World Without Plastic

PLASTIC is the great invention by Leo Baekeland in 1905, Which was the first synthetic compound mass-produced at that time. This was then later adopted as the universal alternative to the wood as well as the other natural compounds as it was easy to produce it in large quantities, in a short duration of time.

In the early 1950s, adoption of plastic was in high demand and a total of 6.3 billion tons of plastic was produced since then, from which 9% was recycled, 12% was burned and the remaining was left to decompose by throwing some into oceans, some in landfills, some on land, like this, it is increasing day by day from that year.

Till now we have produced the amount of plastic that weighs around half of the earth’s weight. Due to this the pollution rate has increased in a significant manner by which the marine life has affected a huge amount. Many fishes and other aquatic life have got extinct and it is continued till now.


World Without Plastic would be much different to as it is today, In which the people would use organic instead of synthetic. which will be a boon for marine life and other living beings. The nylon, polyester, may not be existed and there would be a limited variety of clothes be excited due to which there would be many fever fashion item be ever made.

The digital revolution which we are in today would not be in existence, due to which we may be still be living in the early 1800s where there is no plastic in which we can print the PCB’s of the computers, no TV’s, no Phones, Music Systems, and many other things would not be there.

There would not be preserved food as plastic has good qualities to preserve any item for long time, then we could relay on local venders to supply fresh food to all the people, because of this we may have a problem that not every fruit or vegetable could be eaten at any time, and then we could eat these fruits and vegetables seasonally.

So, these are my thoughts on this topic, what do you think what could happen more ?. Please comment.



📌Listening always requires active and silent participation to create mutual interaction and understanding amongst people.

1)We should surely talk to ourselves and it makes us feel more confident. But there are situations where talking to ourselves jist doesn’t fit at that particular point of time
2)Disagreeing with speaker without listening the speaker effectively is a sign of poor listener.
3)While having interaction , if you keep your mind preoccupied with thoughts of past or future , it is also a sign of poor listener.
4)When you judge the listener at the first sight , your mind hormones give a negative deviation and you always judge a listener.
5)bad listener will often avoid eye contact while listening to the speaker.

1)Do not be judgemental, close minded and disrespectful to the speaker
2)avoid being aggressive in the conversation.
4)make eye-contact and by asking doubts in a conversation
5)Providing feedback

How Many Hours Do Software Engineers Work?

On average Software Engineers work 40+hours per week. If people work for a start-up company, the company will require them to work more to meet the deadlines. Lazy start-ups will require you to work at least 40+hours but the work will drain your energy and it will remain like you are working forever. If people work for more than 50 hours their brain will get tired and their thinking capacity will become less. 

Some people say that software engineers work for 60 to 80 hours but that’s not true. All you need is the skills to do the work. If you enough capacity and the idea then you can finish the work within the stipulated amount of time. Most companies will give you a deadline to finish the work. It’s up to you to decide how many hours you needed to complete that piece of work. 

Nature of the place

It all depends on the kind of environment you work in. It includes government organizations, industries, small start-ups. If you are a young human being and have lots of time in your hands you may work for extra hours and can surprise your boss with your work. If you have a family to take care of you might stick to fixed timelines. Sometimes it all depends on an individual’s capacity.

Some people may work for more hours but the results won’t be much good. On the other hand, people with fewer skills and the ability to complete the tasks, and have the capacity to manage their work and personal life used to work only for a smaller number of hours. But they yield a great amount of profit for their company. Most people have this assumption that those who work for longer hours have the highest salary and those who work for fewer hours have the lowest salary. But that is not true. In the end, the amount of work you finished and the guidelines you met are the important aspects. 

Multinational Companies

Most software engineers work for Multinational companies. Comparing to software engineers in India and other countries, people who work in India used to work like bulls. But, in the other countries, they will strictly spend their weekends for themselves. They will work for the whole week right from Monday to Friday and will spend their weekends without any hurdles or calls. In India we work without considering the days, people been work on their weekends to meet their deadlines. 

Disadvantages of working in a Startup

Software engineers who work for startups always have some fear in their minds. Because if the company faces some loss, they will immediately terminate employees from their companies without giving any prior notice. They could’ve worked for incessant hours but their hard work could’ve dropped by some other people. They will operate with fewer employees and they were expected to work for incessant hours fearing their job might go at stake. We could’ve heard this kind of news many times in our life. 

Levels Of Work

Mostly software developers do coding kind of jobs. There are three levels entry-level, medium-level, higher level. Entry-level coders work very hard as they are new to this field and are expected to meet strict deadlines. So, they work for many hours without caring about their health. Freshers are expected to work for more hours than Medium-level and higher-level coders as they are experienced and have some position in their company. Even if they quit their job and try to join some other company their years of experience will help them. 

According to the recent Stackoverflow survey, 75% of Software Engineers work for 45+hours a week. This is the harsh reality of Software Engineers. This is because some companies could’ve got some new projects and they will expect their employees to work for more hours to meet the deadlines and the complete the project successfully. 

Advantages of working in a government organization

There are some advantages if you work for a government organization. They will provide the correct timings and will tell you the number of hours you have to work in a week. It will help you in certain ways. You can manage your lifestyle, family life, and your mental health.

It is not true that software engineers do 9-5 jobs. Some people love to code in their leisure time, during the night, or whenever their mind is free. They are just going to finish the deadline. Working can be done at any time. Some developed companies even provide work-from-home jobs. This will give the right atmosphere for them as they are at their comfort place. There is no need to travel and their work hours will become less. If they are expected to complete the project within a week. And if they are given the privilege of work from home. They can easily complete it in fewer hours. 

Data provided by Engineering Company

Average Wake up time?7:50
Average work arrival time9:06
How many drinks coffee?65%
How many works at home?10%
How many works out?45%
How much personal time a day?4.5 Hours
When do they go to bed?10:52

Company culture

Sometimes, it depends on the company they work with. Companies like TCS, Bosch will provide you the correct time amount you are needed to work with. But with some companies like Infosys, Cisco you won’t find the right amount of time. They will ask you to work till midnight also. But if working till midnight provides you a good salary then it’s worth it. 

On the other hand, if you are good at what you are doing, then the less amount of time itself will do good. 

Monthly work hours

The official working hours provided by most of the companies are 220 hours per month that is 45 hours per week. If you work as a team your working hours might change. In the best-case scenarios, you might have to work fewer hours or in the worst-case scenarios, you are expected to work for more hours. It all depends on the place you work. 

Dogs are even more like us!

The dog is a domesticated descendant of the wolf. The dog derived from an ancient, extinct wolf, and the modern grey wolf is the dog’s nearest living relative. The dog was the first species to be domesticated, by hunter–gatherers over 15,000 years ago, before the development of agriculture.Their long association with humans has led dogs to be uniquely adapted to human behavior,leading to a large number of domestic individuals and the ability to thrive on a starch-rich diet that would be inadequate for other canids.Labrador retrievers have claimed the top spot as America’s most beloved breed.Most pet owners are clear about the immediate joys that come with sharing their lives with companion animals. However, many of us remain unaware of the physical and mental health benefits that can also accompany the pleasure of snuggling up to a furry friend. It’s only recently that studies have begun to scientifically explore the benefits of the human-animal bond.Pets have evolved to become acutely attuned to humans and our behavior and emotions. Dogs, for example, are able to understand many of the words we use, but they’re even better at interpreting our tone of voice, body language, and gestures. And like any good human friend, a loyal dog will look into your eyes to gauge your emotional state and try to understand what you’re thinking and feeling.we have to provide nutritious food, clean drinking water, shelter, and the opportunity to live in a safe home. It also means ensuring that the dog is happy by providing ample play time, plenty of exercise, and stimulation for its mind. Caring for a dog is a big responsibility, and dog ownership is not something to enter into lightly, however this work will help you to successfully build a bond of love and trust with an important new member of your family.
Dogs can read facial expressions, communicate jealousy, display empathy, and even watch TV.It can learn to dance, play dead, and fetch specific items. Some humans can teach their dogs to do amazing things. Some dogs can even learn choreographed dance routines! Most dogs respond best by receiving treats for completing a trick.Humans and dogs have shared a special bond of friendship and mutual support ever since at least the Neolithic period.Dogs can strengthen our health not just as we grow older, but also much, much earlier than that: before we are even born.Perhaps the most intuitive benefit of sharing your life and home with a canine friend is that dogs give you “feel-good vibes” .Dogs appear to reduce symptoms of depression and render people more resilient to stress. That is why dogs are often used as therapy animals.Pets contribute to our well-being by helping to lower blood pressure, stress levels, and feelings of loneliness. They also encourage us to get out and exercise and can even lead to increased opportunities for socializing – people with dogs often love to chat with other ‘dog people’!
Dogs also have a second olfactory system, called the Jacobsen’s organ, that allows them to process much more information through smell than humans can—including what species they’re interacting with.Dog’s are the best companion for humans.

Child Adoption according to the Hindu Law


Children are the future of our country. But many children are abandoned and sent to orphanages where a part of them face abuse and exploitation. In many cases it has been evident that such children become victims of human trafficking and even go through sexual harassment. Whereas, part of fortunate cases show some abandoned children are taken in for adoption. Adoption is that the act of agreeing with approval. Adoption may be a legal process that makes a parent child relation between persons not related by blood. An adopted child is entitled to any or all privileges as almost like natural-born child. Adoptive child also has right to inherit. It’s usually called as the legal process of becoming non-biological parent. The adopted son is then taken as being born within the new family and acquires rights, duties and standing there only, and his tie with the old family involves an end.

Every religion has its own laws regarding adoption. There’s no uniform law of adoption. Though adoption is that the legal process of actual giving and taking of a baby, it also forms the topic matter of private laws. Thus, Muslims, Christians, and Parsis don’t have their adoption laws; they approach to the court under The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890. They’ll take the kid under the provisions of the said Act. When child grew up and attain age of majority, he wouldn’t under the requirement of the adoption law the least bit. And this child also doesn’t have right of inheritance over the property of guardians.

Under the laws of The Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, a foreigner can even adopt a toddler. If the guardian wants to require the kid to outside the country, he shall take the court’s permission which process will govern under the adoption process in foreign law. Hindu law, Muslim law and also the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, are containing three different provisions of adoption.

Hindu Law

The Hindu Law legalizes the child adoption in India. The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 defines the adoption and legalizes it. The Act directs that the adopted children are equal to the natural child and they have all the rights that the natural children have. There must be no discrimination among the natural and adopted child. They have the right to inherit. Earlier according to the adoption laws any person could not adopt a girl child but after The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 got commenced female child also got included under the adoption. Adopted child not only creates a relation between children and parents, but also it creates a new family for the adopted child. Also, any girl child adopted under the Hindu law should be treated like a natural child and there must not be any discrimination between a boy and a girl child. 

This Act contains capacity of person to adopt a child and requisites which the child should fulfill for being given in adoption. All the important aspects regarding the procedure of adoption of a child mentioned under the same Act. Adoption under Hindu law includes Budhists, Jains, Sikhs and Hindu religion.

