10 ways to Build Your Self-Confidence

Above all else! We will discuss how to support your certainty and confidence, and there’s one thing you should know at the present time. “Be confident” is maybe the main suggestion you’ll get in the course of your life. We as a whole comprehend the qualities of confident individuals and how they benefit from them eventually, yet we think that its hard to impersonate them. The adage of “counterfeit it until you make it” will just bring you so far as far as confidence.

Confidence is something troublesome to acquire. We’ve assembled some supportive clues to help you. Try not to stress in case you’re actually experiencing difficulty subsequent to endeavoring these self improvement ideas. We’ve additionally incorporated a rundown of assets for getting further assistance and chipping away at building your certainty with the assistance of others.

Advantages of self confidence

Self confidence has numerous advantages that can have in your life including at home, at business, and seeing someone. Here are a portion of the useful results that Self-Confidence can have in your life.

  1. Better outcomes: Rather than sitting around idly puzzling over about whether you are adequate, you may zero in on your endeavors. therefore, when you’re sure, you’ll perform better.
  2. Connections that are solid: Self-certainty influences how you feel about yourself, yet additionally how you understand and love others. It additionally enables you to leave on the off chance that you’re not getting what you merit.
  3. Having faith in yourself can help you assemble strength, or the capacity to skip back from any mishaps or difficulty you may look throughout everyday life.

ways to build self confidence

Let’s concentrate on improving your ability to trust yourself to complete tasks, both old and new. These techniques aren’t groundbreaking, but they will assist you in recognizing your own ability to succeed.

In any case, quite possibly’s this lift in confidence will urge you to apply to NASA.

Put an end to comparing yourself with others.

Comparisons aren’t acceptable, regardless of whether it’s contrasting how you show up with your Facebook companions or comparing your pay with your companion’s pay. Indeed, a recent report distributed in the diary Personality and Individual Differences found a connection among jealousy and confidence.

Individuals who contrasted themselves with others were demonstrated to be jealous, as indicated by research. What’s more, the more jealousy individuals felt, the lower their confidence became.

Remind yourself of your own qualities and triumphs if you’re feeling envious of someone else’s life.

Take a look at what you’ve already accomplished.

On the off chance that you trust you haven’t accomplished anything, it’s easy to lose confidence. Make a rundown of all that you’re glad for in your life, regardless of whether it’s a decent test score or figuring out how to surf. Keep the rundown convenient and add to it whenever you achieve anything imperative. At the point when you’re feeling down, pull out the rundown and use it to help yourself to remember every one of the incredible things you’ve achieved.

Negative self-talk should be avoided.

Have you ever had the impression that the entire world is conspiring against you? For two reasons, it’s critical to remove the phrases “This usually happens to me” and “This is the tale of my life” from our everyday lexicon: first, we’re persuading ourselves of an untrue reality; second, we’re weakening our self-confidence.

Thus, the following time you fail to catch your plane or lose your office lift access card, recall that it happens to everybody.

Take a Risk and Leave Your Comfort Zone.

Quite possibly the best strategies to create is to venture outside of your usual range of familiarity. It will be terrifying to attempt new things, yet that is essential for the good times. Attempt to follow the guidance of the lululemon pack and do something terrifying each day. That is a decent spot to begin. Something startling each day is ideal since it permits you to approach it slowly and carefully while likewise pushing you out of your usual range of familiarity.

Make changes to your non-verbal communication.

According to her findings, arranging our bodies to take up more space results in more testosterone and lower cortisol levels, which decreases stress and boosts confidence. In fact, everything that causes your posture to expand sends a message to your body (and brain) that you are capable and in authority. Although these modifications may appear insignificant, they can make a significant difference for most of us who spend the most of our days seated, whether at school or at work.

Prioritize yourself.

Permitting somebody to abuse you is certainly not a smart thought. Advise yourself that you are important and meriting reasonable treatment. It’s okay to be egotistical sometimes.

When it comes to boosting our self confidence, our deeds might speak louder than our words (or ideas). When you help people who are less fortunate or in need, you are also helping to improve your own feeling of self.Finding a balance between self-care, self-compassion, and our obligation to others is difficult.

Make it a habit to say no.

You don’t have to do something only to impress other people. Simply say “no” if it goes against your ideas or ideals.People who have poor self-esteem are frequently afraid of social rejection or criticism.

They have a difficult time prioritizing their wants over others because they are nervous about their social group membership and uneasy about their self-worth.Of course, there will be those who take advantage of this. Your supervisor or coworker may expect you to take on work obligations that aren’t part of your job description.When you’re confronted with a power imbalance and you’ve made a habit of giving yes to unjust requests and demands saying no can be exceptionally difficult.

People who believe in you should be in your life.

We are frequently (though not always) our own harshest critics. If you’re having difficulties gaining confidence, consider surrounding yourself with individuals who believe in you. You can’t control everything, but you can typically control the people you spend time with to some level.Say your goodbyes to those who want to bring you down. Instead, surround yourself with people who encourage you and believe in you. Their encouragement will encourage you to believe in yourself as well.

Consider what you’re good at.

Everyone has their own set of skills and abilities. What are some of yours? Recognizing your strengths and attempting to improve on them will help you gain confidence in your own talents.

Enjoy What You’re Doing.

For everybody, present day life might be upsetting and depleting. You may feel constrained to continually work on yourself, center around your defects, or increment your efficiency. You need to make a stride back once in a while. Try doing the basic things that satisfy you.

Play a portion of your number one tunes. Put your thoughts down in writing. Take a walk, read a book, or watch a film. Take up another hobby or revive an interest you set to the side since you were engaged with your schooling, calling, or family. Some of the time you need to put your joy first. You may quit agonizing over whether you are “adequate” or have “done what’s needed” with your life on the off chance that you have a solid level of confidence.


Public health issues

Although the United States offers some of the highest quality health care in the world, there are still many difficult challenges left to solve. From heart disease and chronic illness to alcoholism and prescription drug abuse, there’s no shortage of public health problems that need to be addressed. And while public health professionals are constantly engaged at the local and national levels, making a positive impact isn’t easy.

Tackling key health issues in America requires input from a diverse range of stakeholders, including government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and private medical facilities. The ability to collaborate across industry lines is essential, as breakthrough medical treatments and public health initiatives depend on experts with different specializations. For example, educating citizens about the risks of excessive alcohol consumption relies on the knowledge of medical practitioners, the communication skills of health educators and the policy experience of lawmakers. But what exactly is a public health problem and how do experts keep track of them over time?

What makes something a public health problem?
Public health is the science of improving the well-being of communities through research, health programs, policies, and education. Unlike the health care field, public health is more about protecting entire populations (CDC Foundation, 2018). This could be something as small as a rural neighborhood, or as large as an entire country. Rather than treating existing medical issues, public health professionals try to prevent problems by promoting healthy lifestyles, designing outreach campaigns, and advising policymakers. They also work to eliminate health disparities by advocating for health care equity and accessibility.

Importance of Discipline

Discipline refers to the act of making people obey laws. In addition, it means adhering to certain accepted standards of conduct. Discipline is certainly a vital part of everyone’s life. An unruly life is a life full of chaos and confusion. Most importantly, discipline makes a person a better person. Discipline is a vital factor.

Why Is Discipline Important?
First, discipline helps a person to become more focused. In addition, the instructor tends to focus too much on his job, his activities, or his goals. Discipline, in turn, helps a person to avoid various distractions. A sense of sincerity and seriousness comes from discipline. As a result, high-quality focus is the result of discipline.

Discipline brings great honor to a person who is from others. A person who is disciplined by nature can take the respect of others. Bringing discipline into one’s life is a daunting task. As a result, people are drawn to such a person who is able to fill his life with discipline.

Another significant effect of discipline is good health. A qualified person has the right routine. Therefore, a trained person has a set time to eat, sleep, get up, exercise, work, etc. Moreover, such a person is very strict about his diet. As a result, all of these steps ensure the health and physical well-being of the person.

Self-control is a wonderful benefit of discipline. The disciplined person controls and controls his actions better. A person who has quit is careful not to use his words when talking to others. Moreover, such a person makes sure that his conduct is always honorable and appropriate.

Having more time is a valuable benefit of staying in education. A trained person will certainly have more time than an uncontrolled person. This is because a disciplinarian will not waste time on trivial or useless activities. In addition, a qualified person will not spend too much time on any one job. By following this method, people will have more free time with them. This free time certainly would not have happened if it had not been purified.

Time management is the most popular form of discipline. Time management uses time as a controller. In addition, time management uses a watchdog as a ruler. Most importantly, time management ensures that time management takes place in the right way. In addition, time management marks each task within the time limit. As a result, each task and task must begin and end at a specified time.

Load-based instruction is one way. In addition, this approach enables members of the organization to understand solutions to the problem. Load-based instruction includes placing instructions for changing performance in the future. Again, this happens by following good examples of respect.

Another important way to discipline is to punish someone. This method involves reprimanding, hitting, or hitting people. Most notably, this approach is helpful for schoolchildren. This is because; many students are rude and naughty. Therefore, small talk or instructions may not work with them.

In conclusion, discipline is a very important quality that we should have in all areas of life. Discipline is a stepping-stone to success. Moreover, discipline is beneficial for us. Most important, discipline keeps our bodies, mind, and soul in control.


The above picture speaks volumes about being a leader.

Every time when we hear the success stories of any organisation, we are mainly reminded of the leadership.

Leadership is the art of motivating a group of people and maintaining good inter personal relationship with followers to work together towards the achievement of a common organisational goal. Both leaders and followers play a pivotal role in the success of an organisation.


  1. Leadership indicates ability of a leader to influence others.
  2. Leadership brings change in the attitude of followers.
  3. Leaderships also indicates an inter personal relationship between leaders and followers.
  4. Leadership is exercised by a manger of a company to achieve common goals of the organisation.
  5. Leadership is a continuous and flowing process.

There person who has leadership qualities is know as a ‘Leader’.

What are qualities needed to become a leader? Some of the qualities are explained below:

Physical features– Physical features like height, weight, health and appearance determine the physical personality of an individual. Health and endurance aid a leader to inspire his subordinates by working hard for the organisation

Knowledge– A leader must posses good knowledge which is essential for giving clear instructions to his subordinates.

Integrity– A leader should have high integrity and honesty. This inspires subordinates to follow his values.

Initiative– A leader must be confident enough to take initiatives and decisions wherever required. He shouldn’t wait for opportunities and must possess the talent of grabbing opportunities for advantages of the organisation.

Motivation skills– A leader should be good motivator and should understand the needs of each and every member and motivate them through satisfying their needs.

Communication skills– A leader should also be a good communicator. His instructions should not cause any ambiguity or chaos. He should not just be a good speaker but also a good listener, adviser, persuader etc.

Social skills– A leader should be sociable, friendly and approachable in times of need.

Self confidence– A leader should always be self confident in during hardships because he sets an example for followers to feel confident in their lower times.


There are many styles of leadership which a person opts according to the use of authority. There are three basic styles of leadership:

  1. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: In this type of leadership, the autocratic leader is strict and expects perfect compliance of his orders from the end of the subordinates. In this style of leadership there is only one way communication. The leader does not like to be contradicted. This style of leadership is especially useful in getting productivity in situations like a factory where a supervisor is accountable for on time production.
  2. DEMOCRATIC OR PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP: A democratic leader is open to views and ideas of his subordinates as he believes that people perform their best when they set their own objectives. Everybody’s opinion matters which helps in achieving organisational goals.
  3. LAISSEZ FAIRE LEADER: In this leadership style, the leader absolutely does not believe in power unless necessary. Subordinates are given independence in formulating their own objectives. The presence of the leader is purely to support them and supply them with information for the assigned task and thus, the subordinate also shoulders some responsibility.

RELEVANT LINKS:https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/resumes-cover-letters/leadership-skills https://www.adamenfroy.com/leadership-qualities


Yoga is an art of ancient times which helps us to keep our mind at peace and our body fit. Yoga helps us to maintain control of our bodies and our minds. It is a good way to get rid of stress and anxiety. Yoga gained little popularity and is now spreading to all regions of the world.

The Origin of Yoga
Yoga is actually derived from the Indian subcontinent. It has been around since ancient times and is made from yogis. The word yoga comes from a Sanskrit word that translates primarily as association and guidance.

In the early days, the followers of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism practiced it. Gradually, it found its way to the West. From then on people from all over the world practice yoga to relax their minds and keep their bodies balanced.

Moreover, in the aftermath of this yoga revolution, India is known for its yoga worldwide. People around the world are beginning to see the benefits of yoga. There are several workshops and now there are even professional yogi who teach this ancient practice to people to learn about it.

Surya Namaskar in Yoga
Surya Namaskar is a series of tweleve exercises in yoga. In addition to strenuous physical activity, Surya Namaskar is also known to have excellent physical and mental effects.

There are tweleve different exercised in Surya Namaskar. You need to do these fixed twelve exercises everytime you do Surya Namaskar. In addition to good health, Surya Namaskar also offers the opportunity to express gratitude for the sun for sustaining life on this planet.

Benefits of Yoga
Yoga has many benefits if we look at it carefully. You will find relief from constant practice. As it keeps diseases in our mind and body. In addition, when we practice a number of asanas, it strengthens our bodies and gives us a sense of well-being and health.

In addition, yoga helps to shape our mind and our mental faculties. We can achieve the highest level of torture through yoga and learn to strengthen our emotions. It connects us with an unprecedented environment and improves our well-being.

In addition, you can improve your self-discipline and self-awareness from yoga if you do it regularly. You will gain strength if you do it consistently and help you live a healthy life without problems. Anyone can practice yoga no matter how old you are or whatever religion you follow.

June 21 is celebrated as World Yoga Day where people are informed about the benefits of yoga. Yoga is a wonderful gift for humanity that helps us stay healthy and maintain our health. You also have a higher level of patience when doing yoga which helps keep negative thoughts away. You get greater mental clarity and better understanding.

In short, yoga has several benefits. Everyone has to do it to keep his life safe and to benefit from it. It is the secret to a healthy and long life without the use of any artificial methods such as drugs or other shortcuts of any kind.

