‘The Sleep’ by Elizabeth Barrett Browning.

Have you ever appreciated your ability to sleep? Now, you will wonder if being able to sleep is something to be praised. Yes, give yourself an applause for you have been given the best gift ever and you will have to cherish this gift. The poem ‘The Sleep’ by Elizabeth Barrett Browning brings out the importance of sleep and why it is to be cherished.

Of everything we have known about God from psalms and hymns, the poet asks if there is any gift which surpasses His gift – the sleep. As humans, what can we give to our loved ones? We can give the hero’s courage and determined heart to confront all the troubles; we can give them a poet’s lyrical verse to move them to ecstasy; we can give them a patriot’s voice to guide them through hurdles and motivate them; we can give them a ruler’s consolation to ease their burdens. But of everything we can give them, there is nothing that will surpass God’s gift to His beloved – the Sleep. 

“He giveth His beloved, sleep”

Sometimes we give our beloved words of consolation and sometimes we add to their difficulties, making their whole world burdened. But God’s gift – Sleep – puts an end to all such sufferings. No matter what words of consolation we say, we can’t solve the problems of our beloved. When things get hard and we have no words of consolation, all we can say to our beloved is to sleep.

“ ‘Sleep soft, beloved!’ we sometimes say,”

We say so, hoping that no bitter memories of hardships shall disturb their ‘happy slumber’. When we sleep, we forget our bad experiences and experience eternal peace. So, this peace gives us hope and when we wake up the next morning, we are prepared for the day. Now is there any gift which surpasses sleep?

Our earth is full of dreary noises and wailing voices of despair. We chase after money, wealth and other material prospects which might leave us anytime. So, God silences these wailings by putting everyone to sleep. God has created this earth and all natural elements and we humans sow and reap. Thus, Sleep is more delicate than the dew drops and clouds. It makes us feel as if we are on a delightful journey and makes us feel lighter.

We go on living, thinking, and feeling without even realizing what keeps us going everyday. It is the sleep which keeps us going everyday. When we sleep, we forget the hardships of today, and hope for a better tomorrow.

“Aye, men may wonder while they scan  

A living, thinking, feeling man  

Confirmed in such a rest to keep;”

Our world is a stage and we are like a tired child watching the performance of the mummers on the stage. So when our eyelids droop, we rest like a child on God’s lap. So, no matter how exhausted we are, it is the sleep which rejuvenates us at the end of the day.

The last stanza ends with the poet asking her friends not to mourn or weep when she dies, for she is just going to an eternal sleep and a state of peace after all. 

“Let One, most loving of you all,  

Say, ‘Not a tear must o’er her fall;  

He giveth His beloved, sleep.’“

The poem makes us understand how blessed we are to be able to sleep. We should no longer take our sleep for granted. Sleep improves both our mental and physical health. So, sleeping is the best thing ever. Finally, think if there is a greater gift than sleep.

“He giveth His beloved, sleep.”

Read the poem at https://poets.org/poem/sleep

How to write Advertisement Scripts?

For every business to prosper it is important that people are aware about the product existing. For this the advertisement becomes very important, but there are also thousands and millions of advertisement existing in the market. Thus it becomes very crucial for the company to produce an advertisement which stands out among these thousands and also attract the audience towards the product. This then comes to the hiring of Advertisement Script Writer. But how can we learn to write out-of-the-box script? Here are a few things to be learnt for the same:

First, let us understand what are the basics of Advertisement writing:

Primarily written for visual mediums:

While writing the advertisement script we must keep in my mind that it is been written for the visual medium. People don’t read something which doesn’t attract them at once. And for the primary attention of the people the visual portrayal must be outstanding.

Brevity is the key:

Because of the short time, it becomes a crucial task for the writer to use simple and exact words which also captivate the eye of the reader.

Needs planning and creativity:

Writer must be aware of the lack of time and thus plan the advertisement in a manner which outsources everything regarding the product in a minimal time. For this author must generate his creative cells in the brain.

Recognize the Target audience:

It is really important to plan the advertisement according to the target audience. If the advertisement is about a tractor then it becomes necessary to create an advertisement which suits their needs.

good Appeal:

For the best appeal a writer can use the cultural sentiments of the targeted audience or may even use multiple daily routine slangs of the audience. This will draw the audience towards the product.


We all have seen various new advertisements on the television. One thing to notice among those advertisements is that with time the duration of same advertisement gets short with the passage of time. Thus it is necessary that writer employs his writing skills in a manner that even the duration is reduced, the essence of the advertisement must remain exact.


Last but not the least is the composition of the advertisement. After taking care of all the above elements, The composition is the element which is the most important one. If the composition of advertisement is not good enough then the advertisement will lack audience’s attention. It is the job of the writer to thoroughly look at the composition of the advertisement. For this he even might consider taking help of Script Doctors.

Let us now look at the stages to write an advertisement script.