Bal Gangadhar Tilak vs Shri Shriniwas Pandit[1]

In this case the Privy Council observed that adoption among Hindus is not only for having a legal children but it is also a religious rite meant to perform obligations and sacrifices which would allow the soul of the deceased father to pass from Hades to the paradise. 

Amarendra Man Singh Bhramarbar vs Sanatan Singh[2]

In this case the Privy Council observed that the foundation of the Brahmanical doctrine of adoption is a duty which every Hindu owes to his ancestors for the continuance of the generation and the performance of the necessary rites. Adoption is a part of the customs. The burden of proving the validity of adoption falls on the person who claims it under the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956.    

Binapani Samanta vs Sambhu Mondal & Ors

In this case the petitioner filed a petition challenging the defendant who is the probate of the will on the basis that she was the adopted daughter of the deceased and that the probate is fraudulent. But she failed to prove the burden of proof and of the validity of the adoption. It was held that she could not challenge as she failed to prove the validity of probate.

Requisites of valid adoption

 Section 6 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, the requisites are-

  1. A person who is giving in a child for adoption must have the capacity to do the same.
  2. A person who is given in adoption must be capable for being taken in adoption.
  3. Adoptive father and mother must have the capacity and right to do adopt a child.

Smt. Malati Roy Chowdhury vs Sudhindranath Majumdar And Ors.[3]

In this case, the petitioner filed the case for the right of married women of adoption because according to the HAMA act married women were not allowed to adopt a child. Not even with the consent of her husband thus this case was related to gender discrimination. The court stated for this judgment is “Adoption has to be taken factually or legally by the male in case of marriage, and not by the wife. In other words, the wife cannot adopt a child even with the consent of the husband”. 

Brijendra Singh vs The State of M.P[4]

This case overruled the case of Malti Roy, in this case. It was observed by the court that the case was a big disappointment. In this case, a disabled lady was married to man according to the village custom that was a virgin girl must get married. Her husband left her and so she adopted a son after whole 22 years of her marriage. In the other case, disputes were under the agriculture land ceiling law. She a declared that the appellant was her adopted son. The suit was decreed by the trial court and it was affirmed by the first appellate court. Madhya Pradesh High Court on the second appeal in the court held that, given the provisions of section 8(c) of the Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956, the adoption was not valid. The argument by her side that she is leading a life like a divorced woman was not acceptable because there is a great difference between a female Hindu who is divorced and a female who is leading a life as a divorced woman. 

After this case a new Act was established in the favor of married women. The Gender Discrimination Act which is a personal law was amended in the year 2010. It gives right to married woman to adopt a child with husband’s consent but that will not change the fate of a married woman in the position of the disabled, deserted, “divorced-like” lady in this case. 

Capacity of males to take in adoption

Section 7 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it; the man must be of sound mind and must be a major. If the wife of the man is alive then he is not allowed to adopt a child without the consent of his wife. Unless she completely and finally ceased to be Hindu or renounced the world or any competent court has declared her to be incompetent. If a person happens to have more than one wife, he must take consent of all wives. 

Capacity of females to take in adoption

Section 8 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it; the woman must be of sound mind and must be a major. If husband of the woman is alive then she is not allowed to adopt a child without the consent of her husband. Unless he completely and finally ceased to be a Hindu renounced the world or competent court declared him incompetent. Section 8 also gives a widow the right to adopt a son or a daughter for her. The result of this is that for all purposes the child adopted in effect becomes the natural son or daughter not only of the widow but also of her deceased husband as well.

Deen Dayal Vs. Sanjeev Kumar

In this case, the mother’s consent is equally mandatory in giving and taking of a child in adoption. Thus, an adoption, even through, registered, where the child was given in adoption by the natural father but without the consent of the mother was held to be invalid. 

Who may give in adoption?

Section 9 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, a person is capable of giving in adoption – No individual other than the mother and father of kid could have the authority to give a kid for adoption. The two have equivalent rights to give a kid in adoption. In the case that both the father and mother have passed away, or totally denied the world or authorized court announced them as of unsound mind; the guardian of the kid will have the option to give a youngster in adoption.

Who may be adopted?

Section 10 of The Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act, 1956 describes it, for valid adoption of a child, he should be Hindu by religion. The child must not have been adopted earlier. He or she should not be married, unless there is a custom which permits a person to get married. He or she should not have completed the age of 15 years unless there is any custom which allows a child to do so.

Kumar Sursen vs The State of Bihar[5]

In this case, the issue of the adoption of a Muslim child by Hindu parents was brought up before the court. The child was supposedly brought up by Hindu parents since a very tender age and they treated him like their own son. The court, however, denied to give him the status of an ‘adopted child’ because of the specified provision of section 10(i)[6] of the Act.

Age difference

There must be an age gap of 21 years or more between the child and the parent. In case adoption is by a male and child getting adopted is female, the adoptive father must be at least twenty one year older than the child. And in case the adoption is by a female and the child getting adopted is male, the adoptive mother must be at least twenty one year older than the child.

Other provision like the ceremony of Datta Homam isn’t compulsory (section 11), adoptive father or mother shall not be bereft of their power to transfer the property merely by reason of adoption of a kid (section 13), etc. is additionally important.

Uma Prasad vs Smt. Padmawati And Ors.[7]

In this case, the claim of an adopted son on properties was challenged on the grounds that the boy was above 15 when he was adopted. And that the adoption was invalid. However, the parties, Agarwals by caste, succeeded in proving the exception that they were governed by ancient customs and usage, which allowed the adoption of a boy over the age of 15. The adoption was held to be valid.   

[1] (1915) 17 BOMLR 527

[2] (1933) 35 BOMLR 859

[3] AIR 2007 Cal 4, (2007) 1 CALLT 323 H

[4] (2016) 10 SCC 220

[5] AIR 2008 Pat 24

[6] 10. Persons who may be adopted.—No person shall be capable of being taken in adoption unless the following conditions are fulfilled, namely:—

(i) he or she is a Hindu;

[7] 1999 (2) MPLJ 502


“The September 11, 2001 attacks on the twin towers of the WORLD TRADE CENTER, NEW YORK, the symbol of prowess and of prestige of the most powerful state in the world, came as a rude shock not only to the AMERICANS but also to the people in other parts of the world”. The attacks signalled to the fact that states are no longer impermeable and even a SUPERPOWER like the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA can easily become a victim of attacks launched, not by states, but by invisible actors, the most dangerous being the forces of TERRORISM, which are at work globally.

Since, the 9/11 attacks in 2001, TERRORISM has been a key concern worldwide, with the United States leading a WAR ON TERROR, and with continued attacks around the world by religious extremists. But, the question is WHAT IS THIS TERRORISM? ARE THE TERRORISTS SIMPLY FANATICS TO BE DEFEATED? CAN WE PREVENT THIS TERRORISM?

Well, A common definition of TERRORISM is the systematic use or threatened use of VIOLENCE to intimidate a POPULATIONor GOVERNMENT, for RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL, and IDEOLOGICAL GOALS. TERRORISM is a method which an organized group or party sought to achieve its avowed aims chiefly through the systematic use of VIOLENCE. The central point is that TERRORISM is an act which uses VIOLENCE to achieve its ends and is characterized by certain forms of actions such as ASSASSINATIONS, BOMBINGS, TAKING PEOPLE AS HOSTAGES, and HIJACKING OF PLANES.

The word “TERRORISM” was first coined in the1790s to refer to the terror used during the FRENCH REVOLUTION by the revolutionaries against their opponents. The JACOBIN party of MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE carried out a REIGN OF TERROR involving MASS EXECUTIONS by the guillotine. Although, TERRORISM in this USAGE implied an act of violence by a state against its domestic enemies, since the 20th CENTURY the term has been applied most frequently to violence aimed, either, directly or indirectly, at Governments in an attempt to influence POLICIES or TOPPLE an existing regimes. Most of the countries in the world like AFGHANISTAN, PAKISTAN, INDIA, UNITED STATES, UNITED KINGDOM, BRAZIL, CANADA, EGYPT, FRANCE, GERMANY, INDONESIA, and others suffer from terrorist onslaughts. There are or were many Terrorist organisations like, THE PROVISIONAL IRISH REPUBLICAN ARMY(IRA) of IRELAND, the RED BRIGADES OF ITALY, THE JAPANESE RED ARMY OF JAPAN, and other ARAB TERRORIST GROUPS such as BLACK SEPTEMBER ORGANISATION OF PALESTINE, etc. which are disrupting peace and security of the world. But the new epicenter of terror since 9/11 tragedy is the AL-QAIDA and the names associated with it.

Many Terrorist attacks have happened in INDIA. Like, the PULWAMA ATTACK, 2019 one of the deadliest terror attacks on our brave SECURITY FORCES, in PULWAMA, JAMMU AND KASHMIR, shocked the Nation. In the attack, almost 40 CRPF personnel were killed. URI attack on September 18, 2016, was the worst attack on our Army where we lost some of our 17 JAWANS, ATTACKS being done by the PAKISTAN based Militant group. The 26/11 Mumbai attacks in 2008 is also one of the most horrific attacks in the country’s History. Like this, Several attacks have destroyed PEACE and SECURITY of our country.

But, there have also been some relaxations lately in the country, since THE MODI GOVERNMENT’S DECISION to revoke the autonomous status of JAMMU AND KASHMIR in 2019. It has improved the region’s SECURITY situation. According to the last report of the INDIAN MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS, there was a significant improvement in the security situation in the country due to containment of SEPARATIST AND COMMUNIST TERRORIST ORGANISATIONS. Hence, Of all regions in INDIA, TERRORISM- induced violence and deaths are primarily seen in JAMMU AND KASHMIR.



Pollution is the process in which undesirable toxic contaminants contaminate our environment like air, water, soil, etc. It is creating sudden changes in the ecosystem, which is directly on indirectly leaving adverse effects on the lives of human beings, animals, and plants. It creates an imbalance in the natural system. Many things which are making our lives easy are harmful to the environment.Every living being on Earth depends on air and water. When these two things get polluted, all the lives on Earth come at a risk. It is the pollution that is indirectly affecting the change in the weather. This global issue needs immediate action. Otherwise, it will be challenging to lead a healthy lifestyle.