Chart Topping History of the Worldwide Famous Band BTS

Breaking all the cultures and musical stereotypes against Asian artists, The South-Korean Band BTS changes the world with their influential music and message of unity

By Laavanya Jain, June 30 2021, 4:39pm IST

By now, there’s less than a little chance you haven’t heard about the most sensational band- BTS.

BTS (Bangtan Sonyeondan) or Bangtan Boys, is a South Korean Band which debuted on June 13, 2013 under BigHit Entertainment (now HYBE) with total seven members— RM, Jin, Suga, J-Hope, Jimin, V and Jungkook. Originally started as a hip-hop band, their music has evolved into a wide range of genre’s. Their lyrics, mostly focusing on issues like mental-health, school pressure, loss, troubles of loving oneself and also expressing their own struggles through the early years of their debut has touched the hearts of people all over the globe and also served as a cope up mechanism for many.

In the eight years since their debut, BTS has achieved the fame and recognition that many artists aspire to achieve but seldom attain. Their achievements have no bounds, going from being the first K-pop group ever to perform and get elected at Grammy’s to breaking the Guinness World Record for staging the biggest virtually attended livestream music performance.

After debuting on June 13, 2013 with their single album 2 Cool 4 Skool with its lead single ‘No more dream’ and their most latest Summer Hit ‘Butter’, BTS has crossed the global music industry, breaking numerous records and sales simultaneously. BTS also became the fastest group since The Beatles to earn four US number-one albums, doing so in less than two years. BTS has also appeared in the magazine’s lists of the 25 most influential people on the internet (2017-2019) and the 100 most influential people in the world (2019), where they were dubbed as “Princes of Pop”. Following the establishment of their Love Myself anti-violence campaign in partnership with UNICEF, BTS addressed the United Nations 73rd and 75th Genera Assemblies and became the youngest ever recipients of the Order of Cultural Merit from the President of South Korea due to their contributions in spreading Korean culture and language.

As BTS shifted from their hip-hop music genre to more diverse ones, they settled on expressing the beauty and anxiousness of “youth” and settled on the title “花樣年華” (Korean: Hwayangyeonhwa) which is loosely interpreted to define “youth” as “the most beautiful moment in life”. It explored the emotional agony of youth as well as its playful and brighter side.

BTS released their first English Single “Dynamite” on August 21, 2020, breaking the YouTube record for the most viewed premiere, with more than 3 million viewers, and set a record for the most viewed video in the first 24 hours of release. It also became the first Music Video to surpass 100 million views in less than a day. “Dynamite” debuted at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 Charts with over 260,000 pure sales. It remained at the top spot for a second consecutive week, dropped to number two in its third and fourth weeks, and reclaimed the top spot in its fifth week on the chart. Dynamite also became the first track to get a nomination in Grammy’s for The Best Pop Duo/Group Performance category making BTS the first ever K-Pop group to receive a Grammy Award Nomination.

With the release of their new album “BE” and its lead single “Life Goes On”, BTS achieved their third consecutive number one on the Hot 100 in just three months—the fastest of any band since the Beatles in 1964 to do so—and became the first group in the chart’s history to have two number one debuts, as well as seven songs appearing simultaneously on the chart.

Their new summer single “Butter” which was released on May 21, broke Dynamite’s YouTube record for the most viewed premiere, garnering 3.9 million viewers and also became the most viewed video in first 24 hours of release, with 108.2 million views. “Butter” debuted on number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart, staying at the first position for the consecutive five weeks.

In many of the interviews BTS has been on since the pandemic, they openly expressed their thoughts and struggles during the lockdown period and how hard they worked on their music and shrugging off the longing feeling to meet their fans (Army’s), to perform in front of them and to meet them eye-to-eye. BTS is a not just a band but a group of seven influential people who have broken the barrier of transgender and multiple superstitions about homosexual genders, encouraged people to walk on the path of keeping and loving themselves before anyone else, their songs acting as a coping mechanism for people suffering with depression.

“The fear of an obscure future as our daily lives turn upside down is a moment of realization of the self. The realization that makes me a true me, myself.”


5 Yoga Poses to curb with Depression

When depression attacks, life appears to be hopeless. But yoga can benefit you. Try these yoga poses to recover your mental health.

Are you often surrounded by feelings of irrelevance? Is getting out of bed is a task for you? Do you feel like you have no future? These are some things that could site towards depression.

If this is how you’ve been feeling, you could find some aid by practising yoga. When it comes to this age-old system, it is so significant to remember that yoga isn’t just for physical health but also adds to improving mental health.

Yoga has shown its efficacy in several things like weight loss, rational behaviour, physical diseases, and mental health is another thing that yoga can take treat of.

There have been several studies published in journals like PLOS ONEInternational Journal of Preventive MedicineJournal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, and more that have noted that yoga has shown favourable results when it comes to depression and nervousness.

Some poses in yoga are dominant when it comes to depression and anxiety.

But before we start on this yoga journey,  keep in mind that ease poses can reduce your depressive symptoms but cannot cure your depression. If you do have depression, please seek professional help.

Here are the five yoga poses that you can do daily to fight with depression:

1. Child’s pose aka balasana
Child’s pose is known to confer stability and serenity on you. According to an article published by Harvard Medical School and a study issued International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, performing child’s pose daily can help in decreasing the symptoms of depression or anxiety.

2. Plow pose aka halasana
Halasana or Plow Pose increases your posture by decreasing the burden on your back. When the back is lengthened, it has a calming effect on your brain and reduces stress. This pose is very useful for those who suffer from headaches and insomnia. The pose of Halasana is such that the head is placed below the heart.

3. Bridge pose aka sethu bandhasana
Well, this one is not just eminent for depression and anxiety but it also assists your gut to stay proper.

4. Downward-facing dog aka adho Mukha Svanasana
This is one of the most lively poses in yoga and the flow of this pose is known to flow blood throughout our body.

5. Corpse pose aka savasana
According to the yoga guru, “Performed at the end of most physical yoga sessions, the corpse pose is a favourite pose for many. It’s easy and also very effective. Anxiety is exhausting, draining you both physically and mentally. When you get into savasana, the posture gives you a chance to relax and recoup. It begins to cool your mind.”

Bottom line is that you need to take care of your breathing techniques while doing these poses and take it slow to reap the maximum benefits.

So, try these yoga poses for at least two to three weeks regularly and let the peace prevail in your life.


In this developing digital world, there has been a rise in cybercriminals and one must have definitely come across the word ETHICAL HACKING many a times but is often confused with HACKING.

Hacking refers to the illegal practice of accessing or stealing data that is stored in a system by experts and professionals called ‘Hackers’ who have all the knowledge about programming.

Ethical Hacking is a tool that is used by organizations across the globe to deal with cyber criminals and preventing them to access confidential and sensitive data. Ethical Hackers are employed by big companies to develop a security framework to prevent threats.


Hackers are of three types

  • White Hat Hackers- These people are usually software engineers who hack for good reasons and function respecting rules of businesses and corporate structures. It is another name for an Ethical Hacker.
  • Black Hat Hackers- These people steal and misuse data for no reason but their main intention is creating a chaos. There is a need for advanced cyber security just for the reason of protecting data from these hackers.
  • Grey Hat Hackers- They are a combination of both Black and White Hat Hackers who generally hack for fun with no bad intention of damaging systems.

There are various reasons for hacking such-

  • Damaging system
  • Steal data
  • For fun
  • Money extortion
  • Hampering privacy
  • Testing a system security

As we can get a vivid picture on Hacking and Ethical Hacking, let us understand the benefits of Ethical Hacking.


  • Testing password strength
  • Ensuring security features in applications, which protects organisational and user databases
  • Rechecking the validity of authentication protocols
  • Ensuring data communication channels cannot be intercepted


Though the primary benefit of Ethical Hacking is to prevent data from being stolen and misused by attackers, other benefits include-

  • Identifying vulnerabilities from the point of view of an attacker
  • Implementing a strong and secure network
  • Gaining the trustworthiness of the customers and investors by ensuring their data safety
  • Defending national security by protecting data from terrorists


Reconnaissance– This is the first step wherein the Hacker identifies his target and obtains the IP address, passwords, networks etc.

Scanning– This is the second stage wherein the Hacker starts assessing and testing the weakness of the target that can be abused by using apparatuses like dialers, port scanners etc.

Gaining Access-This is the third stage wherein hacker plans the outline of the organization of the objective with the assistance of information gathered during observation and now finds out a few alternatives to access the organization.

Maintaining Access– By this stage the hacker finds an entrance into the framework and introduces secondary passages for future purposes.

Clearing Tracks- This process is basically an unethical activity. It has to do with the erasure of logs of the multitude of exercises that occur during the hacking interaction.

Reporting– It is the last step of the ethical hacking process. In this the Ethical Hacker makes a report of his discoveries and the work that was done like the instruments utilized, weaknesses found, the achievement rate and the endeavour measures.

Relevant links: https://er.yuvayana.org/how-ethical-hacking-performed-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-ethical-hacking/ https://www.edureka.co/blog/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-ethical-hacking/

Greenhouse Gases

What Are Greenhouse Gases?

Earth’s greenhouse gases catch heat in the atmosphere and increase the temperature of the planet. The primary gases liable for the greenhouse effect comprises of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and water vapor (which all occur naturally), and fluorinated gases (which are artificial). Greenhouse gases have diverse chemical properties and are eliminated from the atmosphere, over time, by different processes. Carbon dioxide, for example, is absorbed by so-called carbon sinks such as plants, soil, and the ocean. Fluorinated gases are demolished only by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere.

How much any one greenhouse gas effects global warming varies on three key factors. The first is how much of it exists in the atmosphere. Concentrations are measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb), or parts per trillion (ppt); 1 ppm for a given gas means, for example suppose, that there is one molecule of that gas in every 1 million molecules of air. The second is its lifetime—how long it remains in the atmosphere. The third is how effectual it is at catching heat. This is known as its global warming potential, or GWP, and is a measure of the total energy that a gas understands over a given period of time (usually 100 years) comparative to the emissions of 1 ton of carbon dioxide.

What Are Greenhouse Gas Emissions?

Meanwhile the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and the arrival of coal-powered steam engines, human activities have massively enlarged the volume of greenhouse gases produced into the atmosphere. It is predictable that between 1750 and 2011, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide boosted by 40 percent, methane by 150 percent, and nitrous oxide by 20 percent.

Five Major Greenhouse Gases

The most major gases that are responsible for global warming via the greenhouse effect are the following:

Carbon Dioxide
Reporting for about 76 percent of global human-caused emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2) sticks around for quite a while. Once it’s released into the atmosphere, 40 percent still rests after 100 years, 20 percent after 1,000 years, and 10 percent as long as 10,000 years later.

While methane (CH4) endures in the atmosphere for far less time than carbon dioxide (about a decade), it is much more effective in terms of the greenhouse effect. In fact, pound for pound, its global warming influence is 25 times greater than that of carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. 

Nitrous Oxide
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an influential greenhouse gas: It has a GWP 300 times that of carbon dioxide on a 100-year time scale, and it residues in the atmosphere, on average, a little more than a century. It reports for about 6 percent of human-caused greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.

Fluorinated Gases
Ejected from a variety of manufacturing and industrial processes, fluorinated gases are man-made. There are four main types: hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3).

Water Vapor
The amplest greenhouse gas overall, water vapor varies from other greenhouse gases in that changes in its atmospheric concentrations are joined not to human activities directly, but rather to the warming that results from the other greenhouse gases we emit.

Book Review – The palace of Illusions

Book – The palace of Illusions

Author – Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni

This book is a re-exploring of the world-famous Indian classic, the Mahabharat—told from the point of view of an astonishing woman-Draupadi.

Related to today’s war-scarred world, The Palace of Illusions takes us behind in a time that is half history and completely magical. Recited by Panchaali, the wife of the famous Pandavas brothers in the Mahabharat, the new story gives us a new clarification of this olden tale.

The Palace of Illusion by author Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is a re-telling of the Indian epic, the Mahabarat, from the outlook of Draupadi. It is amusing and delightful story-lacing. It is entirely satisfying and at the same time enlightening.

This book is spellbound from the first page to the last, and adored the very human faces put on the achievements of the leads and gods in the story. Particularly Panchaali, the heroine, will twig in my mind as a flawed yet lovable woman, confounded in much, but writhing always to find truth and love. Krishna, too, in his many-faceted character, excels as an everlasting presence, only exposed in the end for his true identity.

Panchaali enters this world through a divine fire, an unwelcomed boon granted by the gods in addition to her brother, Dhristadhyumna, the child intended to kill their father’s biggest enemy, Drona. She weds with the five Pandava brothers, the eldest of whom, Yudhisthir, gambles and loses his kingdom to their cousins, Kauravas. After twelve years of banishment in the forest, the cousin declines to return the kingdom, and the Pandavas go to war against the Kauravas. It is a tale so epic that it has an epic name: the Mahabharata.

The Palace of Illusions is no alternate for the real Mahabharata, of course, but it’s a good place to start. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni has taken one of the important pieces of Indian literature and absorbed on the story of Panchaali. Telling the events from Panchaali’s point, author searches Panchaali’s role in the battle between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The result is a touching tale of human tragedy which, according to author, gives us vision into a character who is important in the Mahabharata but mainly silent on her purposes, thoughts, and feelings.

Since Author Chitra comprises her first person narrator, the epic possibility of the basis material suddenly becomes more personal. This in turn leads to a good question: can one really cleanse the essence of something as long and intricate as the Mahabharata in less than four hundred pages? Having not read the Mahabharata, I can’t say for sure; however, I’m sure the answer is “no.” One of the reasons this epic is beautiful is its lasting but flexible nature as a source material.

I can’t show to how well The Palace of Illusions supports the legacy of the Mahabharata. Regardless, it is a beautifully-written, moving story about Panchaali, the Pandavas, and the Kauravas. At times it doesn’t go as deep into Panchaali’s life as I would expect of a story narrated by and about her. But that’s a minor objection compared to the sad story, one of personal and epic scope, developed against the landscape of an India where magic is commonplace and gods walk among us.