The FORMAT of an advertisement script is as follows:

  1. Font: Preferred font is courier, but there is nothing specific about fonts in Advertisement Scripts as it is in the Scripts for Movies, Plays, Web etc.
  2. Structure: Usually two columns are used for the advertisement script, rarely three. The first is about the video, the second describing the dialogues and the third is about the duration (if the column exists)
  3. Size: The script must never exceed the length of a page because the advertisements are just a minute long.
Here is an example of the advertisement script:

Some of the KEY POINTS to remember while writing an advertisement script are:

  1. Understand the Product: The writer must be aware about the Features and the Unique Selling Point (USP) of the product.
  2. Understand the Target Audience: Who is this product for? Young or Old? Men or Women? Rich or Middle working class?
  3. Do research: Understand the product and your competition. Mention the key features of the product which are different from others.
  4. Think out of the box: Emotion is the hook. Humour adds an extra punch to the script, thus cleverly employ them for the task.
  5. Writing: Don’t write to impress, write to communicate the core message clearly. Also focus on the language which is used by the target audience.
  6. Emphasize the need: Allow your audience to realize the worth of the product and also why do they need it.

New device gets power from 5G signals grabbed from the air

The new technology might one day help power the Internet of Things.

This may look like spidery art on a playing card, but it’s actually a tiny array of antennas and a lens. The device can grab waves of 5G energy from the air, focus them, and then turn those waves into electricity.

A few years ago, Aline Eid was sitting in a restaurant sharing popcorn with Jimmy Hester. They weren’t just snacking, though. They were puzzling over a tough problem. How could they tap into the power of invisible signals that send data to cell phones, computers and other devices? If they could manage this, people might someday run their electronics without batteries or cords. As they brainstormed, an idea took shape. That idea has now become a reality.

The heart of their innovation is a special gadget. It helps gather wireless signals sent out by cell-phone towers. Called a Rotman lens, the device looks a bit like a flat metal spider. “We were so excited. I knew it was going to work,” recalls Eid. She’s a PhD student in electrical engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta.

Hester is the cofounder of the tech company Atheraxon. It’s also in Atlanta. He and Eid shared the idea with their professor, Manos M. Tentzeris. “That was a breakthrough solution,” Tentzeris says. The three described their new device in January 12 in Scientific Reports.

The tarantula

The harvesting of wireless energy doesn’t work well over long distances. It’s one that electrical engineer Hina Tabassum also knows well. At York University in Toronto, Canada, she works on this problem, too.

Radio waves and microwaves carry data from cell-phone towers to our phones and other devices. The area each tower covers is called a cell. Your cell phone contacts the nearest tower to exchange data. The first cellular networks used radio waves to send and receive data. Newer 5G networks now use higher frequency microwaves. These waves can carry more data and transmit it faster. While that can help save energy, these waves they don’t reach as far. That’s because buildings and other objects block them. Moisture in the atmosphere absorbs them, too, reducing their strength the farther they travel.

Explainer: Understanding waves and wavelengths

When waves of energy wash over a phone or other device, they drop off data and then continue on their way. The energy that had been used to carry those data has no use now. It’s a waste, says Tentzeris — unless the new device transforms it into electricity.

This energy tapping is possible across the electromagnetic spectrum. But “you cannot get a lot of power out of low frequencies,” says Eid. Millimeter-range 5G is exciting because cell towers use much more energy to blast out these high frequencies. So a harvesting antenna could get more electricity out of these signals.

A typical 5G tower sends microwave signals out some 180 meters (590 feet). To gather their energy from the edge of this distance, a receiving antenna must point in the exact same direction from which the waves are coming. Yet to be practical, Eid notes, a 5G-energy harvester should work from anywhere within a 5G cell and no matter which way the receiver is pointing. Eid and Hester had been pondering how to harvest energy from such distance and from lots of different directions.

5G promises new energy savings for digital tech

They solved the problem with that Rotman lens. These have been around for a long time. But engineers had only used them to send signals, not to receive them. Says Tabassum, using them as a receiver is “a new technology, for sure.”

The lens looks a bit like a flattened metal tarantula. Spidery “legs” extend from two sides of a central body. On one side, these legs lead to eight small antennas. On the other side, they lead to six beam ports. The antennas catch microwaves and focus them onto a single point at one of those beam ports — whichever one lines up best with the direction of the incoming waves. Another part in the device transforms the microwaves it receives into electrical power.

The six beam ports are like six of the eight eyes on a real tarantula’s head. With them, Eid says, “our system can also look in six different directions.”

The researchers tested their device in the lab across a distance of 2.8 meters (9 feet). They weren’t able to test it at the same high energies a 5G tower would use. But they gathered enough information to simulate how the device should work in the real world. At 180 meters, they now report, this device could deliver six microwatts of power.

Tabassum worries that this estimate might be too high. Her main concern is that things such as buildings, trees and people would block signals, limiting how much of this energy reaches a device.

Tentzeris says his team accounted for that. The Georgia Tech team is now planning to test the device at even longer distances.

The Internet of Things

Six microwatts is not much power. Charging the typical battery for one of today’s cell phones needs around 6 million microwatts (6 watts) of power. Still, the new invention would have enough power to run most sensors and microchips.