Types of Pollution:
Air Pollution: It is sometimes visible like we can see polluted air left by the vehicles on the road because of its different colour. In most cases, it is not visible. Polluted air mainly affects the eyes and lungs of human beings as well as animals. It can even kill a living creature within a few minutes. We know about many incidents where harmful gas leakage has killed people. Even natural disasters can make the air toxic. Vehicles and factories produce harmful gases that, in reaction to sunlight, creates thick fog. It can destroy water life, forests, etc.
Water Pollution: Drinking polluted water can cause serious health issues. A lot of people die worldwide by consuming contaminated water. It can also indirectly affect humans and animals. Like if we eat a fish from a polluted river or sea, we also absorb the potential pollutants. Natural gas and oil can also contribute to the pollution of water. Liquid wastes from factories also pollute the water. Solid wastes disturb the drainage system. Sewages, agricultural waste, acid rain are essential causes of water pollution.
Soil Pollution: Solid wastes from factories and households pollute the land. Harmful chemicals mix in the soil through the pesticides used in agriculture. Pollutants from landfills mix in the ground and pollute it. When we eat plants that have grown in the polluted land, we indirectly consume contaminants harmful to our health.
Noise Pollution: When the sound becomes intolerant and reason of disturbance, it is noise pollution. The sounds of vehicles, mike, loud music, or machinery cause noise pollution. It causes serious health issues like migraine, depression, hypertension, aggressive behavior, etc. to humans. It also directly affects the health of animals. It sometimes becomes the reason for their death.
Due to this many people and animals are losing their lives or experiencing severe health issues due to the increased level of pollution. Both natural and human activities cause pollution. Though we can’t control natural activities, we can control our actions that cause pollution.
We can reduce pollution by- Reduce the number of trips you take in your car.
Reduce or eliminate fireplace and wood stove use.
Avoid burning leaves, trash, and other materials.
Avoid using gas-powered lawn and garden equipment.
Using public transports.
Turn off the lights when not in use.
Recycle and Reuse.
No to plastic bags.
Reduction of forest fires and smoking.
Use of fans instead of Air Conditioner.
Use filters for chimneys.
Avoid usage of crackers.

stooping low behaving inhumane leads to sadism

when a person love something and decided to be with it and take utmost care but in return if it turns out to be then most disloyal one as now a days which lead to affecting a person’s phycological and mental imbalance so the rate of sadism in his body system increases from 8% to 12% that leads to massive destruction and it makes him/her to stoop low they wont in mental conscious and do things carelessly which has an adverse effect so help people who are in need accept the care and respect a person give and return the same to him/her .Never be cause of destructing someone’s health or phycological barres.

How to overcome writer’s block

Ever felt overwhelmed and stuck in the writing process without being able to move forward and write new things? Staring at a blank page for a long, long time, struggling to find words to pen down, can make you feel frustrated – but know that you are not alone – any writer – faces a writer’s block – in which the writer is unable to produce new work. There might be a creative slowdown as well. This creative hiccup is not the commitment issues or lacking writing skills, it is just the inability of an author to compose new, original material. It’s typically said as artistic constipation. Frustration, fear, anger, dread, and different robust emotions typically accompany it.

“Writer’s block is almost like the equivalent of impotence. It’s performance pressure you put on yourself that keeps you from doing something you naturally should be able to do…The reason you don’t get writer’s block as a writer is because you have a deadline. It has to be in. You have no choice. But, if you sit there, and you think, “This piece has to be the ultimate article, the ultimate book ever written; my entire selfish being is wrapped up in this; and, this is me.” – The bigger of a story you make up about what you are doing, the bigger the block will get. It has nothing to do with the talent of writing or the skill of writing. It’s completely performance anxiety.” — Neil Strauss

Writer’s block is triggered by a variety of things, reckoning on the individual. Some individuals believe that writer’s block stems from an absence of ideas or perhaps talent. However, that’s typically not the case.

Self-doubt is really an enormous part of writer’s block. Triggers and causes of writer’s block include:

1. Apathy – These writers are bound by the rules and are unable to see the creative side of it.

2. Anger – These writers cannot take criticism and cannot stand it when their work goes unnoticed.

3. Anxiety – These writers are overthinkers and are always worried whether their work is good enough or not. They often are unable to believe in themselves.

4. Issues with others – These writers hate being compared to other writers.

5. Distractions – These writers get distracted and it becomes incredibly hard to concentrate on writing for them.

6. Physical illness – These writers may have faced a physical illness because of which they are unable to write.

7. Bills piling up – Bills can definitely trigger anyone, and it piling up means stress piling up which leads to a lack of focus on writing.

8. Procrastination – Tomorrow never comes, and these writers are unable to do the task at hand as soon as they should have.

9. Intimidation – Some writers also get extremely overwhelmed and intimidated by the amount of work needed to be done.

Overcoming writer’s block could be a delicate process that’s usually extremely subjective and depends on the individual itself. But, at the end of the day, it is about overcoming self-doubt and knowing that your hard work will pay off. To help overcome writer’s block, try these ideas:

1. Read

Reading is a decent cure for writer’s block. You will gain inspiration when you check out another writer’s work whether it is your favorite writer or someone new. Reading motivates you to keep the creative juices flowing.
Reading different styles and voices that have nourished generations of creatives gives you in-depth knowledge and experience. Writer’s block indeed gloms onto the idle, not the well-read.

2. Take a break

Writing can be exhausting sometimes and it is best to take a break in such a case. If you are intimidated, the best thing you could do is to take a break and start afresh after that.

3. Jump ahead

Slow progress is progress too, and you should jump ahead of what is intimidating you.

4. Just write

Do the opposite of writer’s block – Write – you can always edit your work by coming back to it. Even if you temporarily copy words from a source, it can fuel you into writing again. Practice and train your mind to just write as even if it is unusable, you eventually overcome that block.

5. Pretend that you have never read your work before

Read your work from the beginning with an open mind.

6. Do something else

Going for a walk, or staying calm for a while can make you inclined towards writing.

7. Create a deadline for yourself

This shall help you overcome procrastination.

8. Make your process more visual

Making your process of writing visual can definitely help you in getting more motivated to write.

9. Do something mundane

10. Freewrite

Write without pausing to worry about sentence structure, grammar, spelling, or whether or not something makes sense or not. Just write while not second-guessing something. While most of it’ll be unusable, it is a nice way to break through the block.

11. Pomodoro technique

Decide on what you would like to write. Set a timer for 25 minutes and write until the timer rings. Finally, take a five-minute break and repeat as much as you can.

These are some ways you can overcome writer’s block. A writer’s block can be very difficult to overcome but once you do it, there is no going back.

DataScience is all about the world’s topmost deciding factor?

Data science is something which is all about the connecting between Machine learning and Artificial Intelligence ,though they are similar in terms but way dissimilar in conditions. Last few years it has showered with lots of improvement thus providing a scope of many engineers or pursuers that it is the deciding factor of topmost job providing resources, and again advanced python coming into the picture we can learn many thing with strategical provisions taking lead hence in a way we can say thet data science is all about ”what computer’s should do”

Development of Technology is curse or cure

Now we are in era of 21st century there is massive development in technology .But the worst thing that we are using the technology for all the bad and bane thing ,there is no scope for improvement. With the technology development people are using it as curse that society especially the youngsters who are acting like rulers never understand that the tech they are are misusing is actually the 8th wonder of world but they can use it as cure they can use it as a platform to prevent disease, to make it easy for tacking crimes that are preplanned to create chaos in the create a monitor to see the digital education taking place at its right place or not. To build strong enforcement to maintain the company at its place. this all can be one with tech

so finally conclude use technology as a pure source of cure rather than the curse

Should India adapt A two child policy ?

The population of India is approximately 1.38 billion (as of 2021) and the population growth rate for 2020 is 0.99%. The population of our country has been majorly blamed for many of the problems that reside here. And the fact that the poor population has been the one rising much faster makes it even worse.
To this problem, the solution suggested by most of the citizens has been “A two child policy” in India. Similar to the one child policy adapted by China. Well, today we are going to analyse if adapting a two child policy will even help India in any way or not .

  1. The monopoly behind subsidies- Government basically spoon feeds the poor of our country if it fails to provide them with enough job opportunities. In the greed of more and more subsidies, the people from the impoverished section of the country make more children, as suggested by statistics.
  2. Reservation- There is more than enough reservations for the socially and economically backward sections in jobs and colleges. These people particularly have a better chance of getting money through these jobs if they have more children. As a result of this thought process, their population keeps on increasing.

In this context, a two child policy where subsidies and reservations are only provided till the extent of two children only might help in slowing down our population.

  1. Lack of awareness and moral education- The people, especially of the impoverished section of the society have not compulsorily been provided with enough moral and sex education. Some of them also see women as machines for producing children and there is also a lot of gender based discrimination because of the lack of values.
  1. Gender discrimination- Some of our politicians and judges have argued that a two child policy might result in an even steeper fall in the sex ratio of our country . It might result into more female foeticide in the face of following the government policy.
  2. Unsafe abortions- This policy might also result into a higher abortion rate in our country. People will move on to more unsafe abortions, again, due to the lack of knowledge and increasing poverty.
  3. Increased population contributes to GDP- The reason of India being in the third place in the whole world in terms of GDP, is its population (the manpower). Here, we can state that India’s major problem is not its population, but its failure in putting the use of the potential of that population to a more superficial use.
  4. Generation gap- Through the observation done on a case study of China, it can be concluded that a two child or one child policy can result into lesser young people (the working population) in a country and hence, the depletion of our economy.

In conclusion, while better laws are big need of the hour, better education is a bigger need of the hour ! And a resourceful environment can only be built with better values and belief system.





It is considered a cultural universal, but the definition of marriage varies between cultures and religions, and over time. Typically, it is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. A marriage ceremony is called a wedding.

Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, social, libidinal, emotional, financial, spiritual, and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender, socially determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.

Marriage has historically restricted the rights of women, who are sometimes considered the property of the husband. Around the world, primarily in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights for women within marriage (including abolishing coverture, liberalizing divorce laws, and reforming reproductive and sexual rights) and legally recognizing the marriages of interfaith, interracial, and same-sex couples.

Some poetic features of marriage:

This kind of ritual is basically called registering their love to the public and exchanging their hearts under the government protocols.

Crossing their life span like a conjoined twins with lots of love, care and understanding.

Leads to a boundless satisfaction and happiness of togetherness.



“A successful marriage requires falling in love many times, always with the same person.”



  • Directly at the start, we have expressed that connection marriage and family are inseparably joined with one another. In our conversation on connection we have truth be told examined about marriage and family. In practically all social orders marriage is a standardized social relationship of critical importance.


  • It is by and large connected with various other significant social connections. There are various kinds of conjugal associations. These have suggestions for populace organization, property relations, legacy, and so on Further, there are different guidelines and restrictions related with marriage and sexual relations.


  • The most well-known conviction even today is that the dad ought to offer his girl while she is still nagnika (in a real sense stripped), the age prior to accomplishing adolescence. Unquestionably, such a conviction has come about into kid marriage, and pre-adolescence marriage was considered devout, and it turned into a piece of Brahmanical social ethos. Virginity of a young lady turned into the focal worry of the two sides. Pre-adolescence marriage subsequently got elitist recognition and social honor. Another contributory factor, as seen by K.M. Kapadia, is the hypothesis of samskara.


  • The entire existence of both man and lady is loaded with samskara, starting from pregnancy till death. A decent number of these customs allude to cleansing and a young lady before achievement of adolescence is viewed as devout and deserving of marriage.


  • The social ideal of monogamy additionally added to early marriage. Hypergamy was no less a factor preferring kid marriage. The lower positions have not been truly worried about thought of pre-period, yet they have imitated the ideal of kid marriage from the upper stations considering it as a Sanskritic act and pointer of social distinction. Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar and Malabari all saw newborn child relationships terrible as well as believed that it prompted the horror of widowhood.

