What is stopping India from becoming a developed country?

India falls below many Asian countries on the human development index (HDI). There are multiple reasons which hinder growth in India.
Why is India still a developing nation?

  1. Inequality is the primary reason stopping India to grow.
  • Economic Inequality. The distribution of wealth in India is unequal. Either people are very rich or extremely poor.
  • Social and caste status. The inequality in society for Dalits and lower Caste has been too much in India. They get treated unpleasantly.

2.The government Divide and rule strategy. The Indian Government is very infamous for creating rift among religions or divide them based on religion to collect votes during the election. And people easily get fooled by those leaders.

3.Unproductive population. High population is not a substantial problem. The real problem is unproductivity among the people. China has a high population too but still, they are a developed country in every field.

4.Corruption.The corruption in India is spreading its roots day by day . If no action is taken against it, being a developed nation would be just a dream for India.


Decroly Method

Decroly method is a program which is based on centers of interest and educative games. This method is named after Oride Decroly a Belgian pioneer in the education of physically disabled children. He was aphysician and then became involved in school for disabled children and in consequence became interested in education. Decroly contributed home like atmosphere in schools which helped the students to achieve better and compatible educational output than able students in regular schools. Decroly method of teaching was based on three processes, (1) observation (2) expression and (3) association of space and time. Unlike Montesorri’s children, Decroly children worked with real things drawn from everyday life. According to Decroly the universal needs of a child are: food, protection against danger, endurance for frustrations of life, work, play, self-evaluation and self-discipline. Environment is an important aspect to Decroly’s teaching method and children should be encouraged to pursue activities based on observation, association and expression.


Stars in this journey
Bloomed at night
The footprints in time
Became colours in me
Was it a path drenched in rain?
Or was it a path
That was covered in blooming flowers?
It was endless
In this journey to find oneself
Is it true?
Is truth a burning fire?
Time washes away all habits
It’s a never ending journey to perfection

How COVID-19 Has Impacted the Restaurant Industry

The COVID-19 pandemic has unleashed ruin on the eatery business and has been a distinct advantage for food wellbeing controllers here in Chicago. 

At the point when the pandemic began, many started zeroing in on the impact of commanded closures on eateries: in-person feasting terminations and worker cutbacks. 

As indicated by the National Restaurant Association, in excess of 110,000 eating and savoring foundations the United States had to incidentally or for all time close for business from March 2020 to January 2021. 

In Illinois, it has been over a year since all food and cooking foundations were requested to end in-entryway eating, be that as it may, Gov. J.B. Pritzer has revealed a way toward completely returning bars and eateries. 

During a March 18 media preparation, Pritzer presented a, “connect stage,” pointed toward Phase 5 — the last phase of the state’s COVID-19 returning arrangement. 

This scaffold stage will start when 70% of the populace, matured 65 and more established has gotten at any rate one portion of the COVID-19 antibody, and to Phase 5 when half of the populace matured 16 and more seasoned follows after accordingly. As per Pritzer, 58% of those matured 65 and more seasoned have effectively been regulated by immunization.

As foundation closures turned out to be more obvious, it set off apprehensions of vulnerability. Eatery proprietors became worried about excess just getting started, and how to acquire income from their restricted menu and inhabitants. 

Little and neighborhood organizations specifically were attempting to endure the pandemic. As per Womply Research, 55% of little and neighborhood entrepreneurs conceded their business wouldn’t endure if deals halted for one to a quarter of a year, and 21% said they wouldn’t endure one month. 

Eatery proprietors must be inventive, started promoting their business to get deals, and used online media to acquire footing and contact more individuals. They additionally needed to advocate for themselves, and hence got down on Pritzer and requested activity for guaranteed help. 

Alexandra Vargas, 20 who functions as a store agent at Weber’s Bakery, said the business needed to execute new changes to keep maintaining their business. 

“Since COVID-19, we have begun offering curbside pickup, and we’ve done countless various forms of it, to discover what turns out best for us, since we are so occupied,” she said. “Generally I’m simply a store agent, however at whatever point a client comes in and needs something, we simply get it for them, and box it up.” 

Numerous eateries didn’t have the proper assets or strength to stay just getting started. As per Time Out Magazine, there have been 65 Chicago eateries and bars for all time shut as of February.

In the midst of the turmoil welcomed on by COVID-19, eateries, all things considered, areas, and specialties needed to adjust and carry out new security measures to keep working. 

This implied a few foundations could presently don’t stand to give their full menu, needed to modify store or eatery hours, and many endured a hard shot monetarily subsequently. 

“So we just had a restricted menu … we just had our essential doughnuts, and stuff that way, and our hours were abbreviated,” Vargas said. “So we just had what we would call, COVID hours, since we would simply attempt to close early, and attempt to get the client in and out as quick as could be expected.” 

Toward the start of the pandemic, wellbeing monitors were not top of brain. In March, the FDA briefly delayed face to face assessments, however now they’re returning, yet the prerequisites are marginally unique. 

Prepared to forestall the spread of foodborne ailments, wellbeing investigators are entrusted with guaranteeing that cafés are conforming to the rules to help forestall the spread of COVID-19. 

Isabelle Campa, 20, an associate senior supervisor at Taco Bell, has encountered what a regular investigation resembles, and the repercussions for the eatery neglecting to meet the necessities to stay open.

Things Experts Have Learned About Covid-19

The originally recorded instance of Covid-19 in the United States was accounted for a large portion of a year prior, days before early alerts from the U.S. Communities for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that a “intense general wellbeing danger” lingered. However wellbeing authorities had just a harsh thought of how the novel Covid spread, who the infection influenced most, and how to best battle transmission and give treatment. 

Public informing on the reality of the infection was on occasion clashing and befuddling, including the early exhortation not to wear covers. A half year later, researchers have a strong handle on how the infection spreads and how ought to be dealt with to get the pandemic leveled out. 

Here are nine things we think about Covid-19 since we didn’t know at that point.

At that point: Early exhortation from the CDC underlined hand-washing, cleaning surfaces, and sniffling into your elbow, with the understanding that the Covid spread for the most part through handshakes, contact with contaminated surfaces, and through close contact with irresistible individuals (inside six feet). 

Presently: After long periods of logical conversation and study, and some confounding correspondence to general society, the specialists concur: The infection can get airborne — inside minuscule, suspended drops called pressurized canned products — and taint individuals past six feet, particularly in inadequately ventilated indoor spaces, where the mist concentrates are caught and develop. The World Health Organization, following a half year of mounting proof, at last concurred with researchers on this point. The danger outside is lower, the specialists actually say, yet not zero. 

What it implies: Covid-19’s numerous methods of spreading vex everything except the most severe endeavors to control transmission, especially inside. This is the reason wellbeing specialists beg individuals to stay away from huge groups, notice physical separation, wear veils inside and outside, and proceed with careful hand-washing.

Face masks are crucial to control the pandemic

At that point: In the pandemic’s initial months, wellbeing authorities focused close by washing and social removing, while at the same time debilitating covers, for three reasons: There was a limit deficiency of clinical evaluation veils for medical care experts; the essential methods for spread hadn’t been decisively decided; and U.S. flare-ups existed distinctly in pockets, having not yet spread to all states or districts. 

Presently: The study of how to moderate or stop the pandemic has been agreed to for months, and it’s protected to say that each wellbeing master currently suggests face covers. Past face covers, wellbeing specialists prompt: Prevent huge indoor get-togethers, particularly at superfluous settings like bars; furnish significantly more far and wide testing with faster outcomes, matched with contact following; command physical removing for public places that stay open; direct this in a planned style from the government level. “We genuinely have incredible information on how we can handle the infection,” says Yonatan Grad, MD, an associate teacher of immunology and irresistible sicknesses at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

Covid-19 affects the whole body, not just the lungs

At that point: For half a month, the CDC held firm to the idea that the three unmistakable side effects of Covid-19 were fever, hack, and windedness. However every week it appeared specialists were perceiving another Covid-19 indication. 

Presently: By February, contemplates showed that the infection caused body hurts, sickness, and looseness of the bowels in certain individuals. At that point came information on anosmia, the deficiency of smell. We learned of Covid toe, conceivable mind diseases creating tipsiness and turmoil, and an extreme response by the safe framework prompting blood clusters, coronary episodes, and other organ disappointments. All the more as of late, researchers say it looks as though veins are being tainted. Hardly any illnesses cause a wide assortment of side effects. “It’s been extraordinary from multiple points of view,” says Robert Salata, MD, an educator of medication in the study of disease transmission and worldwide wellbeing at Ohio’s Case Western Reserve University. “Regarding the inconveniences we’re seeing, it’s mind blowing.”

Pandemic provides an opportunity to re-imagine educational assessments and evaluations.

Despite the pandemic unleashing in full force, the issue over holding or postponing board examinations is being debated.

  • While there are valid concerns about the future, which include admissions to higher educational institutions, the possibility of holding exams in person poses a further threat to the lives of people.
  • The National Curriculum Framework of 2005 affirms the importance of embracing the emotional, social, physical and intellectual growth of children within a framework of human values.
    1. Therefore, a question to consider is whether academic performances can continue to be the sole representation of student growth.
    2. Alternatively, student success can be redefined based on social, emotional and spiritual development benchmarks.
  • Raising the quality of educational assessments and evaluations by involving higher educational institutions may even prevent a mass exodus to international universities so that young leaders can be nurtured to engage with underlying national challenges and add value by sustaining the fabric of a diverse and non-stratified India.

For betterment:

  1. Virtual educational committees must be organised to rethink approaches to assessing student learning.
  2. Question papers must be designed in a way that encourages students to critically engage with the material, contest perspectives and build opinions.
  3. Right to education that affirms the importance of formative assessments, teachers could be invited to engage in evaluating student’s performance across the year.
  4. If there are concerns around the tendency of schools to self-bolster their performance, reports, portfolios, samples of responses and grades could be shared across a pool of schools so that teachers can anonymously assess and provide insightful feedback on student performance, until a sense of self-accountability and trust can be cultivated.
  5. Evaluating students on their performance through the year will contribute towards making evaluation and learning much more holistic.
  6. Inviting higher educational institutions to facilitate online entrance exams could be another option. Eventually, the goal could be to involve students in self and peer evaluations.


The pandemic presents an opportunity to redefine meaningful education even though it requires a concerted change across the curriculum in K-12 schools, the entrance criteria determined by higher educational institutions. Viewing this crisis as a signal for urgent change, core issues can be engaged with and re-evaluated to prevent students from being trapped in the current system of cramming, rote learning and anxiety.  The government needs to give complete autonomy to educational committees composed of students, teachers, educational leaders, scholars and researchers who can advocate, organise and implement this change nationally and internationally. Re-imagining educational assessments and evaluations, exploring alternatives is the need of the hour.

To stop third wave, India has to mask up

With the slow pace of the government’s vaccination drive, this article talks about other active interventions and measures for the prevention of a third wave of COVID-19 infections.

  • The United States and Brazil have had three distinct waves.
  • The United Kingdom had a small first wave, after which the virus seemed to be disappearing. This was followed by two explosive waves, which only subsided after a lockdown and an aggressive vaccination campaign in which 95% of all those over the age of 50 have been vaccinated.
  • South Africa has also seen two waves.

Given the pattern, a second wave in India was almost a given. And once this wave recedes, it is highly likely that a third wave will build up, unless active measures are taken to stop it from building up. Now is the time to think ahead and find ways to prevent the next wave.

Vaccine as an option for preventing the third wave

  • Vaccines are the best option. However, this might not be the most feasible option to blunt either this or future waves due to:
    • The huge population of the country
    • The slow pace of vaccination
    • Inelastic vaccine supplies both in India and globally
    • Limited finances with State governments which have now been given the responsibility of vaccinating the bulk of the country’s population.

Methods that work

  • Along with vaccination, it is important to practise the full methods that have been shown to slow the spread of COVID-19 in different parts of the world: wearing a mask, physical distancing, hand hygiene and a ban on mass gatherings.
  • While these measures may not be as effective as mass vaccination, but in the absence of vaccines, they are perhaps the only way to reduce community transmission and slow the spread of the virus.
  • The near-universal adoption of nonmedical masks when out in public, in combination with complementary public health measures could reduce community spread, provided the measures are sustained.

Conventional wisdom in India has it that wearing a mask only works when it is imposed as a police measure. However, public health measures that work best are those that the people voluntarily adopt, drastically reducing transmission.

Supreme Court refuses to interfere in work of HCs

A special bench of the Supreme Court questioned the Centre, the States and the authorities on the various aspects of COVID management in a suo motu hearing called, ‘In re- distribution of essential supplies and services during COVID-19’.

  • The Supreme Court said that it would not interfere in the work done by the various High Courts to monitor life-saving COVID-19 management amid a second wave of the pandemic.
  • It asserted that the High Courts are best suited to make an assessment of ground realities in each State and find flexible solutions for problems faced by citizens.
  • However, it said that it would examine issues that travel beyond the boundaries of States and have national repercussions.

Your Life Your Responsibility – ( A Corona Age )

According to JHU CSSE COVID-19 Data, there 3,86,555 cases on 29th April 2021, which is simply very high in quantity. It’s our responsibility to be careful for ourselves and for our family members because if we die, neither it’s gonna affect to this world nor to political leaders.

                  “Corona-Corona Everywhere
                  Please Stay At Home,
                  Watch TV, Eat Healthy
                  Do What You Love.”

Here are some precautions that one should take:-
• Clean your hands often. Use soap and water, or alcohol-based hand rub.
• Maintain safe distance.
• Stay home if you feel and unwell.
• Wear a mask.

Just keep smiling even if you’re corona positive, don’t be panic or lose your willing power. ‘Nothing is impossible’ that’s what we learn since childhood so don’t be sad, we will defeat it. You can do what you love to do at your home and I think it is a high time when you can focus on yourself and your future too. We are getting a lot of time, just try to make it productive from spreading happiness to help needy people. I got goosebumps whenever I take my country’s name – India because we have a large amount of people who believe in helping others for instance- doctors, police, army, staff, nurses, workers. These people are working day to night only for our lives so it is over responsibility to be safe and secure. Thousands of people are dying everyday and lakhs of people are infected by it. Let’s prove this world that we are citizen of India and can defeat this virus as well.

                      ” Believe in Yourself
                        Stay home, Stay safe
                        Get Vaccinated”

AI And ML Shifting Focus Back To Hardware

The adoption of articial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in dierent sectors has transformed the conventional approach for dierent applications. Although the terms AI and ML are used interchangeably, the former aims at the success of a task, whereas the latter ensures accuracy. 

From marketing and retail to healthcare and nance, adoption of articial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in these sectors is drastically transforming the conventional approach for dierent applications. AI makes it possible for systems to sense, comprehend, act, and learn for performing complex tasks such as decision making that earlier required human intelligence. Unlike the regular programming, where action needs to be dened for every situation, AI in conjunction with ML algorithms can process large data sets, be trained to choose how to respond, and learn from every problem it encounters to produce more accurate results. 

This has not only impacted how we use data but also how we design and fabricate hardware chips or integrated circuits (ICs) for enabling next-generation devices, thereby opening new opportunities. The growth of AI shifts the core of innovation from the software back to hardware. For better performance, for example, AI needs more memory as compared to traditional requirements to process and transfer large data sets. Consider the case of virtual assistants that are increasingly being used in homes. Without reliable hardware for such functionalities as those associated with memory and logic, these cannot work properly. 

According to Accenture Semiconductor Technology Vision 2019, from the annual report by the Accenture Labs and Accenture Research, the semiconductor industry is highly optimistic about the potential of AI in their work in the coming years when compared to that in technologies like extended reality, distributed ledgers, and quantum computing. Three-quarters (77 per cent) of semiconductor executives surveyed for the report claimed that they either had already adopted AI within their business or were piloting the technology. 

The concept of AI and ML 

Although the terms AI and ML are used interchangeably, the former aims at the success of a task, whereas the latter ensures accuracy. So, solving a complex problem is done through AI 

training, but maximizing efficiency by learning from the data and already performed tasks is the concept of ML. ML relies on large datasets to nd common patterns and makes predictions based on probability. 

Applied AI is more commonly seen in systems that are designed for nancial market predictions and autonomous vehicle control. Generalised AIs to handle dierent general situations is where ML, usually considered the subset of AI, comes into play. In what is called supervised learning ML algorithm, the relationship model between input data and target output is established to make predictions, whereas unsupervised learning does not involve categorising data for training. In situations like competing with humans in complex computer games where information needs to be gained from the environment continuously, reinforcement learning is implemented. 

Sub-branches of ML like deep neural networks have already been applied to elds, including speech recognition, social network ltering, computer vision, natural language processing, and so on. These technologies take and examine thousands of users’ data for precision and accuracy applications like face recognition. This is contributing to the rapid development of innovations that are considered magical right now, but with hardware advancements, its place might be taken by much more advanced innovations in the coming decades. 

The process (Credit: https://cooltechnospy.com

How AI and ML applications are redefining the traditional systems 

AI and ML could grow to the current extent due to advancements in not only algorithms but also in storage capabilities, computation capacity, networking, and the like, which made it possible to make advanced devices accessible to the masses at an economical cost. Traditionally, logic was usually hard-wired in the design of electronic systems. But in the light of high manufacturing costs presently and the growing complexity of chip development, AI driven processor architectures are redening traditional processor architectures to suit new demands. 

Computation is mainly done on the central processing unit (CPU), the brain of the computer. With the emergence of computationally demanding applications that apply AI and ML algorithms, additional processing choices through combinations of graphics processing units (GPUs), microprocessors (MPUs), microcontrollers (MCUs), programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and digital signal processors (DSPs) are coming up to meet the optimum feature

requirements. The options, considered distinct categories, are gradually becoming heterogeneous processing solutions like system-on-chips (SoCs) and custom-designed application-specic integrated circuits (ASICs).

Unlike traditional storage methods to store parameters while tuning a neural network model during training and inference, high-bandwidth RAM is required not only at data centres but also for edge computing. The increased amount of volatile memory for proper functioning causes an excessive rise in power consumption levels. This is driving the need for evolving memory interfaces to ensure that the tasks get executed at high speeds. Although new processor architectures are helping reduce the load, other mechanisms like new memory interfaces and processing into memory itself are also being researched upon and implemented. 