As the Internet of Things is emerging, sensors and microchips are spreading everywhere. Low-power electronics can measure air or soil quality. They can keep tabs on safety aspects of bridges or buildings. They can manage the heat or lighting in a home and even track someone’s health. But the batteries that power these electronics contain heavy metals that aren’t easy to make or to dispose of safely. Finding a way to power the Internet of Things without batteries would be good for the environment, says Eid.

Her team figured out how to make its new device at low cost, mainly by using an inkjet printer. They hope to start marketing it as a product within the next few years.

Will they name it “The Tarantula”? Probably not. But Eid does say it has one more thing in common with spiders. “A tarantula can climb anywhere,” says Eid. The device is lightweight and bendable. You can put it anywhere you want, like a sticker — a very special playing-card-sized sticker that grabs energy from the air!


Loneliness makes our brain crave people.

After 10 hours of isolation, people’s brains perked up at the thought of social time.

A hungry brain craves food. A lonely brain craves people. A new brain study demonstrates this. After being isolated, it shows, people’s brains perked up at the sight of other people. The action was in the same brain region that revs up when a hungry person sees food.  

“There’s a ton of research showing loneliness is associated with depression,” says Livia Tomova. She’s a cognitive neuroscientist, someone who studies how the brain produces mental activities. Tomova works at the University of Cambridge in England. But while scientists know loneliness and depression are related, it’s hard to tell if one causes the other. “Are they depressed because they’re lonely, or lonely because they’re depressed?” she asks. “One way to study that is [to look at] how the brain responds to periods of being alone.”

When she began this study, Tomova was a scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge. She and her colleagues recruited 40 people. On one day, the participants had to fast — not eat anything at all — for 10 hours. On another day, the same people were placed in a room for 10 hours. They couldn’t see anyone. No friends, no family and no social media. They weren’t even allowed to check their email.

After both days, Tomova and her colleagues put the people in a fMRI machine. It shows activity in the brain by tracking how much blood is flowing to each region.

At the end of each day, the participants showed high activity in a brain area called the midbrain. The scientists were interested in two small areas within it. One was the substantia nigra pars compacta. The other was the ventral tegmental area. Both areas produce dopamine. It’s a chemical messenger that is important in craving and rewards.

The two areas activated when hungry participants saw pictures of tasty pizza or juicy hamburgers. After the volunteers had been isolated, those brain areas became active when they saw social activities they missed. It might be playing sports or chatting with friends.

The midbrain plays an important part in people’s motivation to seek food or friends. In fact, it responds to food and social signals even when people aren’t hungry or lonely. But hunger and loneliness increased the reactions and made people’s responses specific to the thing they were missing. And the more hunger or isolation the volunteers said they were experiencing, the stronger the activity in this part of the brain. Tomova and her colleagues published their results November 23 in Nature Neuroscience.

People need people

One of the goals of studying people, says Thuy-vy Nguyen, is to find out what our basic needs are. Nguyen studies solitude — when people wish to be alone — at Durham University in England. People often say that humans are social animals, Nguyen notes.  She wonders, “Where did this phrase come from? … Do we have evidence for this?” This new paper, she concludes, shows that, yes, social time is a basic need.

The results are very elegant, says Turhan Canli. He is a neuroscientist at Stony Brook University in New York. However, he adds, 10 hours isn’t that long to spend isolated from anyone else. So the responses “may be very different from those individuals who have experienced chronic social isolation,” he says, such as older people living by themselves. Personality could matter, too. Someone who likes their alone time might not have a brain response that is as strong as someone who is a social butterfly.

The study seems especially important now, when so many people are isolated due to the pandemic. “We’ve been dealing with COVID-19 and some form of social distance for [many] months,” says Naomi Eisenberger. She’s a social neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles. But in an effort to stay safe from disease, people may end up lonelier than ever. “We tell people to stay away and it’s so hard. All of us on some level are starving for social interactions.”

The findings “speak to our current state,” agrees Tomova. “It’s important to look at the social dimension of this kind of crisis.”

Floating Nature

Floating nature- Forward campus imagined for New York Harbor.

rendering of floating campus on New York Harbor

We The Planet, an organization committed to protecting life on Earth through sustainable and innovative design, has commissioned architecture studio 3deluxe to design a floating campus for New York Harbor. The campus will be a people- and wildlife-friendly space in harmony with nature. The initial concept comprises seven covered “discs” that will be linked via walkways and surrounded by wetlands populated by local flora and fauna. 

The campus will be designed according to 3deluxe’s 50/50 concept, which is that all building projects should give back just as much substance to nature as they take from it. As a result, half of all building space would be dedicated to nature-oriented biotopes. “The quality of life in the cities would be enormously improved in every respect” with these designs, according to the architects. Air quality would improve, the traditional heat-island effects of urban environments would decrease, and the enjoyment of nature would be possible within cities.

rendering of the walkways at the floating campus at the New York Harbor

The floating campus would be mobile and, thus, unaffected by rising sea levels. It would include public areas for sports and leisure, a transition area at the center of the campus with a meadow and a beach, and facilities that could be used for meetings and educational events. The goal is that the complex will be an example of what life, community, and work could look like in the future. 