”Normalizing Acne Problems”

Acne Positivity

Skincare industries have developed at a rapid speed in this past year. Everyone is keen to try on different products to achieve their skin goals. In this havoc, we tend to forget that acne is entirely natural. A person who is struggling with acne looks at him/herself with a look of disgust. They conduce to hesitate while posting their pictures on social media in fear of trolls. Society makes that person feel inferior and different. We have become vaguely inhuman. Imagine the pain of the person who deals with acne; people pointing out his/her pimples in the middle of parties or meetings and giving them advice. We stare at their faces until they feel uncomfortable. Gradually, he/ she start to cover it with makeup which even makes their acne worse. Visualize their agony; waking up every morning looking at their acne-prone skin and feeling utterly insecure. They have to sit and scroll through social media, looking at the perfect flawless skin of models. Alas, when the bars of their insecurities rise even higher, they stop going to parties and public meetings at transform into a wallflower. The craving for flawless skin has metamorphosed our hearts. We have overlooked the fact that acne is part of growing old, growing mature. Let us support skin positivity, not skin perfection. Why do skincare advertisements show models with faultless skin; why can we not show an acne-prone skin model? Why can not we approve having skin texture, pimples, dark circles, wrinkles, and cystic acne is perfectly normal? It great to see celebrities coming forward and posting their bare face picture to normalize acne. This initiative gives us hope that perhaps there shall come a time when our orthodox society would accept skin problems. Teach your children that acne is perfectly normal and stop them when they point out others. Furthermore, if you are suffering from acne-prone skin and want to feel better, here are some tips for you:-
1) Before you try any new product, remember you should never be embarrassed or insecure about your acne because it’s perfectly natural, and you’re stunning with and without it. Embrace it; acne doesn’t make you ugly!
2) Never be upset about your colleagues or friend’s remarks said about your acne, do not let them decide how you feel. Spend time with people who make you feel good. Do not let the negative vibes surround you; it will make your acne even worse.
3) Do not top you top up your face with hundreds of skincare products. Let it breathe; give it some time to heal. Remember, there is so such thing as instant results; give your skin time to renew.
4) Reminder that acne doesn’t make you ugly; a heart full of hate does.
5) Acne can be an issue for men and women. Hence, do not feel minor having acne as a man. Share your story with others and empower them. Arrogant people are going to comment anyway; do let them take over your mental health.
Lastly, ”do not measure your worth by the quality of your skin”.


Importance of Scrutiny

The word “scrutiny” is derived from the Latin Manus, meaning “to happen”. Therefore, the management refers to the management of a particular business. It refers to the process of determining a specific, clear goals, and achieve them, by making best use of resources.

This will help the Group to achieve its Goals, the framing of factors of production, to collect and organize resources and to promote the effective integration of resources to achieve the goals . It will guide the group’s efforts to achieve pre-determined goals.

1. The Optimal use of resources:
Management to ensure the optimal use of resources, in order to prevent potential losses. This will help you make the best possible use of the resources within the limits set by your organization and its environment.

2. Effectively, leadership skills, and motivation:
In the absence of an institution or a business, the process is going to be random and non-systematic. The employees will feel more comfortable when they can see a group of people who are working day and night for the sake of the further development of the organization. The management of the group’s operations more efficient and effective. This will give the employees the opportunity to work together to achieve their aims in a coordinated manner.

3. Change and Growth are the following:
The activities of the group, is operating in a fast-paced environment with minimal supervision. Factors such as changes in technology, government policies, competition, etc.

4. In order to complete the objectives of:
The Precision of Contacts have hired people from Uttar Pradesh and gave it to them, not only work, but also in the homes, but also in memory, and their children, too. Employees, in turn, was a hard-working, and companies with high retention rates, and flexible labor force and gave them a competitive advantage.

France fines google $267 million

There’s a new trend getting heat in many countries of problems with big Tech companies like Google, Facebook, Twitter. Now recently France fined google 267 million dollars, though this amount is not big enough for a company with revenue of almost 147 billion dollars.

What has happened?

France’s competition watchdog has fined googled 220 million euros ($267 million) for abusing its market power in the online advertising industry. The French competition authority said on Monday ” Google had unfairly sent business to its own services and discriminated against the competition”. Google has agreed to pay the fine and end some of its self-preferencing practices, the watchdog said. The settlement is a final step in a series of events triggered by a 2019 complaint against google’s ad practices by several media companies over tech giant’s ad practices in France. The investigation comes after US-based news corp, French newspaper ‘Le Figaro’ and the Belgian press group ‘Rossel’ filed a complaint against Google. The investigation found that Google gave preferential treatment to its DFP advertising server and its SSP adx listing platform. Isabelle de Silva, president of the French competition authority, said in a statement that the decision is first in the world. She added that the investigation revealed processes by which google favoured itself over its competitors on both advertising servers and supply-side platforms. Isabelle also said that “this sanction and these commitments will make it possible to re-establish a level playing field for all actors, and the ability of publishers to make the most of their advertising spaces. Google announced in a blog on Monday that it will be making series of changes to its advertising technology.

As the changes are only binding in France, it is not yet clear whether Google will also implement them elsewhere in Europe or the rest of the world. Regulators across Europe are clamping down on the major US tech giants amid concerns that they wield too much power on the bloc’s 700 million-plus citizens. Last week Facebook was hit by two antitrust probes from regulators in the UK and Europe. The European Commission has launched probes into Amazon, Google and Microsoft over the last few years, while UK’s competition and markets authority has also launched probes into Google and Apple since it became an independent regulator in its own right in January following Britain’s exit from the E.U. Google also faced an antitrust case in India over abuse in smart TV’s market.





Governmental issues, basically talking, alludes to the exercises encompassing a nation’s administration. With regards to an enormous popularity-based nation like India, governmental issues turn out to be truly muddled. This Indian governmental issues paper will illuminate the legislative issues of India.

Background of Indian Politics:

Governmental issues in India, similar to some other vote based nation, includes the decision party and the resistance. In India, the arrangement of ideological groups has occurred based on a belief system. Besides, the Indian ideological groups have a place with the left and the privileged political range.

Radical legislative issues depend on the upsides of secularism, progressivism, and resistance. Interestingly, conservative legislative issues favor the benefits of being supportive of the government, methodical, moderate, and customary.

There are no meanings of left-right legislative issues anyplace in the Indian constitution. Moreover, these terms were given by analysts, creators, and writers. Additionally, it has been seen in India that a few lawmakers can change their ideological group and belief system.

In fact, for a steady popular government, it is vital that both political belief systems, the privilege and left, work next to each other. Accordingly, a few times, the nation might be under traditionalist impact while liberal goals may rule at some other point. The two significant ideological groups in India, BJP, and Congress, obviously exhibit the two distinctive political ranges of both ways separately.

Problem with Indian Politics:

For a vote-based system to work appropriately there should be a legitimate division between the political philosophies. Be that as it may, in India, the boundary between these belief systems will in general get foggy, consequently bringing about the superimposition of one philosophy over the other. This is surely not a sign of a developed majority rule government.

The political arrangement of India endures because of the conflict of various political belief systems. Besides, such conflicts can end up being very terrible. Generally essential, such conflicts are negative to the improvement of the country overall.

Different issues influence Indian governmental issues like contempt, foul play, debasement, insatiability, and bias. Because of every one of these issues, Indian legislative issues are known as a filthy game. Such issues can likewise drive numerous scholarly and prominent people to avoid Indian governmental issues.

Some of the time the Indian lawmakers may pick an ideological group, not on account of the philosophical position, but instead because of the triumphant likelihood in the races. This is a truly miserable truth of Indian governmental issues. Also, it shows that such government officials care more about their very own advantages instead of the interests of ordinary citizens.

Conclusion of Indian Politics:

Indian politics is a colourful drama and, according to some, its the great circus of the country. Despite such negative connotations, no one can doubt the enormously important role that politics has played in India. Most noteworthy, it is a crucial aspect of Indian democracy.



Be Busy Always!

Maintain your mind always busy in work, a non busy mind is harmful for the individuals and their health.

Don’t stay free engage yourself in something always because it will keep you away from the negative thoughts and it will not impact on your health.

Most of the stress and tension and negative thinking arise as our mind is free to think about things about which we are not interested to think about.

Empty mind is an evil mind which can lead you to negative impact of it. Be busy I. Your work so that no free time left to focus on. If you give less attention to that you will be happy in your life.

Happiness is the power to stay away from these all. It is the only cure to your problems. It diverts the mind. All be positive, find good in everything everywhere, focus on happiness you create and see.

Be the reason to the world for happiness. Don’t let your negativity ruin your life.

Government also books 30 crore doses of vaccine under trial.

The Centre has placed fresh orders for 44 crore vaccine doses of Covishield and Covaxin which will be available from August-December. It has also placed an order for 30 crore doses of a vaccine from Hyderabad-based Biological E for its in-development protein subunit vaccine.

“All together 74 crore doses have been secured for use from August onwards,” Dr. V.K. Paul, Chairman, National Empowered Group on Vaccination, said at a press conference on Tuesday.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi addresses the nation, in New Delhi, Monday, June 7, 2021.
Government will revert to centralised procurement of vaccines, says Modi

Until July, 53 crore vaccine doses — including 23.5 crore already administered — were expected from the two manufacturers Serum Institute of India and Bharat Biotech.

If all the estimates were to come to fruition, it would mean 127 crore doses could be available, enough to ensure India’s estimated population of about 94 crore gets one dose of a vaccine.

However, a lot of it depends on the speed at which vaccines are disbursed. After a lacklustre May that saw vaccine stocks and immunisation plummet, the number of daily doses have started to rise after May 29, touching over 30 lakh on several days. To be able to administer at least a single dose to all adults by December, over 9 crore people need to be inoculated per month.

In this April 8, 2021 photo, Prime Minister Narendra Modi receives the second dose of the Covaxin Covid-19 coronavirus vaccine, at AIIMS hospital in New Delhi.
Fact check | History shows India did not lack access to vaccines as claimed by PM Modi

The government has earmarked ₹35,000 crore towards vaccine procurement. Until May 28, it had ordered 28.5 crore doses for ₹4,488 crore according to data from the Health Ministry.

New vaccine
Biological E said it had got permission from India’s Drug Controller on April 24 to begin phase-3 trials in India.

The Phase III clinical study to be conducted in 15 sites across India would evaluate the extent and nature of immunity and safety of Biological E’s SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 vaccine in about 1,268 healthy subjects in the age range of 18 to 80 years. It is intended to be part of a larger global Phase III study, the company said in a statement.

Biological E has successfully concluded the Phase I/II trials of the vaccine candidate, which began in India in November last year. Data from the Phase I/II trial suggested that the Covid-19 vaccine was “safe, well-tolerated, and immunogenic,” according to a company statement.

The vaccine candidate has an antigen developed by the Texas Children’s Hospital Center for Vaccine Development and in-licensed from BCM Ventures, Baylor College of Medicine’s integrated commercialisation team, and Dynavax Technologies’ advanced adjuvant, CpG 1018TM.