Biography – Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh was born in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh family extremely concerned in political activities. He left school at thirteen to dedicate his life to Indian independence. He happened to involved in various fierce protests of political disobedience and was sent in prison for several times. Singh was found culpable of killing a British police officer and hanged to death on March 23, 1931.

Early Years

Born on September 27, 1907, to a Sikh household in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), Bhagat Singh was the second son of Kishan Singh and Vidya Vati. The family was immersed in patriotism and was included in movements for independence. At the time of Bhagat’s birth, his father was in lockup for political campaigning. By the time Bhagat Singh was 13, he was well acquainted with this family’s rebellious activities. His father was a follower of Mahatma Gandhi, and after Gandhi called for refusing government-aided institutions, Singh left school and registered in the National College at Lahore, where he read European revolutionary movements. In time, he would become disillusioned with Gandhi’s non-violent campaign, trusting that equipped battle was the only way to political freedom.

Young Agitator

In 1926, Bhagat Singh originated the ‘Naujavan Bharat Sabha (Youth Society of India) and got connected to the Hindustan Republican Association (later known as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association), where he met numerous famous revolutionaries. A year later, Singh’s parents arranged to have him married, a move he passionately rejected, and he left school.

By this time, Bhagat Singh had developed interest to the police, and in May 1927, he was detained for supposedly being involved in a failing the previous October. He was freed several weeks later and started to write for various revolutionary newspapers. After getting reassurances from his parents that they wouldn’t force him to marry, he returned to Lahore.

Radical Revolutionary

In 1928, the British government held the Simon Commission to examine autonomy for the Indian people. Several Indian political organizations refused the event because the Commission had no Indian representatives. In October, Bhagat Singh’s companion, Lala Lajpat Rai led a march in complaint against the Commission. Police tried to pay the large crowd, and during the commotion, Rai was hurt by the superintendent of police, James A. Scott. Rai died of heart problems two weeks later. The British government deprived of any wrongdoing.

Arrest and Trial

The activities of the young revolutionaries were deeply convicted by followers of Gandhi, but Bhagat Singh was pleased to have a platform on which to promote his cause. He proposed no defence during the trial but disturbed the proceedings with outbursts of political dogma. He was found mortified and sentenced to life in prison.

Through further investigation, the police exposed the connection between Bhagat Singh and the murder of Officer Saunders and he was rearrested. While pending trial, he commanded a hunger strike in prison. Finally, Singh and his co-conspirators were tried and sentenced to hang. He was executed on March 23, 1931. It is said that he kissed the hangman’s noose before it was located around his neck. His death caused mixed emotions throughout India. Followers of Gandhi felt that he was too fundamental and hurt the quest for freedom, while his supporters considered him a martyr. Singh rests a significant, though controversial, figure in India’s independence movement.

Search Engine Optimisation: The Basics

SEO, shortened form of Search Engine Optimization, is an aspect of Online Marketing or Digital Marketing. To understand SEO, you should first know what is digital marketing. It is the component of marketing (the action to promote goods or services) that utilizes internet and online based digital technologies such as desktop computers, mobile phones and other online media components and platforms to promote products and services. Its development during the 1990s and 2000s, has changed the way how brands and businesses uses technology for marketing. So, the main motive for existence of SEO is promotion of website or selling product or services.

As more organizations now are moving their businesses online, search-engine rankings are becoming essential to marketing and sales. The main concern of any online organisation is to get noticed by as more people/customers as possible, to get that they have to bring their website to SERPs. Each search-engine results page (SERP), which are presented in response to a user’s request contains a series of snippets. Snippets are the clickable links that include preview text to establish the webpage’s relevance to the search. The snippet’s SERP ranking, which is based on a complex algorithm that considers more than 200 factors, can determine whether a user visits that page or not. A snippet is organic, if the organization has not paid a fee for the position instead has worked hard and provide the real and authenticate information to the user; it is inorganic, or sponsored, if the organization has paid a fee to gain that placement. Obviously, a high ranking in the first SERP can greatly boost an organization’s visibility.

A search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web searches (Internet searches), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for a particular information specified in a query. The search results are generally presented in a line of results, often referred to as Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of links to web pages, images, videos, infographics, articles, research papers, and other types of files. Search engines are used to find out any information across internet. Search Engine act as an interface between the user/searcher and the website. Some of the most popular search engines in the world are- Google, Microsoft Bing, YouTube, Pinterest, Amazon, Yahoo, Baidu, DuckDuckGo, Yandex, Ask.com. Google is the most popular search engine with the highest market share. What made google the most popular and trusted search engine is the quality of its search results. Google is using sophisticated algorithms to present the most accurate results to the users.

Top 12 Most Popular Search Engines in the World Right Now - SeoTips

Working of Search Engines:

You might think of a search engine as a website you visit to type (or speak) a question into a box and Google, Yahoo!, Bing, or whatever search engine you’re using magically replies with a long list of links to webpages that could potentially answer your question.

That’s true. But have you ever stopped to consider what’s behind those magical lists of links?

Here’s how it works, Google (or any search engine you’re using) has a crawler that goes out and gathers information about all the content they can find on the Internet.

  • Crawling Process of fetching all the web pages linked to a website. This task is performed by software, called a crawler or a spider or bot or Googlebot, in case of Google.
  • Indexing Process of creating index for all the fetched web pages and keeping them into a giant database from where it can later be retrieved. Processing – When a search request comes, the search engine processes it, i.e., it compares the search string in the search request with the indexed pages in the database.
  • Calculating Relevancy – It is likely that more than one page contains the search string, so the search engine starts calculating the relevancy of each of the pages in its index to the search string.
  • Retrieving Results – The last step in search engine activities is retrieving the best matched results. Basically, it is nothing more than simply displaying them in the browser.

What is SEO?

“Search Engine Optimization is the art of improving a website’s visibility in the main body of search engine results. This art of improving website’s visibility in the body of search engine result is possible using the techniques and tools available in the market.” 

“Search Engine Optimization is the practice of increasing the quantity and quality of traffic to your website through organic search engine results.”. Organic search traffic is specifically any “unpaid” traffic that comes from SERPs.

“Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of affecting the visibility of a website or a web page in a search engine’s unpaid results – often referred to as “natural,” “organic,” or “earned” results”. 

It is the way of increasing the visibility of a website by natural means i.e., unpaid search results. Generally, people visit a website to find out information according to their need. But if they did not find right content, they became frustrated and immediately click away from site. So, in order to draw their attention and bring them back maximum number of times, website is built up with proper target and quality content. It fulfils user need as well as improves rank position in search engines result list. Search engine optimization (SEO) is the process of improving the number and quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via natural listing for targeted keywords. Search engine optimizers help in building a website such that it can be found easily to search engine crawler with relevant keywords. SEO help the web site’s designer to get top ranking position in search result list, attract more online visitors and finally improve the marketing capability of site.

How to fight with Depression?

Depression is categorized as a mood disorder. It may be defined as emotions of grief, loss, or anger that disturb a person’s everyday activities.

It’s honestly common. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source approximates that 8.1 percent of American adults ages 20 and over had depression in any given 2-week period from 2013 to 2016.

People feel depressed in many ways. It may hinder with your daily work, causing in loss of time and lower productivity. It can also have an effect on relationships and some chronic health conditions.

Few of the ways to fight with depression are:


Take a 15- to 30-minute refreshing walk daily— or dance, jog, or bike if you favour. People who are depressed may not feel much like being functioning. But make yourself do it anyway (ask a friend to exercise with you if you need to be provoked). Once you get in the exercise habit, it won’t take long to see a difference in your mood.

In addition to doing aerobic exercise, some yoga poses can help release feelings of depression. Attempt downward-facing dog or legs-up-the-wall pose (you can find these poses on yoga websites) to reduce depression. Two other features of yoga — breathing exercises and meditation — can also help people with depression feel healthier.

Nurture yourself with good nutrition.

Depression can disturb appetite. One person may not feel like consuming food at all, but another might eat too much. If depression has affected your eating, you’ll need to be extra aware of getting the right diet. Proper nourishment can impact a person’s mood and energy. So, eat adequate of fruits and vegetables and get regular meals (even if you don’t feel hungry, try to eat something light, like a piece of fruit, to keep you going).

Recognize your troubles, but don’t dwell on them

Try to classify any situations that have added to your depression. When you know what’s got you feeling blue and why, talk about it with your dear friend. Talking about it is a way to relieve the feelings and to receive some understanding.

Once you declare out these thoughts and feelings, turn your awareness to something positive. Take action to crack problems. Ask for help if you need it. Feeling connected to friends and family can help release depression. It may also help them feel there’s something they can do as an alternative of just watching you hurt.

Express yourself. 

With depression, a person’s imagination and sense of fun may seem obstructed. Exercise your imagination (painting, drawing, doodling, sewing, writing, dancing, composing music, etc.) and you not only get those creative juices pouring, you also relax up some positive emotions. Take some time to play with a friend or a pet, or do something creative for yourself to give you fun. Find something to giggle about — a funny movie, perhaps. Laughter helps lighten your mood and it’s the best medicine.

Try to notice good things.

Depression disturbs a person’s thoughts, making everything seem miserable, negative, and hopeless. If depression, has you noticing only the negative, make an attempt to notice the good things in life. Try to notice one thing, then try to think of one more. Consider your powers, gifts, or blessings. Most of all, don’t forget to be patient with yourself. Depression takes time to heal.

women empowerment

Women empowerment in India is the most effective tool for development as these days; women across the world are actively working as a leader and surpassing others in all spheres of life. As the entire world is grasping its breath and praying every single day for an incredible escape from thee COVID-19 pandemic, it is the women governors and nations steered by these amazing figures who are taking over the responsibility and marching ahead in the battle alone wherever required. Women empowerment in India is dependent up to a great extent on numerous different variables that encompass geographical setting, social status, educational status, and age factor. Actions on the women empowerment exist at the state, local, and national levels. However, women encounter differentiate in most sector like education, economic opportunities, health and medical assistance, and political participation, which demonstrates that there are substantial gaps between strategy advancements and real exercise at the community level. Crafting and execution of a concrete policy framework, dispersing civic awareness, and education concerning the empowerment of women can usher to accomplishing the desired missions in eradicating the plight of women in the society of India. The realm of women empowerment in India is limited to granting balanced rights to women. Still, it is also about assuring that they are ingrained and rightful partners in workforce.

The term women empowerment is all about authority, or the power embarked on women sharing indistinguishable rights. The term refers to the liberation of women from socio-economic restraints of reliance. Women comprise around 50% of the country’s population, and a bulk of them stays economically dependent on each other without employment. In the age of feminism, a small portion of women in India are freed and can employ their free will and are permitted to carve out their lives the way they want. But there is a considerable division of the women in this nation who require optimistic support. In most Indian villages and semi- urban cities, women are still denied fundamental education and are never authorized to continued higher education despite amassing the understanding required. Women are known for delivering multiple roles effortlessly per day, and thus, they are considered the backbone of every society. Living in male dominating societies, women play a wide range of roles, such as caring mothers, loving daughters, and capable colleagues. The best part is that they fit the bill perfectly in every role. Nonetheless, they’ve also stood as a neglected bunch of society in different parts of the world. In turn, it has resulted in women surviving the burnt of unevenness, financial trustworthiness, oppression, and distinct social evils. Women have been residing under the shackles of enslavement for centuries now that impedes them from attaining professionals as well as personal highs.

IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT – In recent times, everyone is pointing on the empowerment of women. It’s right to say that women’s empowerment has become the necessity of the time. Women should possess liberty, faith, and self-worth to opt for their needs and demands. Discrimination based on gender is useless and is having zero worth by looking at the growth of women in the last few decades. Women are paid less and are treated as a cook and slaves in families, and their real potential fails to get highlighted. Women empowerment in India is required to overcome situations of such types and to provide them with their independent role in Indian society. Empowering women is a necessary right of women. They should have proportional rights to contribute to society, economies, education, and politics. They are approved to gain higher education and receive a similar treatment as men are receiving. Women empowerment in India is one of the principal terms for society’s overall development. There is nothing erroneous in participating in the development of society. In the world of corporates, women are playing numerous roles in meadows such as medical, engineering, and so on. Apart from taking part in the sphere of technology, they are energetically partaking in security services such as police, navy, military, etc. All these before mentioned services are taking the community to another level.


  • The problem of gender discrimination has affected the pace of women employment in India. Gender discrimination in all realms of action must be checked. Women must be furnished with a resort to take an active part in decision making at every level and direction procedures to attain the motive of empowering women. They need to get due admiration and prominence, which they rightfully earn on merit basis in society to accomplish their fate.
  • Education is the most vibrant factor of advancement and growth. It is the only significant tool for anticipating women empowerment in India and human resource development. It gives light to the possibilities for access to employment and making a livelihood, which in twirl revivify economic empowerment to women. In order to join the community of developed countries, people should understand the value and importance of women’s education and, thereby, put combined efforts to make India on the progressive track.
  • The mass media is responsible for playing a significant function to project and propagate associated issues, most specifically about women empowerment in India. The numerous programmes pertaining to women’s prestige revealed the mass media enable her husband to behave toward her wife with loads of honor and respect. He can remark his attitude and assist her in the the domestic domain to reduce stress and anxiety. The mass media performs a crucial role in repairing the attitude and way of conversation of husband and other family member toward women.
  • Women should empower themselves by becoming to be aware of their oppression, indicating initiative, and confiscating chances to bring a shift in their status. Empowerment must come from within the soul. Women need to empower themselves by bringing a major change in their attitude.

Women must know that opportunities will not reach their laps. They would have to determine ways to create them. They should fight back to rebuild their prominent position in Indian communities and societies. Women’s empowerment is valuable for the development and advancement of the family, community as well as the nation.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi-tribute

Mahatma Gandhi may be a well-known figure of peace everywhere on the planet. He was one of the foremost prominent figures to possess led the successful Indian struggle for independence. His peaceful teachings and non-violent methods of rights movements have inspired many movements of freedom across the planet. Born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, he has conferred the honorific title of Mahatma which stands for venerable. His birthday is observed as a legal holiday in India and he’s lovingly mentioned as Bapu or the daddy of the state. he’s one of the foremost respected figures in India and therefore the Indian paper money has his image on all the denominations. His death day is additionally observed as Martyr’s Day in India.