UK-based startup Graphcore’s IPU is a novel processor with high on-chip memory capacity specically designed for dealing with complex data structures in machine intelligence models. Outside memory sources take much more time to return a result than on-chip ones. According to a report from IHS Markit, worldwide revenue from memory devices in AI applications will increase to 60.4 billion dollars in 2025 from 20.6 billion dollars in 2019, while the processor segment will grow from 22.2 billion dollars in 2019 to 68.5 billion dollars in 2025. 

Graphcore’s AI chips used in MS Azure cloud (Credit: http://www.eetindia.co.in

Thus, semiconductors provide the necessary processing and memory capabilities required for all AI applications. Improving network speed is also important for working with multiple servers simultaneously and developing accurate AI models. Measures such as high-speed interconnections and routing switches are being examined for load balancing. 

The answer to improving chips for AI applications lies with the technology itself. AI and ML are being leveraged to improve performance, and as design teams become more experienced in this eld, they will enhance how chips are developed, manufactured, and tweaked for updates. Complicated issues related to the implementation, signo, and verication of chips that cannot be solved and optimised with traditional methods can be solved with AI and ML. 

Using ML-based predictive models inside the existing EDA tools, US-based company Synopsys claims to have achieved results like a five times faster Prime Time power recovery and a hundred times faster high sigma simulation in HSPICE. All this requires a focus on R&D and

accurate end-to-end solutions, creating opportunities for possibly entirely new markets with value-creation in dierent segments of semiconductor companies. 

Overcoming the challenges 

The main focus is on data and its usage. This requires more than just a new architecture for the processor. Dierent chip architectures work for dierent purposes, and factors like the size and value of the training data can render AI useless for some applications. 

AI makes it possible to process data as patterns instead of individual bits and works best when memory operations are to be done in the form of a matrix, thereby increasing the amount of data being processed and stored and hence the eciency of the software. For instance, spiking neural networks can reduce the ow of data as the data is fed in the form of spikes. Also, even if there is a lot of data, the amount of useful data to train a predictive model can be reduced. But the issues still exist. Like in chip design, the training of ML models happens in dierent environments independently at dierent levels. 

There needs to be a standardised approach to the application of AI. For ecient utilisation of AI, chips designed for AI, as well as those modied to suit AI requirements, need to be considered. If there is a problem in the system, there is a need for tools and methodologies to quickly solve it. The design process is still highly manual despite the growing adoption of design automation tools. Tuning the inputs is a time-consuming yet highly inecient process. Even just one small step in a design implementation can be an entirely new problem itself. 

There has been widespread misuse by companies claiming to use AI and ML to gain the advantage of the trend and increase sales and revenue. Although the cost of compression and decompression is not so high, the cost of on-chip memory is not so cheap. AI chips also tend to be very large. 

To build such systems that store and process data, the collaboration of experts on different teams is necessary. Major chipmakers, IP vendors, and other electronics companies will be adopting some form of AI to increase efficiency across their operations. The availability of cloud compute services at a reduced cost of computing can help in boosting evolution. Technology advancements will force semiconductor companies to empower and reskill their workforces, enabling the next generation of devices in the marketplace. 


JLSR Wellness, a startup in the healthcare and wellness space, has launched a rst-of-its-kind Wi-Fi enabled smart oxygen generator with an aim to bring a practical solution to the nation’s dire need to breathe in the fresh air. 

Air pollution is not a hidden fact; we are all aware of it. Yet deteriorating air quality continues to be a huge problem worldwide, with India being among the worst aected. 

According to the Air Quality Life Index (AQLI) report by The Energy Policy Institute, the University of Chicago, air pollution will reduce life expectancy in the country by 5.2 years if pollution is not reduced. 

While reduced particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and 10 levels were observed during the lockdown, the pollutant levels are rising again with the unlock guidelines in action, which can aggravate the condition of Covid-19 patients. 

Giving a boost to Atmanirbhar Bharat, JLSR Wellness, a startup in the healthcare and wellness space, recently launched a rst-of-its-kind Wi-Fi enabled smart oxygen generator under the brand name UrbOx (Urban Oxygen) India with an aim to bring a practical solution to the nation’s dire need to breathe in the fresh air. The Made In India product was designed in partnership with leading technology companies from across the world. Anand Krishnan, COO, UrbOx, was the brainchild behind this product. He has had extensive experience in clinical research, medical devices, and drug development in the UK. 

He says, “In 2019, with the spark of an idea, a group of women entrepreneurs put together a robust R&D team for the further vision of the product, and thus I got introduced to the project as the lead scientist. The women possess strong background and skills from business and trade, technology development, nance, and accounting.” 

The articial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and Internet of Things (IoT) congured solution has been created by ne-tuning and improvising an open source technology that was developed by NASA for its critical space missions to suit commercial and residential needs. The technology has been previously used in Apollo spacecraft. 

The oxygen generator comes with oxygen-sensing air-quality monitor. The oxygen sensor, procured from a Switzerland-based company, is RoHS compliant based on the European Union’s Directive 2002/95/EC. The indoor unit can continuously measure the concentration of oxygen, besides other gases in a place. So, once you switch it on, it switches on and o automatically depending on the oxygen requirements in a room in real time. A mobile app, available on both iOS and Android, can be used to control and monitor the oxygen levels. 

MCERTS-certied optical PM sensor, CMOSens Technology for IR detection during carbon dioxide measurement, and NIST-traceable ISO/IEC 17025 accredited calibration technology ensure high accuracy and credibility. Temperature and humidity sensors together form a single unit. According to the company, the precision levels are ±3 per cent accuracy for humidity, ±1 hPa accuracy for pressure, and ±1.0°C accuracy for temperature. 

Krishnan says, “Developing world-class cutting-edge technology with the global partners was the key to success, and we had to overcome many hurdles during the corona times, but the team worked hard to make it available during these dicult times. Our product has exceptional long-term stability and is easy to install and operate. The sleek design perfectly complements the superior technology.” 

The device uses a process called Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) to generate a high concentration of oxygen gas from ambient air. This technique uses high pressure to separate a gas from a mixture based on properties like molecular characteristics and anity for an adsorbent material that dierentiates one from another. Once the pressure is reduced, the adsorbed gas—here oxygen—gets pumped back into the environment. In simple terms, the device captures atmospheric air and lters it to provide pure and fresh oxygen. 

The eco-friendly innovation works well for homes, workplaces, classrooms, operation theatres and clinics, and public places such as restaurants, airports, multiplexes, and gyms. These indoor areas can gain the maximum benet from the generator when the doors and windows are kept closed. In summers, it can be used along with air-conditioners. 

“Registered under the Make in India programme and Startup India programme, the need of the hour product has attracted many segments and audience. With India having more than 21 cities out of thirty cities which are most polluted in the world, UrB.Ox Smart Sensible Oxygen Generator becomes an important device to analyse, monitor, and generate your own oxygen for your enclosed indoors. Air puriers cannot generate oxygen and are limited to an area. Patients with asthma, breathing, and respiratory disorders can feel at ease without any tubes around their noses,” adds Krishnan. 

The oxygen generator was launched on 28th September, 2020 and comes in three variants. Urb.Ox Eco (two air dispensers, one indoor unit (AQI)) and Urb.Ox Premium (four air dispensers, one indoor unit (AQI)) are priced at ` 180,000 and ` 250,000, respectively,

excluding eighteen per cent GST. Urb.Ox Booster can be ordered for commercial establishments or other large spaces by making a payment of ` 500,000+ 18% GST. 

The benet is that it can be used 24/7 without any side eects. Both outdoor and indoor units are noiseless and consume low power. The units do not require large space for installation either—the indoor unit can even be tted on a room wall. Fireproof tubing ensures safety, and the oxygen is delivered in a controlled and optimised way. 

The products will be available on the company’s website as well as popular e-commerce sites. To adapt to the constantly evolving market, the team plans to launch more futuristic products at aordable costs. Krishnan says, “The company is in talks with potential collaborators from 

countries such as the UK, Europe, UAE, Dubai, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia and Africa, and is all set to foray into Sri Lanka in due course.” 


Global media has called inventor and author Ray Kurzweil everything from ‘restless genius’ and ‘the ultimate thinking machine’ to ‘rightful heir to Thomas Edison’ and ‘one of the 16 revolutionaries who made America.’ His list of inventions is long—from at-bed scanners to synthesisers and reading machines for the visually-impaired. He has over 20 honorary doctorates, and has founded a string of successful companies. 

There is an interesting story about how this genius, who was not known to work for any company other than his own, joined Google as director of engineering in 2012. He wanted to start a company to build a truly-intelligent computer and knew that no company other than Google had the kind of resources he needed. When he went to meet Larry Page about getting the resources, Page convinced Kurzweil to join them instead. Considering that Google was already well into deep learning research, Kurzweil agreed. It is said that it is the aura of deep learning that closed the deal. 

What is this deep learning all about, anyway? It is machine learning at its best—machine learning that tries to mimic the way the brain works, to get closer to the real meaning of articial intelligence (AI). 

Today’s neural networks have several layers. The lowest layer takes raw data and its 

neurons store some information about the data these encounter. Each neuron sends 

information up to the next layer of neurons, which learn a more abstract version of the 

data below it. Higher layers learn more and more abstract features. The neural network 

in the image has five layers, of which three are hidden (Image courtesy: NVIDIA) 

Taking machine learning a bit deeper 

Machine learning is all about teaching a machine to do something. Most current methods use a combination of feature extraction and modality-specic machine-learning algorithms, along with thousands of examples, to teach a machine to identify things like handwriting and speech. The process is not as easy as it sounds. It requires a large set of data, heavy computing power and a lot of background work. And, despite tedious eorts, such systems are not fool-proof. These tend to fail in the face of discrepancies. For example, it is easy for a machine-learning system to get confused between a hurriedly written 0 and 6, or vice versa. It can understand brother but not a casually-scribbled bro. How can such machine learning survive in the big, bad, unstructured world? 

Deep learning tries to solve these problems and take machine learning one step ahead. A deep learning system will learn by itself, like a child learns to crawl, walk and talk. It is made of multi-layered deep neural networks (DNNs) that mimic the activity of the layers of neurons in the neocortex. Each layer tries to go a little deeper and understand a little more detail. 

The rst layer learns basic features, like an edge in an image or a particular note of sound. Once it masters this, the next layer attempts to recognise more complex features, like corners or combinations of sounds. Likewise, each layer tries to learn a little more, till the system can reliably recognise objects, faces, words or whatever it is meant to learn. 

With the kind of computing power and software prowess available today, it is possible to model many such layers. Systems that learn by themselves are not restricted by what these have been taught to do, so these can identify a lot more objects and sounds, and even make decisions by themselves. A deep learning system, for example, can watch video footage and notify the guard if it spots someone suspicious. 

Google has been dabbling with deep learning for many years now. One of its earliest successes was a deep learning system that taught itself to identify cats by watching thousands of unlabelled, untagged images and videos. Today, we nd companies ranging from Google and Facebook to IBM and Microsoft experimenting with deep learning solutions for voice recognition, real-time translation, image recognition, security solutions and so on. Most of these work over a Cloud infrastructure, which taps into the computing power tucked away in a large data centre. 

As a next step, companies like Apple are trying to gure out if deep learning can be achieved with less computing power. Is it possible to implement, say, a personal assistant that works o your phone rather than rely on the Cloud? We take you through some such interesting deep learning eorts.

Brain is Google’s deep learning project, and its tech is used in many of Google’s products, ranging from their search engine and voice recognition to email, maps and photos. It helps your Android phone to recognise voice commands, translate foreign language street signs or notice boards into your chosen language and do much more, apart from running the search engine so eciently. 

Google also enables deep learning development through its open source deep learning software stack TensorFlow and Google Cloud Machine Learning (Cloud ML). The Cloud oering is equipped with state-of-the-art machine learning services, a customised neural network based platform and pre-trained models. The platform has powerful application programming interfaces (APIs) for speech recognition, image analysis, text analysis and dynamic translation. 

Another of Google’s pets in this space is DeepMind, a British company that it acquired in 2014. DeepMind made big news in 2016, when its AlphaGo program beat the global champion at a game of Go, a Chinese game that is believed to be much more complex than Chess. 

Usually, AI systems try to master a game by constructing a search tree covering all possible options. This is impossible in Go—a game that is believed to have more possible combinations than the number of atoms in the universe. 

AlphaGo combines an advanced tree search with DNNs. These neural networks take a description of Go board as an input and process it through 12 dierent network layers containing millions of neuron-like connections. A neural network called the policy network decides on the next move, while another network called the value network predicts the winner of the game. 

After learning from over 30 million human moves, the system could predict the human move around 57 per cent of the time. Then, AlphaGo learnt to better these human moves by discovering new strategies using a method called reinforcement learning. Basically, the system played innumerable games between its neural networks and adjusted the connections using a trial-and-error process. Google Cloud provided the extensive computing power needed to achieve this. 

What made AlphaGo win at a game that baed computers till then was the fact that it could gure out the moves and winning strategies by itself, instead of relying on handcrafted rules. This makes it an ideal example of deep learning. 

AI world has always used games to prove its mettle, but the same talent can be put to better use. DeepMind is working on systems to tackle problems ranging from climate modelling to disease analysis. Google itself uses a lot of deep learning. According to a statement by Mustafa Suleyman, co-founder of DeepMind, deep learning networks have now replaced 60 handcrafted rule based systems at Google. 

Some trend-watchers claim that it is Watson, IBM’s AI brainchild, which transformed IBM from a hardware company to a business analytics major. Watson was a path-breaking natural language processing (NLP) computer, which could answer questions asked conversationally.

In 2011, it made the headlines by beating two champions at the game of Jeopardy. It was immediately signed on by Cleveland Clinic to synthesise humongous amounts of data to generate evidence based hypotheses, so they could help clinicians and students to diagnose diseases more accurately and plan their treatment better. 

Watson is powered by DeepQA, a software architecture for deep content analysis and evidence-based reasoning. Last year, Watson strengthened its deep learning abilities with the acquisition of AlchemyAPI, whose deep learning engines specialise in digging into Big Data to discover important relationships. 

In a media report, Steve Gold, vice president of the IBM Watson group, said that, “AlchemyAPI’s technology will be used to help augment Watson’s ability to identify information hierarchies and understand relationships between people, places and things living in that data. This is particularly useful across long-tail domains or other ontologies that are constantly evolving. The technology will also help give Watson more visual features such as the ability to detect, label and extract details from image data.” 

IBM is constantly expanding its line of products for deep learning. Using IBM Watson Developer Cloud on Bluemix, anybody can embed Watson’s cognitive technologies into their apps and products. There are APIs for NLP, machine learning and deep learning, which could be used for purposes like medical diagnosis, marketing analysis and more. 

APIs like Natural Language Classier, Personality Insights and Tradeo Analytics, for example, can help marketers. Data First’s inuencer technology platform, Inuential, used Watson’s Personality Insights API to scan and sift through social media and identify inuencers for their client, KIA Motors. The system looked for inuencers who had traits like openness to change, artistic interest and achievement-striving. The resulting campaign was a great success. 

Quite recently, IBM and Massachusetts Institute of Technology got into a multi-year partnership to improve AI’s ability to interpret sight and sound as well as humans. Watson is expected to be a key part of this research. In September, IBM also launched a couple of Power8 Linux servers, whose unique selling proposition is their ability to accelerate AI, deep learning and advanced analytics applications. The servers apparently move data ve times faster than competing platforms using NVIDIA’s NVLink high-speed interconnect technology. 

IBM is also trying to do something more about reducing the amount of computing power and time that deep learning requires. Their Watson Research Center believes that it can reduce these using theoretical chips called resistive processing units or RPUs that combine a central processing unit (CPU) and non-volatile memory. The team claims that such chips can accelerate data speeds exponentially, resulting in systems that can do tasks like natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages. 

Currently, neural networks like DeepMind and Watson need to perform billions of tasks in parallel, requiring numerous CPU memory calls. Placing large amounts of resistive random access memory directly onto a CPU would solve this, as such chips can fetch data as quickly as these can process it, thereby reducing neural network training times and power required. 

The research paper claims that, “This massively-parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30,000 compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors—problems that currently require days of training on a data centre size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator.” Although these chips are still in the research phase, scientists say that these can be built using regular complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. 

Speaking of reducing processing power and learning times, can you imagine deep learning being performed locally on a mobile phone, without depending on the Cloud? Well, Apple revealed at 2016’s Worldwide Developer’s Conference (WWDC) that it can do precisely that. The company announced that it is applying advanced, deep learning techniques to bring facial recognition to iPhone, and it is all done locally on the device. Some of this success can be attributed to Perceptio, a company that Apple acquired last year. Perceptio is developing deep learning tech that allows smartphones to identify images without relying on external data libraries. 

Facebook intends to understand your intent 

Facebook Articial Intelligence Research (FAIR) group has come out with innumerable innovations, which are so deeply woven with their products that we do not even realise that we are using deep learning every time we use Facebook. FbLearner Flow is Facebook’s internal platform for machine learning. It combines several machine learning models to process data points drawn from the activity of the site’s users, and makes predictions such as which user is in a photograph, which post is spam and so on. Algorithms that come out of FbLearner Flow help Facebook to identify faces in photos, select content for your news feed and more. 

One of their recent innovations is DeepText, a deep learning based text understanding engine that can understand the textual content posted on Facebook in 20-plus languages. Understanding text might be easy for humans, but for a machine it includes multiple tasks such as classication of a post, recognition of entities, understanding of slang, disambiguation of confusing words and so on. 

All this is not possible using traditional NLP methods, and makes deep learning imperative. DeepText uses many DNN architectures, including convolutional and recurrent neural nets to perform word-level and character-level learning. FbLearner Flow and Torch are used for model training. 

But, why would Facebook want to understand the text posted by users? Understanding conversations helps to understand intent. For example, if a user says on Messenger that “the food was good at XYZ place,” Facebook understands that he or she is done with the meal, but when someone says, “I am hungry and wondering where to eat,” the system knows the user is looking for a nearby restaurant. Likewise, the system can understand other requirements like the need to buy or sell something, hail a cab, etc. This helps Facebook to present the user with the right tools that solve their problems. Facebook is also trying to build deep learning architectures that learn intent jointly from textual and visual inputs. 

Facebook is constantly trying to develop and apply new deep learning technologies. According to a recent blog post, bi-directional recurrent neural nets (BRNNs) show a lot of promise, “as these aim to capture both contextual dependencies between words through recurrence and position-invariant semantics through convolution.” The teams have observed that BRNNs achieve lower error rates (sometimes as low as 20 per cent) compared to regular convolutional or recurrent neural nets for classification. 