The busy and hectic lifestyle demand complete concentration and devotion towards the works, the human beings are prone to feel unproductive and unmotivated. At times, the individual feels that they ae not making enough efforts or their efforts are not bearing the desired results, they compare their progress with other and get disappointed. As a result, they lost their motivation to work and doubt their ability to achieve the goals. We need to have self-confidence and should always make attempts to stay motivated.

Indeed, it is not possible to stay motivated or enthusiastic all the time, especially when there is nothing desirable or enthusiastic happening in your life. For instance, this pandemic and nationwide lockdown has compelled the individuals to stay at home and work from their residence. This has affected the mental health of the individuals as they have lost the motivation or inspiration to work from their home. The specific place and the environment that is created in the work space is different from working from the comfort of their home.

This article includes certain basic ways and tips that might help you to stay motivated and adopt a vigorous and productive lifestyle that make you want to work.

ACHIEVE YOUR GOALS: It is very important to set goals, your goals can be personal, financial, professional, academic, etc. The individuals who set goals have an objective to do certain work and have aim to achieve. Setting up goals motivates you to work for fulfilling your goals. Often, the individuals set up goals that are difficult to achieve, it is good to challenge yourself, but we should begin with completing small tasks so that it motivates us and encourage us to take up big things in life. It is advisable to divide you task into small parts and then set up your goals accordingly, start with completion of the short-term goals to achieve long-term success. Write down your goals and schedule your day in such a manner that you’re able to give enough time to achieve every goal and also perform other day-to-day activities.

It is difficult and demotivating when we are unable to achieve our goals, we end up giving up and doesn’t try anymore. There are few tricks that can motivate you to keep working to achieve the goals. Vision your life when you achieve your goals, imagine what would your life look like once to achieve your goals and achieved what you desire. This shall encourage you to work harder to achieve the goals. Always prepare well for the task you have to complete, even for the smallest thing.

AVERTISING YOURSELF: Advertise yourself and your work among your family and friends. The way you dress up, speak, walk, address, everything makes a great impact on your actions and achievements. However, it is not always necessary to dress up formally to work, dress simply and make up your mind in such a manner that you feel to work. The choice of your cloth accommodates your mood at a particular point of time. The way you speak and the ideas that your mind come up in your mind while a conversation also defines your personality. Talking with your friends or other people around you and able to respond to them wisely also provides motivation to an individual. Advertise the things that you learned whether through your educational institutions or the self-learned things, also talk about your talents and hobbies. It helps others to know you more and decide what kind of person are you.

BRAINSTROM YOURSELF: There are very effective ways to brainstorm yourself all at your own without any assistance from any person or group. That means you can conduct brainstorming sessions for yourself at any time of the day and as many times as you want.

Through brainstorming you work by yourself and for yourself, there are few tips to use advanced brainstorming techniques:

  • Use creative thinking to start off your approach from a different angle.
  • Spark off new ideas by getting stimuli from brainstorming and not people.
  • Challenge your current way to thinking to expand your approach.
  • Ask questions to yourself and try to answer themselves of your own. In case you’re able to answer, try to figure out the reason.
  • Don’t bound yourself with only one single idea or thought.

COMMUNICATE WITH YOURSELF AND TRY TO CONTROL YOUR EMOTIONS: No-one knows you better than you yourself do. Thus, always spend some time alone without any gadgets, communicating with yourself and doing your favorite activity or hobby. The individual should possess complete knowledge about oneself and know your weaknesses to work upon them. The first step of self-communication starts with the inner self, know yourself to know the world around you. No-one is perfect, however, self-introspection and lead to near perfection. In case you don’t have anyone around to talk to you about how you feel, try talking to yourself. You can also write down your thoughts both positive as well as negative, this helps to analyses how positive or negative ideas are staying in your mind. Later, you have to train your mind to avoid all the negative ideas or thoughts around yourself. Learn to control your emotions, getting sad at small thinks can cause overthinking and brings negative thoughts to your mind. Try to speak up the things that trouble you in spite of keep thinking about them continuously. This might be difficult but prove to be worth it when you started feeling more joyful and happy as you no more allow any negativity to bother you.

GET RID OF THE BAD HABITS: Change your habits for a better and healthy lifestyle. The human gets attracted to the things that are easy to do without knowing about there after effect. Thus, it is very important to differentiate between the good and bad habits to evaluate their effect upon our lives and control the bad activities. Here are some tips to break the bad habits and bring a long-lasting change in individual life:

  • Be clear about the habit that you feel is bad and causes ill-effect and prepare your mind to overcome that activity.
  • Set yourself a goal. For instance, if you plan to reduce your screen time, set a time limit and adhere to that strictly.
  • Try to adopt more good habits and divert your mind from the bad habits,

It gives immense satisfaction and pleasure to adopt a healthy lifestyle with good habits and a positive schedule, therefore, start from today and motivate yourself to be a better version of yourself.

Digital divide and Vaccination

Digital divide can be defined as the difference in availability and use of technology among people. It is a malady for an economy as big as India to lag in digital connectivity. The silver lining is that we are bridging the gap rapidly. The pandemic tried to undo the progress made on that front by increasing poverty and therefore affecting people’s access to digital services. This is so because when there is no income due to joblessness, all the leftover money is spent on ration and not internet package. Apart from poor, the elderly also find it difficult to operate computers or smartphones. The lack of know-how was not a problem in pre-pandemic times but now since most of the vaccination campaign has gone digital, it has become a question of survival.

COWIN application and portal also called as COVID vaccine intelligence network was developed by the National Informatics Centre, Ministry of Electronics and IT. Earlier it was used for pulse polio and other important vaccination programmes by the Ministry of health and family welfare. The usage was expanded to cater to the needs of COVID vaccination. It is the only source of registration for the vaccine. Very few offline means are available for registration. Hence those who do not have access to phones or computers cannot register and take the vaccine. The elderly and poor are the worst affected because of a lack of digital sources and know-how.
The impact of this digital divide will compound the problem that arises from COVID. It will also slow down and limit vaccination drive which increases the probability of a third wave. Newer variants can cause havoc since the more the virus spreads and thrives, the more are the chances of it getting mutated. The relief that we all want from the pandemic will become more distant since many people will not be able to access the facility. As of now, the lack of vaccine is already a big problem and in the thick of things, government won’t be able to vaccinate people fast. Thus there is no reason for the centre to make offline registration as it can create confusion and act as the last straw for inviting the third wave. However, the government is responsible to all the citizens. Everyone should have a fair chance of accessing the vaccine despite the shortcoming they face. Then what are the possible solutions?
Vaccination centres should have provision for on the spot registration. This will not only help in giving people who are poor or who do not have phones to access the vaccine but will also curb the wastage of the vaccine. Doorstep vaccinations similar to doorstep testing in poor localities is another way. Certificate can be given to people or the officials who are providing vaccine can keep a digital record of the number of doses given to an individual. Delhi recently launched “Jaha vote, haha vaccine” campaign to use the sites of polling for vaccination.
Unprecedented times need unprecedented solutions. India is not fully digitalised. A large population remained aloof when the digital wave struck India. Therefore, vaccination policies should be more holistic in approach to reach the majority of the citizens as soon as possible.

Self respect

A healthy level of self respect enables you to have the confidence to set firm boundaries .it means knowing what you stand for and what your values are ,and being accepting of both your strengths and weakness .self respect is an inner quality that each individual must take time to develop

self rwspect is defined as holding yourself in esteem and believing that you are good and worthy of being treated well .An example of self respect is when you know you deserve to be treated right and as a result you do not tolerate others lying to you are treated you unfairly .

Self respect means having confidence in yourself and behaving with grace,honor,and dignity ,A person with self respect doesnt allow others to treat them badly ,and would rather not .

self respect is all about treating yourself the way you want other to treat you

The Omnipotence of Death

We glorify power, fame and strength when they don’t even stand a chance before the most powerful force, death. In life, there are ups and downs, the powerful and the powerless, rich and poor. But death ultimately levels all these differences and makes everything equal.

The poem ‘Death The Leveller’ by J. Shirley starts with stating that all the glories of humans are mere shadows which appear and disappear after some time. They do not make up an essential part of human life.  This is because there is nothing that can defend us from our fate. We can’t fight against it. When Death lays his cold hand on Kings, they can’t protect themselves and their sceptre and crown are ought to tumble down. The most powerful of all the kings is turned to dust and made equal with the poorest peasant on death. The sceptre and crown are as powerless as scythe and spade.

The glories of our blood and state

Are shadows, not substantial things;

There is no armour against Fate;

Death lays his icy hand on kings:

Sceptre and Crown

Must tumble down,

And in the dust be equal made

With the poor crooked scythe and spade.

The second stanza gives the picture of men in armour. Men fight battles and rejoice fame from killing their foes. Such battles boast bravery, chivalry, and courage. But even the strongest soldier must yield to death. No matter how brave he fights death, sooner or later, he must surrender to fate. He ceases breathing as death slowly creeps up to this captive of fate. Thus, even the strongest soldier is also rendered powerless by death.

Some men with swords may reap the field,

And plant fresh laurels where they kill:

But their strong nerves at last must yield;

They tame but one another still:

Early or late

They stoop to fate,

And must give up their murmuring breath

When they, pale captives, creep to death.

The flowers sing no more of the celebrated deeds once the garland withers. We witness everyone and everything coming to stillness in Death’s kingdom. The word ‘victor-victim’ refers to all the conquerors, emperors, and victors who are victims of Death. The victor-victims bleed and finally lie dead in their cold tomb. Though all turns to nothing, the only thing, which can bloom and spread fragrance, is the actions and good deeds of people who had led a just life. 

The garlands wither on your brow,

Then boast no more your mighty deeds!

Upon Death’s purple altar now

See where the victor-victim bleeds.

Your heads must come

To the cold tomb:

Only the actions of the just

Smell sweet and blossom in their dust.

The only thing which stands the test  of time is the deeds of selflessness and service to fellow beings. Thus, this poem has a moralising tone and shows the omnipotence of death.

Healthy Fast Food

Meta Description: This article is brief about a well-balanced diet in the fast-food menu. And how to find healthier options hidden in the fast-food diet.

Why is fast food is healthy? 

Following a healthy diet when eating regularly, fast food items are very difficult to maintain a balanced diet. However, it contains lots of calories and unwanted fats, sodium. It also tends to be low in nutrients and almost lacking in vitamins, fiber.

It doesn’t matter that we completely avoid fast food, but fast food can hit the spot when we are starving on the run. It’s tasty and also cheap and mainly best of all, convenient. But it’s okay to eat fast food now and then. But, to stay healthy, you can’t make it a regular habit.

How can you keep your diet in fast food?

The average person eats approx 800 calories per fast food meal. These are some suggestions to follow the diet :

1. Focus on adding fewer calories items.

2. Avoid “combo meals.”

3. Avoid soft drinks. Instead, choose diet soda or water.

4. Skip the cheese, sauces, bacon, mayonnaise.

5. Choose low-fat ice creams and avoid pies and turnovers.

6. Choose grilled item than fried.

7. Keep the salad dressing on the side. Dip your fork in before each bite, 

 and scoop some greens. 