Natural and recycled materials would be used to create the buildings, and green roofs would be used to boost the availability of natural habitats.

Additional floating platforms could be added to expand the available green spaces and parks along the city’s shoreline, holding, for example, a looped running track through and surrounded by wetlands. The campuses could be attached to a shoreline pier or each other, or anchored within the harbor as individual islands.

The campus is envisioned as being entirely self-sufficient, generating its own energy and producing its own water. Bioluminescent bacteria that convert methane gas into energy could be used as a light source at night. In addition, wind turbines, photovoltaics, and specialty marine turbines under the platform designed to work with slow-moving water would generate energy, while algae bioreactors and oyster farms would naturally scrub pollutants from water.

REFERENCE: This article is from “Urban nature” as the issue of civil engineering.

Testing and Treating Microplastics in water face challenges

The deadline is looming: According to a state law adopted in 2018, the California State Water Resources Control Board has until July 1 to adopt a standard methodology for testing drinking water for the presence of microplastics; adopt requirements for four years of testing and reporting of microplastics in drinking water, including public disclosure of the results; and accredit qualified laboratories in California to analyze microplastics.

The problem? Testing for microplastics — which are defined as any plastic material less than 5 mm in length — is not quite ready for prime time. It is not yet precisely clear what effects microplastics have on animals, including humans, and at what levels they may be harmful. And it’s not entirely clear how microplastics get into our bodies — through water, air, food, or other sources, if not all of the above.

A law before its time?

Theresa Slifko, Ph.D., a chemistry unit manager at the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California — a regional wholesaler that provides drinking water to nearly 19 million state residents — says managing microplastics requires “a method to evaluate toxicity in animals; a method to evaluate occurrence in water, including drinking water; good studies to evaluate toxicity in animals and humans; and good studies to evaluate if microplastics are present in treated drinking water and what treatment can remove them.”

So the MWDSC is one of 40 labs — and the only public drinking water system — participating in a study coordinated by the Southern California Coastal Water Research Project that will report its findings to the state water board this summer. The board plans to use the information to help it select methods and develop a microplastics monitoring program for drinking water. “The recommendations will also be used to help California develop, adopt, and implement a statewide strategy for lessening the ecological risks of microplastics to coastal marine ecosystems,” Slifko says. “This legislation is not about developing best available treatment technologies to remove microplastics. We need to figure out if there is a problem and the potential extent that would need to be addressed first.”

The effect of ingesting microplastics from drinking water is “one of the questions we’re trying to wrap our heads around,” Slifko says. “Unfortunately, health assessments of microplastics pose unusual and difficult situations because those studies also require good analytical tools. (Researchers) need to be able to design the right studies, ask the right questions, and get the answers they need to inform decision-making. Those goals are also impacted by lots of uncertainty and missing information.”

Once researchers determine what levels of microplastics are actually harmful and in what ways, the next challenge will be determining how to test a given water sample to determine if it contains that threshold level. “One of the most important and key critical elements to monitoring drinking water for microplastics is the collection of a representative drinking water sample,” Slifko says.

Making it mainstream

Marie Enfrin, Ph.D., a postdoctoral research fellow at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology’s School of Engineering who focuses on microplastics research within the school’s department of civil and environmental engineering, agrees that there is much information yet to be determined. “We have been surrounded by plastics for decades, but we don’t know the effects of microplastics yet,” Enfrin says. “When we don’t know, we can’t say for sure whether the effects are serious or not. And because there’s this lack of knowledge, we still need to research the topic.”

But Enfrin is convinced that once some of the basic questions have been answered, a traditional water filtration method could be of use. Various types of membranes are effective at removing other contaminants this way, and part of Enfrin’s research is to develop a membrane system that can filter microplastics.

“Water treatment plants treat loads and loads of water every second,” Enfrin says. “It’s just not (feasible) to take 1 ml of water (out of the system) and take an hour or more to get an accurate estimate of microplastics concentrations” in that sample.

For now, though, microplastics’ varying sizes and resistance to settling are challenges to be overcome before any useful in-process treatment systems can be designed. “Most (microplastics) have the same density as water, which means they do not float and they do not really sink,” Enfrin says. This precludes the use of settling tanks or skimming procedures, two common methods used in water treatment today.

One possibility, Enfrin suggests, is finding a way to force the microplastics to coagulate into large enough particles to be filtered out, possibly toward the end of the treatment train.

For now, all that is certain is uncertainty: Testing and treatment are still far from ready to tackle the incidence of microplastics in drinking water — law or no law.


India’s civil aviation sector is in severe difficulty once more, having encountered an air pocket just as it appeared to be ready to take off after a tumultuous year.

Things began to improve, and pre-pandemic levels of business appeared to be on the horizon, but just as the government announced that it would consider allowing airlines to operate at full capacity if passenger numbers exceeded 3.5 lakh per day three times in a month, the number began to decline.