Big Sur is designed around operational efficiency and serviceability (Image courtesy: 

If Google open-sourced its deep learning software engine, Facebook open-sourced its AI hardware last year. Known as Big Sur, this machine was designed in association with Quanta and NVIDIA. It has eight GPU boards, each containing dozens of chips. It has been found that deep learning using GPUs is much more ecient compared to the use of traditional processors. GPUs are power-ecient and help neural nets to analyse more data, faster. 

In a media report, Yann LeCun of Facebook said that, open-sourcing Big Sur had many benets. “If more companies start using the designs, manufacturers can build the machines at a lower cost. And in a larger sense, if more companies use the designs to do more AI work, it helps accelerate the evolution of deep learning as a whole—including software and hardware. So, yes, Facebook is giving away its secrets so that it can better compete with Google—and everyone else.” 

Deep learning can deeply impact our lives 

Deep learning’s applications range from medical diagnosis to marketing, and we are not kidding you. There is a fabulous line on IBM’s website, which says that we are all experiencing the benets of deep learning today, in some way or the other, without even realising it. 

In June 2016, Ford researchers announced that they had developed a very accurate approach to estimate a moving vehicle’s position within a lane in real time. They achieved this kind of sub-centimetre-level precision by training a DNN, which they call DeepLanes, to process input images from two laterally-mounted down-facing cameras—each recording at an average 100 frames/s. 

They trained the neural network on an NVIDIA DIGITS DevBox with cuDNN-accelerated Cae deep learning framework. NVIDIA DIGITS is an interactive workow based solution for image classication. NVIDIA’s software development kit has several powerful tools and libraries for developing deep learning frameworks, including Cae, CNTK, TensorFlow, Theano and Torch. 

The life sciences industry uses deep learning extensively for drug discovery, understanding of disease progression and so on. Researchers at The Australian National University, for example, are using deep learning to understand the progression of Parkinson’s disease. In September, researchers at Duke University revealed a method that uses deep learning and light based, holographic scans to spot malaria-infected cells in a simple blood sample, without human intervention. 

Abu Qader, a high school student in Chicago, has created GliaLab, a startup that combines AI with the ndings of mammograms and ne-needle aspirations to identify and classify breast cancer tumours. The solution starts with mammogram imaging and then sifts Big Data to build predictive models about similar tumour types, risks, growth, treatment outcomes and so on. He used an NVIDIA GeForce GT 750M GPU on his laptop along with TensorFlow deep learning framework. 

Deep learning is supposed to be the future of digital personal assistants like Siri, Alexa and Cortana. Bark out any command, and these personal assistants will be able to understand and get it done. Deep learning is also going to be the future of Web search, marketing, product design, life sciences and much more. 

Once the Internet of Things (IoT) ensnares the world in its Web, there is going to be Big(ger) Data for deep learning systems to work on. No wonder companies ranging from Google, Facebook, Microsoft and Amazon, to NVIDIA, Apple, AMD and IBM, are all hell-bent on leading the deep learning race. A year down the line, we will have a lot more to talk about! 


Words are the most powerful weapons used to stab and to heal. Words are like double edged sword. People say think before you speak because words once spit out can never be taken back. It takes a fraction of second to hurt someone by words, but its takes a longer period to heal. The phrase of Longfellow goes like this, “A torn jacket is soon mended; but hard words bruise the heart of a child”. There are people who longs for some kind words and there are people who waits for a chance to hurt others. It’s easy to treat a wound in body but a wound in heart takes its own time to heal. Words are our strength and our weakness. Your words can inspire and influence people, and it can also entertain others. Words can evoke people’s emotions either it is good or bad. Words are the means of communication and it differs from people based on their understanding level of what you speak. We live in a world where with people from different situations. Neither a child nor old man can get hurt when one hears harsh words. Irrespective of age people get hurt. Think twice before you speak. Let’s stay united and heal this world. The greatest feeling one can receive is the power of being loved and this can be done only with kind words. Spread love wherever you go, be kind with your words. Let’s be the change that we need in this world. Let us not kill with words let’s heal.


When someone does not behave according to our expectations our brain automatically, mindlessly starts reacting to it by getting angry, anxious, or end with bad terms. We get irritated and annoyed by others’ actions because we expected better from them. But you know that you can’t control the way others behave. But you can control your actions and respond to them.

People try to create turmoil around us. But the only thing we can do is be compassionate towards them. This can happen through Mindfulness. Mindfulness is when you take a pause and let the wave of mindless reaction pass and then respond to the situation.

3 ways to Mindfulness:

  1. Ask for a change. If you think the person is capable of changing you can ask for it. But while you ask make sure you don’t put the other person on the defensive. Asking him with kindness and gracefully rather than doing it with criticism. Criticism is futile and it does not work well in such a situation. Do not forget to appreciate the efforts of the person if he is changing for you.
  2. Set limits and Boundaries .When you can’t control someone else behavior. One should learn to limit their responses to it. One should maintain boundary which means refusing some behavior if you feel it’s inappropriate.
  3. Acceptance. This means mindfully accepting that the person would never change putting efforts would be ineffective. You decide to be ok with it. Acceptance doesn’t mean you shouldn’t try it. One should try but if it’s not hitting any change, stop and accept with compassion.

Voice of a Tree

I was deserved to be preserved
But neither reserved nor served
I was measured as a pressure
Rather than being treasured
Should I now assure?


Women empowerment means empowering the women. The empowerment should be done to uplift the women. In Western Countries, female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19th and early 20th century, where suffrage was a key feature. The second wave of the 1960s included the sexual revolution and the role of women in society. Third wave feminism is often seen as beginning in the 1990s. Women’s empowerment and promoting women’s rights have emerged as a part of a major global movement and is continuing to break new ground in recent years. Days like International Women’s Empowerment Day are also gaining momentum. But despite a great deal of progress, women and girls continue to face discrimination and violence in every part of the World.

Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world. There has been development over the last decades: More girls are going to school, fewer girls are forced into early marriage, more women are serving in parliament and positions of leadership, and laws are being reformed to advance gender equality.

Principle of Women Empowerment:

  1. Create high-level corporate leadership for gender equality.
  2. Treat all people fairly at work, respecting and supporting non-discrimination and human rights.
  3. Androgynous management should be followed.
  4. The employees should not be judged by their gender, they should be judged by their skills and knowledge.
  5. Ensure the health, wellbeing and safety of all workers.
  6. Promote education, training and development for women.
  7. Career development programmes should be organised and open the doors for women in all fields.
  8. Implement supply chain, marketing practices and enterprise development that empower women.
  9. Champion equality through community initiatives and advocacy
  10. Measure and report publicly on progress to create gender equality.

National policy for the empowerment of Women (2001)

Creating an environment through positive economic and social policies for full development of women to enable them to realize their full potential

(ii) The de-jure and de-facto enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedom by women on equal basis with men in all spheres – political, economic, social, cultural and civil

(iii) Equal access to participation and decision making of women in social, political and economic life of the nation

(iv) Equal access to women to health care, quality education at all levels, career and vocational guidance, employment, equal remuneration, occupational health and safety, social security and public office etc.

(v) Strengthening legal systems aimed at elimination of all forms of discrimination against women

(vi) Changing societal attitudes and community practices by active participation and involvement of both men and women.

(vii) Mainstreaming a gender perspective in the development process.

(viii) Elimination of discrimination and all forms of violence against women and the girl child; and

(ix) Building and strengthening partnerships with civil society, particularly women’s organizations.

Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com


Yoga is a form of exercise that originated in Ancient India. Many people have practiced it for thousands of years. The act of yoga consists of many poses known as “Asana” that have different physical benefits. It is said that if a person practices yoga, he (or) she will become healthier. Yoga was introduced from subcontinent India by the followers of Hinduism and Buddhism, those who performed it were called yogis. The one who teaches yoga is called yogi, a yogi is revered and respected by its followers. Most importantly it is an exercise which people belonging to all religions can perform. Yoga has become very famous throughout the world, every year 21st June is celebrated international yoga day all around the globe. Therefore, many countries have adopted yoga as a form of exercise. Yoga will definitely help in keeping our body hale and healthy.

Yoga is a science which deals in practices of balancing mind, body and soul. Actually, Yoga means Union, union with the Divine. It helps in healing mind, body and finally soul by providing relaxation, positive thinking and harmony. The practice entails low-impact physical activity, postures, breathing techniques, relaxation, and meditation.

Yoga plays an important role in human life. People of all ages, sick people as well perform yoga to enjoy a fit and healthy life. But, sick people must take an expert consultation before performing exercises. Because, without consulting the doctor (or) an expert, if a sick person does the yoga, they the pain of the sick person may increases depending upon the body condition. People who perform yoga must follow a routine for exercise, rest and diet. Because yoga possess different postures, and to do that we should take a good intake.

Benefits of Yoga:

  • Yoga allows clearing mind and reaching a more peaceful life approach;
  • It creates a connection between body and mind bringing a needed harmony;
  • Yoga reduces stress, various fears, and mental disorders;
  • It connects a person with nature
  • Helps in keeping ourselves hale and healthy
  • Helps in relaxation and self confidence
  • It balances mind, body and soul.

Western countries have readily adopted yoga for the innumerable health benefits it has to offer. There are thousands of yoga schools in the USA alone that teach the art of yoga. While yoga can be practiced by anyone at home, the complicated postures need some practice. The deeply rooted spiritualism in yoga is because when our minds and bodies are in complete harmony, we attain a sense of divine peace that might be called ‘moksha’ in Sanskrit. The aim of yoga is to connect us to ourselves by eliminating any negative energy in our bodies. It is advised that we must sit on the ground while performing yoga as that would transfer the negative energy to the ground.

Yoga is very helpful for each and every individual. Any age people can do Yoga, but may vary upon their body condition. By doing yoga every day, the day becomes brighter and brighter,

Photo by Elly Fairytale on Pexels.com

Microbial technology for the development of sustainable energy and environment

Energy and Environment are the most smoking subjects concerned progressively by individuals. With the profoundly fast improvement of present day culture, the expanding environmental contamination and the worldwide utilization of energy have effectively become two significant issues which need tending to now and later on. Guaranteeing the best utilization of assets to decrease environmental contamination and growing new more reasonable approaches to create and utilize energy are critically needed by the general population. Answers for these drawn out issues will require the collaboration of multidisciplinary analysts. Notwithstanding, Microbial Technologies for bioremediation of environmental toxins and for bioproduction of clean energy or energized and environmentally-accommodating synthetic mixtures are promising ways to deal with the advancement of supportable energy and environment. In view of this, there are numerous fields we can investigate, like mechanical biotechnology, biofuels and bioenergy; new cycles and items in biotechnology; biodegradation of environmental contaminants, engineered science for microbial cells with improved execution and numerous others. Along these lines, this BTRE uncommon issue invites research articles (short or full specialized), strategies, smaller than expected surveys, and discourses in the previously mentioned regions, which are completely inside the extent of the Journal. Overall, we trust that this uncommon issue would give all the more recently formed bits of knowledge into the answers for the drawn out maintainability of Energy and Environment.

The issues on Energy and Environmental Sustainability are the biggest difficulties to meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals. With the profoundly quick improvement of the cutting edge society, the expanding environmental contamination and the developing utilization of energy have effectively become two significant issues, which need tending to now and later on. Both guaranteeing the best utilization of assets to diminish environmental contamination and growing new reasonable systems to change over biomass into efficient power energy conveys are desperately needed by general society. Answers for these drawn out issues will require the collaboration of multidisciplinary specialists.

The current uncommon issue of the Biotechnology Reports gathers thirteen articles (1 Short correspondence, 2 Review articles, and 10 Research articles) to address the significant subjects from mechanical biotechnology, biofuels creation, energy stockpiling, new cycles in biotechnology, biodegradation of environmental contaminations to engineered science for biosynthesis of synthetics with manageability possibilities. 

Regardless, Rasimphi and Tinarwo feature the significance of biogas as a perfect and inexhaustible type of energy to the fuel emergency and the environmental contamination related with the petroleum derivative and examine the associating factors impacting chiefs in the maintainable reception and use of biogas innovation in South Africa. Şenol reports the huge capability of hazelnut shells and hazelnut squanders in the creation of biogas and the moderation of CO2 outflows. In addition, Hakizimana et al. give the cutting-edge data on the current systems and boundaries for the upgraded microbial creation of butanediol. López-Domínguez et al. streamline the enzymatic hydrolysis of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode as biomass for bioethanol creation with cutthroat yield. The paper by Lawer-Yolar et al. reports that the oils from the tropical woodland tree can be utilized as a potential stage change material for nuclear power stockpiling. 

Akhtar and Mannan completely audit mycoremediation of environmental toxins from the business (e.g., substantial metals and fragrant hydrocarbons) and the agribusiness (e.g., pesticides, herbicides, and cyanotoxins) and give the systems to address the worldwide issue of contamination. The examination by Pourbabaee et al. reports the hydrophobe and halotolerant bacterial culture, discloses the primary reasoning behind phenanthrene debasement, and gives a solid reference to bioremediation of saline environments tainted by phenanthrene and other comparable mixtures. 

Also, laccase has great exhibitions in bioremediation of contaminants. The paper by Unuofin shows the maintainability possibilities of bacterial laccase colors in both color decolourization and denim bioscouring, which has enormously progressed the applications toward a feasible and absolute environment through creation of fine biochemicals, and the minimization of environmental squanders. The exploration article by Mehandia et al. reports a soluble base and thermostable laccase from a novel Alcaligenes faecalis and its application in decolorization of manufactured colors in enterprises. Durán-Aranguren et al. report that bioactive mixtures separated from Cordyceps nidus can incite laccase action of Pleurotus ostreatus, which gives the helpful data to the utilization of laccase with progress. Additionally, Junior et al. show an incorporated interaction of vinasse debasement, laccase creation and purging with possible modern application. 

Moreover, Zhang et al. reveal the genomic data of a novel algicidal bacterium and uncover the guideline of majority detecting its algicidal movement, which will give helpful data to creating novel substance environmental strategies to control unsafe green growth. Wu et al. exhibit the novel bioprocess for improved creation of astaxanthin, which is a powerful cancer prevention agent in the food business, medical services, and clinical therapies. 

In rundown, this exceptional issue gives an extensive outline about microbial innovation for the practical advancement of energy and environment and will help produce all the more recently formed bits of knowledge into the answers for the drawn out manageability of Energy and Environment.

Recycling concepts for short-fiber-reinforced composites

Short-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (SFRTCs) and molecule filled thermoplastic composites (PFTCs) are broadly utilized in a few useful fields including car, aviation and flying, building development, electrical gear, outdoor supplies. SFRTCs consist of thermoplastic grids reinforced with at least one broken supporting specialist, for example, glass fiber (GF), carbon fiber (CF), natural fiber (for the most part aramid, AF), ceramic fiber and regular fiber (NF). In an ordinary SFRTC, generally short fibers of variable length are haphazardly disseminated or defectively adjusted in consistent thermoplastic polymer networks. Infusion trim and expulsion are the most diffuse preparing strategies for the creation of parts with SFRTCs, regardless of whether added substance producing (AM) techniques, for example, melded fiber manufacture (FFF), are turning out to be famous likewise with short fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites . Thermoplastic grids are by and large reinforced with generally high measures of short fibers, regularly in the reach from 20 up to 50 wt%. The primary microstructural boundaries deciding the mechanical and actual properties of SFRTCs are the fiber direction and the fiber length (or the angle proportion, for example the length/measurement proportion). Contingent upon the preparing conditions, fiber direction may fluctuate from irregular to almost completely adjusted. Skin-center morphology in the infusion shaped part is an illustration of handling initiated fiber direction, with fibers generally adjusted along the stream heading in the external skin layers (the one in contact with the form surface) and lying oppositely to the stream course in the center. Moreover, the high shear powers produced during melt handling, for example, compounding with twin-screw extruders and infusion forming regularly separate the fibers consequently diminishing their normal length and altering their length circulation . Both direction and fiber breakage marvels should be considered in assessing the results of a given reusing measure on the physical and mechanical properties of SFRTCs. Indeed, a supporting fiber can proficiently expand the modulus and strength of a composite material if enough mechanical burden can be moved from the lattice to the support. Basic micromechanical contemplations show that the most extreme fiber stress increments as the fiber length increments. As far as possible is addressed by the fiber stress in a unidirectional composite reinforced with constant fibers of equivalent volume part and exposed to a similar pressure. The base fiber length needed to accomplish the above most extreme fiber stress is by and large designated as the “heap move length” Lt. At the point when fibers are adequately long and the applied pressure is adequately high, the most extreme pressure in the fibers is restricted by a definitive fiber strength. A basic fiber length, Lc, free of applied pressure, is characterized as the base fiber length needed to pressure the fibers to their definitive strength. Fibers that are shorter than Lc will pull out of the lattice under ductile burden. All the above thoughts depend with the understanding of an ideal fiber/lattice holding which is rarely the case . It very well may be effortlessly demonstrated that Lc relies upon the fiber/framework shear strength [1]. In this manner, in reusing measures, a vital point is to safeguard the fibers at lengths higher than Lc in any event, when rehashed re-handling steps are applied [4] and to guarantee that an appropriate fiber/lattice grip is accomplished. An appropriate plan of the screws of infusion forming machines can help in restricting the fiber breakage measure [8]. 

Normally, the beginning crude mixtures for the creation of SFRTC parts are 3–4 mm long barrel shaped pellets, containing arbitrarily situated fibers 0.2–0.4 mm long. To beat this limit, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (LFTs) have been created in which thermoplastic polymers are reinforced with fibers of 5–25 mm or longer [9]. Another issue in the reusing of SFRTC is the debasement of the mechanical properties of both grid materials and the building up fibers. Indeed, in a few thermoplastic grids, re-handling frequently causes a warm debasement with a reduction of the sub-atomic weight which at last lead to a decline in the mechanical properties [10]. Additionally the properties of the building up fibers can be adversely impacted by the high temperatures at which the composites are uncovered during re-preparing or lattice pyrolysis [11]. 