8. Limit your visits to a fast-food restaurant to no more than twice a week.

9. Try to eat more protein items.

10. Always watch your sodium intake

We may be busy, but we have to take care of our health, and we must exercise at least 30 minutes daily, It boosts our energy and maintains health well balanced. Our body is a beautiful machine that works best, if taken care of properly. Eating fast food has been linked to diseases like obesity, high cholesterol, depression, etc. put your effort to eat healthy food maximum and mostly avoid fast food and make your plans properly.

Maroju Sanjana

A contemporary discrepancy among Alligators and Crocodiles & The Ten Foot long Crocodile has been discovered!

Whether alligators have evolved from crocodiles? Is it true or not?

The distinctions are little, and not something you could without much of a stretch spot in nature. In any case, the finding may give experiences into the manners by which the two reptiles move. The examination was distributed a week ago in the diary Royal Society Open Science. The most clear approach to observe the two reptiles is to gaze intently at their evil noses. Gators have U-molded countenances that are wide and short, while crocodiles have slim practically V-formed gags. Furthermore, in case you’re adequately courageous, look at their chompers. At the point when a crocodile shuts its mouth, you will in general see just its upper teeth. Crocodiles then again streak an excited smile with their top and base teeth joining. 

A considerable lot of the contrasts between the two are placed on their heads and mouths. Presently, scientists from Japan have distinguished what they accept to be another element that separates the reptiles: Alligators will in general have more limited humerus bones in their forelimbs and more limited femurs in their rear appendages than crocodiles, the group detailed a week ago. 

This could help to clarify contrasts in their environment and velocity, including the unusual certainty that, while little crocodiles have been seen to bound and jog, gators have not. Julia Molnar said the appendage contrasts can influence things like speed and influence in the creatures.

The figure represents the skeletal structure of the crocodile.

The figure represents the skeletal structure of the alligator.

Despite the fact that they look astoundingly comparative, gators and crocodiles veered developmentally during the Late Cretaceous time. The two reptiles additionally endure the mass eradication occasion that cleared out the dinosaurs, and from that point forward have remained moderately unaltered. That incorporates the distinctions found in their appendage extents. Crocodiles would in general have longer humerus bones and femur bones than gators. That recommends that the muscles connected to those bones broadened farther on crocodiles than on gators. The newfound contrast isn’t close to as evident as the distinctions found in the reptiles’ noses.

Philip Hall, the University of Florida specialist examining if the island’s crocodiles had a place with two distinct species, kicked the bucket before he could complete his work. Presently, scientists have wrapped up the work that Hall started and their new investigation shows that he was right.But the huge island north of Australia is isolated by a mountain range, making unmistakable territories in the north and south. The analysts considered how extraordinary the crocodiles may be in these conditions.  Philip Hall truly gave the fascinating benchmark work on these crocodiles, particularly for natural information. “Our work adds to this with extra morphological knowledge into how particular these two types of crocodiles.They broke down 51 skulls having a place with the New Guinea Crocodile to search for contrasts between ones that lived in the north of the island versus the south. They contemplated examples from seven diverse exhibition hall assortments. A large number of the skulls were 90 years of age. What’s more, the crocodiles they had a place with could arrive at ten feet long.

What We’ve Learned From Over a Year of COVID ?

=>In the year since COVID-19 emerged, the world has seen 85 million cases of the disease and counting.

    =>The pandemic showed the power of collaboration to create solutions quickly.

    =>Such collaborations can help protect the world against the future crises.

On 31 December 2019, the world welcomed a new year unaware that several cases of viral pneumonia of an unknown cause had emerged in the Chinese city of Wuhan. Forty-four people were ill, 11 – severely – and those cases were reported to World Health Organization’s Country Office.

Those few cases of COVID-19 grew to a few hundred and then to a few thousand until that trickle became a flood, spilling out of mainland China and spreading across the globe. Just one year later, we’ve amassed 85 million cases and counting.

We’ve learned a lot during the past year about how to address global crises, but in my mind, one lesson cannot be ignored: The need for more strategic collaborations across institutions and sectors.

The power of collaboration was proven again and again. Shortly after the virus got its name, Chinese researchers published the first sequence of its genome. To widen its use, IBM scientists later processed all sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes, resulting in more than three million sequences – genomes, genes, proteins and other molecules. They added this data to IBM’s Functional Genomics Platform – a repository for researchers working to identify molecular targets for drug design, test development and treatment.

That platform now sports more than 300 million biological sequences extracted from various microbial genomes, with the coronavirus’s genome the newest kid on the block. It’s all open source – another key ingredient for success, along with collaborations.

Nearly a year after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a global pandemic, we have been hearing more hopeful news as governments have begun distributing vaccines to certain priority groups, including healthcare providers, first responders and at-risk individuals,including those over the age of 65 or under 65 with certain underlying conditions.


Current Treatments for COVID-19

There have been several breakthroughs this past year in how doctors treat COVID-19. Remdesivir, for example, is an antiviral given by intravenous infusion in the hospital and was the first drug the FDA approved to treat COVID-19. It has been shown to shorten the time to recovery in several patients with severe COVID-19.

The FDA has also granted an emergency-use authorization for the rheumatoid arthritis drug baricitinib to treat some cases of the virus by reducing inflammation. Emergency-use authorization was also granted for convalescent plasma therapy to treat COVID-19. Convalescent plasma is blood donated by people who’ve recovered from COVID-19, and doctors use it as a type of immune-based therapy.

Common Symptoms of COVID-19

There has been a lot of discourse about all the symptoms associated with COVID-19. Over the last year, the CDC has compiled a list of the most common ones people reported, including:

*Fever or chills


*Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing


*Muscle or body aches


*New loss of taste or smell

*Sore throat

*Congestion or runny nose

*Nausea or vomiting


If you or a loved one start to experience any of these symptoms 2-14 days after potential exposure to the virus, it’s vital to take a test and begin self-isolating immediately.

What to Do If You Are Sick With COVID-19

If you have tested positive for COVID-19 or have symptoms and are awaiting test results, the best thing to do is stay home and take care of yourself. It’s also important to notify everyone with whom you have been in close contact. An infected person can spread the virus up to 48 hours before they start showing symptoms.

While you are isolating at home, be sure to stay rested and hydrated. Additionally, clean and disinfect surfaces every day and avoid sharing personal household items, such as dishes, towels, and linens.It’s also highly important to monitor your health. Call 911 if you or a loved one experience any of the following symptoms:

*Trouble breathing

*Persistent pain or pressure in the chest

*New confusion

*Inability to wake or stay awake

*Bluish lips or face .

When to End or Reduce Quarantine ?

Whether you tested positive without experiencing any symptoms or you no longer feel sick, there are several situations in which you may be wondering if it’s safe to leave your home after self-isolation. By ending your self-isolation correctly and safely, you protect not only yourself from reinfection but also those around you from the spread of the virus.






Government allows oxygen production for industrial use with rider

Bengaluru city daily counts of covid .19 positive cases dropped below 2000 after two months of continuous lockdown from April to June it decreased to2,000 cases per day, 199 deaths in karnataka the government started planning to produce oxygen production and increased oxygen supply daily in the state so the state government planned a separate committee to talk with big industries has given a allowance permission so industries to produce oxygen production with big industry like HMT,BEL,TATA,WiPRO,chemical industries, and many industries have came forward to produce oxygen production in the stat e from past many days corona cases getting reduced daily due that some restrictions are made to people even after lockdown people should follow all the covid procedures like wearing mask, keeping six feet social distance in public following rules in the public places and busses should allow 50% occupancy •••in hotels, park and malls the cases in corona in india is 86,498 the government allows industries to manufacture oxygen to manufacture oxygen for industrial purpose provided they ensure 600mt of liquid oxygen for covid treatment coaxing trials on Bengaluru begins for mysuru coronavirus pandemic shakes the entire countries the countries like Africa, Brazil,India. Is recovering from corona cases many celebrities are being following as awareness among the people so due to that serial and tv shows has been stopped now covid case I’d less so all is started working with protocol and regulations and many celebrities are doing awareness among the people due to covid children are suffering a lot…..but many of them are doing online business at home business selling of dress hand made dress at home at Facebook, Instagram and they are selling their homemade business and handicraft industries are being widely used in current situations so that the industries is being came down in loss no income no salary to pay for employees and many of them came to street without employment so in this situation many of themstarted their own channel 99% of them are now running their own YouTube channel this a changed many students life together.. the challenge faced by many youngest with their lifenis changed during lockdown has been made a big difference in many life that the students and youngest life has been changed that which the critical thinking subjects will be provided instead of wasting time on the action not to used the same everyone has different characters some of them show care for their children but difference had a made in them this is a really bad between two people around world shocked this news that designers job have been changed their job become online business is the best busses industries have changed their productivity more by day this changes have become because of covid changed life of my people that this a current situations is a big changes in the world is the hig changed many organizations have Started focusing on to save environmental at the cost of planting trees across the country ..trees environment is biggest changes in the nature is the biggest change bangalore is the silicon Valley with many plants,and gardencity of indianis bangalore…….


Business is nothing but an activity that involves purchase and sale of goods and services with a strong motive to earn a ‘profit’. It mainly involves satisfying societal needs while fulfilling one’s own needs. One can immediately venture into business provided he / she has an idea of what stream of business they are planning to start with. There are various types of industries to start your business: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary industry industries.

Primary industries deal with production of natural resources and their extraction; Secondary industries deal with the manufacture of raw materials and construction of infrastructure; Tertiary industries deal with provision of support system to primary and secondary industries in form of banking, insurance, communication and other services.

Before starting the business, ensure the availability of these services that supplement your business:

  • Transportation and Communication: There are chances that the production of goods might not take place near the market place. Transportation is used for moving raw materials to the production area and movement of final goods from warehouses to market. Communication is needed for exchange of information.
  • Banking and Finance: The bloodline of the business is funds. Thus without financial support, business cannot last long.
  • Warehouses: The goods produced are generally stored because they are not sold soon after production. Warehousing prevent the loss or damage to the product.
  • Insurance: A business always involves risks such damage to goods, fire accidents and theft. To protect their goods, businessmen generally insure their goods against various risks. A premium amount is paid to keep them insured and in the event of loss, compensation is provided by the insurance company.
  • Advertising: This is an important tool for every trader to induce customers to buy their products. It is impossible for every trader to personally contact each an every person to endorse his product. Advertising helps to gain attention of the large mass of people and provide each of them a clarity and usefulness of a product.