As the second wave of the pandemic raced across the country, notably in key air traffic hubs such as Mumbai, Delhi, and Bengaluru, the passenger count never exceeded 3 lakh in March, and in April, the number began to decline even further, in tandem with escalating COVID-19 cases.

The number of passengers dropped from 2.75 lakh in early April to slightly over 1 lakh by the month’s conclusion. According to ICF’s data analysis, the number of active COVID-19 instances in India increased by 394 percent while traffic decreased by half. Airlines were further harmed because not all flights were cancelled at the same time. Even while traffic was dropping at a considerably quicker rate, the daily flight count fell only 35%, putting further strain on the carriers’ budget.

Who shrunk the most while who held up?

GoAir, which is preparing for an IPO, and AirAsia India, which is controlled by Tata-AirAsia Bhd, were the first to react to the shifting market. From 201 at the beginning of the month, GoAir’s departures dropped by 62% to 77 on April 30. AirAsia’s headcount has dropped from 161 to 55 in the last month.

IndiGo, India’s largest carrier in terms of fleet and domestic market share, shrank by only 28% on April 30, flying 883 flights. According to ICF data, the airlines concluded the month with 31,516 departures, which was more than the entire competition combined, or 52 percent of total domestic departures in the country in April.

Air India, the country’s national carrier, declined the least among major airlines, cutting its operations by only 11%, while Alliance Air, a subsidiary, cut a fourth of its operations by the end of April. Trujet, situated in Hyderabad, has also shrunk by 11%. Trujet and Alliance Air both have a significant presence in RCS-UDAN, and viability gap funding would help to mitigate the effects.

Between the first and last days of April, SpiceJet and Vistara both shrank by 47 percent and 46 percent, respectively.

Where was the impact felt?

While Mumbai-Delhi remained the most popular flight route in April, with 1656 departures, it was also the most impacted, with daily flights dropping from 77 on the first day of the month to only 34 by the end of the month. Flights from Delhi to Bengaluru, Srinagar, Kolkata, and Patna rounded out the top five routes.

As standards for RT-PCR=negative findings were reinstated across states, leisure routes were the hardest hurt. The destinations with the greatest reduction in leisure tourism were Port Blair, Goa, and Srinagar.

With only 50 flights on April 30, Goa saw a 68 percent decline in traffic. On April 1, there were 156 flights to Goa from all throughout the country. A few sectors vanished entirely from the airmap. Flights to Goa from Hubli, Jaipur, Lucknow, Nagpur, Kannur, Amritsar, Pune, and Ahmedabad were all cancelled, with the most significant impact coming from Delhi, where only seven flights were available instead of the usual 40.

Port Blair, which has long maintained a tight inbound visitor policy, reported a 56 percent drop in traffic. Direct flights from Mumbai and Delhi were cancelled, and the most popular route from Chennai saw over half of its flights cancelled.

Tail Note

May has been much more difficult than April. For the first time since August 2020, passenger traffic fell below 1 lakh passengers per day. The number of flights has also gone below 1,000. This represents less than 30% of departures and fewer than 15% of traffic prior to COVID-19. The government of India opened up air traffic with a capacity ceiling of 33%, and a year later, we are back to where we were a year ago!

“With domestic demand decreased to a fourth of pre-pandemic levels, it is difficult for airlines to locate routes that will allow them to satisfy the variable cost of operations,” says Piyush Bansal, Operations Lead and ISTAT Certified Appraiser at ICF. Long-term survival necessitates continued reductions in fixed and semi-fixed costs, which is difficult but not impossible.

With IndiGo’s board of directors approving QIP fundraising and GoAir filing a DRHP, the two airlines have devised a strategy to raise extra capital. While AirAsia India has reduced its service, Vistara is growing! TATA’s assistance for each of these airlines will be determined over time, but it continues to cast doubt on SpiceJet’s ability to exist and recover from the crisis.

“Historiography Tradition In Early Medieval India”

‘Early medieval’ when used as an historical phase and marked off from others historical faces such as ‘Ancient’,’ ‘Medieval’ and ‘Modern’ may not be of very recent usuage in Indian historiography.

According to B.D. Chattopadhyay, N.R. Ray urged almost three decades ago that the practice of using chronological terms in descriptive sense needed to be replaced. Discussions around the appropriateness or otherwise of chronological labels are now expected to relate to the theme of periodization. The problem therefore now involves- given the obvious elements of continuity in Indian history the selection of of variable which would purport to separate one historical phase from another.

According to R.S. Sharma, Several scholars have questioned the use of the term feudalism to characterize the early medival  socio-economic formation in India. But Harbans Mukhia suggested that, unlike capitalism, feudalism us not a universal phenomenon.The diffusion of the feudal system happened in some cases. Ex. Normal feudalism in England was a result of the Norman conquest.

According to D.N.Jha, the myth of millenary stagnation of early Indian society has been ably exploded by D.D.Kosambi and R.S.Sharma who marks definite stages in the development of its social polity till the  beginning of the feaudalism from about the middle of the first millennium.

By accepting the idea of the medieval or more specifically early medieval we subscribe to one way of looking at the course of Indian history.