The majority of the examinations in regards to the reusing of SFRTC have been centered around composites with thermoplastic networks like polyethylene (PE) 

Molecule filled thermoplastic composites (PFTCs) comprise of thermoplastic frameworks loaded up with different kinds of supporting fillers , such glass circles and drops, calcium carbonate, powder, mica, kaolin, wollastonite, montmorillonite, feldspar, carbon dark, wood flour (WF), and so forth .The primary motivations to add a building up filler to a thermoplastic network are I) to lessen the expense, ii) to improve the solidness and of the dimensional security at low and high temperatures and the effect opposition, iii) to improve the scraped area and scratch obstruction, iv) to decrease the water sorption or to alter the gas penetrability. Much of the time, these beneficial outcomes are likewise joined by some unfavorable ones, like a lessening in the rigidity, extension at break and loss of optical straightforwardness. For as the reusing of PFTCs is worried, among the most much of the time researched thermoplastic grids utilized for their arrangement the consideration has been primarily centered around PP reinforced with fillers like powder, raged silica, dirts, calcium carbonate, WF and rice bodies.


Book: Sita – The Warrior of Mithila
Author: Amish Tripathi
Publisher: Westend Publishers
Genre: Fantasy, Mythology

We’ve grown up hearing exciting mythological stories, whether from the Mahabharat, the Ramayan, or other sagas, and we’ve only ever seen them from this perspective. The book Sita gives us various perspectives on Sita’s life, who is best known to most of us as Lord Ram’s wife. The book chronicles her life and the battles she faced before marrying Lord Ram. Her abduction is the only important aspect of her life that most people are aware of. This novel, on the other hand, shows Sita in a variety of colours that many people are unaware of. Sita is depicted in the book as being as fierce, strong, and witty as her husband. In a world where we struggle for feminism and equal rights, this book is essential reading.

Sita fights for her own and others’ interests. Sita is more than a princess; she is a warrior who was raised for a greater purpose: to protect our dharma and to unite India under her leadership. The author has arranged it in the most beautiful and wonderful way possible, from the depiction of environments to the characters and plot. This work of fiction incorporates all mythological elements thus giving Sita’s character the highest priority and fully explaining it. This is a good book to read if you’re interested in learning more about Indian myths or female warriors.

Two plants harvested at the International Space Station.

In a recent news, NASA has confirmed of its trials to provide fresh leafy vegetables to the astronauts and currently the news that is capturing everyone’s eye is the success NASA achieved in accomplishing the same.

Source: http://nasa.gov

NASA took to its official page handle and shared the picture of plant. It also stated: ‘Astronauts on the International Space Station recently enjoyed a fresh supply of leafy greens, thanks in large part to the efforts of Expedition 64 crew member Michael Hopkins.’[1]

‘NASA’s SpaceX Crew-1 mission commander took the lead on conducting four Vegetable Production System (Veggie) experiments, with the last two wrapping up after an April 13 harvest. VEG-03K and VEG-03L tested a new space crop, ‘Amara’ mustard, and a previously grown crop, ‘Extra Dwarf’ pak choi. They were grown for 64 days, the longest leafy greens have grown on station.’[2]

Michael Hopkins smells ‘Extra Dwarf’ pak choi plants growing aboard the International Space Station on March 26, 2021. Source: http://nasa.gov

It was simultaneously reported that the pak choi began its reproductive cycle and the flowers were also observed on it. One of space crop production project scientist and science lead on the four-plant experiments, Matt Romeyn remarked about Hopkins as ‘ I wasn’t all at surprised that he chose this route to make sure the plants were fully pollinated because he has always wanted to be very involved’.

This is indeed one of the incredible achievements by NASA. It is expected to try planting more of them. This is a good news for the astronauts who are completing their duties at International Space Station.

Government in Delhi means LG?

With a constant surge in covid cases of the capital city, the central government makes the Government of NCT of Delhi (Amendment) Act, 2021 effective in the ‘National Capital Territory of India’ from 27 April 2021. It means that now while referring to the ‘Government’ of Delhi we will be referring to ‘Lieutenant Governor’. It is a big setback for the AAP Government and Chief Minister, Arvind Kejriwal. 

The question that arises here is ‘What is the Government of NCT of Delhi Act and how can it be a setback to the AAP Government?’

For this answer let’s start from the Background of this act:

  • This act was introduced in the 69th Amendment, 1991 and it stated: ‘the GNCTD Act outlines the powers of the Assembly, the discretionary powers enjoyed by the LG, and the duties of the Chief Minister with respect to the need to furnish information to the LG.’

The Key-features of this Act are as follows:

  • The matters which dealt with public, public order and land were already in the hands of the central government and the rest were being handled by the government formed at the Capital. This Act gives discretionary power to LG even in the administrative measures where the Delhi government was empowered to make laws.  
  • This Act hands over the power of the administration of Delhi into the hands of LG. When this Act is implemented, the AAP Government won’t be able to take any legislative decisions without presenting it to and getting permission from the LG. This Act thus acts as a setback to the Delhi Government and seizes all its administrative powers. 

When an amendment in this act was being passed by Lok Sabha on 22 March and by Rajya Sabha on 24 March, the Chief Minister of Delhi Arvind Kejriwal mourned it as ‘Sad day for Indian Democracy’.

As per today this Act has been passed looking at the everyday spike in the cases. While the High Court had warned the government of this future, it was revealed shortly afterwards that the government had been spending more on Advertisements and was proving incompetent in controlling this crisis. This was when the central government had to intervene and bring the Government of NCT of Delhi in force.

We as citizens can pray for the recovery of our people and hope for this second wave to end soon.


Friends are those who are boon companions. They are the ones who stand by whether it’s thick or thin. The dictionary’s definition of a good friend is a person who is attached to one another by feelings or affection or personal regard. A good friend is something difficult to find in this world filled with betrayals and back stabbings. One who holds a good friend leads a peaceful life, because when you have true friends, you don’t need to face any hardships alone in your life. A quote by William Shakespeare says “A friend is one that knows you as you are, understands where you have been, accepts what you have been and still, gently allows you to grow”. Friends help each other in many ways without expecting anything in return except love. The depth of friendship can never be defined by the number of years but it’s by trust, love, care, loyalty and by the sweet and bitter experiences they came across together. There is a saying “quality is better than quantity” and the same way the one who is true is far better than a thousand fake friends. They are the ones who’ll know how to make you smile even in your hardest time, and they give the courage and strength to face anything that comes on your way. Most of the times they are friends come family. More than one’s own family we love to spend time with friends because they don’t jdge you, you can share anything and everything under the sun only with friends. Sometimes even without our knowledge they will be our life savers and they don’t want you to know just because you’ll feel more grateful to him/her. This is something that happens in every circle and once they find something fishy they follow up secretly and pop-up’s in the crucial point of your struggle. Vladimir Lenin’s famous quote says that “Show me who your friends are, and I will tell you what you are”, and in the same way friends define who you are and what you are. Friends are the ones who will know us better than anybody else. One can never live without friends in this world and it’s hard to find people who don’t have a friend, because friends are the ones who will never leave you when you are in trouble. No matter how big the trouble is they will solve it for you before you suffer to death. Cherish your friends just by loving them more everyday than the day before, and this world will be at peace.

Google removes FlixOnline that is spreading malware via WhatsApp


  • A fake Netflix-like app promises to provide free Netflix content.
  • The FlixOnline spread malware via WhatsApp conversations.
  • After hundreds of downloads from Play store, it was finally removed.

About 3 weeks ago, this is what has happened.

As users of internet, we are advised to use apps from reliable sources like Google play store or Apple app store. But sometimes, fake apps like FlixOnline bypasses the online security and protection of Play store and enters it. The FlixOnline combines the popularity of Netflix, the traditional social trigger (‘free’) and the pandemic situation to its favour.

Instead of doing what it says it does, it sends automated reply to WhatsApp conversations luring them with free Netflix. The “wormable” malware spreads further via malicious links. The automated message says “2 Months of Netflix Premium Free at no cost For REASON OF QUARANTINE (CORONA VIRUS) * Get 2 Months of Netflix Premium Free anywhere in the world for 60 days. Get it now HERE ” and it provides a link. The link was designed to gain complete access to the user’s WhatsApp if clicked. “Theoretically, through these auto-generated replies, a hacker can steal data, cause business interruptions on work related chat groups, and even extortion by sending sensitive data to all the users contacts,” the researchers noted.

The FlixOnline malware when installed requests ‘Overlay’, ‘Battery Optimization Ignore’ and ‘Notification’ permissions. These are used to create new windows on top of other apps. The new windows are often designed to look like fake login pages nudging the users to enter authentic credentials. The notification access enables to app to “dismiss” or “reply” to messages while the battery optimization access is used to keep the app running in spite of turning off the app.

The Check Point Research notified the Google about this malicious app that was in its platform. Google was quick to remove it. It was reported that, in the course of 2 months, there were around 500 downloads.

To keep the phone safe, uninstall the app immediately and do not click any malicious links. Recheck your WhatsApp if any messages have been sent. Resetting the system would clear any malicious codes or files in it.

Next time, if something says ‘free’, BEWARE, it might ‘cost’ you a lot.

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The Road to Sustainable Development


 Sustainable development is a concept that we are made to understand and study, but we are left blind in understanding the ways to achieve it. SD, therefore, stands the risk of becoming a cliché to which everyone pays homage but nobody seems to define with precision and exactitude. We know that Sustainable Development is the road to a better future. But what is the road to sustainable development? 

What is Sustainable Development?

Development is defined as ‘an evolutionary process in which the human capacity increases in terms of initiating new structures, coping with problems, adapting to continuous change, and striding purposefully and creatively to attain new goals’ (Peet, 1999 cited in Du Pisani, 2006). According to Reyes (2001) development is understood as a social condition within a nation, in which the needs of its population are satisfied by the rational and sustainable use of natural resources and systems.

Sustainability means ‘a capacity to maintain some entity, outcome or process over time’ (Basiago, 1999). Stoddart (2011) defines sustainability as the efficient and equitable distribution of resources intra-generationally and inter-generationally with the operation of socio-economic activities within the confines of a finite ecosystem. Ben-Eli (2015), on the other hand, sees sustainability as a dynamic equilibrium in the process of interaction between the population and the carrying capacity of its environment such that the population develops to express its full potential without producing irreversible adverse effects on the carrying capacity of the environment upon which it depends.

Sustainable Development, in general, is defined as ‘the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Why Sustainable Development?

Sustainable development is the need of the hour. The economy crashing, forest burning, animals dying, climate-changing are some of the important examples as to why one should know about it. The severe change in climatic conditions rises maximum temperature, rises minimum temperature, rises sea level, causes shrinking glaciers and thawing permafrost. This increases the frequency of storms, floods, heat waves, and drought. There is also a decrease in biodiversity. “Biologists see the loss of biodiversity during the last fifty years as one of the four or five largest incidents of destruction of life on the planet” quotes Graciela Chichilnisky in her journal ‘What is sustainable development.

These problems were first addressed in 1992 at United Nations Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro. In that Summit, sustainable development emerged as one of the most urgent subjects for international policy.

Pillars of Sustainable Development

To understand sustainable development is to understand its 3 main pillars: Economic sustainability, Social Sustainability, and Environmental Sustainability.

Economic sustainability was first addressed when we realized that natural resources are limited. We understood that not all of them are replenishable or renewable. This fact affected one of our 3 processes in economic sustainability. The function of the production unit started to decline. Newer and newer ways are researched every day to produce things at a correct rate so that everyone have equal consumption. The other two processes in economic sustainability include distribution and consumption. These two processes have to be monitored properly for economic prosperity.

Social sustainability encompasses empowerment, accessibility, notions of equity, participation, institutional stability, human rights, and cultural identity all of which promote peace and social stability for sustainable development. It should aim to alleviate poverty. Because of the complicated dynamics of society, it is said that social sustainability is difficult to achieve. As Everest-Phillips (2014) says, “the definition of success within the social system is that people are not subjected to conditions that undermine their capacity to meet their needs”. Anything that crosses the path of people meeting their needs has to be addressed.

Environmental sustainability, as we all know it, is about nature life and how it supports human life on earth. With increasing disasters every day, life on earth is becoming more and more difficult. This can be reasoned with the fact that we started to seek our existence on other planets, like Mars. It is predicted that, by the year 2080, about 20% of coastal wetlands could be lost due to sea-level rise (UNSD, 2018c). There is also the problem of increasing global warming, decreasing glaciers, rising sea levels, and increasing acidity of oceans.

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

To solve these issues and everything that concerns it, the UN put forth 17 different goals. These goals are planned to be achieved by 2030.

GOAL 1: No Poverty

GOAL 2: Zero Hunger

GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being

GOAL 4: Quality Education

GOAL 5: Gender Equality

GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation

GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy

GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth

GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure

GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality

GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities

GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production

GOAL 13: Climate Action

GOAL 14: Life Below Water

GOAL 15: Life on Land

GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions

GOAL 17: Partnerships to Achieve the Goal

Agenda 2030 has five ultimate outcomes, known as the five Ps: people, planet, prosperity, peace, and partnerships, which span across the 17 SDGs.


Every government in the world should acknowledge the length of issue we are facing and take necessary actions to avoid them. Every government should adhere to SDGs for a successful and flourishing future.

Government should encourage “smart growth” through proper use of land and align their economic development. The government should make policies regarding population growth. As we all know, the more the population, the more the demand for a resource, the more the depletion of the resource. One key principle of SD is to conserve the ecosystem and biodiversity. The government’s policies should be made in a way that wouldn’t disturb biodiversity. Every government should have a social justice system that keeps checking on the integrity of the country.


The three spheres of SD are overlapped with one another that if one progresses, the remaining two follows. If the concepts contained in the sustainable development goals are applied well to real-world situations, everybody wins because natural resources are preserved, the environment is protected, the economy booms and is resilient, social life is good because there is peace and respect for human rights.

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Is Indian media a puppet?

Indian Media has been proved as an influential, patriotic, and trustworthy pillar of the nation. But gradually Indian media is losing its credibility and decency. Not just electronic media but print media too has become a puppet in the hands of the Government. The foul practice of taking money and being a puppet of the ruling party has destroyed Indian media drastically.

Media these days shows trivial issues over serious issues happening in the nation. It tries to coat the government and suppresses the truth where people are suffering because of the administration. It barely questions the government.

Media is so influential that it can play a huge role in the make or mar of a government in a nation. But as most of the media and news channels are paid they divert the real issues and are not serving the real objective of the nation. Paid news is lowering the morals and integrity of journalism. And as we can see the paid media is spreading its root all over. Most of the viewers switch the news channel because they no more trust the respective channel. And have begun to doubt the authenticity of the news.


Performance appraisal is the appraisal which is given to every employee in an organisation for their incredible performance. Performance Appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the performance of employees and to understand the abilities of a person for further growth and development.

Objectives of Performance Appraisal

Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind:

  1. To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, incentives etc.
  2. To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job.
  3. To maintain and assess the potential skill possessed by a person for further growth and development.
  4. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
  5. To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status.
  6. It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees.
  7. To give them a motivating factor
  8. To gain them a sort of self-confidence and deterministic employee.
  9. To review and retain the promotional and other training programmes.

Performance Appraisal tools:

  1. Ranking
  2. Paired Comparison
  3. Forced Distribution
  4. Checklist
  5. Critical Incident
  6. BARS
  7. MBO
  8. Performance Test
  9. Report

Employees stress is a growing concern for organizations today. Stress can be defined as a lively circumstance in which people face constraints, opportunities, or loss of something they desire and for which the consequence is both unpredictable as well as crucial. Stress is the response of people to the unreasonable/excessive pressure or demands placed on them.

Symptoms of Stress

Some of the symptoms of stress at workplace are as follows-

  • Absenteeism, escaping from work responsibilities, arriving late, leaving early, etc.
  • Deterioration in work performance, more of error prone work, short term memory loss, etc.
  • Cribbing, arguing, getting irritated, anxiety, etc.
  • Deteriorating health, more of accidents, etc.
  • Medical leave, suggestions, grievances.
  • Improper eating habits (over-eating or under-eating), excessive smoking and drinking, sleeplessness, etc.
  • Lack of sleep, Lack of food.

Training Methods:

On the job training: The training to the employees, may be in the form of on the job training. It requires field training for some jobs like, machine handling etc.

Classroom Training: This means that, the training is done in classroom with the presentation mode, where the employees would be trained accordingly.

Seminars/Conferences – Seminars and conferences are effective when training needs to be given to a larger audience. Relevant information, latest developments, new technologies and case studies are discussed on a common platform to acquaint employees with new skill sets.

Simulation Exercise – Simulation exercises train the employees in an artificial environment which closely resembles the employee’s actual working conditions.

360 degree feedback is also known as multi-rater feedback or multi-dimensional feedback or multi-source feedback. It is a very good means of improving an individual’s effectiveness (as a leader and as a manager). It is a system by which an individual gets a comprehensive/collective feedback from his superiors, subordinates, peers/co-workers, customers and various other members with whom he interacts.

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Recruitment means pooling of candidates for the process of selection. The recruitment process will vary depending on things like the size of your organisation and the number of roles you’re trying to fill. But at the most basic level, your recruitment process should include the following 7 steps. These steps include:

  1. Form a selection committee

First, you’ll need to decide who will be making the hiring decisions. This group of people will be your “selection committee”. If the organization is small (or) a start-up, there would be only 1 person, if it is medium, then there will be 2 persons. If it is a big organization, then there would be more than 4 persons.

2. Create a job description

  • Job title
  • Department
  • Who the role reports to
  • Responsibilities and expectations
  • Goals and objectives
  • Opportunity for progression and promotion
  • Required qualifications, education and training
  • Soft skills and desirable traits
  • Location and travel requirements
  • Company culture and identity

3. Post your job

Your company website: If you don’t have a careers page, you might want to contemplate making one. 

Social media: Post your vacancy details to social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn. LinkedIn is particularly good for this, as it is often used by people who are thinking about their next career move.

Classified ad boards: Although not dedicated to careers, many classified ad boards – both online and in print – include “job” categories where you can advertise your vacancy.

LinkedIn: Now-a-days LinkedIn has become more vital. Many connections can be made easily by a single step on a click. LinkedIn also provides many opportunities for both the recruiters and the candidate who are searching for the jobs. It also provide many placement opportunities for the students.

4. Create shortlists and arrange interviews:

By now, you should have plenty of CVs waiting on your desk. Now it’s time for you and your selection committee to review applications, create a shortlist, and invite candidates for an interview by checking the Resume. To create your shortlist, you should give each applicant a score. This score should be based on how well they meet the criteria you set out in your job description. Candidates who do not meet criteria crucial to the role should obviously be removed from the equation.