Gandhi was born during a well to try to family in British colonized India and therefore the ancient Indian stories of peace, truth, and love had an excellent impact on him since his childhood. While he wanted to determine a practice firm, he found himself unable to cross-examine witnesses and criminals. He then moved to South Africa to figure as a lawyer for an Indian firm. South Africa exposed the planet of discrimination against the non-whites to Gandhi. He was often abused, beaten up, and was also thrown off by a primary-class train coach. Gandhi protested to all or any of those in a peaceful and non-violent manner and these events ignited a passion in him to fight against social discrimination.

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and was dedicated to questioning the practices and therefore the injustice of the British Empire. His peaceful methods of demonstrations and his values of truth, love, and peace attracted a variety of individuals and shortly, almost the whole country was rallying behind him in support. He demonstrated and formed a variety of non-cooperative peaceful movements and was also recognized to be an eminent Indian leader by the British. After the wars as Britain looked to free its colonies, India gained its independence but was also weakened into India and Pakistan. This incident deeply grieved Gandhi but he couldn’t do much to prevent it from happening. After India’s successful independence, Gandhi was saddened to ascertain that folks were lusting for power which his vision had been diluted. In 1948, Gandhi was assassinated as he was thought to be the prime reason behind favoring a separate nation for Pakistan by the Hindu extremists.
Gandhi has always been extremely peaceful and has always adopted non-violent methods to oppose things. He has shown the planet tons in terms of peaceful demonstrations and he’s one of the foremost revered figures within the history of peace. You might find this topic boring because of history, but no matter what Gandhiji would always remain a leader for Indians. Gandhi- the man who fought for the country and devoted all his life to the freedom struggle. Every year, on his birthday at least try to study more facts about him and other freedom fighters as a tribute to their sacrifice. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi- a true devotee!

The world of journalism

The word journalism was originally applied to the reportage of current events in printed form, specifically newspapers, but with the arrival of radio, television, and therefore the Internet within the 20th century the utilization of the term broadened to incorporate all printed and transmission handling current affairs.

Concepts of the acceptable role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, journalism is controlled by government intervention and isn’t fully independent. In others, journalism is independent of the govt but instead operates as a private industry motivated by profit. additionally to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the liberty of speech and many libel cases.

History and Professionalism of Journalism- While publications reporting the news to the overall public during a standardized fashion only began to seem within the 17th century and later, governments as early because the Han China made use of regularly published news bulletins. Similar publications were established within the Republic of Venice in the 16th century. These bulletins, however, were intended just for officialdom, and thus weren’t journalistic news publications within the modern sense of the term. England took the publication of newspapers towards the top of the 16th century. The daily newspaper sponsored by Defoe appeared at the start of the 18th century.

Modern newspapers developed with the invention of the telegraph which made the possible swift transmission of stories across the planet. Reuter, the famous press agency, started the work first. There are several sorts of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is claimed to serve the role of a “fourth estate”, acting as a watchdog on the workings of the govt . one publication (such as a newspaper) contains many sorts of journalism, each of which can be presented in several formats. Each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a special audience.

Journalism within the 20th century was marked by a growing sense of professionalism. there have been four most important factors during this trend:

(1) the increasing organization of working journalists,

(2) specialized education for journalism,

(3) a growing literature handling the history, problems, and techniques of mass communication, and

(4) an increasing sense of social responsibility on the part of journalists.

Journalism has many competitors today. Chief of all is that the radio and therefore the televisions which not only broadcast and televises but have the added advantages of arranging talks of prominent leaders of the society and establish visual contact with them. But they can’t supersede the newspaper. Remaining glued to Radio or TV at a particular time isn’t always possible.

Besides, coverage of stories by the radio and television is limited; items must be hampered to the minimum so that the time limit isn’t exceeded. But a newspaper is often read at any time, suiting one’s convenience. Its coverage is extremely wide, and its scope for improvement is unlimited. But the journalist should guard against this tendency for trivializing and fragmenting news items, imposing the editor’s opinions upon readers.

Choosing a career- a perk

A career is that the most vital part of one’s life. to place bread on your board, to realize respect from society, and for your self-satisfaction, an honest career may be a must. But the definition of a “good career” is vague and depends on people to people.

There is no such thing called as an honest career. A career path that’s good on my behalf won’t be necessarily good for others. Therefore, during this particular essay on career, we might wish to dig deep and understand what a career is and the way to settle on one to steer a cheerful and content life.
Each and each one among us has faced a particular junction or a cross-road at some point in our lives that has had a serious impact on our lives. this will be both knowledgeable crossroads or personal crossroads. But during this career essay, I might wish to mention the cross-road that we see in our professional careers. It’s not just the scholars who would have faced a dilemma choose a career, even employees past 30 years aged face this crisis.

When a student’s face it is called a re-stage crisis, yet when an employee 6 years down the lane faces enigmas career choices, then its usually called a mid-life crisis or mid-career crisis. Midlife crisis may be a term that refers to people that are having second thoughts about their career a couple of years down after working within the same. There could be many reasons for these several which can be an everyday monologue, fatigue, salary issues, professional growth issues, internal office dilemmas, etc. during this career essay, I’m getting to mention both the sort of career choices.

A student’s life is that the first crossroad that we face in our lives. By keeping certain factors in mind, there’s many career choice a student can choose between. a number of the favored career choices are engineering, medicine, arts, and commerce. Which career to settle on and on what terms are some things that each student will need to worry about. There are certain criteria to settle on a career, but the foremost important one that is consistent with us is;
Passion: The word passion sounds cliche, but it’s a crucial criterion to think about before choosing a career path. If everyone follows their passion and chose a career accordingly, then the concept of a mid-career crisis wouldn’t have occurred in the first place. all folks would have dreamt of something during our childhood. We all wanted to become a police, a cricketer, an actor, a doctor or an engineer. But not everyone follows and listens to the kid in them. We ultimately hand over on our passions and choose a secure career that can give us an honest salary. Risk-taking may be a part and parcel of life and nobody should regret not doing something 80 years down the lane once they are on their deathbed.
Choose your career wisely not under pressure or burden, it is your choice.

Wildlife Conservation: Protecting the key Member of Ecosystem

Today, we see that the human population is growing exponentially to more than seven billion people and it continues to rapidly grow. Expanding population results in expanding demands on the land, sea, and freshwater by humans, along with the affecting the climate, have made the conservation and management of wild areas and wild animals a top priority. This just leads to continuous consumption of natural resources faster than ever by the billions of people on the planet.

Talking about wildlife, this type of rapid growth and development endangers the habitats and existence of various types of wildlife around the world, especially animals and plants that may be got displaced due to their habitat loss as their habitats were exploited for land development, or used for food or other human purposes. Hunting, fishing, and poaching are several other activities that are responsible for posing a threat to wildlife.

In terms of the roles the wildlife play, they have always been a crucial resource for human beings. Since ancient times, food, fur, and leather were fundamental to human survival. Several organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund, Conservation International, the Wildlife Conservation Society, and the United Nations are working towards spreading awareness and supporting global animal and habitat conservation efforts on many different fronts. Animals are key members of ecosystems on which humans rely for essential services. Organizations such as Wildlife Fund, Wildlife Conservation Society, etc. work with the government in protecting the protect public lands, like national parks and wildlife refuges. They fight against wildlife crimes, like wildlife trafficking and illegal hunting (poaching) with the help of courts. They also promote biodiversity to support the growing human population while preserving existing species and habitats.

In India, the government initiated various natural projects and wildlife conservation programs such as Project Tiger, Nature Camps, and Jungle Lodges to promote the awareness of wildlife among the people. These projects have not only helped in the preservation and protection of wildlife but have also encouraged the idea of eco-tourism. The Indian government has been successful in protecting the Tiger population. To save the endangered species of Rhinoceros in Assam, the Kaziranga National Park was an effort. Several others such as Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat, Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal, and Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh also contributed.

People like biologists, researchers, people working in NGOs, and even filmmakers are trying to contribute to the protection of wildlife. Conservation biologists Camille Coudrat and Titus Adhola who are also National Geographic Explorers, are working to slow the extinction of global species and to protect global biodiversity and habitats. Environmental filmmakers and photographers, like Thomas P. Peschak, play a vital role in the conservation efforts as well, documenting and bringing attention to endangered wildlife all over the world.

Therefore, habitat conservation, wildlife protection, and conservation are the need of the hour. We can help by demanding to stop activities such as hunting and poaching and also exploitation of their habitats. Wildlife conservation is as necessary as we are. 













Being happy is something that we struggle with holding on to. We feel that our happy moments just slip away without us realizing. Most of the time we don’t even know what we do when we are extremely happy. But at the same time, when we are going through a hard time, we feel like time just doesn’t go forward. We take notice of everything that happens around us, and that happens to us.

Photo by Rebecca Zaal on Pexels.com

Why this change of attitude when we have no control to what is going to happen to us and when the future is uncertain? It is the perception and the ability to embrace our opportunities that differs from person to person. That doesn’t mean that we should try to be happy when we are arguing with our friends, or due to the death of a loved one. Those things happen to everyone, and it is our will to look for the light in the darkness.

It is extremely difficult to believe in something so bleak when the whole world crumbles down around us. We didn’t think this virus would take such a nasty turn, and we feared so much, but through the hard work of the medical technicians and caution from us, we are gearing through this together. At this point of time, we should focus on the positive note that our recovery rates are increasing and people are getting vaccinated tremendously.

It is like the classic experiment of “Half Empty, Half Full” mentality. The ability to look at grateful things in our life is what keeps us at peace, if not happy. If we have a roof over our head, food three times a day, decent clothing, then we are the most richest people on earth. We all would have seen the kids who are malnourished, without proper clothing, people who have lost their lives fighting the battle with Covid-19. Compared to them, we are much blessed in life.

Children worry about their exams and homework, fathers worry about earning money, mothers worry about the well-being of her family. This is common. We all might have at least one situation in which we felt where we thought the world is going to end because something didn’t go according to plan and everyone or everything fell apart. But looking back at that particular incident years later, though it might have been a bitter one, that would have what would have molded us today.

Happiness is such a petty thing. It is available in very little things like seeing a child happily playing, feeding the strays, watching mama bird feeding her babies, even watching the sunset, or feeling beautiful while looking in the mirror. It is the million little things that keep us going and keep us going through. Life is like a graph, with its ups and downs. As much as we need ups to keep us happy, we need the downs to be wise and experience. Just like we wouldn’t realize the worth of light without darkness.

Photo by cottonbro on Pexels.com

So starting from today, try to see the tiny sparks around you daily that you failed to notice, hug your family because you feel grateful for them, and be satisfied with whatever you have. Life will be blissful!

Bhagat Singh- Untold Hero

No one gets the liberty for free of charge . It comes at the value of lives and struggle. Independence isn’t gained by one soldier and one insurgent , but many lives struggled for it. These are the such Inspirational Short stories of Freedom Fighters, who lost their lives for a thought of a free country.
Saheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh, he sacrificed his life for his country India, he happily kissed the noose and hung himself for the liberty of his beloved Bharat, merely, at the age of 23 years and 6 months.

He died the death of a martyr. Following the day of 23 April 1931, the supporters and followers of Bhagat Singh regarded him as a “Shaheed” (martyr).

Bhagat Singh could have asked for mercy but he refused. He wanted his death to ignite a robust fire at every nook and cranny of the country and wanted each and each citizen to participate within the struggle for freedom.

His dream was to ascertain India as a free country and may even die for his dream.

Bhagat Singh doesn’t believe violence from his childhood. His family believed within the Gandhian ideology of non-violence

And for a short time , he was also the supporter of the Gandhian philosophy but there have been the two incidents which shifted his heart faraway from Gandhi .

The incidents of Jallliawala Bagh massacre and therefore the Chauri Chaura.

Even at the top of their life, they weren’t frightened of the death and consulting the ways with the Britishers, they need to die. Such may be a brave heart.

It is said that they proceeded quite cheerfully towards the gallows while chanting their favorite slogans-Inquilab Zindabaad.
Bhagat Singh’s name is synonymous with the revolutionary movement that contributed to India’s freedom struggle. Celebrated for his gusto and courage to face up to British rule, Bhagat Singh was born in 1907 and gave his life for the country when he was sentenced to death by execution at the ripe age of 23 along side his associates Rajguru and Sukhdev on the fees of assassinating British policeman John Saunders, who had ordered brutal military action on independence movement leader Lala Lajpat Rai.
Bhagat Singh lay hungry in jail for 116 days. Even during this point , he completed all his daily work including reading and writing books, visiting court a day and even singing.
He escaped to Kanpur, When his parents put pressure on him about marriage. He told his parents, “if i will be able to marry in colonial India, where British Raj is there, then my bride are going to be my death. Therefore, there’s no rest or worldly desire which will lure me now’.
It is believed that when his mother had come to go to him in jail, Bhagat Singh was laughing loudly. Seeing this, jail authorities were shocked considering he was so on the brink of death.
He was hanged an hour before the official time on March 23, 1931. it’s said that Bhagat Singh was smiling at the time of hanging. The britishers did took one of the greatest hereos from us but they can not take his legacy.

Facing trouble in starting a new business?

Starting a little business is that the best thanks to gain freedom. Although this statement is disputable, it’s sense.

Why do people plan to become entrepreneurs? they’re looking for independence. Small business helps one manage his time within the way he wants. He can produce the products and services he likes. Finally, he’s ready to attempt to be responsible and artistic . Small business is extremely important for the economy of each state. Small entrepreneurs contribute into the state budget tons . it’s possible to mention that the complex of small and middle firms provides the country with an equivalent profit as business does. In simple words, a prosperous state cannot survive without small business. it’s impossible to defeat poverty without small business. Thus, if you’ve got any genuine and uncommon ideas concerning the assembly of useful goods and services, establish your own small firm.

Starting up isn’t easy
Starting alittle business isn’t a simple thing. Whether you’re doing something as simple as business paper writing as a business or as grand as running a construction company building skyscrapers, you ought to be psychologically and financially prepared to numerous challenges. Moreover, it’s vital to understand something about business, management and marketing.

