and journalism would land you a job as a reporter or an anchor. And it was not considered a cup of tea for everyone.
But today, people are becoming well aware of the different roles people in this industry play and choosing to opt them as a career. 

If you are confused as to what are the many job options in this industry, below is a list of some of the jobs other than the commonly known ones. 

  1. Public relations:

These are the people who serve as a representative for businesses, institutions, persons and government bodies. PR executives launch campaigns through print, electronic, and online media. Their main role is to create and develop a brand and help them build a positive image and communication in public. You also have to make sure that correct information about your client is being conveyed to the people at the right time.

To become a PR executive you need to have good communication skills, creative, reliable and tech-savvy. Moreover, you need good written and oral skills, strong command over language and good organising skills.

  1. Photography:

As a professional photographer, you will be responsible to manage artists/products, set lights, manage time and create quality content. Your job is not limited to clicking photos only. You can pick one or more than one genre of photography. The genres include candid, food photography, photojournalism, wildlife, fashion or interior. 

If you have a passion for photography and make a career in it, this is the job for you. You must be tech-savvy and willing to learn on the go. The main aspect of this job is to capture emotions and moments.

  1. News Editor:

The job of news editor involves deciding which news stories need to be printed. He manages and produces news to present information with flow, accuracy and within a time frame. They work as a coordinator with other team members and other departments. 

  1. Sound engineer:

They work in films, music, television and radio. They can also work for live performances and shows. They handle tasks like adding sound effects to recordings, resolving technical problems, performing duties assigned by directors and producers. Qualities you must have are, editing techniques and different audio recordings to perform well with the various tasks appointed.

  1. Art director:

The look after the creation of visual material for print, advertisement, film production and other related things. The see how to present the concept visually and which photographs or design elements in the best way possible. Their role is to develop the overall style of publication, television and advertising campaign. They understand the designs elements of projects and keep the projects on budget within the given time frame. 

There are other job opportunities as well. The list is long and this is a field that people are not ready to explore completely. 

But as people are becoming aware, they are seeking jobs in this field. Some other jobs you can try in mass communication and journalism are:

News reporter 

TV correspondent 

Producer 

Radio jockey 

Content writer 

Sound mixer 

Screenwriter 

Film writer 

And the list goes on. Some qualities are specifically important in people working in the mass communication industry. They should be inquisitive, alert, confident, patient and enthusiastic. 

If you are looking to pursue a career in mass communication and journalism, these are some of the options out of the many that you can opt for. The jobs are well paying and you get to learn something new every day. 

DOLPHINS

ABOUT DOLPHINS:

Dolphin is aquatic mammals. There are 36 dolphin species, found in every ocean. Dolphins live in complex social groups and have evolved to have highly-developed brains. Dolphins are extraordinarily intelligent animals who also display culture, something which was long-believed to be unique to humans. Dolphins are altruistic animals. Dolphins play an important role in keeping their environment in balance. Without dolphins, the animals they prey on would increase in number, and their predators wouldn’t have as much to eat. Dolphins have a reputation for being friendly, but they are wild animals who should be treated with caution and respect. Dolphins are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid.

TYPES OF DOLPHINS:

There are different types of dolphins. Some of them are,

  • Common bottlenose dolphin:

The common bottlenose dolphin or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin is the most well-known species of the family Delphinidae. Common bottlenose dolphins are grey. Common bottlenose dolphins and other dolphins are thought to be some of the smartest animals.

  • Striped dolphin:

Striped dolphins are among the most abundant and widespread dolphins in the world. Striped dolphins are relatively small, streamlined, and colorful. Striped dolphins are known for their distinct and striking coloration pattern, which includes bold, thin stripes that extend from the eye to the flipper and another set of stripes down the side of the body to the anal region. Striped dolphins are extremely active and fast. Striped dolphins are widely distributed throughout the world’s temperate and tropical oceans.

  • Dusky dolphin:

The dusky dolphin is a dolphin found in coastal waters in the Southern Hemisphere. The dusky dolphin has a long, light-grey patch on its foreside leading to a short, dark-grey beak. The throat and belly are white, and the beak and lower jaw are dark greys. Two blazes of white color run back on the body from the dorsal fin to the tail.