B.N.Datta was the first Indian Marxist historian to refer clearly to the growth of feudalism in early India.

Systemic studies of the archeological material, likewise have proved the existence of many towns and several phase of urbanisation have been postulated in different parts of the country.

As early as 1950 Kosambi against the mechanical application of Marx’s scheme of periodization to the history of India and assert that Marxism is a tool of analysis and not substitute for thinking.

By accepting the idea of the medieval or more specifically early medieval – as a phase in the transition to medieval we subscribe to one way of looking at the course of Indian history.

For the present discussion,three points need to be noted, First the nature of change which is the critical subject of debate. Second,it involves providing a construct of early medieval. Third,it involves the methodological problem of causation,for if we use a term ‘early medieval’ to suggest a time span as well as historical phase.

To put it in terms persistently used,the route to medievalism, in what currently the dominant school of ancient Indian Historiography,was through Indian feudalism.

One type of statement on the transition by Niharranjan Ray, attempts a multi-dimensional characterization of medievalism. He locates the beginning of the process in the seventh century and says it became more pronounced from the eight century,he envisages three sub-periods within the medieval (i) seventh to twelfth century,(ii) twelfth to the first quarter of the sixteenth century,and (iii) first quarter of the sixteenth to the close of the eighteenth century.

D.D.Kosambi’s idea of the dual processes operating towards the emergence of the Indian feudalism. He characterized it by a two-stage development,namely feudalism from above and feudalism from below.

Segmentary State and the period of social crisis :-

Aidan southhall formulated the segmentary state model for his study of the Alur in highland East Africa in 1956 for the same reason that Burton Stein adapted his formulation for cholas of South India almost two decades later. Older historical views insisted on seeing polities of the time as centralized and to a degree bureaucratized, lurking behind much of the writing of that time was a very modern,unitary state form. At the time that Burton Stein adopted the segmentary formulation. He was insufficiently alert to a major discordant theoretical element which still remain a part of southhall’s formulation. This is the relationship between what he was calling political segmentation and something called segmentary society. The segmentary state refers to a political order which is distinguished from others. In positive terms,the segmentary state is a political order in which:-

  1. There are numerous centres
  2. Political, power and sovereignty are differentiated in such a way as to permit appropriate power to be wielded by making,but full royal.
  3. All of the numerous centres or domains have autonomous administrative capabilities and coercive means.
  4. There is a state in the recognition by lesser political centres,often through ritual forms,of a single ritual centre.

Three types of localities which he designated as ‘central’, ‘intermediate’ and ‘peripheral’ zones of segmentary political system of chola times.Such critics offer no research hypothesis, no Historiographical formulations to be examined seriously and confronted with evidence. First among these strong criticisms of the segmentary state formulation those from S.J.Tambiah and Herman kulke with both of whom Burton Stein have had rewarding and challenging discussion over the years. Like Tambiah who gives major importance to forms of ritual incorporation,kulke has considered my formulation,but in the end rejected it for its lack of fit with the specific polity he was examining that of medieval orissa.

In the early seventies B.D.Chattopadhyaya,on the basis of epigraphic material alone,argued that Prthidaka(Pehoa),Tattānandapura(Ahar),

siyadoni(near jhansi) flourished as urban centres with extensive market networks during the extensive market networks during the early medieval period.

Ancient Indian thinkers themselves held a changing view of their society and its values. This is demonstrated by their speculation regarding the creation of the world and the creation of kingship which had to be set up in order to protect family and property. Although in post- Vedic times Dharma based on the varna division was the ideal to be achieved. According to a words occurring in the sants parva,dharma becomes adharma in response to the needs of tim and place. The Puranas and the Smrtis point out that the perfect thermic consists of four feet and is found only in in the Krta age. The Krta age was an age of perfect happiness to the state of nature depicted by Rousseau. R.C. Hazra Believes that the earliest such description to the third century AD, the second set of descriptions to the eight century. In the Kali age we noticed two types of contractions:- the one between the brahmanas and ksatriyas on the one hand and the vaisyas on the other between the brahmanas and the sudras. The Kali age is marked by insecurity and widespread lawlessness. The reason for the levy of oppressive taxes by the kingship the third and in the beginning of the 4th century AD. The practice of employing slaves in agriculture production practically stopped in Gupta times. The Kali crisis of the late third and fourth centuries appears at a prelude to the feudalization of Indian society.

The point that B.D.Chattopadhyay have tried to make is that the historiography on the transition to what is considered the feudal phase has been ever shifting and essential dependent on the directions of European historiography.

The argument that B.D.Chattopadhya have been trying to develop starting with a statement on historiography can now be rounded off two points,need to be underlined-

First, all the an overview of Indian society of say the period between the sixth-seventh and twelfth-thirteenth centuries would show it to be vartly different from Indian society of the early historical period.

Regional elements begin to take shape through local assimilation as well as through the adoption of Trans regional idioms.

the opinion of K.R.Van Kooji too,when he refers to the division or rather multiple manifestations, of the one goddess as five separate goddesses:-

kamakhya, mohatsaha,tripura, kamesvari and sarada.The present collection of articles lays stress on those aspects of early India feudalism which have continue to generate controversy among scholars.