You should also study the market so as to find out about the products and services that are required by consumers. This factor is that the crucial one. once you discover that folks demand an item but nobody has produced it yet, you’ve got the simplest chances to overcome the chosen sector of the market. Secondly, you need to believe the worth and quality of your product.

There are two options. The foremost one is that the production of high-quality and expensive goods which will serve long. The second option is said to consumerism. You produce poor-quality cheap goods and attract clients with the assistance of rock bottom prices.

Create a business plan
Then, you ought to create your own business plan which will contain the whole information about the functioning of your firm. believe the target groups of consumers , production, logistics, storage and retail.

Apparently, you ought to produce and store your goods somewhere. Then, you’ll meet with such issues as revenue and expense. you’ll got to hire a couple of employees to run your business rewardingly. doubtless , you’ll need to be selective, demanding and attentive so as to recruit the proper people into your firm. Finally, you’ll meet the matter of rent, taxation, etc. A firm resembles a household. you ought to concentrate to the slightest problem, question and misunderstanding if you would like to extend your income and develop your small firm into something bigger.

The ups and downs
As could be expected, starting alittle business has many advantages and drawbacks . the foremost solid strong side is independence. you are doing not need to work for somebody else. you’re employed for your own profit. You possess the liberty of choice and actions. If you’re not respected and appreciated at work, you’ll embody your original and amusing ideas in your own business.

Ambitious people always attempt to start alittle business if they receive such a chance . you are doing not got to hear the instructions and threats of your boss once you are late. At long last, you’ll earn extra money . you’re the boss and therefore the entire profit is yours.


Smriti Mandhana – Female Yuvraj Singh

Mandhana’s dream of batting alongside her idol, Mithali Raj, came straight in 2014 when she and Raj led India to their first Test win in eight years during a tense run-chase in Wormsley. But, it had been only during the 2017 Womens World Cup when the 23-year-old left-hander shot into fame.

Mandhana struck a match-winning 90 and followed it up with a swashbuckling hundred within the next game. aside from the runs, what struck everyone was Mandhana’s strokeplay and particularly her backlift. Few likened her comparisons with Sourav Ganguly for her off-side play. a replacement star had been born. Social media was trending with Mandhana’s name. Fans were googling her cricket profile; some girl next door’ images.
Mandhana had become the talk about social media, Indian cricket, and therefore the whole country, for that matter. But International cricket is brutal. In fact, sport is brutal. it’s demanding, unrelenting and super competitive. Oppositions work you out over a period of your time and if you only sit back resting on your past laurels, the sport can expose you to the hilt. it’s exactly what happened with Smriti Mandhana.

Following a 90 and a century, Mandhana’s suffered an enormous slump in her form. The left-hander could just manage 26 runs in her next seven World Cup innings with the opposition bowlers exposing her inability to figure the ball towards mid-on was exposed to the hilt.
Down in her dumps, Mandhana quickly visited the drafting board once she came to India. Assisted by her coach, Anant Tambwekar, Smriti made a couple of technical changes; the foremost profound of them being her twiddling with an open stance, that allowed her the liberty to play shots on the leg-side, and what followed was mayhem.

The southpaw, together with her new stance, lit up the 2018 Kia Super League, scoring 421 runs at a mean of 60.14 and a strike-rate of 174.68 for the Western Storm franchise, paving her sides’ thanks to the finals. Mandhana’s strike-rate- 174.68- was the very best for any women cricketer within the KSL or the ladies BBL, and couple it together with her astounding consistency, the thing was clear; we were certain Mandhana 2.0.

Smriti’s consistency and therefore the elegance of her stroke-play, whether it’s her inside-out hit over covers, or the pristine cover-drives or square-cuts and to not forget her backlift [That backlift], made the whole world get up to her amazing talent. Some likened her to Adam Gilchrist, some to Sourav Ganguly and a few to Yuvraj Singh. But Mandhana’s wasn’t looking to become the second someone, she was committed to carving out her own identity, to become the primary Mandhana and her performances within the succeeding months ensured it to the hilt.
n a card that has been mired by inconsistency, controversies, underperformance, and whatnot, Mandhana has emerged because the bedrock. within the 2018 World Twenty20, the left-hander scored 178 runs across five games and was one among the few Indian batters who looked comfortable on the dual-pace wickets of the Caribbean. Mandhana continued her propriety on the tour of latest Zealand, leading India to a 2-1 series win in ODIs, scoring 196 runs in 3 ODIs then followed it up with another impressive show within the T20s- 180 runs at a strike-rate of 146.34.

Kathputlis of Rajasthan

“Art is an effort to create, beside the real world, a more humane world.” – Andre Maurois, French Author

A Kathputli is the Hindi word for a puppet that is made of wood. Kathputlis is an ancient art that is used to address a famous string puppet performance and is a form of folk entertainment in the state of Rajasthan and its one of the major tourist attractions of the state. Jaipur and Jodhpur are some of the major places in Rajasthan where these are prepared. The Kathputlis are basically of two types a male and a female one which is inspired by the Rajput miniature paintings of Rajasthan. 

The style of headdress, the shape of the eye, the beard, and the moustache style are used to suggest the character of the puppet. The height of the puppets is usually two feet having a wooden head with a huge nose and large eyes. The rest of the bodies of the puppets are painted with bright colours and then covered with pieces of cloth and stuffed clothes which also allow for free movement. Unless they are horse riders, the puppets have no legs but are covered with a long pleated skirt. 

It is said that puppeteers nowadays use a few characters whose identities they have modified to suit the current needs of the public. e.g., Munnajaan was renamed Anarkali and even this was later changed to Helen. Other than putting a cultural puppet show the puppeteers sell the Kathputlis to domestic and foreign tourists and earn their major part of the income from this. The costumes of the kathputhlis are made keeping in mind the regional and traditional traits. The puppet show is entirely based on the Rajasthani historical tales and local culture and traditions. Other than the male and female kathputlis, there are several other characters and items as well which are included in the show such as the court dancer, stunt horse rider, and snake charmer. The puppeteers who make these puppets and perform with them belong to the traveling Bhatt communities who have been performing for thousands of years.

What makes the Kathputlis unique?

What makes the Rajasthani Kathputlis unique is the fact that these are only one of their kind in the whole entire world. The puppeteers exhibit a great deal of virtuosity and skill as the puppets are operated through strings that are attached to the puppeteers’ fingers directly. The strings vary from 2 to 8, the larger the puppets, the more the movement and agility of the character. The famous “Bengali jadugar” Kathputli is manipulated using 8 strings, in such a way such that when the puppets hold its heads with its legs, it turns upside down, or pulls its extended head back into position, making the audience laugh. Talking about the hands of the puppets, they have no joints unlike the other string puppets of India.

When it comes to a well-known source of amusement filled with cultural and traditional stories the Kathputlis of Rajasthan are on the top of the list. This art of puppetry is practiced by a community of people called the Baths. These people have been connected with Rajasthani string puppetry to carry forward their traditional profession. Also known by the name of the “kathputliwalas”, they usually perform the puppet shows during the late evenings.












FOCUS: key to success

To perform better at work, learn new skills, be more productive, make decisions, study smarter, and make progress in basically anything that involves your brain, it’s advisable to work on how to focus better.

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Your attention is your biggest asset, so it’s important to keep it where it’s supposed to be — on the task at hand that is getting you one step closer to achieving your goals and dreams.

So much is going on around us at any moment though — it can become a struggle to stay concentrated on the one activity, task, or even person, in front of us.

Knowing how to focus is crucial; especially today, as we live in the era of distraction.

Obstacles, however, will still come in the form of temptations, distractions (such as social media, messages, and television), and the hundreds of thoughts in our mind at any given minute. If we could eliminate all of these, it would be just us, and our-laser focused the mind. However, it doesn’t seem to work like that.

There are several techniques that can help you zone in on the task in front of you. If you need help staying focused  

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1. First things first: You need to eliminate distractions. While you can’t do away with everything, you can make an effort to reduce or get rid of as many distractions as possible.
2. Drinking coffee, or other caffeinated beverages, in small doses may have a positive impact on your ability to focus
3. Fuel Your Body: We all know what happens when “hanger” strikes. This dreaded combination of hunger and anger is a major focus fail. So, to keep your brain focused, your energy levels up, and your emotions on an even keel, make sure you don’t delay or skip meals.
4. Sleep Well: The recommended amount of sleep trusted Source for adults aged 18 to 60 years old is 7 or more hours a night. Older adults may need up to 9 hours per night.
5. Be SMART: If your lack of focus is a result of feeling overwhelmed by a complex project, try breaking it down into smaller parts and plugging the smaller steps into the SMART formula.
SMART stands for:
Specific. What exactly needs to be done?
Measurable. How will you track your progress?
Achievable. Is it realistic? Can it be done by the deadline?
Relevant. How does it fit with the overall plan or bigger goal?
Timely. When does it need to be done?

refence link:


4 Proven Ways On How To Focus Better

Sex education in India

Sex education is the instruction of issues related to human sexuality and to help young people gain information about sexual activity including emotional relations, consent and awareness about sexual abuse.

It is often believed that these educative values would necessarily lead to identity formation and affect the behavioral patterns of the children. It has been observed that excessive ‘openness’ towards simply knowing about same gender relationships, especially when these relationships are presented in a positive way, can make child more likely to become ‘homosexual’. School is not considered to be the ideal place where much concern should be provided to the idea of homosexuality.

In India, topics such as menstruation and homosexuality are avoided and much more emphasis is given on HIV/AIDS infection. Regardless of the growing child abuse and rape cases, there is no heed paid to explaining these kind of issues to teenagers, let even differentiating between non-sexual and sexual touch. A study conducted by The Ministry of Women’s and Children Development revealed that 53% of children between 5 to 12 years have been sexually abused which was mostly the parents doing, legal guardians or a close member of the family. Many programs were initiated by the government to educate children about Sexual Education, body image, violence and abuse, especially drugs and other toxic attitudes like Adolescent Education Program, The Adolescence Reproductive and Sexual Health Education etc. were banned by most of the states because the programs content were considered ‘inappropriate’. There has been this constant claim that sexual education will spread risky behavior among teens and adolescents.

The sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents in India are overlooked or are simply not understood by the healthcare system. Due to the cultural and traditional “norms” of the society and their homophobic behaviour, topics like these are prevented from being publicly expressed.

In 2014, India’s Health Minister Harsh Vardhan expressed his thoughts about Sex Ed, further leading to ban it and said instead of that yoga should be made compulsory in schools. According to him it was against the Indian values. His comments about these raised an uproar among opposers. Around the same time as Vardhan’s comments, the right wing group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Shiksha Bachao Andolan Samiti led an attack against teachers and schools that included threats of physical violence against teachers and schools that dared to carry out the 2007 health education program.

And after years of Sex Education being banned in India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced an sexual education program in 2018. In this program students will be taught about sexual violence and health among other topics.

We need to make sure that parents and legal guardians are able to improve interpersonal interactions with adolescents and can help in creating spaces for dialogues that are free of stigma and bias. This might be the most sustainable way to improve outcomes in adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

The biggest barrier towards sexual education in India will probably be cultural norms against talking about sex. These norms are heavily ingrained in Indian society. However, India is making small but important steps to provide more comprehensive sex education.

-Emily Joy Oomen

Biography – Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875, in Nadiad, Gujarat, India. He was Indian lawyer and statesman, one of the heads of the Indian National Congress during the fight for Indian independence. During the first three years of Indian independence after 1947, he worked as deputy prime minister, minister of home affairs, minister of information, and minister of states.

Early life and legal career

Patel was born into a family of self-sufficient landowning family of the Leva Patidar caste. Raised in an impression of traditional Hinduism, he took admission in primary school at Karamasad and high school at Petlad but was mostly self-taught. Patel wedded at the age of 16, graduated at 22, and passed the district pleader’s examination, which allowed him to rehearse law. In 1900 he set up an self-governing office of district advocate in Godhra, and after two years he shifted to Borsad.

As a advocate, Patel differentiated himself in staging an incontrovertible case in a accurate way and in confronting police witnesses and British judges. In 1908 Patel lost his wife, who had borne him a son and daughter, and afterwards endured as a widower. Determined to improve his career in the legal profession. Patel toured to London in August 1910 to study at the Middle Temple. There he learnt industriously and approved the final examinations with high honors.

Political philosophy

In the vital debate over the aimsof the Indian National Congress during the years 1928 to 1931, Patel trusted that the goal of the Indian National Congress should be power status within the British Commonwealth—not independence. In comparison to Jawaharlal Nehru, who overlooked violence in the fight for independence, Patel governed armed revolution, not on ethical but on practical grounds. Patel held that it would be unsuccessful and would involve severe suppression. Patel, like Gandhi, saw benefits in the future contribution of a free India in a British Commonwealth, offered that India was permitted as an equal member. He highlighted the want to nurture Indian self-reliance and self-confidence, but, dissimilar to Gandhi, he did not honour Hindu-Muslim unity as a prerequisite for independence.

Patel differed with Jawaharlal Nehru on the want to bring about economic and social changes by compulsion. A tradition rooted in traditional Hindu values, Patel demeaned the practicality of adapting collective ideas to the Indian social and economic structure. He trusted in free enterprise, thus gaining the trust of conservative elements, and thereby gathered the funds that continued the activities of the Indian National Congress.

Patel was the second applicant after Gandhi to the presidency of the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi avoided the presidency in an effort to avoid the adoption of the resolution of independence and exerted pressure on Patel to withdraw, thus, Jawaharlal Nehru was elected. During the 1930 Salt Satyagraha, Patel helped three months’ custody. In March 1931 Patel controlled over the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress.

Benefits of Internships

People at times become a bit doubtful when deciding whether or not to take an internship. Frequently, when newly graduating you lack sufficient experience to get a full-time stable job, so internships, traineeships and work experience are your only choices.

Although, we require to stop considering these things negatively and think of everything we can obtain from internships and work placements. They are frequently the best option for you because you want to get a feel for work without being thrown into the deep end straight away and this gives you with the opportunity to learn and grow.