  • White-beaked dolphin:

White-beaked dolphins are found throughout the cold waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. They are active swimmers. The white-beaked has a short beak. The upper body and flanks are dark grey with light grey patches, including a ‘saddle’ behind the dorsal fin, while the underside is light grey to almost white.

  • Spinner dolphin:

The spinner dolphin is a small dolphin found in off-shore tropical waters around the world. Spinner dolphins earned their name because of their ability to spin multiple times in one jump. Scientists believe they spin for several reasons, including communication, removing parasites, and simply for the fun of it.

  • Irrawaddy dolphin:

The Irrawaddy dolphin’s color is grey to dark slate blue, paler underneath, without a distinctive pattern. It has a large melon and a blunt, rounded head, and the beak is indistinct. Irrawaddy dolphin Communication is carried out with clicks, creaks, and buzzes at a dominant frequency of about 60 kilohertz, which is thought to be used for echolocation.

  • Long-beaked common dolphin:

The long-beaked common dolphin is a species of common dolphin. Long-beaked common dolphins generally prefer shallow, tropical, subtropical, and warmer temperate waters within 15 nautical miles of the coast and on the continental shelf. The long-beaked common dolphin is generally larger with a longer beak than the short-beaked common dolphin and has a longer rostrum. They are also highly vocal.

  • Rough-toothed dolphin:

The Rough-toothed Dolphin is a fairly large dolphin that can be found in deep warm, tropical, and subtropical water from the western Pacific to the Mediterranean. Their flanks are light grey and the back and dorsal fin a much darker grey. Rough-toothed dolphins have sharp, serrated teeth.

STARS

ABOUT STARS:

A star is an astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma. Stars are held together by gravity. They are huge in size and have very high temperatures. They give out heat and light because they are very hot. Sun is also a star.

WHY DO STARS TWINKLE? :

The stars twinkle in the night sky. When starlight enters the atmosphere, it is affected by winds in the atmosphere and by areas with different densities, and temperatures that cause light from the star appear to twinkle when seen from the ground.

TYPES OF STARS:

There are different types of stars. Some of them are,

  • RED GIANT STARS:

 A red giant star is a star that has low surface temperature and a diameter that is large relative to the sun. A red giant will expand outward many times its original size. Betelgeuse (Alpha Orionis) is a well-known example of a Red Giant Star.

  • WHITE DWARF STARS:

A white dwarf is what stars like the Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. A white dwarf is very dense. White dwarf stars, so-called because of the white color of the first few that were discovered, are characterized by a low luminosity, a mass on the order of that of the Sun, and a radius comparable to that of Earth.

  • SUPERGIANT STARS:

Supergiant is among the most massive and most luminous stars. A star classed as a supergiant may have a diameter several hundred times that of the Sun and a luminosity nearly 1,000,000 times as great. The temperature range of supergiant stars spans from about 3,400 K to over 20,000 K.

  • NEUTRON STARS :

Neutron stars are the smallest and densest stellar objects, excluding black holes and hypothetical white holes, quark stars, and strange stars. The properties of neutron stars are utterly out of this world — a single teaspoon of neutron-star material would weigh a billion tons. Neutron stars have a radius on the order of 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) and a mass of about 1.4 solar masses.

  • YELLOW DWARF STARS:

A G-type main-sequence star often called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star is a main-sequence star of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and a surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., Tables VII, VIII. Yellow dwarf stars live for about 10 billion years, and at 4.5 billion years old, our middle-age sun is about halfway through its lifetime. Once its hydrogen supply is depleted, the sun will start consuming its heavier elements. 7.5% of stars are yellow dwarfs and they are brighter than 90% of all other stars.

  • BLUE GIANT STARS:

A blue giant is a hot star with a luminosity class of III (giant) or II (bright giant). Rigel is a blue giant star close to zero magnitudes in Earth’s sky, making it a bright star, and is best visible in the winter northern sky. It also has somewhere between 265 and 315 solar masses, making it the most massive star yet discovered.

  • BROWN DWARF STARS:

A brown dwarf is a type of substellar object that has a mass between the most massive gas giant planets and the least massive stars, approximately 13 to 80 times that of Jupiter ( M J).