5. Conduct interviews and score

You should think about the questions you are going to ask in advance. Last minute scrambling could lead to a poor interview that doesn’t give you the information you need, and it could make you look like a bad employer. Interview plays a vital role in selection of the candidates.

6. Check reference:

You should check your preferred selection’s references and qualifications before you contact them. This could save you from some very awkward situations. The references should be correct and right to your knowledge.

7. Send a offer letter:

You’re nearly done now. After completing the process of selection, a formal offer letter should be sent to the selected candidates. The offer letter would contain the name, the post applied, joining date, name of the organization, date. For the unselected candidates also, a formal message should be sent.

Portable device for water-sloshing-based electricity generation based on charge separation and accumulation

Hydropower age is a notable power age strategy that utilizes Faraday’s law and pressure driven turbines. As of late, a triboelectrification-based power age gadget, utilizing water as the triboelectric material (W-TEG) was created. Notwithstanding the upgrade of the electrical yield execution through the activity instrument, the attributes of the W-TEG should be analyzed at the plan level to work with its versatile application. Thus, in this work, we built up a compact water-sloshing-based power generator (PS-EG) that can deliver a high electric yield and accomplished its shut circle circuit plan and quantitative investigation for versatile applications. The proposed PS-EG delivered top open-circuit voltage (VOC) and shut circuit current (ICC) of up to 484 V and 4.1 mA, individually, when exposed to vibrations of 2 Hz. The proposed PS-EG can be successfully used as an assistant force hotspot for little hardware and sensors.

Water, which covers 70% of the Earth’s surface and fills in as a promising other option 

fuel source, can be utilized in electric force age. Hydropower age, in which 

the unique energy of falling or streaming water is changed over to power, is a broadly 

utilized power age method that applies Faraday’s law to pressure driven turbines. 

With the progression of the Internet of things, which depends on little/slender gadgets or self powered sensors, specialists are endeavoring to guarantee a harmony between the transportability and 

electrical yield of energy collectors. Moreover, different energy collectors that utilization the 

electrokinetic impact (Duffin and Saykally, 2008, Koran Lou et al., 2019) or triboelectrification 

(Kim et al., 2018a, Zhu et al., 2012, Fan et al., 2012, He et al., 2017, Kim et al., 2019) 

procedures have been created to produce the electric force important to control little 

gadgets. Among such gadgets, triboelectrification-based power generators, which are 

made of lightweight materials and can deliver a high electrical yield, have illustrated 

potential to work as assistant force wellsprings of little electronic gadgets or self-controlled 

sensors (Wang, 2017, Chung et al., 2019, Hwang et al., 2019, Meng et al., 2013, Kim et al., 

2019). Existing chips away at water-based triboelectric generators (W-TEGs) included the utilization of 

water power through pressure to actuate strong contact (Zhang et al., 2020b, Kim et al., 2018b, Xu et 

al., 2019) and the electrical parts of water (Lee et al., 2016, Chung et al., 2018, Lin et al., 

2014, Jang et al., 2020, Cho et al., 2019, (Helseth, 2020, Helseth and Guo, 2015, Helseth and 

Guo, 2016) to misuse fluid strong contact. Be that as it may, attributable to the instrument of 

triboelectrification, strong contact generators are profoundly helpless against wear disappointment and 

mugginess (Mule et al., 2019, Nguyen and Yang, 2013). Subsequently, it is attractive to 

create W-TEGs with fluid strong contact to guarantee an all-inclusive life expectancy and consistent 

electrical yield in muggy conditions. 

Diary Pre-verification 

The vital difficulties for the useful execution of fluid strong contact W-TEGs in 

convenient applications are to upgrade the electrical yield execution and understand a compact 

plan. As of late, the electrical yield execution of W-TEGs was extensively improved 

from the nanowatt to microwatt scale by instigating direct contact between the water and a 

conductive material (Xu et al., 2020, Zhang et al., 2020a, Chung et al., Under Review). 

Albeit the advancement of a functioning component to understand a high electrical yield is in 

progress, the attributes of W-TEGs should be inspected at the plan level to guarantee their 

appropriateness for compact applications. In such manner, W-TEGs with a shut circle circuit are 

ideal, as no extra circuit for the electrical ground is required, and the gadget is more 

more effective than single cathode generators (Meng and Chen, 2020). What’s more, on the grounds that a high 

electrical yield is created just when water moving contacts the conductive material, the 

connection between the water movement and electrical attributes should be quantitatively 

dissected. Along these lines, it is attractive to understand a broad plan and investigation of fluid strong 

contact W-TEGs. 

To this end, in this work, through a shut circle circuit plan and quantitative investigations, we 

built up a water-sloshing-based power generator (PS-EG) that can deliver a high 

electric yield. The PS-EG is made out of a dielectric compartment (perfluoroalkoxy alkane, 

PFA) containing water, a focal cathode, and an external anode. When mechanical info is 

applied to the compartment, charge partition and gathering happen attributable to the self ionization of water under the electric field instigated by the negative surface charge of the PFA 

compartment. The unique movement of water, which instigates the charge detachment and 

amassing, can be classified as divider sway, wave movement, or water-bead related 

movement. Thinking about these mechanical developments, quantitative investigations were performed on 

the streamlined gadget configuration, in view of the area of the external terminal and measure of water, 

analyzing the pinnacle and root mean square (RMS) yield. The proposed PS-EG could control 

Diary Pre-evidence 

120 LEDs persistently during strolling or running exercises and showed promising 

potential for execution in ordinary applications. 

Result and conversation 

The PS-EG comprises of four fundamental segments: a dielectric compartment, two terminals, and 

water. PFA was utilized as the dielectric material in light of the fact that the related negative 

surface charges can prompt a solid electric field inferable from its high electron proclivity. The 

the focal cathode was electrically associated with the external terminal in a shut circle circuit. In 

general, when a compartment vibrates vertically, the water inside the holder does not remain anymore 

fixed. The development of water inside a holder is regularly named as “sloshing movement” 

(Hashimoto and Sudo, 1988, Ibrahim et al., 2001). During this development, charge detachment 

Furthermore, aggregation happens in the water attributable to the self-ionization of water. Specifically, water 

normally goes through self-ionization and produces negative (hydroxide particle, OH- 

) and positive 

charges (hydrogen particle, H+ 

/hydronium particle, H3O 

) (Pitzer, 1982). Inferable from the mechanical 

development of the water in the PFA compartment, the electric field of the holder prompts the 

partition and aggregation of the charges. At the point when water with the amassed charge 

contacts the focal anode, power is produced by the water conduct. When a 

vertical excitation of 6 Hz is persistently applied by a vibration analyzer to the compartment, the 

water conduct, albeit unpredictable and complex, can be separated into three kinds (Chung et al., 

Under Review): divider sway, wave movement, and water-bead related movement. In the first place, when 

water impacts a mass of the holder and moves along the negative divider surface, net positive 

charges of water are incited, framing an electrical twofold layer, which comprises of a harsh 

layer and diffuse layer. The harsh layer is a stationary district wherein the positive particles of 

water holds fast to the negative surface of the PFA. Regardless of whether the water keeps on sliding against 

the PFA surface, the harsh layer stays fixed. In the versatile diffuse layer, which is 

Diary Pre-evidence 

present close to the harsh layer, positive or negative particles can move uninhibitedly, and the positive particles 

are pulled in by the solid negative surface charges of the PFA. Until the Debye length, at 

which the negative surface charges of the PFA are completely screened by the particles and water 

particles are reached, the water displays a net positive charge (Figure S1). Thusly, as the 

water impacts and spreads on the divider surface of the PFA, the positive charges of water 

are constantly actuated and amassed. At the point when these aggregated positive charges contact 

the focal anode, an unmistakably high electrical pinnacle is produced. Second, when the water 

in the holder sways longitudinally in a wave movement, negative charges are 

aggregated attributable to the high sure charge convergence of the water close to the PFA divider 

surface. All the while, positive charges are prompted at the focal terminal, inferable from the 

negative surface charge of the PFA. At the point when the water at the focal point of the holder rises and 

contacts the focal anode, a negative pinnacle yield is created (Chung et al., Under 

Survey). Third, water drops might be isolated from the mass water surface during the divider 

effect and wave movements. These water bead parts show either a positive or negative 

charge as per the Poisson model (Wiederschein et al., 2015). Subsequently, when a water 

bead contacts the anodes, positive and negative pinnacle yields are delivered. Eminently, the 

electrical yield from the divider effect and water-drop related movement is higher than that 

relating to the wave movement. Also, in light of the fact that the water development in the PS-EG 

included considerable divider effects and drops reaching the focal anode, the high 

electrical yield of the PS-EG can be credited essentially to these practices.

Hearing the inner voice of a robot

The inner speech is completely concentrated in people, and it addresses an interdisciplinary exploration issue including brain research, neuroscience, and teaching method. A couple of papers in particular, generally hypothetical, break down the job of inner speech in robots. The current examination explores the capability of the robot’s inner speech while helping out human accomplices. An intellectual engineering is planned and incorporated with standard robot schedules into a mind boggling system. Two strings of collaboration are examined by setting the robot tasks with and without inner speech. Because of the robotic self-discourse, the accomplice can without much of a stretch follow the robot’s cycles. Additionally, the robot can all the more likely settle clashes prompting fruitful objective accomplishments. The outcomes show that useful and straightforwardness necessities, as per the worldwide principles ISO/TS:2016 and COMEST/Unesco for cooperative robots, are better met when inner speech goes with human-robot connection. The inner speech could be applied in numerous robotics settings, like learning, guideline, and consideration.

Inner speech, the type of self-discourse wherein an individual is locked in when conversing with herself/himself, is the mental instrument (Vygotsky, 1962; Beazley et al., 2001) on the side of human’s undeniable level insight, like arranging, centering, and thinking (Alderson-Day and Fernyhough, 2015). As indicated by (Morin, 2009, 2011, 2012), it is significantly connected to awareness and hesitance. 

There are numerous triggers of inner speech, as passionate circumstances, objects, inward status. Contingent upon the trigger, various types of inner speech may arise. 

Evaluative and moral inner speech (Gade and Paelecke, 2019; Tappan, 2005) are two types of inner exchange set off by a circumstance where a choice must be made or a move must be made. The evaluative case concerns the investigation of dangers and advantages of a choice or the achievability of an activity. Moral inner speech is identified with the goal of an ethical quandary, and it emerges when somebody needs to assess the profound quality of a choice. Around there, the assessment of the dangers and advantages is likewise impacted by good and moral contemplations. 

As per Gade and Paelecke (2019), when an individual is occupied with an evaluative or good discussion with the self during task execution, the exhibitions and results ordinarily change and regularly they improve. 

The capacity to self-talk for counterfeit specialists has been researched in the writing in a restricted way. To the creators’ information, up until now, no examination has investigated what such an expertise means for the robot’s exhibitions and its communication with people. 

In an agreeable situation including people and robots, inner speech influences the nature of association and objective accomplishment. For instance, when the robot draws in itself in an evaluative speech, it secretively clarifies its basic decisional measures. In this way, the robot turns out to be more straightforward, as the human becomes more acquainted with the inspirations and the choices of robot conduct. At the point when the robot verbally depicts a contention circumstance and the conceivable methodology to settle it, at that point the human has the chance to hear the robot’s discourse and how it will escape the impasse. 

Additionally, the agreeable errands become more powerful in light of the fact that, because of inner speech, the robot consecutively assesses elective arrangements that can be contemplated in collaboration with the human accomplice. 

The signals and regular language collaboration that are the customary methods for human-robot association consequently secure another blessing: presently the human can hear the robot’s musings and can know “what the robot needs.” 

The current paper examines how inner speech is conveyed in a genuine robot and what that capacity means for human-robot communication and robot’s exhibitions while the robot helps out the human to achieve errands. 

The current worldwide norms for synergistic robots (ISO_TS_15066, 2016; COMEST/Unesco, 2017) characterize the utilitarian and straightforwardness necessities the robot needs to meet in collective situations. The paper will dissect the degrees of fulfillment of the guidelines during participation, in this manner featuring the contrasts between the cases wherein the robot talks and doesn’t converse with itself. 

In particular, the paper concerns two primary objectives: (I) the execution of an intellectual engineering for inner speech and the incorporation with normal robotic frameworks’ schedules to send it on a genuine robot; (ii) the testing of the subsequent system in a helpful situation by estimating pointers identified with the fulfillment of the practical and straightforwardness necessities. 

A model of inner speech dependent on shyness of Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) is characterized to accomplish these objectives. ACT-R (Anderson et al, 1997, 2004) is a product structure that permits to demonstrate people psychological cycles, and it is broadly received in the intellectual science local area. The portrayed inner speech model depends on a proposition by similar creators depicted in Chella et al. (2020). 

To empower inner speech in a genuine robot, ACT-R was incorporated with shy of Robot Operating System (ROS) (Quigley et al., 2009), a framework for robot control addressing the best in class of robotics programming, alongside standard schedules for text-to-speech (TTS) and speech-to-message (STT) handling. 

The subsequent structure was then sent on the SoftBank Robotics Pepper robot to benchmark testing and approval in a human-robot agreeable situation. 

The considered situation concerns the cooperation of the robot and the accomplice to set a lunch table. In this situation, evaluative and moral types of inner speech may arise. The robot needs to confront the behavior’s prerequisites: it needs to assess and keep choices dependent on the table set’s social standards. For instance, a particular situation of cutlery in the table could be difficult to reach or the arm of the robot might be overheated. At that point, the robot needs to conclude acceptable behavior effectively (by contradicting the decorum to improve on the activity execution or by registering an alternate execution intend to stay away from harm). 

Assume the accomplice requests that the robot place the cutlery in a mistaken situation as indicated by the manners. Around there, the robot needs to choose if to keep the client’s guidance or think about the decorum. In cases like these, the robot faces a little situation, and the inner speech could assist it with addressing the contention. 

The examinations feature the distinctions in the robot’s exhibitions and meet necessities when the robot talks or doesn’t converse with itself. The acquired outcomes show enhancements in the nature of connection, with cost regarding the time spent for accomplishing the objective, in light of the fact that the robot advances the cooperation by additional inner exchange. 

The proposed work traces research difficulties in light of the fact that inner speech in people is connected to hesitance and it empowers significant level cognizance (Morin, 1995, 2009). Additionally, it is considered at the premise of the disguise interaction (Vygotsky, 1962) as indicated by which newborn children figure out how to address errands when a guardian clarifies the arrangement. Once more, it assumes a basic part in task exchanging (Emerson and Miyake, 2003), as disturbing inner speech through articulatory concealment significantly builds switch costs. 

This paper adds to the chance of examining these settings to open exploration points of view and difficulties and feature the examination’s interdisciplinary character: a structure empowering inner speech on a robot is a fundamental advance toward a robot model of hesitance and undeniable level cognizance. It can likewise show the learning capacities of complex assignments in a robot by the disguise interaction and of undertaking exchanging in robot frameworks.

The investigation was completed at the Robotics Lab of the University of Palermo and included the Pepper robot and a solitary member. The objective was to think about “useful” and “moral” boundaries of the connection with and without inner speech in a genuine helpful setting. 

The behavior composition to which alluded to in the test meeting is the “causal diagram”, which requires not many utensils and works on the imperatives to follow. That outline is appeared. In spite of its straightforwardness, the composition concerns the most basic part in a table setting task and incorporates a more extensive community oriented table setting situation.


John Steinbeck won a Pulitzer Prize and a Nobel Prize for his novel The Grapes of Wrath, which was inspired by the Great Depression. The story follows the journey of a poor family of Joads who were pushed out of their homes and land in Oklahoma after the banks confiscated them during the Great Depression, leaving the family homeless. In the expectation of better pay, the family and other poor tenants are persuaded to move to California.

Steinbeck aptly captures the farmers’ disappointment as they learn that the California dream they were sold was nothing more than a mirage. We are given a brief overview of life at these migrant camps through the eyes of Tom Joad, the main protagonist. During the gold rush, families could hardly scrape together enough money to feed themselves, while the wealthy profited from their labour.

Throughout the novel, we see the different challenges that these poor farmers face, from being shot for forming labour unions to family members leaving due to poverty’s hardships. When you read about the inequitable care migrant workers get, the heartbreaking injustice they experience, and the bleak and serious consequences of vulturistic capitalism that poor people face, you know that Steinbeck was able to write a book that is still socio-politically important 75 years later.

The miserable living conditions of farmers, as well as the exploitative existence of landlords, can be seen in modern society. The book appeals to many working-class people because of its authentic depiction of their struggles. When the book was first published, it drew a lot of criticism and was largely banned in California, with accusations that Steinbeck was supporting communist propaganda.

I strongly advise people to add this American classic to their reading lists because it is a beautiful story about humanity, hope, and agitation that is particularly pertinent in these times.


Main charm of college life is
Entering into a hostel
Best part in hostel life is
True world of fun and freedom
Imperishable happiness is
Panorama of enjoyment
Memorable days are
Holiday trips with friends
Catchy memories are
To get caught by the warden
Unforgettable moments are
Late night chats during exams
Indelible experiences are
Saved money for something but paid fine
Unhappy part is
Counting months to leave hostel
Remarkable incident is
Ending up in quarantine
And counting days to get back to hostel…

Oxygen Express: Oxygen on Rails!

From the intermediate schools, we have been taught about how useful oxygen is for us, but Indians are realizing its true value now.

We are in the middle of a pandemic and the cases in India know no upper limits. India is observing more than 3 lakh cases every day, officials are claiming these to be false data of the actual cases. Some officials are claiming to have everyday cases of more than 25 lakhs a day. Almost half of the world’s daily cases are reported from India. It seems Indians have learnt nothing from the first wave of the pandemic.

There is a shortage of beds, vaccines, medicines, and even death beds in the crematoriums. Many people are coming out to provide help for the same. People have even started making a business out of this scarcity by selling the vaccines and medicines in ‘black’. There are even cases reported regarding the loots of medicines. Religious places are converting themselves into covid-care centers. There are many organizations set up to provide food to those infected with the virus.