Here are 5 reasons you should take the internship and feel good about your decision:

1. To gain experience.

You lack experience and this is the solitary way to get it. The finest experience hail from internships because you get to do a bit of the whole thing! You get to observe and experience the special roles that people play in particular companies and glance the working life from different perspectives. This is nice to take into the working world with you because at times, you will be enquired to do various tasks including different elements of the company. This way, you would have already had a go at things and comprehended how to multitask.

2. To have a better understanding.

An internship permits you to take time to realize your role, responsibilities and the industry. Internships want you to leave knowledge more than you came with, and this is most likely the result. Take this chance to recognize each task you are given and each new tool you use. Scribble things down, ask questions and do things repeatedly to make sure you are doing everything with 100% effort.

3. Have the opportunity to learn and watch.

You can learn from the best during an internship. People will be viewing over you and working carefully with you on projects so that you have somebody to consult to and a goal to work towards. Maybe you will learn new skills from these people and new things about the industry and life that you didn’t saw before. Communication and relations is key so ask plenty of questions and don’t be afraid to offer new ideas!

4. Gain the ability to put new things into practice.

You can attempt new skills and tools without the burden of being wrong and doing any mistake. Internships are a time to try new things and do experiment, and people who employ you for that internship know that. They suppose you to learn from your mistakes and apply this as motivation to get better at the things you were not so great at before! Take these new ideas and skills to your next job and find a way to include them into any tasks you are given.

5. To communicate

Internships provide you the chance to work with both independently and within a team. You study to communicate in new ways to build professional working relationships with people of all ages. This is good because it permits you to be open to other people’s ideas and to get imaginative in a team in order to construct better ideas and eventually, to build a better company.

Causes of stress

What Causes Stress in the Workplace?

Stress points certainly vary among industries and different roles, but many overlap. These can include:


A bad economy or a company experiencing a budget crunch leads to downsizing. Every worker, whether hourly or salaried, experience stress from the fear of losing their job, particularly if they see others around them getting the pink slip.

Increased work loads

When there are layoffs, other workers are required to pick up the extra load. This is both physically and mentally exhausting. Salaried workers may find themselves putting in longer hours to get their work done without the benefit of overtime, and hourly workers may be forced to work harder to get the job done in the same amount of time. Either way, it’s stressful.

Pressure to perform

A workplace that fixates heavily on measuring performance and productivity might not realize that those things are putting stress on workers.

Longer work hours.

Foreign Markets entry strategy-an overview

Direct Export

The organisation produces their product in their home market and then sells them to customers overseas.

Indirect Export

The organisations sells their product to a third party who then sells it on within the foreign market.


Another less risky market entry method is licensing. Here the Licensor will grant an organisation in the foreign market a license to produce the product, use the brand name etc. in return that they will receive a royalty payment.


Franchising is another form of licensing. Here the organisation puts together a package of the ‘successful’ ingredients that made them a success in their home market and then franchise this package to overseas investors. The Franchise holder may help out by providing training and marketing the services or product. McDonalds is a popular example of a Franchising option for expanding in international markets.

Financial Consultant

consultant is essentially the same . They often offer a number of services, with their financial advice being based on the client’s specific needs and goals. In some cases, a financial consultant may have more financial planning experience than the typical financial advisor. Financial consultants usually provide investment services as well, though. To find a financial advisor or consultant in your

What Is a Financial Consultant?

“Financial consultant” is a somewhat antiquated term that’s largely been replaced by the term “financial advisor.” Financial consultants may work for a firm or as a self-employed contractor, and their clients may be companies or individuals.

In short, financial consultants offer personalized advice to help investors build wealth. They may offer financial planning, identify well-suited investments and guide insurance decisions. They often direct the buying and selling like stocks and bonds, on their clients’ behalf. Some may also sell financial products.

A financial consultant usually meets with clients to assess their financial situation before they make any recommendations. Any time a client experiences a major life change (marriagethey’ll likely request another meeting.

Consultants also spend time marketing their businesses. They often travel and work outside normal business hours to accommodate their clients’ schedules.

Social Responsibility for Business

Social Responsibility

What Is Social Responsibility?

Social responsibility means that businesses, in addition to maximizing value, must act in a manner that benefits society. Social responsibility has become increasingly important to investors and consumers who seek investments that are not just profitable but also contribute to the welfare of society and the environment. However, critics argue that the basic nature of business does not consider society as a st


  • Social responsibility means that businesses, in addition to maximizing shareholder value, should act in a manner that benefits society.
  • Socially responsible companies should adopt policies that promote the well-being of society and the environment while lessening negative impacts on them.
  • Companies can act responsibly in many ways, such as promoting volunteering, making changes that benefit the environment, and engaging in charitable giving.
  • Consumers are more actively looking to buy goods and services from socially responsible companies, hence impacting their profitability.
  • Critics assert that being socially responsible is the opposite of why businesses exist.

What is Corporate Social Responsibility?

Understanding Social Responsibility

Social responsibility means that individuals and companies have a duty to act in the best interests of their environment and society as a whole. Social responsibility, as it applies to business, is known as (CSR), and is becoming a more prominent area of focus within businesses due to shifting social norms.

The crux of this theory is to enact policies that promote an ethical balance between the dual mandates of striving for profitability and benefiting society as a whole. These policies can be either ones of commission (philanthropy: donations of money, time, or resources) or omission (e.g., “go green” initiatives like reducing greenhouse gases or abiding by EPA regulations to limit pollution).

Additionally, more and more investors and consumers are factoring in a company’s commitment to socially responsible practices before making an investment or purchase. As such, embracing social responsibility can benefit the prime directive: maximization of shareholder value.

There is a moral imperative, as well. Actions, or lack thereof, will affect future generations. Put simply, being socially responsible is just good business practice, and a failure to do so can have a deleterious effect on the balance sheet.

In general, social responsibility is more effective when a company takes it on voluntarily, as opposed to being required by the government to do so through regulation. Social responsibility can boost company morale, and this is especially true when a company can engage employees with its social causes.

Social Responsibility in Practice

emphasizes that a business’s ability to maintain a balance between pursuing economic performance and adhering to societal and environmental issues is a critical factor in operating efficiently and effectively. 

Social responsibility takes on different meanings within industries and companies. For example, Starbucks Corp. and Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Holdings Inc. have blended social responsibility into the core of their operations.

Both companies purchase Fair Trade Certified ingredients to manufacture their products and actively support sustainable farming in the regions where they source ingredients. Big-box retailer Target Corp., also well known for its social responsibility programs, has donated money to communities in which the stores operate, including education grants. 

The key ways a company embraces social responsibility include philanthropy, promoting volunteering, and environmental changes. Companies managing their environmental impact might look to reduce their carbon footprint and limit waste. There’s also the social responsibility of ethical practices for employees, which can mean offering a fair wage, which arises when there are limited employee protection laws.

Criticism of Social Responsibility

Not everyone believes that businesses should have a social conscience. Econ stated that “social responsibilities of business are notable for their analytical looseness and lack of rigor.” Friedman believed that only individuals can have a sense of social responsibility. Businesses, by their very nature, cannot. Some experts believe that social responsibility defies the very point of being in business: profit above all else.


Divestment vs Disinvestment

One of the most common reasons for both is to raise capital. Other common reasons include social or political pressures from third parties. There is very little difference between divestment and disinvestment, and both achieve the same goal of reducing and not replenishing capital.


When a company divests, the company disposes of part or all of its business. Divestments commonly occur when a particular division of a company does not live up to its expectations. This can result from financial reasons or because the division has violated the principles of the parent company. Another common reason for divestment is social pressure placed on a company conducting business in or with a country that has an unfavorable political climate.


Disinvestment, also known as divestiture, occurs when an organization liquidates or sells part of its assets or an entire division without the intent of reinvesting in it. The divestiture typically occurs so that the organization can use the assets to improve another division. A disinvestment can occur with the sale of capital goods or closure of a division.

Interpersonal skills

Interpersonal Skills Definition

So what are interpersonal skills and why are they important? Before we get to examples, it is essential to first define interpersonal skills.

Interpersonal skills are the qualities and behaviors we exhibit while interacting with other people. They are considered to be one of the most

We demonstrate them whenever we engage in any kind of verbal or nonverbal communication. In fact, qualities as basic as body language and attitude toward others

Strong interpersonal skills are a key indicator of success in a working environment, as benefits include the ability to cooperate with teammates to solve difficult problems, as well as simply enhancing your popularity around the office.

On the other hand, lacking them might lead to conflicts with colleagues or management and cause others to see you as a hindrance to getting the job done.

When applying for a position, consider what interpersonal skills are necessary in your target role and industry. You then need to make every effort to match those requirements with demonstrated examples from your own experiences.

After all, employers are not only looking for a candidate with the right credentials, but also one who will fit in with the culture of the company and contribute to its growth.

Business Communication-An overview

Managementcannot be performed well without effective communication.

Business communication involves constant flow of information. Feedback is integral part of business communication. Organizations these days are verly large and involve large number of people. There are various levels of hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the job of managing the organization. Communication here plays a very important role in process of directing and controlling the people in the oragnization. Immediate feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided. There should be effective communication between superiors and subordinated in an organization, between organization and society at large (for example between management and trade unions). It is essential for success and growth of an organization. Communication gaps should not occur in any organization.

Leadership in organisation

Leadership Basics

What is Leadership

Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.

Leadership is the potential to influence behaviour of others. It is also defined as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.

According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.”

Characteristics of Leadership

  1. It is a inter-personal process in which a manager is into influencing and guiding workers towards attainment of goals.
  2. It denotes a few qualities to be present in a person which includes intelligence, maturity and personality.
  3. It is a group process. It involves two or more people interacting with each other.
  4. A leader is involved in shaping and moulding the behaviour of the group towards accomplishment of organizational goals.
  5. Leadership is situation bound. There is no best style of leadership. It all depends upon tackling with the situations.

Foreign Direct investment- An overview

Foreign Direct Investment or FDI

Foreign Direct Investment, or FDI, is one of the most crucial channels of direct investments between countries. Unlike Foreign Portfolio Investment or FPIs, an investor in one country can hold a controlling stake of any business or organisation in a foreign country that receives the investment. FDI is also a significant and insightful indicator of a certain country’s political and socio-economic stability.

This essentially implies a country that receives large amounts of investments from foreign entities on a regular basis is more likely to have a dynamic and vibrant economy.

Understanding Foreign Direct Investment Better

Foreign investments can be either ‘organic’ or ‘inorganic’. With organic investments, a foreign investor will pump in funds to expand and accelerate growth in established businesses. Inorganic investments are instances when an investing entity buys out a business in their target country.

In developing and emerging economies like India and other parts of South-East Asia, FDIs offer a much-needed fillip to businesses which may be in poor financial shape. The Government of India has undertaken several measures to ensure that larger chunks of investments pour into the country across sectors including defence production, the telecom sector, PSU oil refineries and IT.

Since Foreign Direct Investment is a non-debt financial resource, it has the potential to become a major driver of economic development in India.

Globalisation and internationalisation are 2 factors which made FDI possible. However, the celebrated Canadian economist Stephen Hymer, considered the ‘Father of International Business‘, theorised in the 1960s that foreign investments would continue growing rapidly because –

  • It provided control over companies in a foreign land.
  • It helped certain business sectors overthrow monopolistic practices, and
  • Most importantly, since market imperfections will always exist, such investments provide companies with a cushioning effect if there was a sharp and unpredictable decline in business activity.

Perks of Maintaining Day Journal/Diary

There are several reasons why we should maintain journal. From travel journals, dream journals, gratitude journals to prayer journals, we keep specific journals for various parts of our life. Earlier, many people used to keep private journals, where they detailed their day’s events and their observations. Without memoir writer like Anne Frank and Samuel Pepys, we would not be able to know much about the personal side of our history. Though people nowadays keep blogs or vlogs, and record their lives on social media, very rare people among us jot in a journal and write down their experiences. So why not give it a try?

There are many perks of keeping a journal. Here are the top 8 reasons why you should start writing a journal today:

Keep your thoughts Arranged.

Diaries assist us to systematize our opinions and make them understandable. We can jot daily events, thoughts and feelings about certain occurrences or opinions.

Help you to progress your writing.

Journaling assists you to train your writing. If you want to rehearse or expand on your writing, one of the finest things to do is to start a journal. You may not have the flawless topic. All you need to do is to start writing your thoughts and opinions in Journey. The more you write, the more your writing improves.

Set & achieve your goals.

A journal is a suitable place to write your goals, objectives, ambitions and new year resolutions. By maintaining them in a diary, you can check your progress and feel driven to continue to focus on your next milestone!

Record ideas on-the-go.

The pros of maintaining a daily journal is that you can record all of your ideas in one place anytime and at anywhere. At whatever time an idea comes to your mind, you can write it down in your journal. You can then re-enter into these ideas later on to look for new links, form conclusions or even get a fresh and new idea!

Releases stress.

Scripting down your feelings and moods helps you to “brain-dump” your worries, irritations and pains on a journal. This can help you to decrease and relieve any stress which you have gathered overtime. A good way to relive stress is to script in the flow of consciousness style first thing in the morning called “Morning pages”. You can also use the mood trailer found in Journey to signify your emotional level. Overall, conveying yourself in a diary is a fine way to let go any tension that restricts you from feeling happy.

Allow yourself to self-reflect.

As Ferris Bueller once said, “Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” Our fast-paced lives can become even more frenzied as we start bearing on more responsibilities, making us feel the burden as others place high hopes on us. This causes in us getting hectic as we are easily caught up with the day-to-day.

Improves your memory.

Your brain is likely to accumulate information that you have written down in your diary. Your brain will make tougher connections with the information you have learnt after you jot them down in a diary, making it easier for you to remember in the future too!

Sustainable economy

Sustainable growth

Economic growth occurs increases over time. Real output is measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant price so that the effect of price rises on the value of national output is rem

sustainableconomic growth means a rate of growth which can be maintained without creating other significant economic problems, especially for future generations. There is clearly a trade-off between rapid economic growth today, and growth in the future. Rapid growth today may exhaust resources and create environmental problems for future generations, including the depletion of oil and fish stocks, and global warming.