  • BLACK DWARF STARS:

When a white dwarf exhausts its own supply of carbon, oxygen, and free-flowing electrons, it will slowly burn out, transforming into a black dwarf. A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light. Black dwarfs take quadrillions of years to form.

Students and Stress

In the exam hall or before the exams everybody feels the butterflies flying in the stomach. This is how we experience stress during examinations.

What is stress?

Stress is the physical and mental response of the body to demand made upon it. It is the result of our reaction to outside events. Stress is an outcome of:

  1. Examinations and surprise tests. We get stressed during our examinations. Most of the time we get nervous we don’t know the answer to some questions. Our hands start sweating and our mind blanks out at that time.
  2. When we don’t complete a particular assignment at the given time, we panic because of the little time left with us. We cannot give our best at this point of time.
  3. Returning to studies after a long break also is one reason for stress in students. We forget many topics that we had previously learned and read.
  4. Because of poor time management many students suffer from a great loss. Sometimes they study very much, sometimes they play too much or sometimes they spend most of their day on screens.
  5. Various problems at home also gives us a lot of stress. We cannot focus on studies or any other work. The fights between parents impacts a child in a negative manner.
  6. Noise pollution is also a cause of stress. Students are not able to relax while listening to continuous sounds coming from a party, construction site and neighbourhood.

Types of stress

  • Eustress – It is the positive cognitive response to stress that is healthy, or gives one a feeling of fulfillment or other positive feelings. The goal is not too far out of reach but is still slightly more than one can handle. This fosters challenge and motivation since the goal is in sight. The function of challenge is to motivate a person toward improvement and a goal.  Eustress is indicated by hope and active engagement.
  • Distress – A range of symptoms and experiences of a person’s internal life that are commonly held to be troubling, confusing or out of the ordinary. Mental distress can potentially lead to a change of behavior, affect a person’s emotions in a negative way, and affect their relationships with the people around them. Certain traumatic life experiences such as: stress, lack of sleep, use of drugs or alcohol, assault, abuse or accidents can induce mental distress. This type of stress is negative and can deplete or destroy the energy for life.

How does stress affect us?

It increases our heart rate and muscle tension and causes headache, jaw ache, insomnia. It causes many diseases like asthma, hyperactivity, etc and the digestion slows causing ‘butterflies’ in stomach effect. It mentally affects us more. We start thinking negatively. it slows decision making ability and stunts the problem solving skills. There is a decrease in our concentration and focus. We often start forgetting about many things. We experience loneliness and worry about the future or the past. Increase intake of alcohol, cigarettes and caffeine to relax. We tend to isolate ourselves from our family members, friends and neighbours. We feel utterly unmotivated and lose our sense of humor.

We should not let stress affect us immensely. We should cope up with stress. Talking to anyone about our mental health can help. There are many methods to prevent stress which I will discuss in the next article.  

World’s oceans continue to warm, despite reduced carbon emissions

Despite reductions in global carbon emissions due to the COVID-19 lockdown, the world’s oceans in 2020 were the warmest in recorded history, according to a new research.

Published in the journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences earlier this week, the study was conducted by 20 scientists from 13 institutes in China, the United States and Italy.

Compared with 2019, the upper 2,000 meters of the Earth’s oceans have absorbed a greater amount of heat, enough to boil 1.3 billion kettles, each containing 1.5 liters of water. The increase in heat within the oceans is responsible for the increasing trend of record-breaking global ocean temperatures, said the research.

Cheng Lijing, lead author of the study and researcher at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said ocean heating is a key indicator for quantifying climate change, since more than 90 percent of global heat ends up in the oceans.

“However, due to the ocean’s delayed response to global warming, the trend of ocean warming will persist for decades at least,” said Cheng, explaining that the world’s ocean temperatures kept rising last year, despite reports that global carbon emissions fell as people stayed indoors due to COVID-19 restrictions

The study also found that over the past eight decades, the world’s oceans have been warmer in each decade than in the previous one. The effects of ocean warming manifest in the form of more typhoons, hurricanes and extreme rainfall.

In addition to ocean temperatures, researchers involved in the study calculated the salinity of ocean water. They found that areas of high salinity had increased in salinity, whereas the opposite was true for areas of lower salinity.

Researchers also shared data recorded by China’s IAP and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the study.