  • Selection of business line: This is the first and foremost step for starting your business. It deals with selecting that category that suits your business goals.
  • Scale of operation: This decision deals with deciding on whether the entrepreneur will on a large scale or small scale of operation depending upon the type of business and risks associated.
  • Form of ownership: The business organisation can be sole proprietorship (single owner) or partnership (many owners) or even a joint stock company. This depends on type of business, size of business, the capital requirements and legal requirements.
  • Location to set up: The next step is to plan where the business will be located. A mistake here can lead to increased cost of production and transportation. One should also ensure availability of labour force nearby if the company needs human capital.
  • Financing the preposition: Arranging capital is needed as per the requirements of the business. Capital is needed for procuring fixed assets like land, building and machinery. Capital is also need for fulfilling day to day requirements.
  • Infrastructure facilities: Facilities like machinery, equipment, land and building are important to support a business.
  • Plant layout: Once the physical facilities are decided, there is need for a plan to be sketched about the physical arrangement of these facilities.
  • Labour force: Every business is in need of both skilled and unskilled labour to covert raw materials to desired output.
  • Tax planning: The entrepreneur must also be aware of the various tax laws that would have an impact his decisions.
  • Launching the enterprise: This step is the about the actual launch of the enterprise after completing various legal formalities and starting the production.

Relevant links:

reduce wasted food by feeding hungry people

We should all provide food for the poor. So many families die everyday of starvation while we waste our food. If we do’t have food to keep us moving and staying healthy its not possible to work and make a living for ourselves and our families. Everyone should have the right to live a healthy life especially when there are tones of food being wasted every year. Thousands of people are dying because of hunger. No one deserves to go through the main of starvation, thefts why we should all provide food for the poor. All human beings need food to survive and there are so many people who wasted their food every day. Food is one of the main things needed in life and some people are going without it. One million children under the age of five to die (45%) every year and about one out of six children in developing countries are underweight. If wealthier people have a large amount of food and money they should help provide the amount of nutrition needed to lower the risk of hillier dying around the world. Everything we eat does something to our body in some way and the nutrition in the food we eat helps the cells in our bodies to execute their relevant functions. We all need to survive and because people are dying of starvation and we need to help the people in need. There is more than enough food being produced in the world to feed everyone.


Large manufactures, supermarkets chains, wholesalers, farmers, food brokers, and organized community food drives typically give food to food banks. Restaurants, caterers, corporate dining rooms, hotels, and other food establishments promptly distribute perishable and prepared foods to hungry people in their communities. Many food banks and food rescue organizations will pick up food donations free of charge, saving donors time and money. Many non-perishable and unspoiled perishable foods can be donated to local food banks, soup kitchens, pantries, and shelters if the transactions is managed properly.


  • Food pantries, food banks and food rescue programs are available across the country to collect food are redistribute it to those in need.
  • Food banks are community based, professional organizations that collect food from a variety of sources and save the food in warehouses. The food bank then distribute the food to hungry families and individuals through a variety of emergency food assistance agencies, such as a soup kitchen, youth or senior centers, shelters and pantries. Most food banks tend to collect nonperishable foods such as canned goods because they can be stored for a longer time.
  • Food rescue organizations operate food rescue programming, which includes the retrieval of excess food from donors and/or the delivery of donated food directly to clients or to other organizations that redistribute food to clients. These organizations may also offer other programming, such as educational or skills training and thee repurposing of donated food into meals or other food products, etc., and many of them apply software solutions, like apps, to coordinate the redistribution of excess food by volunteers or other organizations.


  • Leverage your existing relationships with food banks to donate food after events.
  • Reach out your local grocers, restaurants, venues or schools to suggest that they could donate wholesome food that will be waste.
  • Create a schedule for pick up of donated food from the organization or business on the weekly or monthly basis.
  • Use donated food to feed the hungry or elderly of your community or for events held at your facility.
  • Become a volunteer for a food rescue organization to help transport food from donors to food recipient organizations.


Origin of short story

Origins. The evolution of the short story first began before humans could write. … Consequently, many of the oldest narratives in the world, such as the ancient Babylonian tale the Epic of Gilgamesh, are in verse.

                           The earliest versions of the American short story can be traced back to Germany where writers such Heinrich von Kleist, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Ludwig Tieck were popularizing a hybrid narrative art form that combined the sketch and the tale

The father of the short story                   

Guy de Maupassant

Biography   of Guy de Maupassant, Father of the Short Story. Esther Lombardi, M.A., is a journalist who has covered books and literature for over twenty years


       Genre is a style or category of art, music, or literature. As an author, genre controls what you write and how you write it. It describes the style and focus of the novel you write. Genres give you blueprints for different types of stories.Jan 15, 2016

    Books form a genre when, according to their readers, they contain a sufficient number of similar words to take them together as a group in contrast to books that do not have a sufficient number of those similar words. … The way in which the words are distributed over books may indicate their genre– specific value.

               The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle. Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, and epic (a mixture of dialogue and narrative).


        1 .Anton Chekhov. Chekhov wrote from every point of view: men,     women, old, young, and rich, poor. ..

         2. Katherine Mansfield. Her stories are very mysterious to me. …

         3. Isaac Babel. Babel was a master of compression. …

         4. Mavis Gallant. She is just a consummate stylist. …

         5. John Cheever. …

         6, James Baldwin. …

         7. Deborah Eisenberg. …

         8. Roberto Bolaño.

Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short-story writer who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics, and his best short stories are held in high esteem by writers and critics.

            Chekhov had at first written stories to earn money, but as his artistic ambition grew, he made formal innovations which have influenced the evolution of the modern short story


  Katherine Mansfield

     Kathleen Mansfield Murry 14 October 1888 – 9 January 1923) was a prominent modernist writer who was born and brought up in New Zealand. She wrote short stories and poetry under the pen name Katherine Mansfield. When she was 19, she left colonial New Zealand and settled in England, where she became a friend of D. H. LawrenceVirginia WoolfOttoline Morrell and others in the orbit of the Bloomsbury Group. Mansfield was diagnosed with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in 1917 and she died in France aged 34.









      Isaac Babel

           Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel (Russian:  13 July  1 July] 1894 – 27 January 1940) was a Russian writer, journalist, playwright, and literary translator. He is best known as the author of Red CavalryStory of My Dovecote and The Odessa Tales—stories from the life of Jewish gangsters from Odessa led by Benya Krik (prototype – Mishka Yaponchik. He has been acclaimed as “the greatest prose writer of Russian Jewry”. Babel was arrested by the NKVD on 15 May 1939 on fabricated charges of terrorism and espionage, and executed on 27 January 1940.










Mavis Gallant

            Mavis Leslie de Trafford GallantCC, née Young (11 August 1922 – 18 February 2014), was a Canadian writer who spent much of her life and career in France. Best known as a short story writer, she also published novels, plays and essays.










  John Cheever

                  John William Cheever (May 27, 1912 – June 18, 1982) was an American novelist and short story writer. He is sometimes called “the Chekhov of the suburbs. “His fiction is mostly set in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, the Westchester suburbs, old New England villages based on various South Shore towns around Quincy, Massachusetts, where he was born, and Italy, especially Rome. His short stories included “The Enormous Radio“, “Goodbye, My Brother”, “The Five-Forty-Eight“, “The Country Husband”, and “The Swimmer“, and he also wrote four novels, comprising The Wapshot Chronicle (National Book Award, 1958), The Wapshot Scandal (William Dean Howells Medal, 1965), Bullet Park (1969), Falconer (1977) and a novella Oh What a Paradise It Seems (1982).

James Baldwin

           James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelistplaywrightessayistpoet, and activist. His essays, as collected in Notes of a Native Son (1955), explore intricacies of racial, sexual, and class distinctions in Western society, most notably in regard to the mid-twentieth-century United States. Some of Baldwin’s essays are book-length, including The Fire Next Time (1963), No Name in the Street (1972), and The Devil Finds Work (1976). An unfinished manuscriptRemember This House, was expanded and adapted for cinema as the Academy Award–nominated documentary film I Am Not Your Negro (2016). One of his novels, If Beale Street Could Talk, was adapted into an Academy-Award-winning dramatic film of the same name in 2018, directed and produced by Barry Jenkins.

Deborah Eisenberg

Eisenberg was born in Winnetka, Illinois. Her family was Jewish.[2] She grew up in suburban Chicago, Illinois, and moved to New York City in the late 1960s. Eisenberg has written five collections of stories: Transactions in a Foreign Currency (1986), Under the 82nd Airborne (1992), All Around Atlantis (1997), Twilight of the Superheroes (2006), and Your Duck Is My Duck (2018). Ben Marcus, reviewing Twilight of the Superheroes for The New York Times Book Review, called Eisenberg “one of the most important fiction writers now at work. This work is great.”[6] Her first two story collections were republished in one volume as The Work (So Far) of Deborah Eisenberg (1997).[7] Her first four collections were subsequently reprinted in The Collected Stories of Deborah Eisenberg (2010).[8]

Roberto Bolaño

Roberto Bolaño Ávalos (Spanish: [roˈβeɾto βoˈlaɲo ˈaβalos] ( listen); 28 April 1953 – 15 July 2003) was a Chilean novelist, short-story writer, poet and essayist. In 1999, Bolaño won the Rómulo Gallegos Prize for his novel Los detectives salvajes (The Savage Detectives), and in 2008 he was posthumously awarded the National Book Critics Circle Award for Fiction for his novel 2666, which was described by board member Marcela Valdes as a “work so rich and dazzling that it will surely draw readers and scholars for ages”.[1] The New York Times described him as “the most significant Latin American literary voice of his generation”


 The short story is usually concerned with a single effect conveyed in only one or a few significant episodes or scenes. The form encourages economy of setting, concise narrative, and the omission of a complex plot; character is disclosed in action and dramatic encounter but is seldom fully developed. Despite its relatively limited scope, though, a short story is often judged by its ability to provide a “complete” or satisfying treatment of its characters and subject.

Before the 19th century the short story was not generally regarded as a distinct literary form. But although in this sense it may seem to be a uniquely modern genre, the fact is that short prose fiction is nearly as old as language itself. Throughout history humankind has enjoyed various types of brief narratives: jests, anecdotes, studied digressions, short allegorical romances, moralizing fairy tales, short myths, and abbreviated historical legends. None of these constitutes a short story as it has been defined since the 19th century, but they do make up a large part of the milieu from which the modern short story emerged.

A Wondrous Tale by R.J Palacio

“My name is August.

I won’t describe what I look like.

Whatever you’re thinking,

it’s probably worse.”


This is what is written on the back of the book named ‘Wonder’ by R.J Palacio. It’s a powerful book about a simple boy, with a family going to school watching movies, playing games just like all the other kids. The only difference is how he looks.

“His eyes are about an inch below where they should be on his face, almost to halfway down his cheeks. He doesn’t have eyebrows, and the top of his eyelids are always closed. He doesn’t have cheekbones. Sometimes, people assume he’s been burnt in a fire.” – Via, Part two.

August Pullman is a ten year old buy who has certain facial anomalies since birth. He is an ordinary boy who loves playing XBox and is a die hard fan of Star Wars. He even sports a Padawan braid, inspired by the movies. But despite the 27 operations done on his face, he will never look normal. This story is a breathtaking and emotional journey of how August survives high school and faces the ups and downs during the year, owing to his face, and many people overlooking his intelligence and funny personality just because of his external features.

If you read the book, you will be hooked from the very start. It explores the different habits and pet peeves of August and how his family always cheers his up and makes him burst into fits of laughter. Initially, August was scared to go to school, afraid of how people would react. He had been homeschooled since birth and this would be a new change for him.