Periods of growth are often triggered by increases in AD, such as a rise in consumer spending, but sustained growth must involve an increase outputIf output does not increase, any extra demand will push up the prices level

Growth based on debt

In terms of sustainability, it may be argued that growth based on short-term public debt, rather than long term productivity, is unsustainable – hence worries about the build-up of sovereign d

PPFs and economic growth

For an economy to continue to grow in the future, it needs to increase its capacity to grow.  An increase in an economy’s productive potential can be shown by an outward shift in the economy’s PPF.

Covid consequences on economy A short overview

COVID-19 is not only a global pandemic and public health crisis; it has also severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Significant reductions in income, a rise in unemployment, and disruptions in the transportation, service, and manufacturing industries are among the consequences of the disease mitigation measures that have been implemented in many countries. It has become clear that most governments in the world underestimated the risks of rapid COVID-19 spread and were mostly reactive in their crisis response. As disease outbreaks are not likely to disappear in the near future, proactive international actions are required to not only save lives but also protect economic prosperity.

Foreign Trade and International Trades

What is foreign trade and international trade


Trade itself is confused with foreign trade in its origin, since from the beginning of time, one community when negotiating with the other, were already practicing this trade, initially exchanging goods for merchandise, and then, by finding a commodity as standard (the salt, for example), began to use it as currency until we got to the paper money.

Commercial activity can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries). International trade is a branch of the commercial sciences that make up the Political Economy.

International Trade

It is the set of studies and commercial operations between two or more countries where there is exchange of goods, services and/or capital.

Foreign Trade

It is the set of studies and commercial operations expressed in national rules, norms and laws.

Foreign Trade is executed by the State or Government and International Trade is exercised by companies and/or individuals and/or institutions. Therefore, when we study the Foreign Trade of a country, we are studying its rules, norms, laws and its commercial policy. And when we speak of International Trade, we are referring to exports and imports of goods, services and capital.


It is the output of a commodity and/or service from a customs territory, generating a currency inflow (currency).


It is the entry of a commodity and/or service into a customs territory, generating an outflow of currency (currency).

Ratio analysis

Ratio analysis is the process of examining and comparing financial information by calculating meaningful financial statement figure percentages instead of comparing line items from each financial statement.

Managers and investors use a number of different tools and comparisons to tell whether a company is doing well and whether it is worth investing in. The most common ways people analysis a company’s performance are horizontal analysi and ratio analysis. Horizontal and vertical analyzes compare a company’s performance over time and to a base or set of


What Is a SWOT Analysis?

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, and so a SWOT Analysis is a technique for assessing these four aspects of your business.

You can use SWOT Analysis to make the most of what you’ve got, to your organization’s best advantage. And you can reduce the chances of failure, by understanding what you’re lacking, and eliminating hazards that would otherwise catch you unawares.

Better still, you can start to craft a strategy that distinguishes you from your competitors, and so compete successfully in your market

Career strategy

Career strategy is an organized way of developing capabilities, skills, understanding tools and their usage to achieve a desirable position or role in your career. It could be done on a personal level, and many organizations also do it for their employees. Following the few essential tips below can ensure that you get to the place you want to see yourself in the next five or ten years.

Tips to Have an Effective Career Strategy

  1. Focus:Being focused is very vital while devising a career strategy. It should not be a like a New Year resolution that is being followed for a couple of days. Additionally, all individuals have a varied interest and it is quite important to know where your heart is. For example, if you are planning to switch your career from an IT industry and moving into the creative field, even the specific creative field needs to be cleared defined.
  2. Know Your Past:Life experiences teach you more than any classroom could have done it for you. So sit down and look back at when you excelled in your performance and when you were the worst. What were the factors and influences at that time? Remembering your past has two advantages – first you could never forget your mistakes and never repeat them, and second you would always remember your well-wishers.
  3. Devise a Plan with a Strategy:You need a strategy to attack, and it should be unique enough to attract a group of people. For example, you thought about being a PRO trader in next five years and started reading all related material. However, a strategic move could be joining community of like minded people. Discussing your knowledge and ideas with these set of people would help you gain direct knowledge.Additionally, networking helps you build your contacts and crossing your comfort zone.
  4. Value your Ethics:When you know your work ethics matches the organization you are about to join, you would feel more motivated and challenged. Therefore, it is essential to know your ethics and value them.

Promotional strategy

What is Promotional Strategy?

Promotional strategy is a method used by companies to advertise, promote & sell their goods. A company chooses its promotional strategy based on factors like product type, marketing budget, target audience etc. It is a critical activity to increase product awareness & thereby increase sales. An effective promotional strategy gets more revenue as compared to the marketing spend.

Importance of Promotional Strategy

Promotion for any product or service is essential for any company. It is because only through promotion people would come to know about the product. Only after knowing about the product they consider purchasing. Since there are some many companies & brands competing to sell their products to the same set of customers, advertising & promotion are important tools to ensure each brand is differentiated & identified

Digital Marketing

What is digital marketing

also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not nd web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel.

Essentially, if a marketing campaign involves digital communication, it’s digital marketing.

Inbound marketing versus digital marketing

Digital marketing and inbound marketing and for good reason. Digital marketing uses many of the same tools as inbound marketing—email and online content, to name a few. Both exist to capture the attention of prospects through the buyer’s journey and turn them into customers. But the 2 approaches take different views of the relationship between the tool and

Digital marketing considers how each individual tool caprospects. A brand’s digital focus all of its efforts on 1 platform.

Inbound marketing is a holistic concept. It considers the goal first, then looks at the available tools to determine which will effectively reach target customers, and then at which stage of the sales funnel that should happen.

The most important thing to remember about digital marketing and inbound marketing is that as a marketing professional, you don’t have to choose between the 2. In fact, they work best together. Inbound marketing provides structure and purpose for effective digital marketing to digital marketing efforts, making sure that each digital marketing channel works toward a goal.

Customer Relations Management overview

Benefits of CRM 

Improves Customer Service

CRM manages all your contacts and aggregates lead and customer information to build profiles of everyone you interact with. This gives you easy access to important information on customer behavior like purchase records and previous communications with contacts across different channels (social media, chat, email, etc.). Customers won’t have to repeat their stories over and over to you, and you’ll be able to address issues with best practice and less effort for improved customer loyalty.

Increase in Sales

Streamlining and improving the sales process, building a sales pipeline, automating tasks, and analyzing your sales data will inevitably lead to one outcome—increased sales and sales productivity. CRM allows you to have all your customer-facing voice, chat, social media, and email touchpoints accessible in one place. You’ll clinch more deals by building a repeatable, proven sales process, and delivering the right message on the right channel at just the right time.

Retain More Customers

Retention and churn rates are extremely important determiners for a company’s success; customer churn is a major obstacle to business growth. CRM tools like sentiment analysis, automated ticketing, and customer support and customer service automation can dramatically improve your retention by letting human agents defuse problems. Analytics tools that look at customer life cycle can show you when churn happens and why, so you can identify and address pain points.

Better Analytics

Analytical CRM tools make your data available, intelligible, and relevant to your business needs. All your heaps of sales data, finance data, and marketing data flow into CRM to become visible metrics, with data warehousing and data mining there to make sense of everything. The net benefit is customer acquisition, customer retention, and better data management.

Higher Efficiency

Having all your major day-to-day business functions in one place makes for better workflow, easier collaboration between team members, and better project management. Task automation eliminates menial, repetitive work and gives more time for the cognitive tasks humans are best at. Dashboards and analytics will help you gain insights into your work and optimize all kinds of business processes.

Better knowledge sharing

Miscommunication and lack of information transfer are two major time-wasters. When people take time self-learning to do things other team members already know how to do, or work on redundant tasks, you’re losing a lot of hours per week. Collaborative CRM tools can streamline your teamwork by letting you build a knowledge base, establish best practice workflows, and allowing for frictionless communication between team members. 

More transparency

CRM allows you to foster greater transparency in your organization by assigning tasks, showing work, and delineating exactly who is who and who is doing what. If your main concern is sales, you can make use of performance tracking for individual sales agents. CRM allows everyone in your organization to gain visibility on your business processes, fostering more mutual understanding and collaboration. 



“Global Warming isn’t a prediction. Its happening”! YES! Its happening.

We all have heard the term GLOBAL WARMING. GLOBAL WARMING has been an active threat in all our lives. It has been causing disasters and destroying habitats around the world. We have to CONSERVE our ENVIRONMENT and PLANET. We must take care of the place we live in. We need to realise that how valuable our environment and climate is and that we cannot risk it at any cost. But, before knowing the steps that we need to take to protect our environment from this danger we must know:

WHAT IS THIS GLOBAL WARMING? WHAT CAUSES IT? Well, Global Warming as the term itself suggests is the “consistent rise in the overall average temperature of the planet”. GLOBAL WARMING is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in the temperature near the EARTH’S SURFACE. This phenomenon has been observed over the past one or two centuries. This change has disturbed the climatic pattern of the Earth. Over the past 50 years, the GLOBAL AVERAGE TEMPERATURE has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And experts see this trend is accelerating: All but one of 16 hottest years in NASA’s 134 year record have occurred since 2000. Climate change deniers have argued that there has been a “pause” or a “slowdown” in rising global temperatures, but several recent studies, have disproved this claim. And Scientists say that unless we curb GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS average temperatures increase up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit, over the next century. There are several causes of GLOBAL WARMING, which have a negative effect on humans, plants and animals. These causes may be natural or might be the outcome of human activity.

“GLOBAL WARMING is a gradual increase in the EARTH’S TEMPERATURE generally due to the GREENHOUSE EFFECT caused by increased levels of CARBON DIOXIDE, CHLORO FLOURO CARBONS (CFCs) ,and other pollutants”. It occurs when CARBON DIOXIDE and other Air pollutants and GREENHOUSE GASES collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the EARTH’S SURFACE. These pollutants trap the heat in the atmosphere and cause the planet to get hotter. That’s what’s known as the GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

Here are other causes: *Deforestation: Cutting down the trees has been a major factor in causing Global warming. Plants are the main source of oxygen. They take in CARBONDIOXIDE and releases Oxygen thereby maintaining ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE. Forests are being depleted for many domestic and commercial purposes. This has led to an ENVIRONMENTAL IMBALANCE, thereby giving rise to GLOBAL WARMING.

*USE OF VEHICLES: The use of VEHICLES, even for s very short distance results in various gaseous emissions vehicles burn FOSSIL FUELS which emit a large amount of CARBONDIOXIDE and other toxins into the atmosphere resulting in a temperature increase.

Just like all these factors there are many other factors Ranging from man made factors like INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, OVERPOPULATION, USES OF FOSSIL FUELS, to NATURAL FACTORS like, VOLCANOES, WATER VAPOUR, FOREST FIRES, etc. causing a rise in earth’s atmosphere.

But Can we say that the World is IGNORING this fact? The world is not aware of this situation? No! It would be wrong to say that!

“Change only happens when individuals take Actions”. – “Aliya haq”, Deputy director of NRDC. SPEAK UP! There are many changes that we can bring about in our life, ranging from STOP CUTTING TREES, PLANT MORE TREES! The GOAL is simple! CARBON DIOXIDE IS THE CLIMATE’S WORST ENEMY.

There can be many ways to stop GLOBAL WARMING by governmental means, but INITIALLY, it starts with with us! Talk to your friends, family, and make sure Representatives are making good decisions.

Role of HRM

The Role of HRM

Keep in mind that many functions of HRM are also tasks other department managers perform, which is what makes this information important, despite the career path taken. Most experts agree on seven main roles that HRM plays in organizations. These are described in the following sections.


You need people to perform tasks and get work done in the organization. Even with the most sophisticated machines, humans are still needed. Because of this, one of the major tasks in HRM is staffing. Staffing involves the entire hiring process from posting a job to negotiating a salary package. Within the staffing function, there are four main steps:

  1. Development of a staffing plan. This plan allows HRM to see how many people they should hire based on revenue expectations.
  2. Development of policies to encourage multiculturalism at work. Multiculturalism in the workplace is becoming more and more important, as we have many more people from a variety of backgrounds in the workforce.
  3. Recruitment. This involves finding people to fill the open positions.
  4. Selection. In this stage, people will be interviewed and selected, and a proper compensation package will be negotiated. This step is followed by training, retention, and motivation.

Development of Workplace Policies

Every organization has policies to ensure fairness and continuity within the organization. One of the jobs of HRM is to develop the verbiage surrounding these policies. In the development of policies, HRM, management, and executives are involved in the process. For example, the HRM professional will likely recognize the need for a policy or a change of policy, seek opinions on the policy, write the policy, and then communicate that policy to employees. It is key to note here that HR departments do not and cannot work alone. Everything they do needs to involve all other departments in the organization. Some examples of workplace policies might be the following:

  • Discipline process policy
  • Vacation time policy
  • Dress code
  • Ethics policy
  • Internet usage policy

Business Plan

Business planning seems like it would be something that organizations do well, given the near self-evident importance of the concept. Yet, that is not necessarily the case. “In my experience leading dozens of business planning workshops in countries all over the world, of teams I’ve encountered have an effective business planning process,” according to author and business plan expert Tim Berry in Entrepreneur.

Organizations should develop a better understanding of how to approach business planning. The following sections expand on the topic and the four types of planning.

Why Plan?

“Planning is about managing resources and priorities in an organized way,” Berry says. “Management is related to leadership, and it’s related to productivity.”

If companies improve how they plan, managing and leadership will also improve. The following steps can help businesses plan better.

  • Devise a Plan: Write important details down and focus on strengths, what matters, what people are most important to you and what you can do for them. This will help you communicate your vision to your employees.
  • Define Success: How do you see your business in several years? Define long-term goals and be specific. Establish milestones for certain goals and who will achieve the goals. Look at what drives your business; it may be presentations, conversions, page views or something else. Then establish a review schedule and re-examine your long-term goals as necessary.