But the shortage of oxygen in the country was not expected ever until now. Today almost every other state of the country is facing a shortage of oxygen and one among them is our national capital, Delhi. Due to the presence of farmers on the borders, Oxygen couldn’t be supplied to Delhi through roads, while facing the crisis Arvind Kejriwal, the Chief Minister of Delhi, took to his Twitter handle and tweeted:

When none had expected the shortage of oxygen, neither of states expected the arrival of Oxygen on Rails. Yes! That’s true; delivery of Oxygen in various states is being made through railways. In the states of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, the supply of Oxygen is done through Rails to fulfill India’s oxygen requirements. While supplying the Oxygen to the capital through roads was not possible, the Oxygen Express arrived in the National capital on Tuesday, 27 April with 70 tonnes of liquid oxygen.

Indian Railways have always shown their potential and have been upfront amidst this crisis. Last year we saw the conversion of railway coaches into beds and this year along with continuing the last year’s measure, it also took the initiative of starting Oxygen Express. While its potential has never been doubted; Piyush Goyal, the Minister of Railways, tweeted on his official account regarding the fulfillment of India’s oxygen requirements through Oxygen Express:

Many other countries have also joined hands with India to fight the virus and the second-wave of pandemic.

Despite the shortage of oxygen in many states, there are several cases reported for the oxygen cylinders being stolen. People are panicking and thus storing the oxygen for their loved ones. The doctors have reported that Oxygen becomes important only when the condition of the patient worsens and even requested people to stop storing oxygen for it is more required by the critical patients in hospital.

Everyone is playing their part to control the covid crisis and so must we. The minimum we can do to control this virus is to stay at home and only leave home when it is really necessary. This is the battle every Indian has to fight by staying at home. Take Care! Stay Safe!


Humanism is a rational philosophy informed by science, inspired by art, and motivated by compassion.          -AmericanHumanist              Association
Humanism is a philosophical way of thinking about the world. Humanism is one which is basic to every human being. When something worst happen people say what an act without even humanity. Humanism is some set of ethics or ideas that how people should live and act. Every living creature needs respect. Humanists strongly believe in this and they don’t put their trust on superstitious beliefs. Humanism teaches that every human should be treated equally with respect and dignity. All human beings are born with moral value and each one holds the responsibility to help one another to live their lives best. It also includes freedom and independence to humans. Humanism is very individualistic, every person is important and they have their own rights to make decisions for themselves. Humanism emphasizes science over scripture that is the religious texts and traditional beliefs. Humanism believes that one should believe in individual power than accepting the truth of scriptures. The main idea of humanism is give respect and take respect. Self-respect is the most valuable thing one can hold and humanism teaches that one should respect another as his or her own self. Humanism is helping others and treating others with equal respect and care without expect anything in return.

Light in Night

The sun rays kissed the soil!
The rain drops soaked the soil!
The tender sprouts in the heart go in vain!
Why do they fade in this land?
After arriving with hope
Whom do we search for?
While we travel this distance
It takes a new turn,
Eyes get to see new sights
You came as a music!
Along with soothing breeze
You came fluttering!
Like a charming bird
Eyes were completely infused
With shades of your face
Dreams crawled in heart
Being peruaded with you


Oh rainbow
Won’t you look at me?
Through the blanket of fog
Won’t you slowly lean?
Through the searching eyes
Won’t you come to me again?
Through the pain that is fading away
Won’t you cherish me up?
Even the dew drops that fell suddenly
Waited for you
In an endearing nest
For it loved you

How to keep yourself Motivated

What is Motivation?
Motivation is what drives you toward your goal, and keeps you going even when you feel like giving up. There exist two types of motivation:
Positive Motivation and Negative Motivation.
Positive Motivation: Positive motivation is when you are passionate about achieving something and you want it desperately.
Negative Motivation: When you do something because of the fear of losing something is negative motivation.
I think Positive Motivation works the best for people.
So motivation essentially is a way to do and achieve something you want. There are times when you don’t feel like waking up early, but when you assign a reason to get up early you do that with excitement.
If you have motivation for anything you want to achieve, you can sustain efforts for much longer. First and foremost
Believe in Yourself. Have the confidence and repeat to yourself that you can achieve anything once you decide and plan.
Set your goal. While you set your goal make sure you are sticking to them.
One goal at a time: Having several goals at a time can sap your energy. So have one goal and be dedicated towards it.
Effort: Even if you feel like giving up and see hurdles in your way which frightens you, just don’t give up keep persisting. Because if give your attention to obstacles means you have been distracted.
Reinforce: Reinforce your goals daily, get your brain used to them. So that it can detect what you want and help you achieve them.


As a result of the current COVID-19 pandemic, life as we know it has changed in profound ways. There have been over 140 million incidents and over 3 million deaths worldwide to date. To combat this crisis, scientists from all over the world came together in a once-in-a-lifetime effort. As a result of this global research effort, a number of vaccines have been granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)/Listing (EUL). In the United States, the introduction of three vaccines by Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Janssen promises to put an end to what has been a particularly bad year. As of April 14th, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) has granted EUL to four vaccines: Pfizer-BioNTech, SK BIO AstraZeneca, Janssen (J&J), and Serum Institute of India, with several more awaiting investigation, including Moderna (approval decision pending end of April). At least one country has approved a total of 14 vaccines.


Animal research is more important than ever before, both in fundamental research, such as understanding immune system control, and applied research, where that expertise is applied to the production of cures and other therapeutic strategies. The timescales from bench to bedside are often long in Animal Research, making it difficult to understand the immediate human value of such science. Consider the fact that in the United States, we were able to manufacture three vaccines with an EUA for COVID-19 in less than a year. How was it possible to pull off such a feat? Such rapid progress was possible because of Animal Research into coronaviruses over the last decade, which included Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), as well as decades of prior research into mRNA vaccines, as we wrote at the start of the pandemic.

Vaccines (like all other medications) are generally tested in animals before going through clinical (human) trials to ensure their safety and effectiveness. However, due to the urgency of the COVID-19 hazard, safety and efficacy testing for some of the 110 candidate vaccines and treatments produced (e.g., Moderna’s mRNA-1273 vaccine) was accelerated, and Phase 1 clinical trials began—where the smallest number of human subjects is usually enrolled. That isn’t to suggest that those candidates’ protection and effectiveness weren’t tested in animal models until going into clinical trials. Instead of testing safety and effectiveness prior to clinical trials, animals were tested concurrently with human trials.


Where Life had no value Death had its own price!!

Death is something which is unbearable and unacceptable. The truth about death is the suffering is not for the person who dies but for the people who loved the person dearly. The very word death skips a heartbeat. Losing someone whom we love the most is the most painful thing in this life. One will never know which moment the heart beat stops. Life holds many twists and turns and one such thing in life is death. The situation is really pathetic and the hardest part is holding on to their memories. You can neither remember nor forget, all those moments you laughed will be replaced with tears, all those unfulfilled promises still breaks you more and a part of your heart really longs for the person to return back with some magic elements. Sometimes all that you hold might be only memories and even after years pass the feelings never fade away. People might say time heals and memories fade, but neither time heals nor memories fade. Even after decades the pain will be fresh and new as if everything happened the day before. Heart will be filled with void when you look at that special person from your heart is resting beneath. Sometimes we may feel “like rise up and say that you made a drama” but then when reality strikes it’s even more painful. This is the only problem that has no solution and a wound that can never be healed. The life that was lived by the person will be praised in the funeral and burial sermons but still all that we want is the person to return back. Most of the times R.I.P doesn’t mean Rest in Peace but it mean Return if Possible, the impossible wish made by the loved ones. Some believe in next life and some believe in eternity but nothing can bring them back in this life is the miserable truth that is hard to accept but a mandatory fate for every life. Every person in this world knows that each of us should die someday, but none knew which day it is and that is the boon and bane of life.

C Vs Python

C: C is a structured, mid-level, broadly useful programming language that was created at Bell Laboratories between 1972-73 by Dennis Ritchie. It worked as an establishment for building up the UNIX working framework. Being a mid-level language, C lacks the inherent functions that are characteristic of undeniable level dialects, however it gives all the structure blocks that engineers need. C follows the structure-arranged approach, that is, the hierarchical approach that sections a program into more modest functions. 

What makes C one of a kind is that it is enhanced for low-level memory the board assignments that were recently written in Assembly language (the code follows the hexadecimal organization that can directly access memory locations).This is precisely why C is utilized in building OS architectures. Indeed, even today, both UNIX and Linux subsidiaries are vigorously subject to C for some functions. 

Python: Python is a universally useful, undeniable level programming language that was created by Guido Rossum in 1989. What makes Python astonishing is its straightforward linguistic structure that is practically like the English language and dynamic composing capability. The direct punctuation takes into consideration simple code comprehensibility. 

Likewise, being a deciphered language, Python is an ideal language for scripting and quick application improvement on most stages and is so well known with the engineers. Scripting dialects incorporate both interactive and dynamic functionalities by means of electronic applications.

IntroductionC is a general-purpose, procedural computer programming language.Python is an interpreted, high-level, general-purpose programming language.
SpeedCompiled programs execute faster as compared to interpreted programs.Interpreted programs execute slower as compared to compiled programs.
UsageProgram syntax is harder than Python.It is easier to write a code in Python as the number of lines is less comparatively.
Declaration of variablesIn C, the type of a variable must be declared when it is created, and only values of that type must be assigned to it.There is no need to declare the type of variable. Variables are untyped in Python. A given variable can be stuck on values of different types at different times during the program execution
Error DebuggingIn C, error debugging is difficult as it is a compiler dependent language. This means that it takes the entire source code, compiles it and then shows all the errors.Error debugging is simple. This means it takes only one in instruction at a time and compiles and executes simultaneously. Errors are shown instantly and the execution is stopped, at that instruction.
Function renaming mechanismC does not support function renaming mechanism. This means the same function cannot be used by two different names.Supports function renaming mechanism i.e, the same function can be used by two different names.
ComplexityThe syntax of a C program is harder than Python.Syntax of Python programs is easy to learn, write and read.
In C, the Programmer has to do memory management on their own.
Python uses an automatic garbage collector for memory management.
ApplicationsC is generally used for hardware related applications.Python is a General-Purpose programming language.
Built-in functionsC has a limited number of built-in functions.Python has a large library of built-in functions.
Implementing Data StructuresImplementing data structures requires its functions to be explicitly implementedGives ease of implementing data structures with built-in insert, append functions.
PointersPointers are available in C.No pointers functionality available in Python.

An extreme inquiry emerges with regards to when to utilize Python and when to utilize C. C versus Python dialects are comparative yet have many key differences. These dialects are valuable dialects to create different applications. The difference among C and Python is that Python is a multi-worldview language and C is a structured programming language. Python is a universally useful language that is utilized for machine learning, regular language processing, web advancement and some more. C is mostly utilized for equipment related application advancement such as working frameworks, network drivers. In the present competitive market, it isn’t sufficient to dominate just one programming language. To be an adaptable and competent developer, you need to dominate different dialects.

Microcontroller vs Microprocessor

Regularly a MCU utilizes on-chip inserted Flash memory in which to store and execute its program. Putting away the program this way implies the MCU having a more limited beginning up period and executing code rapidly. The solitary down to earth impediment to utilizing inserted memory is that the complete accessible memory space is limited. Most Flash MCU gadgets accessible have a limit of 2 Mbytes of Program memory. This may end up being a restricting element, contingent upon the application.

MPUs don’t have memory requirements similarly. They utilize outer memory to give programs and information stockpiling. The program is normally put away in non-unstable memory, like NAND or sequential Flash. At fire up, this is stacked into an outside DRAM and execution initiates. This implies the MPU won’t be going as fast as a MCU however the measure of DRAM and NVM you can associate with the processor is in the scope of many Mbytes and even Gbytes for NAND. 

Another distinction is power. By installing its own force supply, a MCU needs only one single voltage power rail. By examination, a MPU requires a few contrast voltage rails for center, DDR and so forth The engineer needs to provide food for this with extra force ICs/converters ready.

From the application point of view, a few parts of the plan determination may drive gadget choice especially. For instance, is the quantity of fringe interface channels required more than can be provided food for by a MCU? Or then again, does the showcasing particular specify a UI ability that won’t be conceivable with a MCU in light of the fact that it doesn’t contain sufficient memory on-chip or has the necessary presentation

While leaving on the principal plan and realizing that, it is almost certain there will be numerous item varieties. Around there, it is entirely conceivable a stage based plan approach will be liked. This would specify more “headroom” regarding handling force and interface abilities to oblige future element updates.

For instance, an ARM Cortex-M4-based microcontroller, for example, Atmel’s SAM4 MCU is appraised at 150 DMIPS. Though an ARM Cortex-A5 application processor (MPU, for example, Atmel’s SAMA5D3 can convey up to 850 DMIPS. One method of assessing the DMIPS required is by taking a gander at the exhibition hungry pieces of the application. 

Running a full working framework (OS), like Linux, Android or Windows CE, for your application would request in any event 300–400 DMIPS. For some applications, a clear RTOS may get the job done and a stipend of 50 DMIPS would be above and beyond. Utilizing a RTOS additionally has the advantage that it requires little memory space; a part of only a couple kB being normal. Lamentably, a full OS requests a memory the executives unit (MMU) to run; this thus indicates the sort of processor center to be utilized and require more processor ability.

For running applications that are more calculating and escalated enough, DMIPS recompense should be saved on top of any OS and other correspondence and control undertakings. The more numeric-based the application, the almost certain a MPU is required. 

The (UI) can be a genuine thought regardless of the point of the application. As customers, we have gotten comfortable and alright with utilizing beautiful and natural graphical UIs. Mechanical applications are progressively utilizing this technique for administrator cooperation. The working climate, nonetheless, can restrict the utilization of this one. For the UI there are various components.

Right off the bat, is the preparing overhead required? An overhead of 80–100 DMIPS may do the trick for a UI library like Qt, since it is generally utilized on top of Linux. The subsequent factor is to do with the intricacy of the UI. Higher handling force and memory is required for additional movements, impacts, sight and sound substance and more changes applied to the picture to be shown. Furthermore, these prerequisites increase with the goal, that is the reason for applications intended to be UI driven a MPU is bound to suit. 

Then again, a less difficult UI with pseudo-static pictures on a lower goal screen can be tended to by a MCU. Another contention for the MPU is that the for the most part come furnished with an installed TFT LCD regulator. Not very many MCUs have this ability. The TFT LCD regulator and some other outside driver segments must be added remotely. In this way, while conceivable to accomplish with a MCU, the designer needs to take a gander at the generally BOM.


One of the most important steps you can take toward achieving your greatest potential in life is to learn to monitor your attitude and its impact on your work performance, relationships and everyone around you.

What attitude did you bring into this article? Often, this brings puzzled looks. In truth, people generally do not have a high level of attitude awareness . They will know if they are hungry or if their feet hurt, but they usually do not have a good handle on their attitude. That is a mistake because attitude is everything. It governs the way you perceive the world and the way the world perceives you.

We all have a choice . We can choose an inner dialogue of self-encouragement and self- motivation or we can choose one of self-defeat and self-pity. It is a power we all have. Each of us encounters hard times, hurt feelings, heartache and physical and emotional pain. The key is to realize it is not what happens to you that matters; it is how you choose to respond.

Your mind is a computer that can be programmed. You can choose whether the software installed is productive or unproductive. Your inner dialogue is the software that programs your attitude, which determines how you present yourself to the world around you. You have control over the programming. Whatever you put into it is reflected in what comes out.

Many of us have behavior patterns today that were programmed into our brains at a very tender age. The information that was recorded by our brain could have been completely inaccurate or cruel. The sad reality of life is that we will continue to hear negative information, but we do not have to program it into our brain.

The loudest and most influential voice you hear is your own inner voice, your self-critic. It can work for or against you, depending on the messages you allow . It can be optimistic or pessimistic. It can wear you down or cheer you on. You control the sender and the receiver, but only if you consciously take responsibility for and control over your inner conversation.

Habitual bad attitudes are often the product of past experiences and events. Common causes include low self-esteem, stress, fear, resentment, anger and an inability to handle change. It takes serious work to examine the roots of a harmful attitude, but the rewards of ridding ourselves of this heavy baggage can last a lifetime.

4 Simple Ways to Quickly Recover Your Positive Attitude After a Setback |  Inc.com

Here are ten strategies from the attitude tool kit to improve your attitude:

  1. Self-Coaching through affirmations
  2. Self-Motivation through discovering your motives
  3. The power of visualization
  4. Attitude Talk for Positive Internal Dialogue
  5. The power of words-WOW(Watch Your Words)
  6. The power in a positive greeting
  7. Enthusiasm – vital tool for staying motivated
  8. Connecting to your spiritual empowerment
  9. Lighten up your life with humor
  10. Exercising will help keep you motivated

Seek your personal and professional success by using the tools in this attitude tool kit. It is no secret that life seems to reward us most when we approach the world with a positive attitude.

Ability is what you are capable of doing. Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it.


As humans, we each have a powerful ability to easily recognize our own face. But now, researchers from Japan have uncovered new information about how our cognitive systems enable us to distinguish our own face from those of others, even when the information is presented subliminally.

In a study published this month in Cerebral Cortex, researchers from Osaka University have revealed that a central element of the dopamine reward pathway in the brain was activated when participants were subliminally shown images of their face. This provides new clues regarding the underlying processes of the brain involved in self-facial recognition.

When we are exposed to a subliminal image of our face–meaning we are not fully aware of it–many brain regions are activated in addition to those that process face information. Furthermore, our brain responds differently to supraliminal (conscious) and subliminal (subconscious) images of our face compared to faces of others. However, whether we use the same or different neural networks to process subliminal versus supraliminal faces has not been established something the researchers at Osaka University aimed to address this research.

“We are better at recognizing our own face compared to faces of others, even when the information is delivered subliminally”, says lead author of the study Chisa Ota. “However, little is known about whether this advantage involves the same brain or different areas that are activated by supraliminal presentation of our face.”

To address this, the researchers used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the differences between brain activity elicited by subliminally presented images of the faces of participants and faces of others. They also examined brain activation produced by subliminally presented images of faces with modified features.

“The results provided us with new insights regrading the neural mechanisms of the self-face advantage”, explains Tamami Nakano , senior author. ” We found that activation in the ventral tegmental area, which is a central component of the dopamine reward pathway, was stronger for subliminal presentations of the participant’s face compared with faces of others”.

Instead, subliminal presentation of the faces of others induced activation in the amygdala of the brain, which is known to respond to unfamiliar information. This difference in brain responses to the face of the participant or those of others was consistent even when the faces were modified, as long as the shapes of the facial features were retained.