Green Infrastructure

Cities Around the Great lake plans for a changing future.

Water ran from a fire hydrant, down the street and into a recently redesigned street median in Detroit last week. 

It was both unassuming and a demonstration of the city’s single largest investment in green stormwater infrastructure: infrastructure that uses natural processes like the ability of soil and plants to filter and store water. The 10 reworked street medians on Oakman Boulevard will help manage 37.3 billion gallons of storm water a year , easing the burden on the city’s wastewater system and reduce basement flooding.

In August 2014, historic and deadly flooding took Detroit by surprise. Heavy rains submerged interstate highways, swamped vehicles, filled basements and caused an estimated billion dollars in damage.

The city responded, in part, by turning to green stormwater infrastructure.

It’s a strategy that cities around the Great Lakes basin have increasingly been employing to ease the burden on their wastewater infrastructure and improve water quality, while deferring or avoiding costly upgrades to wastewater treatment plants. 

It’s also a valuable adaptation to a changing climate, which is likely to make rainstorms more severe.

Reducing street flooding by catching millions

Street flooding occurs when too much rain falls too quickly, and stormwater systems can’t keep up. Water can also back up through drains into nearby basements.

After the 2014 floods, Detroit officials started meeting with residents of one flooded neighborhood to discuss possible solutions to their flooding problem, said Bryan Peckinpaugh, the deputy director of public affairs for the Detroit Water and Sewage Department.  

After years of discussion and planning, the city turned the medians on Oakman Boulevard into bioretention features. These features look like large rain gardens and allow stormwater from the street to flow into the median where it filters through the ground and some of it is collected in large tanks below the surface. Those tanks slowly release stormwater back to the sewer system, easing the load on the whole system.

Storm drains in nearby areas were diverted to the new bioretention areas as well, bumping the affected area to 400 acres, Peckinpaugh said.

The bioretention features will help manage 37.3 million gallons of water each year, according to a press release about the project from the Detroit Water and Sewage Department. 

Residents are noticing a difference.

Earlier this year Mackenzie Street, locally referred to as Lake Mackenzie, was uncharacteristically free of standing water during the first big rain since the project’s completion, Peckinpaugh said.

Fewer floods, better water quality

Green stormwater infrastructure does far more than reduce flooding.

It protects water bodies that receive stormwater by filtering out pollutants from impermeable surfaces like parking lots, streets or roofs. As water filters through soil, it leaves some of those pollutants behind. When it finally reaches the receiving waters, it’s cleaner.

By slowing the flow of stormwater to the sewers, green stormwater infrastructure can also reduce combined sewer overflows, which occur when heavy storms overwhelm the wastewater system and stormwater and sewage is discharged directly into a river or lake.

In 2019, the most recent report data available, 2.7 billion gallons of untreated sewage and stormwater spilled into Michigan’s waterways in combined sewer overflows.

“The gold standard of green stormwater infrastructure is that our receiving waters—our lakes, our streams and our rivers—they don’t know that we developed the landscape around it,” said Donald Carpenter, professor of practice of civil and architectural engineering at Lawrence Technological University in Southfield, Michigan.

In terms of achieving that goal, “we’re not even close,” Carpenter said.

In the Great Lakes basin, green infrastructure like that in Detroit might have an outsized impact because it protects the largest store of surface freshwater in the world. Projects around the basin are planned or in place that could have a major impact on water quality.

The increase of green infrastructure is largely due to the Clean Water Act, a 1972 law that set standards for water quality, said Joan Nassauer, a professor at the School of Environment and Sustainability at University of Michigan. 

By 2035, the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District plans to use green infrastructure to capture the first half inch of rain that falls in its service area, about 740 million gallons of water.

The Northeast Ohio Regional Sewer District has reduced stormwater runoff in the Cleveland area by more than 26 million gallons  a year through grants for green stormwater infrastructure projects.

Cities are also required by the U.S. EPA to implement green infrastructure.

In 2014, Chicago was required to use it to reduce street flooding and basement backups, including transitioning vacant lots into stormwater parks that both filter water and provide recreation opportunities to the public.

Cleveland was required in 2010 to spend $42 million on green infrastructure.

And in southern Indiana on the Ohio River, a park is being designed, not to mitigate flooding, but to adapt to it. 

When the river floods, Origin Park, in Clarksville and New Albany, Indiana, won’t shut down. It’ll just be used differently. 

“A lot of our woods will flood seasonally. So what that means is in July and August, you’ll be hiking through the woods, but then in March and April, you’ll be paddling through those same woods,” said Scott Martin, the executive director of River Heritage Conservancy, the organization building and running the park.

The park is “100% climate change oriented,” Martin said.

Current conditions don’t require elevated trails or building canoe put-ins so far from the river that people will think they’re “insane.” For Origin Park, it’s all about looking ahead and building for what’s coming.

“This is the frontline of climate change,” Martin said. “If we’re really intentional and thoughtful about it, we can design cities that are even more livable, more green, in places where people don’t expect to see it.”