Marketing and Research

Market research provides critical information about your market and your business landscape. It can tell you how your company is perceived by the target customers and clients you want to reach. It can help you understand how to connect with them, show how you stack up against the competition, and inform how you plan your next steps. Market research can also play an important role in the process of developing your products and services, bringing them to the marketplace, and marketing them to consumers. Here are a few ways that market research can help inform your business strategies

can give you an accurate view of your business and your marketplace. For example, you can see how you are perceived in comparison to your competitors, and evaluate what your competitors are doing to attract customers

Business Environment

Salient Features of Business Environment

The salient features of the business environment are given hereunder:

  1. Dynamic: The environment in which the business operates changes continuously because there is a wide variety of factors that exist in the environment, causing it to change its shape and character.
  2. Complex: There are many forces, events and conditions that constitute business environment, arising from various sources. So, it is a bit difficult to understand the relative influence of a particular factor, on the operation of the organisation.
  3. Uncertain: Uncertainty is an inherent characteristic of the business environment because no one can predict what is going to happen in future.
  4. Multi-faceted: A single change in the business environment, can be viewed differently by different observers because their perceptions vary.
  5. Far-reaching Impact: The survival, growth and profitability, of a business enterprise, depends largely on the environment in which it exists. A small change in the environment has a far-reaching impact on the organisation in different ways.
  6. Relative: The notion of a business environment is relative since it varies from one location to another.

Audit and internal audit

An audit is the examination of an entity’s accounting records, as well as the physical inspection of its assets. If performed by a certified public accountant (CPA), the CPA can express an opinion on the fairness of the entity’s financial statements. This opinion is then issued along with the financial statements to the investment community. An audit is usually conducted shortly after a firm’s books have been closed for its fiscal year.

The Internal Audit

An internal audit can address a broad array of issues, such as employee compliance with corporate policies. A compliance audit usually addresses an entity’s compliance with the a government agency’s rules and regulations. Larger organizations may employ a full-time internal audit department, since they have more complex processes that require monitoring.

Risk Management

Understanding Risk ManagementRisk management occurs everywhere in the realm of finance. It occurs when an investor buys U.S. Treasury bonds over corporate bonds, when a fund manager hedges his currency exposure with currency derivatives, and when a bank performs a credit check on an individual before issuing a personal line of credit. Stockbrokers use financial instruments like options and futures, and money managers use strategies like portfolio diversification, asset allocation and position sizing to mitigate or effectively manage risk.Inadequate risk management can result in severe consequences for companies, individuals, and the economy. For example, the subprime mortgage meltdown in 2007 that helped trigger the Great Recession stemmed from bad risk-management decisions, such as lenders who extended mortgages to individuals with poor credit; investment firms who bought, packaged, and resold these mortgages; and funds that invested excessively in the repackaged, but still risky, mortgage-backed securities (MBS).How Risk Management WorksWe tend to think of “risk” in predominantly negative terms. However, in the investment world, risk is necessary and inseparable from desirable performance.A common definition of investment risk is a deviation from an expected outcome. We can express this deviation in absolute terms or relative to something else, like a market benchmark.While that deviation may be positive or negative, investment professionals generally accept the idea that such deviation implies some degree of the intended outcome for your investments. Thus to achieve higher returns one expects to accept the greater risk. It is also a generally accepted idea that increased risk comes in the form of increased volatility. While investment professionals constantly seek—and occasionally find—ways to reduce such volatility, there is no clear agreement among them on how it’s best done.How much volatility an investor should accept depends entirely on the individual investor’s tolerance for risk, or in the case of an investment professional, how much tolerance their investment objectives allow. One of the most commonly used absolute risk metrics is standard deviation, a statistical measure of dispersion around a central tendency. You look at the average return of an investment and then find its average standard deviation over the same time period. Normal distributions (the familiar bell-shaped curve) dictate that the expected return of the investment is likely to be one standard deviation from the average 67% of the time and two standard deviations from the average deviation 95% of the time. This helps investors evaluate risk numerically. If they believe that they can tolerate the risk, financially and emotionally, they invest.


Commerce leads to the prospering of nations and an increased standard of living, but if left unchecked or unregulated, it can lead to negative externalities.E-commerce is a variant of commerce in which goods are sold electronically via the Internet.Understanding CommerceCommerce has existed from the moment humans started exchanging goods and services with one another. From the early days of bartering to the creation of currencies to the establishment of trade routes, humans have sought ways to exchange goods and services and build a distribution process around the process of doing so.Today, commerce normally refers to the macroeconomic purchases and sales of goods and services by large organizations at scale. The sale or purchase of a single item by a consumer is defined as a transaction, while commerce refers to all transactions related to the purchase and sale of that item in an economy. Most commerce is conducted internationally and represents the buying and selling of goods between nations.It is important to note that commerce does not have the same meaning as “business,” but rather is a subset of business. Commerce does not relate to the manufacturing or production process of business but only the distribution process of goods and services. The distribution aspect encompasses a wide array of areas, such as logistical, political, regulatory, legal, social, and economic.

Financial Management

Strategic financial management means not only managing a company’s finances but managing them with the intention to succeed—that is, to attain the company’s goals and objectives and maximize shareholder value over time. However, before a company can manage itself strategically, it first needs to define its objectives precisely, identify and quantify its available and potential resources, and devise a specific plan to use its finances and other capital resources toward achieving its goals.Strategic financial management is about creating profit for the business and ensuring an acceptable return on investment (ROI). Financial management is accomplished through business financial plans, setting up financial controls, and financial decision making.[Important: “Strategic” management focuses on long-term success and “tactical” management relates to short-term positioning.]Understanding Strategic Financial ManagementThe Operative Word: StrategicFinancial management itself involves understanding and properly controlling, allocating, and obtaining a company’s assets and liabilities, including monitoring operational financing items like expenditures, revenues, accounts receivable and payable, cash flow, and profitability.Strategic financial management encompasses all of the above plus continuous evaluating, planning, and adjusting to keep the company focused and on track toward long-term goals. When a company is managing strategically, it deals with short-term issues on an ad hoc basis in ways that do not derail its long-term vision. Strategic financial management includes assessing and managing a company’s capital structure, the mix of debt and equity finance employed, to ensure a company’s long-term solvency.

High-Intensity Interval Training

“Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.”– John F. Kennedy

Today, when everyone is occupied with managing work and house duties maintaining a consistent exercise routine, can be very challenging for many people. For some people, the issue is not being able to take out enough time for 30 to 60 minutes of exercise regime 3 to 5 times per week from their already overloaded schedule. For others, it is either procrastination or boredom of consistently plodding through moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. 

High-intensity interval training or HIIT can be any type of workout/exercise routine that includes a short burst of intense exercise that precedes a period of rest or low-intensity exercise. A HIIT workout need not be an hour-long but can be as short as 15–20 minutes, and provides a wide range of benefits to the body. It is actually the option of short duration in this type of workout that makes it a very practical and effective choice for people who find it challenging to commit to longer sessions. 

When it comes to stimulating adaptations for improved performance especially for athletes, HIIT has been an essential training strategy for a very long time now. Studies show that the total time spent at higher intensity exercise will be very beneficial for health. Therefore, to spend a longer duration at an elevated intensity than can be accomplished with continuous exercise one can alternate high- with lower intensity intervals allows an individual to. Although, HIIT classes can easily be found at a local gym, but there is absolutely problem if one is unable to find classes or equipment as this type of training can be done at home also.

It has been observed that HIIT may help in improving both heart health and mental health. According to a 2015 study it was found that a 10-week program of HIIT workouts can provide cardiovascular and metabolic benefits that were similar to those produced through moderate-intensity workouts. Other than health, mental health, and weight loss HIIT improve insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid profiles. 

High-intensity interval training is time-efficient. In terms of calorie burning, one can burn more calories after a HIIT workout as compared to a regular steady-state cardio exercise like running, as the heart rate remains relatively stable. This was confirmed by a 2019 study that had a group of athletes do a HIIT workout and a steady-state run at two different times. After nine minutes the exercises were stopped and results suggested that the HIIT group was burning an average of 3 kilocalories per minute, on the other hand, after a steady-state run the athletes burned 2.8 kilocalories per minute.

Conclusively, HIIT workouts require no specific equipment, so people can perform it at home or in a park at a time that suits them best and allows people to gain many health benefits like flexibility and endurance without needing to go to the gym. And while researchers continue to evaluate the safety of HIIT, it seems that with appropriate guidance and supervision HIIT can be safely undertaken by people with health challenges. 










Entirprise Information System


These information systems help corporations solve widescale problems and are typically large platforms, too complex for individual or small business use.

Enterprise systems handle many operations within a company to facilitate its business and management reporting tasks. They’re built for speed, scale and designed to deploy across a variety of networks like the Internet, an intranet and corporate networks. Corporations that employ enterprise software include:

  • Big box stores
  • Marketing agencies
  • Tech companies

The complexity of enterprise applications, however, pushes most corporations to outsource the development of applications they need to run operations. After development, the applications are brought back in-house for deployment, a job that usually requires a specialized information technology team.

The 3 Types of Enterprise Systems

Given the digital force of today’s markets, there are three types of enterprise systems that are indispensable for corporations across the globe.

1.     Customer Relationship Manages

s a software that helps organizations present a consistent message about customer insights by gathering the latest information about a lead. Collections of data for CRM software usage happen at each step of a presale process, including sales and marketing, call centers, help desks and customer support service.

Remember the pair of jeans? Well, at the heart of the CRM is the database that receives your customer activity from the moment you hand over the product to the cashier. Every time a customer order is entered, an invoice is cut, a shipment is sent, and refunds and exchanges are processed, it is quickly submitted into the database.

What are Examples of CRM?

Two types of CRMs people in any business or tech field should be familiar with are analytical and operational CRMs.

  • Operational CRMs: These systems are focused on the automation of the customer-facing parts of a business, like targeted communications and offers to customers.

Analytical CRMs: These systems are focused on analyzing customer data to enhance customer and company value. These CRM’s include data such as sales history, credit scores, marketing some examples of the most popular CRM’s used by corporations include:

  1. Salesforce CRM – The platform works for mid-size companies as well as businesses that aren’t too familiarized with CRM. Its service model is based on automation by centralizing leads and customer profile data. This type of enterprise system falls under the category of general software.
  2. HubSpot CRM – HubSpot provides services and tools for marketing and sales companies. Services can include content management and web analytics. HubSpot falls under the category of inbound software.
  3. Zoho CRM – Unlike HubSpot, this CRM software is aligned with offering project management tools to companies and employees. Services that this type of social software offers includes word processing, spreadsheets and wikis.
  4. Freshsales CRM – Freshsales is a cloud-based CRM software that offers industries sales management, event and lead tracking services.

2.     Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is designed to facilitate a company’s cross-functional processes. This software allows companies to eliminate inconsistencies and duplications of efforts during operations, share data, standard practices across enterprises and access information in a real-time environment.

Brief about .Project Executive

The Executive has ultimate responsibility for the project and ‘owns’ the Business Case throughout the life of the project. He or she has the following specific responsibilities:Oversee the development of the Project Brief and Business CaseAuthorise expenditure levels, set stage tolerances and ensure funding for agreed expenditure is availableAuthorise or reject proposed changes to cost or timescale beyond tolerance levels and all proposed changes to scope, checking for possible effects on the Business CaseEnsure Risks and Issues are being tracked and mitigated/resolvedLiaise with Programme or Corporate Management on progressOrganise and chair meetings of the Project BoardAuthorise the project’s continuance or early closure at stage review meetings of the Project BoardAuthorise formal closure of the projectHold a Post-Project Review to ensure benefits are realised

Post Covid reforms

. Even so, the Covid-19 crisis necessitates a large macroeconomic stimulus. In order not to overstrain government finances it should be targeted, temporary and self-limiting. Financing features can aid this as well as improve financial stability. Large government assets can be monetized to help restructure towards more effective government spending. Specific policy implications are drawn out.


Why is it that steady high growth continues to elu China’s catch-up growth extended to about 30 years of double digit growth. India’s post-liberalization growth has been volatile and has only rarely reached double digits. A high growth burst in the 2000s was not sustained. There was a slowdown after 2011. Growth was 3% per annum slower than in the previous period. The years 2016, 2018, 2020 saw reversals of weak growth revivals. In 2020 this is due to the Covid-19 shock.

The paper discusses past virtuous growth cycles in India and argues that the post Covid-19 macro-financial package is an opportunity to trigger another such cycle by raising marginal propensities to spend above those to save. This is feasible since the major constraints that aborted such cycles in the past are waning. Among these constraints are commodity price shocks and other supply-side bottlenecks; financial repression and discretionary allocation; and fiscal space. While the first constraint is relieved, and there is adequate progress on the others, fiscal space is still constrained. Even so, the Covid-19 crisis necessitates a large macroeconomic stimulus. In order not to overstrain government finances it should be targeted, temporary and self-limiting. Financing features can aid this as well as improve financial stability. Large government assets can be monetized to help restructure towards more effective government spending. Specific implications for policy are drawn out.

Economic growth

Poverty, prosperity, and growth are often measured in monetary terms, most commonly as people’s income. But while monetary measures have some important advantages, they have the big disadvantage that they are abstract. In the worst case monetary measures – like GDP per capita – are so abstract that we forget what they are actually about: people’s access to goods and services.

The point of this text is to show why economic growth is important and how the abstract monetary measures tell us about the reality of people’s material living conditions around the world and throughout history:

  • In the first part I want to explain what economic growth is and why it is so difficult to measure. 
  • In the second part I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of several measures of growth and you will find the latest data on several of these measures so that we can see what they tell us about how people’s material living conditions have changed.

What are these goods and services that I’m talking about?

Have a look around yourself right now. Many of the things you see are products that were produced by someone so that you can use them: the trousers you are wearing, the device you are reading this on, the electricity that powers it, the furniture around you, the toilet that is nearby, the sewage system it is connected to, the bus or car or bicycle you took to get where you are, the food you had this morning, the medications you will receive when you get sick, every window in your home, every shirt in your wardrobe, and every book on your shelf. 

At some point in the past many of these products were not available. The majority did not have access to the most basic goods and services they needed. A recent study on the history of global poverty estimates that just two centuries ago roughly three-quarters of the world “could not afford a tiny space to live, food that would not induce malnutrition, and some minimum heating capacity.”