“Our findings indicate that the dopamine reward pathway is involved in enhanced processing of one’s own face even when the information is subliminal”, says Tamami Nakano. “Furthermore , discrimination of one’s own face from those of others appear to rely on the information of facial parts.”

These findings advance the understanding of the neural mechanisms of subliminal self-facial processing. Given that the dopamine reward pathway is automatically involved in unconscious self-facial processing this research may have applications in efforts to unconsciously manipulate motivation.

Face is the index of mind.

Story Source: Materials provided by Osaka University.

JOURNAL REFERENCE: Chisa Ota, Tamami Nakano “Self-Face Activates the Dopamine Reward Pathway without Awareness. Cerebral Cortex, 2021.

What Role Do Cookies and Privacy Policies Play in Data Breach? (Part-3)


According to the General Data Protection Regulation, there will be only one way for all businesses operating in Europe to comply with all data protection regulations starting in May 2018.

Stronger rules on data protection mean,

  • Individuals have more influence over their personal information.
  • A level playing field benefits companies.

The GDPR establishes seven guidelines for the lawful processing of personal data. The collection, arrangement, structuring, storage, modification, consultation, usage, contact, mixture, limitation, erasure, or destruction of personal data are all examples of processing. As a result, the seven values are as follows:

  1. Lawfulness, fairness, and transparency
  2. Purpose limitation
  3. Data minimization
  4. Accuracy
  5. Storage limitation
  6. Integrity and confidentiality(security)
  7. Accountability

Principles are the center of the GDPR; they guide regulations and compliant processing.

Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) suggested a realistic alternative that is similar to this (GDPR). It would only happen if a technical company creates software that does not monitor users by default and offers them the option to “opt-out.” Instead, the consumer could willingly “opt-in” to be monitored in order to receive targeted advertising. As a result, privacy is the default setting. A mishmash of mentioned methods with GDPR directives may also be a viable solution. Even if users “opt in” for surveillance, they should be given the name and contact information for the organisation that is tracking them, as well as the option to “opt out.” A price for the users’ personal data, if they ask for it, may be a design that protects the user’s privacy.


Cookies allow others to see your information. When people Google how to take data from cookies, they will learn how to do so. Several videos and websites will assist in the extraction of knowledge. People sometimes disregard privacy policies because they are lengthy. Many applications will take advantage of it because people embrace it without even looking at it. Normal people can protect themselves from hackers by using private servers like FreedomBox. In Europe, there are also rules that assist citizens in gaining control of their data and preventing it from being leaked. We should be protected from these dangers, and we should not allow strangers into our private lives without our permission.

Indian Education System

Education system is India is degrading.  Because there are many things missing in the Indian education system

India has the unfired system of assessment. In simples’ words the ‘weak student’ AND ‘bright student’. Th Indian the marks have the more importance than the knowledge and the skills. And the uncountable comparisons about the marks by the parents.  Every Student have to work in accordance of their parents.  

At the age of 18, you have to choose Science, Commerce or Medical.  you have to decide your future. To be honest, you actually cannot decide your future as in India you don’t have that right and if you try to, you are going against your parents. You must know that going against your parents’ will is almost regarded as a crime in India.

The primary focus of the college is only on theory, attendance and 100 pages of   Assignments completion.  Practical classes are considered as time pass.

In India, the degree is regarded the most powerful tool, rather than skill.

So, if you want to succeed, you have to do things, on your own. Learn skills all your own. Apart from copying assignments and getting 200% attendance.

Relation between teacher and student

One of the most pure and deeply inspirational relationship is of teacher-student relation.

 Everyone has a favourite teacher. What causes us to still cherish these relationships and harbour powerful sentiments of respect and affection (and sometimes a shuddering dislike) for those individuals who were responsible for mentoring us? The answer is quite simple. It’s how the student teacher relationships were developed, nurtured, and given space to evolve.

The ability to forge a positive, powerful relationship between a student and teacher may seem like a difficult task first but can be easily accomplished by creating a strong learning environment. The learning is not a one-way process alone; an effective learning environment is where all individuals involved learn from each other. While students learn a particular subject from a teacher, the teacher learns how to improve her teaching skills and make the lessons more interesting by gaining insights from the students. Thus, both parties learn from each other.

Many qualities define a positive relationship and pave ways on how to create powerful student teacher relationships. These can be seen to include good communication, a safe learning environment and mutual respect, a positive and patient attitude, student equality and timely praise. The teacher who becomes the ‘favourite’ is one who possesses these in good measure.

Not all students are alike. While some quickly grasp the concepts taught and take an active part in the learning process, others may be shy, uninterested or even downright disruptive. This puts additional responsibility on a teacher to create such an atmosphere which is conducive to an interesting learning process. It’s the teachers who are like sculptors and students, the soft clay, ready to be moulded into a master piece. As Aristotle once said “those who educate children well are more to be honoured than they who produce them; for these only gave them life, those the art of living well.”

Social Media and Mental Health

Social media is a tool to build networks, share public content, put forth your voice, etc. People, especially youth is on social apps to influence, get influenced, be in touch with friends, and get a day to day updates of events taking place in the world. Social media can boost your confidence but can get you to feel low in no time.

Ways how social media takes over your mental health:

  1. Social media and depression. As every coin has two sides, Social media too can bring people together and can break them by creating a rift, online differences, trolling, disagreement, etc. It can make people feel alone and isolated.
  2. Social media and Confidence. When people see posts of fashion influencers, models, or their friends who upload pictures regularly or friends who are enjoying at some exquisite destinations we feel inadequate or envious. And sometimes have self-doubts about our body and appearances. Social media uplifts the feeling of insecurity among people.
  3. FOMO.FOMO stands for fear of missing out, this happens when you feel you are missing something important and other people are having a better life than you.
  4. Attention seeker. Social media makes you crave attention from people. Constantly, uploading selfies, stories to seek the attention of the followers and gain followers.
  5. A huge distraction. Social media can snatch your precious time which you could have spent on something productive but here you are scrolling down the apps.

Love and Life

The greatest feeling in this earth is to love and to be loved

Somewhere between birth and death each one of us goes on a journey called life. No one knows when the journey ends. But all that we care while we live in this world is about what? Each one holds different dreams and goals to achieve. Every person in this world is unique in some or the other way. Life is unpredictable. I don’t know my life span. But I can do something that is worth in this lifetime. What is worth? Each one will have different answers but mine is to love the people who love me. Not everybody in this world can love you, because we live in a world where betrayal is the most common suffering many undergoes. “The beauty is unless and until it is done by your so called trust worthy it’s not called as betrayal”, there are people who suffer with heart breaks more than heart attacks. Love is something that can be built but cannot be broken, and if it’s broken then there is no love. Break up can never be in love but it can be in a relationship where there is no love. Sometimes everything seems to be imperfect and it feels like “When everything is fake why the pain alone is real”, but the thing is not everything is fake but the reality is that hurts us. What made you smile was unreal and what breaks you later is the reality. When there is true love and affection one dare not hurt you, but when the love fades they don’t care about how you feel. Life is only once and LIVE just don’t exist. “One can never hate love and one can never love hate” and none can oppose this. Give love to people as much as you can. May be that can save a billion people’s lives. Earn more love than any other thing in this world because tears are the final valuable gifts that every human being takes back. To hate a person is easy and to love a person is hard ’cause in love you should have trust and love. Love the very word is just simple which fails to be defined by words. It’s a feeling that can never be felt by the ones who don’t treasure it. Love with all your heart and you’ll get back your reward for it. All that people need is love and to be loved and that is the greatest comfort one can have in times of difficulties. Love yourself and love your loved ones too to lead a happy and peaceful life.

Arduino vs Raspberry Pi

They look pretty comparable, at a first look. Chips, connectors, openings for screws. Ends up, they are extremely unique. Beginning from the core. Arduino comes with a 8-bit microcontroller. The Raspberry Pi comes with a 64-bit microprocessor. 

Arduino has 2 Kilobytes of RAM. Raspberry Pi has 1GB of RAM. (500,000x more) As far as I/O, Arduino has a USB-B port that can be utilized by a computer to move new projects to run, a force input and a bunch of I/O pins. 

A Raspberry Pi is much more sophisticated in such manner, having a Video yield, a HDMI port, a SD card port, an Audio jack, CSI camera port, DSI show port, 4 USB 2.0 ports which you can use to attach USB devices, a Gigabit Ethernet jack, Wireless LAN, Bluetooth 4.2 and I/O pins (GPIO) too. Bunches of things. 

Arduino has no working framework. It can just run programs that were compiled for the Arduino stage, which generally implies programs written in C++. Raspberry Pi runs a working framework, which is generally Linux. It’s a little computer, while Arduino is much more basic.

Arduino is ideal to be modified utilizing C++ and its “Arduino language” which is only C++ with some conveniences that make it simple for amateurs to begin with. 

Anyway you are not restricted to it. In the event that you can live with the constraints of having the Arduino attached to the USB port of the computer, you can run Node.js code on it utilizing the Johnny Five project, which is really cool. There are comparable instruments for different dialects, as pyserial and Gobot. 

As I would see it Arduino is best when you need to compile a program for it, attach a battery or a force connector and put it some place to run, and mess with sensors and other nice stuff that interfaces with this present reality. 

You don’t need to stress over anything as there isn’t anything else than your program running on the Arduino. It doesn’t have an organization (I’m discussing the Uno) out of the container. 

A Raspberry Pi is more similar to a little computer without a screen, which you program utilizing more conventional devices. 

I would utilize an Arduino to control my self-watering plants or track the temperature outside, or power some home robotization stuff, yet I would utilize a Raspberry Pi as a retro gaming stage or a web worker.



Allow us to begin with Arduino. Arduino was created by Massimo Banzi Et Al. in Ivrea, Italy. Arduino is a straightforward gadgets prototyping device with open-source equipment and programming. Arduino is essentially a Microcontroller improvement board utilizing which you can Blink LEDs, acknowledge contributions from Buttons, read information from Sensors, control Motors and numerous other “Microcontroller” related errands.

The most famous Arduino board is the Arduino UNO, which depends on the ATmega328P Microcontroller from Atmel (presently Microchip). Coming to the product side of Arduino, all Arduino sheets can be modified in C and C++ programming dialects utilizing a special programming called Arduino IDE. The Arduino IDE consists of all the toolchains for altering source code, compiling and programming the Microcontroller on the Arduino board. 

In the event that you have past experience with Microcontrollers like 8051, Atmel or PIC Microcontrollers, at that point you presumably understand the long process of creating applications utilizing these microcontrollers. In the event that you are not comfortable, let us see the process momentarily. 

To begin with, you need to compose the application programming (the primary source code) in a dedicated IDE (like Keil, Atmel Studio or PIC’s MPLAB IDE). At that point you need to compile the code and produce the double record as a .hex document. Presently utilizing a special equipment called “Developer”, you need to transfer the hex document to the objective microcontroller utilizing a software engineer programming. 

Arduino worked on this process with attachment and-play style quick programming. Utilizing a solitary programming (the Arduino IDE), you can compose the code, compile it and transfer it to the Microcontroller. You likewise needn’t bother with discrete equipment for transferring the program. Basically module the Arduino board to a Computer through USB Port, hit the transfer button, et presto, the Microcontroller on Arduino board is prepared to finish its errands. 

Another significant thing about Arduino is it is open-source. This implies the plan records and the source code for programming and libraries are unreservedly accessible. You can utilize the equipment configuration records as a reference and basically make your own Arduino board.



Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi was created by Eben Upton at the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom to educate and improve programming abilities of understudies in developing nations. While Arduino is a Microcontroller based advancement board, the Raspberry Pi is a Microprocessor (normally an ARM Cortex A Series) based board that goes about as a PC. 

You can associate a few peripherals like a Monitor (through HDMI or AV Port), Mouse and Keyboard (through USB), interface with web (through Ethernet or Wi-Fi), add a Camera (through the devoted Camera Interface), actually as we do to our personal computer.

Since the whole Computer (the Processor, RAM, Storage, Graphics, Connectors, etc.) is perched on a solitary Printed Circuit Board, the Raspberry Pi (and other comparable sheets) are called Single Board Computers or SBC. 

As Raspberry Pi is basically a full computer, it can run an Operating System. The Raspberry Pi Foundation, the association which is answerable for planning and developing Raspberry Pi SBC, likewise gives a Debian based Linux Distribution called the Raspberry Pi OS (recently known as the Raspbian OS). 

Another significant thing about Raspberry Pi is, as it is a Linux based Computer, you can create programming utilizing a few Programming Languages like C, C++, Python, Java, HTML, etc. 

Despite its unique goals, which is to advance programming (like Python and Scratch Programming Languages) in schools, the first Raspberry Pi SBC became incredibly famous among DIY manufacturers, specialists and fans for developing a few applications like Robotics, Weather Stations, Camera based security frameworks etc. 

Because of its success and notoriety, the Raspberry Pi Foundation is continuously refreshing and delivering new forms of Raspberry Pi with the most recent one being the Raspberry Pi 4 Model B. 

The equipment configuration records and the firmware of Raspberry Pi are not open-source.

What Role Do Cookies and Privacy Policies Play in Data Breach? (Part-2)


Many technologically advanced people, too, simply click-past excruciatingly long and complicated privacy policies because they see no other choice. A price for the users’ personal data, if they ask for it, may be a design in which the user’s privacy is prioritised.

Every app has a lengthy policy known as the privacy policy, which is something we should pay attention to. We support the policy without ever reading it. But, do we really need the location service for a simple gaming app? Even the well-known WPS Office app asks for location permission? Or does an app like Hotstar need microphone permission?

“It uses the microphone on your smartphone to record audio samples (including ambient sounds) and generate encrypted fingerprint files of those audio samples in real-time,” according to Hotstar’s privacy policy. To recognise and recognise your television viewing habits, the fingerprint files are compared to a database of documented fingerprints of television networks and television content.” Even if this were true, the microphone might be used to record private audio clips or gain access to our personal information.

Another question that arises is, “Which operating system is more stable, IOS or ANDROID?” When we examine Apple’s operating system, we will see that it is a closed system. It does not make its source code available to software developers, and Apple device owners are unable to change it. Hackers would have a tough time finding any bugs in IOS-powered devices as a result of this. Android smartphones, on the other hand, have open-source code, allowing owners to tinker with the device’s operating system. For its software, it grants all permissions to the app developers.


There are a variety of ways that people can protect themselves from such dangers. One such example is ‘FreedomBox.’

FreedomBox is a private server system that allows everyone to host their own internet services, such as a VPN, a personal website, file sharing, secure messengers, a VoIP server, a Meta search engine, and more. It’s made to keep you safe. By putting you in charge of your online operation and records, FreedomBox instils liberty in the internet.

Other simple tips by which we can stay safe from cookies are:

  • Clean or delete cookies: The first and most basic move is to clear your browsing history and uninstall all cookies after each session. Cookies can be deleted and all temporary internet files can be cleared with software like SecureClean.
  • Modifying Browser settings: If you have any knowledge about cookies, you can adjust your browser settings accordingly. Safari and Firefox allow you to have more control over your data.
  • Use Add-Ons: Add-Ons allow us to handle cookies more precisely and choose who we want to share our online data with.
  • Share with moderation: To be secure, don’t use personal information where cookies can be used.
  • Protect: Using some anti-virus programme is the safest way to protect yourself.



It was bit salty

Later I found it faulty

It was sweet when started

Then there were no such hatred

And it became sour

By the behaviour of war

Before it went toxic

I became anoxic

Never expected a tasteless end

Sometimes it becomes a corner of bent

Ending up with bitter taste

I am accepting this phase

Everything you need to know about Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI is well known for its superiority in image and speech recognition, smartphone personal assistants, map navigation, songs, movies or series recommendations, etc. The scope of AI is so much more and expandable that, it can be used in self-driving cars, health care sectors, defense sectors, and financial industries. It is predicted that the AI market will grow to a $190 billion industry by 2025 creating new job opportunities in programming, development, testing, support, and maintenance.

What is AI?

Artificial Intelligence can be described as a set of tools or software that enables a machine to mimic the perception, learning, problem-solving, and decision-making capabilities of the human mind. The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take actions that have the best chance of achieving a specific goal. The two main subsets of AI are machine learning (the ability of the machine to learn through experience) and deep learning (networks capable of learning unsupervised from data that is unstructured or unlabelled). We have to note here that, deep learning is also a subset of machine learning.

History of AI

In 1943,Warren McCullough and Walter Pitts published “A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity.” The paper proposed the first mathematic model for building a neural network. Alan Turing published “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, proposing what is now known as the Turing Test, a method for determining if a machine is intelligent in 1950. A self-learning program to play checkers was developed by Arthur Samuel in 1952. In 1956, the phrase artificial intelligence was coined at the “Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.” In 1963, John McCarthy started the AI Lab at Stanford. There was a competition between Japan and the US in developing a super-computer-like performance and a platform for AI development during 1982-83. In 1997, IBM’s Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov. In 2005, STANLEY, a self-driving car wins DARPA Grand Challenge. In 2008, Google introduces speech recognition. In 2016, Deepmind’s AlphaGo beats world champion Go player Lee Sedol.

How does AI work?

In 1950, Alan Turning asked, “Can machines think?” The ultimate goal of AI is to answer this very question. In a groundbreaking textbook “Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach”, authors Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig approach this question by unifying their work around the theme of intelligent agents in machines. They put forth 4 different approaches: Thinking humanly, Thinking rationally, Acting humanly, Acting rationally.

AI works by combining large amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from patterns or features in the data. AI is a broad field of study that includes many theories, methods, and technologies, as well as the following major subfields:

Stages of AI

There are 3 different stages of AI. The first stage is Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI) and as the name suggests, the scope of AI is limited and restricted to only one area. Amazon’s Alexa is one such example. The second stage is Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) which is very advanced. It covers more than one field like the power of reasoning, problem-solving, and abstract thinking. Self-driving cars come under this category. The final stage of AI is Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI) and this AI surpasses human intelligence across all fields.