The park’s first construction is getting underway. A canoe path will open by the end of the year.

Planning for a changing future

Replacing or supplementing grey infrastructure—storm drains, pipes, treatment facilities—with green can save cities time and money.

“To rip out and replace all this grey infrastructure would cost billions if not trillions of dollars,” Carpenter said. But adding green infrastructure can lighten the burden put on stormwater infrastructure by changing precipitation patterns.

Climate change is expected to increase Great Lakes rainfall by 10 to 20%, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. That’s due in part to an increase of heavy rainstorms that can overwhelm stormwater and sewer systems built to rainfall expectations of past decades.

That’s just one area that green infrastructure can help. 

“Green stormwater infrastructure has all these other ancillary benefits that make it really attractive,” Carpenter said.

Common green storm water infrastructure tools—rain gardens, bioretention features or growing plants on roofs—incorporate plants, which also improve air quality, make for cooler neighborhoods and act as public health boosting greenspace Carpenter said.

Nassauer, who has installed large bioretention projects in Detroit, says vacant land in large Great Lakes cities with shrinking populations are perfect for green infrastructure projects. 

Changing vacant lots into park-like rain gardens can transform a neighborhood. Gardens she helped install six or seven years ago regularly come up in conversations with locals, who appreciate the benefits beyond flooding, she said.

‘Of Studies’ by Francis Bacon.

We are told that studies are important but no one tells us why we should study, how we should study and what we should study. Francis Bacon’s essay ‘Of Studies’ answers all such questions. Firstly, 

“STUDIES serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability.”

When we read books in our leisure time, it brings us delight. When we use what we have learnt in our conversation, it decorates or graces our speech. When we apply what we have learnt in our judgement and business, it becomes our ability. While men of experience can carry out and judge only some particulars, the learned make the best plans and execution of affairs. This is not to say experience is not important. 

Though we are bestowed with inborn talents, we need studies to perfect them and in turn the studies are perfected by experience. Our inborn talents are like plants which require pruning and this the studies do. Though studies give all the directions, they are also bound to experience.

“To spend too much time in studies is sloth; to use them too much for ornament, is affectation; to make judgement wholly by their rules, is the humor of a scholar.”

While men of experience scorn studies and laymen look up to them, only wise men use what they have learnt. We shouldn’t read just to argue; neither to believe everything given in the text blindly nor to boast about what we have read, but to scrutinize and to regard them carefully.  

“Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed, and few to be chewed and digested;”

There are myriads of books to read but how do we prioritise them? Bacon says that there are some books which only require some of its parts to be read, some books though read fully don’t demand close reading, but there are books which require our full attention and are to be read with diligence. 

“Reading maketh a full man; conference ready man; and writing an exact man.”

So, if a person writes less, he should have a good memory to remember everything he had read; if a person speaks less, he should have a quick wit so that he can escape his problems; if a person reads less, he should at least have wit enough to act like he knows the matter.  Bacon lists the advantages of studying each subject.

“Histories make men wise; poets witty; the mathematics subtile; natural philosophy deep; moral grave; logic and rhetoric able to contend.”

When we read about past ages and of men, we come to know why they failed or succeeded; when we read poems which expresses huge meanings in small words, we gain wit; when we study math, we become clever in analysis of the problems; when we read natural philosophy, we gain deep knowledge of the universe; logic and rhetoric helps us to win arguments.

“Abeunt studia in mores” means studies become habits. When we practice what we read, it becomes a part of us, Just like how there are different physical exercises to cure the diseases of different parts of our body, different studies cure impediments in our wit. If a man lacks concentration, he ought to study math because if he gets distracted while doing sums, he has to redo the whole sum else he won’t understand. If a person cannot distinguish what is right or wrong, then he ought to read philosophy. If a person can’t get to the root of the matters and cannot defend his stand, then he ought to read law.  

“So every defect of the mind, may have a special receipt.”


RULE 7: Repeat to remember. for learning any information we have to repeat it. Our brain can only store some important data for long time. rest, infromation get start to easred by short term memory. Therefore, vision boards, writtern goals or remianders is important to remind our brain, that this is an important inforamtion

RULE 8: Our senses work together, so it is important to stimulate them. for example, when we smell popcorn, our mind reminds us about the moive theatre. or rain or any place reminds us about any person or situation or place. so, while studying, if it is difficult to remember, we can add any frangrance with it which may be perfume or room candles.

RULE 9: Vision trumps all other senses. we are able to remember vision things more than any other. by reading book, we may not know, on which page what is written, but by vision like movie, we remember scenes.

RULE 10: Music can make our brain smarter. Music taste defines our personality. Muisc sharpens oru skills and learning abilites. music makes us chnage our mood.

RULE 11: Male and female brains are different. in research, they have found out that, to handle the situation, or way of thinking and working of brain is different. they also find out that female during puberty, get depressed and anxiety, whereas, male become anti-social.

RULE 12: We are powerful and natural explorers. we are now occupied in classes room or office. but we are made to be the explorers. we should like a child always explore and try new things