Examples of AI

  • Smart assistants (like Siri and Alexa)
  • Disease mapping and prediction tools
  • Manufacturing and drone robots
  • Optimized, personalized healthcare treatment recommendations
  • Conversational bots for marketing and customer service
  • Robo-advisors for stock trading
  • Spam filters on email
  • Social media monitoring tools for dangerous content or false news
  • Song or TV show recommendations from Spotify and Netflix

Risk factors of AI

There is always a downside to technology. Though scientists assure that machines may not show any feeling of anger or love, there are many risk factors associated with intelligent machines. The AI is designed in such a manner that it is very difficult to turn off and, in such conditions when in the hands of a wrong person, things could go devastating. AI does the job that it needs to do but it could take dangerous paths to do so. For example, in driving an automated car, if we tell the AI to reach the destination soon, it may take rash and risky routes or may exceed the speed limit causing immense pain for us. Therefore, a key role of AI research is to develop good technology without such devastating effects.

Photo by Tracy Le Blanc on Pexels.com

The Personal is The Political

‘The Personal is the Political’ was a rallying cry of the second-wave feminist movement. The idea was first reflected in an essay by Carol Hanisch titled the same. The radical feminists used this slogan and spearheaded the movement. They believed that women’s oppression occurred everywhere even in areas that hitherto have not been subjected to scrutiny. The slogan was a potential threat and a considerable critique of traditional liberal separation between the political and the personal sphere. 

"The Personal is Political" - Revisiting an old problematic!

Susan Moller Okin, in her celebrated magnum opus, “Justice, Gender and Family” argues that ‘the personal is the political’ consists of four seperate yet interrelated claims. 

Justice, Gender, and the Family by Susan Moller Okin | Basic Books

Firstly, she claims that the private sphere is the ‘sphere of power’. It simply means that power and advantage also characterize the areas of life that are excluded from the political sphere like the family life and personal relationships. For instance, the subjugation of women, domestic violence and subservient position of children in family are best examples of the same. 

Secondly, she claims that the political sphere infiltrates into the personal. That is, institutions like family that are considered to be highly personal are not immune from interference from the State. For instance, the State decides the form of marriage, i.e. if it is to be homosexual or hetrosexual; the State decides the requirements for marriage like the marriage age, number of spouse permitted, legal rights and duties applicable to married couples, incentives and tax benefits, ownership of property, conditions for divorce, etc. Therefore, Okin claims that there exist no private sphere absolutely free from any form of State interference. 

How COVID-19 is exacerbating gender inequality in scientific research – The  Publication Plan for everyone interested in medical writing, the  development of medical publications, and publication planning

Thirdly, she argues that the private sphere or family life creates psychological conditions to govern the public life. Family is an arena of social construction and social construction is deeply gendered in patriarchal societies. For instance, in patriarchal societies, there will be certain standard norms that govern clothing style, make-up and beauty concepts. Family or personal sphere is an arena where we, as individuals, develop our attitude towards these norms. That is, if children grow up in a household that is characterized by gendered division of labour, they will feel that these are ‘right’, ‘good’ and ‘natural’. They will internalize these differences and apply them in their lives in ways that will undermine gender equality. They will internalize the idea that women are nurturers and nourishers and should have ultimate responsibility for childcare as opposed to male role of breadwinning. This makes the gender differences instill in the next generation and gets perpetuated in the society. And hence, the personal sphere conditions our attitude and values that govern the political or public sphere. 

Choosing to challenge gender inequality in the post-COVID future of work

Lastly, the private sphere is characterized by gendered division of labour and creates barriers for women in all other spheres of life. That is, women’s material and mental resources are exhausted or diminished by the need to take over all the domestic work in the household. Women have to work in their house as well as in their workplace. These days where childcare is expensive and holidays that are not in sync with the children’s school holidays, women are forced to take unpaid leave and sometimes resign from their job to take care of their children.


“Nobody on Earth can ever love you more than your parents.”

Parents and children have a special bond of love and affection. This bond can never be replaced by any other form of relationships, for as the saying goes, “Blood is thicker than water”. Parenthood like any other job requires dedication and sacrifice. So, what qualities should parents impart that would be considered good parenting?

Parenthood is a natural consequence of marriage. Prospective parents should recognize their responsibilities and realize what parenthood involves. One of the essential qualities parents should have is the acceptance of the role of parenthood. The father may resent the child because it would be a rival for the attention of the mother and father, more so if the child is a baby boy. Mother, on the other hand, is put in a different class where her time is no longer her own. Household routine is changed as baby makes demands on her time. Both parents should be willing to make sacrifices, including their career and accept their responsibilities.

Parents love their children and this is a universal truth. But love should in no way or at any time be considered as synonymous with parenting and spoiling the children. They should instill in the children qualities which will help them face life with a sense of integrity and strength of character. These can be cultivated if the parents teach them positively.

Parents should set good examples and provide the right atmosphere which is conductive to the growth of good character traits. A child learns good virtues and the influence of his parents counteract all other influence good or bad as like father like son.

In general, good parenthood requires love and understanding. These two qualities can build a strong world of parent-child relationship. Love must be wholesome but not blind in that it does not ignore discipline and moral values. This love must provide security and confidence to the growing child to be a good thinking adult. Understanding means giving the child the opportunity to find out what he wants, the freedom to try new ideas and the support when the child meets with failure.

Parents should be themselves and allow the children to grow up to be themselves too. Give support and encouragement wherever necessary but temper with love and understanding. Being a good parent is in itself a growing process. Learn to love but love wisely.


‘Tomorrow is the 30th day of challenge, this is it’, Anisha kept thinking. Started at 94 kgs before a month, Anisha was an obese girl standing 5’4″ tall. She wanted to make it to 60 kgs in 5 months for her brother’s wedding. The night before the result day was the longest night Anisha had ever seen. The excitement and nervousness of result didn’t allow her to sleep properly. It was this day she had been waiting for so long.

In the morning she was ready to step onto the weighing scale. The wait for the result day was finally over. She was also thinking about the chocolates, pizza, ice-cream and every other food item she’d eat today after a keto of one month. The day before there were only two emotions she was facing i.e., nervousness and excitement but today another emotion took the prior position and that was fear. What if she hadn’t lost any weight by now? What if that one spoon of custard spoiled it all? What if this one month of starvation and sweating goes in vein? She had been noticing the difference in her physique but still the fear of not losing weight took over.

She finally stepped onto the scale. Her heart pounded as fast as the rumbling of numbers on the scale. The number started rising over 80 kg, at that time Anisha just wished for it to stop before 90. She placed her palms over her face to cover her eyes from seeing the result, though she kept peeping from between the fingers. ‘89.75’ the scale said. Anisha was happy for she lost about 4 kgs in a month but wasn’t satisfied. After one month of the hard-work she expected to lose at least 5 to 7 kgs. But all she lost was 4 kgs. After a battle with herself she had decided onto a cheat meal but the disappointment with her results led her to grief eating.

Photo by Andres Ayrton on Pexels.com

At some point or the other we also have faced the same situation as Anisha. Losing weight or gaining weight has been a constant struggle in everyone’s life. The only thing that keeps the strugglers associated with each other is the ‘WEIGHING SCALE’. From the leanest to the heaviest, this scale haunts every person at least once in their lifetime. If you ask an obese person if what scares him the most, the answer wouldn’t be ghost, dogs or some fancy phobias but it would be weighing scale.

While everyone is trying to fit into the societal norms of the ideal weight, many are starving themselves to death for the perfect figure. But who has made these norms defining perfect body type? If the person if healthy in his own body weight then who is society to define his perfect body type or ideal weight?

This concept not only makes the people starve and over-eat but also ruins their self-esteem. In India specially a great emphasis is laid on the weight of adults who have just turned 20, for they have to get ready for the marriage proposals. ‘Itni moti ladki se shaadi kaun karega? Itne patle ladke ko toh ladkiya dekh kar hi mana kar dengi. Thoda sa weight kam karle/ badha le fir perfect hai shaadi k liye. Chaar log kya sochenge?

Do not let those chaar log or the numbers on weighing scale define your perfections. Everybody is a unique person and the key to happiness lies in embracing your uniqueness. It is always advised to live a healthy life, but healthy just doesn’t mean physically healthy but also mentally healthy. Love Yourself and embrace your flaws like your perfections.

Social Distancing: A Computer Vision Approach

For the interim, while we’re as yet in the center of a worldwide pandemic, we should look at how we can productively authorize COVID-19 guidelines, explicitly friendly removal, to limit hazard and help save lives! 

As per the CDC, social removing is a wellbeing practice that eases back the spread of the illness. The prescribed distance to keep among yourself and others who are not from your family is 6 feet, regardless of whether inside or outside. Social separation is basic in lessening the spread of COVID-19 since this spread is basically brought about by individuals getting in close contact with one another. The ultimate objective is “leveling the bend,” for example diminishing the pace of disease transmission among people to mitigate a portion of the tension on the medical services framework.

Along these lines, robotizing the way toward observing social separation would be urgent in implementing COVID-19 rules and eventually controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Similar to the case with other everyday life issues, Deep Learning and Computer Vision present a suitable and productive robotized answer for this issue. In this blog entry, we will investigate the various parts of this issue and the manners in which we approached tackling them. Prior to bouncing into the “how”, how about we look at the “what”, for example the outcome we are focusing on.


The aim of this PC vision module is to distinguish social removing infringement from video feed. To accomplish that, we need to appraise relational distance among walkers and contrast that with the base permitted distance to be kept between people, which is 6 feet. This apparatus is particularly helpful now that urban areas from one side of the planet to the other are step by step stripping back lockdowns while still keeping up COVID-19 guidelines.


  1. People Detection and Tracking
  2. Perspective Transform
  3. Interpersonal Distance Estimation
  • Individuals Detection

The principal technique we propose is to conclude the tallness of distinguished people from the stature of the subsequent jumping box we get from the People Detection model. This would be the simple, clear approach to this. In any case, one may call attention to that individuals finder can recognize individuals whose bodies aren’t completely noticeable in the casing, and consequently this would slant the scale. What’s more, some recognized people may be a lot nearer to the camera than others are, and this may likewise slant the scale. The only way we can cure this while utilizing this methodology is to continually refresh our scale for each edge we go through in order to accomplish a strong scale over the long run that isn’t influenced by exceptions.

  • Posture Estimation

Another methodology that may make up for the deficiencies of the past strategy                                                                                                            is to gauge the stature of individuals in pixels by figuring the distance between their body joints controlled by a posture assessor. The upside of this strategy is that we can get more subtleties on the amount of the individual’s body that appears in the edge for example the uttermost joint recognized is that of the middle.


Since social removal ought to be polished alongside other protection gauges, a potential expansion could be checking if the identified walkers are wearing face veils. Various sorts of alarms that reflect various degrees of risk can be presented, whereby more meddlesome cautions would be raised for walkers abusing social separation and face cover guidelines all the while. 

Another conceivable expansion that could build the exactness of our scale assessment system is to join the sexual orientation of the recognized people. Females can be thought to be 5 foot 4 (162cm) and guys to be 5 foot 7 (171cm). 

Ultimately, individuals tallying and swarm thickness assessment can be significant augmentations to this instrument to make it more all encompassing.

4 Reasons to choose Jobs over Business

Job vs Business has been a hot topic to talk about always. Many people who advise you to choose business over jobs forget that being your boss is not everyone’s cup of tea. There is no denying businesses that have their perks of not getting fired, being the boss, having people to work for you, etc.

Following are 4 reasons to choose Job over business:

  1. Jobs offer you more security. People usually choose Jobs over Business because jobs offer more security. By losing one job or getting fired one can still assure themselves of getting another one. However, the business loss comes with a lot of risks and sometimes unbearable.
  2. Stable Income. The business has there own profit and loss. They are never stable as they keep fluctuating from time to time. But Jobs assure you a steady income every month without having a fear of loss.
  3. Work fewer hours. Working under someone comes with 9-5 working hours and weekends off and not to forget the bonuses you get. While being a boss is getting flooded with work calls and being swamped.
  4. You cant lose your house if your get laid off or fired. When your business experiences a fall or loss you risk your assets too. Whereas your job offers you no such risk. One can still enjoy on savings they have.

Stay Home, Stay Safe

COVID-19, the very word gives millions of thoughts. There are people pleading to stay indoors and as citizens each and every one of us holds the responsibility to keep our kinfolk safe and sound. Most of the people fail to do this by roaming out for unnecessary things. One will never know the value of something unless that precious thing is lost. This is matter of a billion people’s lives. There are people dying even without proper funeral. There is no cemetery to bury the dead and there are no places to cremate. In a night cremation places are built and people are cremated even before the place is dried. There are doctors who don’t even remember to eat food and sleep. Most of the doctors lost their lives by serving people. There are nurses and lab technicians who are risking their lives just to treat you. They fight with your life taker to give back your life by risking their life. They face so many life and death in a day, and it is not an easy thing for them to handle. They will never have people around them for comfort, the stay away from their family and they are humans too, they will have emotions and feelings. Most of the doctors lost their lives just to give back your life. Before coming out of your home just think about your family and loved ones without you. Just think about how people will suffer. Many people who aren’t even affected by corona lost their lives without proper first aid. Hospitals and doctors were busy taking care of corona patients and people with mild heart attack, stroke and fits passed away without proper first aid. All these happens in a blink of an eye, no farewell words, not even hugs to comfort the broken, not even a little more time with the soulless body. That pain is unbearable and one will never understand unless one undergoes such situation. There are still people who stay indoors without meeting their loved ones for years, just to keep them safe and their loved ones too. Hope everyone can be the same just to keep your kins safe. Is there an end to this? Is there any possibility to return back to normal life? Will students be able to enjoy their college life? Questions can be added like this. But possibly none can answer. Stay home, Stay safe. Wear masks and sanitizers now and then. Be safe and sound and lead a happy life with your loved ones.


Hard work is the work which takes more time and complex in doing the task. But in opposite, Smart work takes a smaller time compared to Hard work, and the work can be completed with smart work and efficient. Hard Work we can complete a task successfully, but in order to gain name and fame among people and get recognition Smart Work matters a lot. Smart Workers prioritize their tasks, complete the most important ones first and the rest later. This makes their job easy since they can act towards a solution depending on the priority. Smart Work lets you understand the time consume even before performing the task. With a plan on what needs to be done, Smart Workers reach the success pole soon. In a sense, working hard in a smart way will lead to success in any task assigned to us.

To achieve anything in life, one has to commit to continuous hard work, which will lead one to the summit of achievement. There is no shortcut to success, only one’s persistent efforts can turn our goals into reality.

Smart work is the fruit of hard work. And to master the qualities of smart work, one needs to work really hard work focuses on what kind of method should be used to achieve the result, hard work entirely focuses only on the end result. If the drive is considered as the heart of your hard work, then the plan is considered as the skeleton of your work.

Hard work without a definite strategy is always considered as a futile attempt and is simply a wastage of time and resources. For most of the successful people, they have put in a considerate amount of hard work so as to achieve their goals. For most of the successful people, they have put in a considerate amount of hard work so as to achieve their goals.

Advantages of Smart work

  • It teaches time management skills.
  • Because of smart work, we now have more free time. For example, modern transport systems reduced effort and time in moving to another place.
  • Smart work improves productivity.
  • Smart work is time efficient

Advantages of Hard work

  • Hard work teaches us patience and discipline.
  • The result of hard work will be more appealing to us because we put a lot of effort into achieving it.
  • Everyone will choose hardworking persons to work under them.
  • Hard work always paves a way for success

Without Hard work, smart work cannot be succeeded, and without smart work, hard work cannot be succeeded. So to attain a good position, both hard work and Smart work both are important for the success.

Quantum Machine Learning: Overview

Quantum Machine Learning is an exploration field in Quantum Computing. It is essentially the execution of Machine Learning calculations in quantum computers instead of customary computers. To comprehend Quantum Machine Learning we need to initially realize what is Quantum Computing. 

Quantum Computing outfits a portion of the wonders of quantum mechanics and vows to convey gigantic jumps forward in handling power. Specialists anticipate that quantum machines soon enormously beat even the most prepared to do the present and the upcoming supercomputers.

Why is Quantum Computing

Quantum computers guarantee to control energizing advances in different fields, from materials science to drug research. Organizations are now exploring different avenues regarding them to create things like lighter and all the more remarkable batteries for electric vehicles, and to help make novel medications.

Quantum Computer

A Quantum Computer (QC) is an actual gadget that applies the properties of quantum mechanics to registering to deal with data recently and tackle issues not addressable by the computers of today. Quantum computers are not supercharged traditional computers and they will supplant old style computers in the near term. A QC capacities uniquely in contrast to an old style computer by taking care of issues probabilistically. 

By processing major particles and discovering approaches to control them, researchers have made the essential structure square of a quantum computer, called a quantum bit or qubit. Qubits can reenact their old style computer partners, possessing a condition of one or the other 0 of 1, and have extra computational force mode conceivable by the quantum mechanical properties of superposition and trap.

Quantum machine learning is the incorporation of quantum calculations inside machine learning programs. The most well-known utilization of the term alludes to machine learning calculations for the examination of old style data executed on a quantum PC, for example quantum-upgraded machine learning. While machine learning calculations are utilized to figure gigantic amounts of data, quantum machine learning uses qubits and quantum activities or particular quantum frameworks to improve computational speed and data stockpiling done by calculations in a program. This incorporates half and half strategies that include both traditional and quantum handling, where computationally troublesome subroutines are moved to a quantum gadget. These schedules can be more mind boggling in nature and executed quicker on a quantum PC. Moreover, quantum calculations can be utilized to break down quantum states rather than old style data. Past quantum figuring, the expression “quantum machine learning” is additionally connected with traditional machine learning techniques applied to data produced from quantum tests (for example machine learning of quantum frameworks, for example, learning the stage changes of a quantum framework or making new quantum tests. Quantum machine learning likewise stretches out to a part of exploration that investigates methodological and underlying likenesses between certain actual frameworks and learning frameworks, specifically neural organizations. For instance, some numerical and mathematical procedures from quantum material science are relevant to traditional profound learning and the other way around. Moreover, analysts examine more theoretical ideas of learning theory concerning quantum data, in some cases alluded to as “quantum learning theory”.

Quantum-enhanced machine learning alludes to quantum algorithms that tackle undertakings in machine learning, subsequently improving and frequently facilitating traditional machine learning methods. Such algorithms commonly expect one to encode the given old style informational collection into a quantum PC to make it open for quantum data handling. Consequently, quantum data preparing schedules are applied and the consequence of the quantum calculation is perused out by estimating the quantum framework. For instance, the result of the estimation of a qubit uncovers the aftereffect of a double characterization task. While numerous recommendations of quantum machine learning algorithms are still simply hypothetical and require a full-scale widespread quantum PC to be tried, others have been carried out on limited scope or specific reason quantum gadgets.