This book is a story about a boy who is judged at, stared at, mocked at by society. At first, I thought it would be a sad book, describing the mental and physical challenges this boy faced in every day things. But, it’s much much more than that. The book is infused with humor and kindness and it leaves you feeling inspired.

August us bullied in school by a bunch of guys, but his true friends stick to him till the end. It shows that true bonds can make all the bad go away. This story also has different point of views. One important aspect of this story was Via, August’s older sister. She has always been protective of August, and get’s angry whenever people start pointing and staring at him. But at the same time, she also feels like a child not receiving any attention from her parents because they are so busy looking after August. It shows the bittersweet relationship between sibling and despite all the fights and arguments, this bond stays stronger than ever.

This book clearly states that there are no good guys or bad guys. There are just people, and the way they are shaped. Everyone’s conscious always says the right thing, the difference is what voice they listen to. The bully in this story makes fun of August and mocks him due to his face and his braid, but this stems from his own feelings of resentment and anger. August was just a medium to get it all out. In the end, he is just a kid trying to figure out life.

I would recommend this book to all people. This book traverses all boundaries of age, gender, religion and makes us believe in humanity again. An intriguing book about loyalty and friendship, this book is will always be my favorite. Hope it creates an impact of anyone who reads it.

“You can’t blend in

when you were born to stand out” -R.J Palacio

Rich stay rich, poor stay poor: why?

We always hear the phrase, “Why bother when the rich get richer and the poor get poorer?”

The ignorance of the Indian population is the reason why the poverty line in India stays consistent. We can be proud of all the other things being consistent, the economy, the production level, the trade and commerce etc. but along with that the poverty line also is something which we need to take care of.

A normal household in the country is not aware of how much tax they pay for every article of thing they buy, be it direct or indirect. The only thing they worry about is the price level but they never bother to think about the how and why. We all need to accept that before GST came into effect we didn’t know about how our tax was being used up.

GST caused a huge stir because that was when people started to really notice the tax structure. Of course, like any other democratic country, there were support and to the equal amount, opposition. But one thing is clear, when we hear the name of our Hon’ble PM the first thing that comes to our mind is GST and Demonetization.

There is no need to mention the effect of the continuous lockdown on the daily workers. We should  remember that this was also the time when the online shopping sky-rocketed. So the usual things that was bought in the market in person was bought through the internet giants, such as Amazon and Flipkart.

We know that majority of our country’s population is either middle class or lower middle class. Let us for example take that 50% of this household have access to the internet and know how to shop online. What about the remaining 50%? They had to depend upon the door to door delivery of groceries by the government, the occasional unlock to stock up the essentials and the distribution of produce in the ration shops.

There is a study that reveals that only 27% of what we pay for the groceries and vegetables reach the actual farmers. So where does the rest go? That is where our term of “Rich gets Richer” comes into play. The tertiary sectors like the delivery services, the transport services, the wholesale buyers and many, many more get the money as commission. Now, who are these tertiary services? They are already the giants who have many customers and many alliances with many farmers.

When you think of the farmers, they have only limited option to sell their produce but the middlemen have many outlets to sell the produce. So the farmers are forced to sell to the price quoted by the tertiary companies. And when they protest, the government takes bazillion years to even hear the pleas.

Just imagine if the farmers go on strike and don’t give you food. We would be done for. Every human being and every profession needs the respect that they deserve. So, next time whenever you come across an old man or woman selling a meagre produce, even if you don’t need them, give them the word comfort, trust me, they would be more than willing to talk to you about their plight. And if you are willing to buy from them, don’t bargain. They are still working truthfully at their age, when we are sitting at home. Think wisely.

Beauty of nature

Nature The word nature is a commonly used word.


This word is used in a variety of contexts. Perhaps the most important reference is the multiple species of plants, animals, wildlife, and all that the earth contains from topography such as mountains, valleys, beaches, and seas. , And forests. The beauty of nature The nature of man is characterized by its beauty resulting mainly from the wonderful diversity of living organisms that exist in various parts of the earth, as well as the unique terrain of mountains, water, plateaus and forests. Each of these features is distinguished by a special beauty that distinguishes it from Other terrain, and this great diversity gave people wide spaces to seek calm, tranquility, and tranquility.
Man by nature is a creature eager to taste beauty, and there is nothing more beautiful than nature.
The manifestations of the beauty of nature for the beauty of nature are many manifestations.
Wherever a person turns his face he will inevitably find a manifestation of these appearances.
Perhaps the most striking of these is the unique diversity in the colors around us, which created a wonderful natural painting. Other manifestations include variations in sizes, shapes, even among the creatures of the same species.
On the other hand, one of the greatest manifestations of nature’s beauty is the beautiful smells of certain creatures, such as flowers, flowers, and certain kinds of fruits, especially citrus, Which is accompanied by seasons and certain times; like the smell of the earth after the rain.
The beauty of nature around us The beauty of nature around us is one of the greatest blessings of God on us.
This beauty allows us to choose places and many destinations for the sake of rest, recreation and the best of times.
The beauty of nature has always been the first inspiration for artists and creators around the world, This is evidenced by the vast number of works of art, poetry and music that have attracted people around the world, and which revolve around the beauty and charm of nature.
The beauty of nature is an important source of income for many countries of the world, natural places are a tourist attraction that helps countries to improve their economic level, and thus emerged many of the areas that are famous for their natural beauty unspeakable, the most prominent of these areas: the Amazon River , The Dead Sea, the Jeita Grotto, Mount Teppel, the Puerto Princesa River, the Iguazu Falls, and others. A global competition to select the seven natural wonders has been held, and perhaps the most notable achievement of this list is the global spotlight on some areas that have not been so popular, thus contributing to a greater number of visitors than ever before.

Farmer convoys from Haryana head to protest sites

        Farmer convoys

from Haryana head to

protest sites










A large number of farmers in a convoy of hundreds of vehicles from Haryana’s Ambala reached the farmer unions’ protest site at Singhu border in New Delhi on Sunday. The unions claimed that more batches of farmers from Haryana were expected to join the protest sites in the days to come. The Samyukt Kisan Morcha, in a press statement, claimed that a large number of protestors continued to pour into the protest sites at Singhu border, Tikri border, Ghazipur and other locations. “While the spin doctors of BJP continue to try to create an image of dwindling numbers at the protest sites, the government should know that quite the opposite is the case, and all protest sites are witnessing a huge surge of protestors joining the sites,” said the press statement. Amid continued stalemate over withdrawal of cases against farmer leaders and their release in Harayana’s Fatehabad, the SKM has now given a call for a four-hour sit-in agitation outside police stations across Haryana on June 7.

Government arrogance of The SKM has made an appeal to the farmers from Sirsa, Fatehabad, Jind and Hisar, to assemble in large numbers at Sadar Police Station in Tohana to show collective strength, while farmers of other districts would protest at their respective local police stations.Led by several SKM leaders, including Mr. Yadav, Gurnam Singh Charuni, Rakesh Tikait and Yudhvir Singh, hundreds of farmers have been camping at Sadar Police Station in Tohana since Saturday demanding the withdrawal of cases against farmer leaders and thr release of Ravi Azad and Vikas Sisar. The matter pertains to the farmers protest against Jannayak Janata Party MLA Devender Babli this past week.The agitating farmers, including women, have pitched tents outside the police station and the SKM leaders have announced that they would not budge from the station until the two arrested farmer leaders are released and cases are withdrawn.Several meetings have been held with the local administration, but there is no breakthrough. Mr. Yadav claimed that they held six hours of talks with the district administration since Saturday, but it remained inconclusive.


By : G Gnana Priya dharshini

How a PURPLE DYE changed the world

In the year 1800s, purple color was used to be a sign of wealth, richness & being elite. Only people of royal families were the ones who wore purple-coloured clothes, common people were abolished and even punished if they even dared to wear purple-coloured clothes. Queen Elizabeth I passed orders saying that only close members of royal families can wear purple. Hence, there was a huge discrimination between the common families and the royal families.

This was because, at that time purple dye was extracted from sea snails and there was no other natural resource for extraction of purple dye. These sea snails have special glands called hypobranchial glands for production ink and mucous. The shell of these sea snails was broken and these special glands were taken out and oxidized to produced purple. The dye obtained after killing so many sea snails was really less comparatively and the whole process may sound easy but was really exhaustive also, there was an awful smell produced when all these procedures were conducted in real. All these things added up making purple dye an expensive commodity like gold and diamond today.

The second part of this story takes place when in the year 1860s there was a wide spread of malaria in the Britain and to treat malaria quinine was needed. Quinine at that time was only grown in South Africa and the British Government had to spend a lot of their asset to buy and transport quinine from South Africa to Britain. Hence, the British Government passed orders saying that whoever will produce synthetic quinine in Britain will get rewarded. All the scientists at that time started working in laboratories day and night to produce synthetic quinine.

One of the scientists of that time William Henry Perkin who was 19-year-old, was also working in a laboratory doing experiments to produce synthetic quinine, but he was miserably failing and was not getting a futile result.

One fine day, he again tried doing his experiments using crude and aniline and accidently something black in color was formed in the bottom of his test tube. He then tried to wash his test using water but the black substance was not cleaning out he then tried using alcohol. The result changed the history, when he added alcohol to the test tube the product in the test tube turned purple.

William, then realized he can sell his purple color as synthetic purple dye. William’s dye has now become the color of century. The color has opened many frontiers, William has now become one of the richest man of his time, the bridge between the rich and the poor was completely removed, his synthetic dye was the first ever made synthetic dye and was a pioneer for biological discoveries also we cannot ignore the fact how his single experiment saved lives of thousands of snails.

And, that is how a purple dye changed the world.

Self Respect

A heallthy level of self respect enables you to have the confident to set firm boundaries .it means knowing what you stand for and what your values are,and being accepting both your strength and weakness .self respect is an inner quality that each individual must take time to develop .self respecf is defined as holding yourself in esteem and believing that you are good and worthy of being treated well.An example of self respect is when you know you deservd to be treated right an as a result you do not tolerate ithers lying to you or treating you unfairly.self respect means having confidence in yourself and behaving with grace,honour,and dignity.A person with self respect doesnt allow other to treat them badly ,and would rather not associate with.self respect is all about treating yourself the way you want others to treat you.

Is marriage the end of career ?

Marriage is a custom which is followed by every section of our society.. It is a tradition to connect two people with rituals performing at the marriage by the priest or their religious head. In India, Marriage holds a very high importance in everyone’s life. It is considered that marriage is not only of two people but of  two families. Families who connect with each other and have common view points. Everybody wants their daughter’s to get married to a person who is responsible, respectful and have money to fulfill their daughter’s wish. Instead of Parents forcing their child to get married, they should push them in the direction to pursue their career ahead and shine brightest among all .

Marriage is a responsibility which puts a lot of pressure on two young ones who are not at the stage of handling it. The Education makes us more qualified to know the difference between our responsibility and desire. It gives us a power to take right decisions at the right time. Since very long time girls in India were prepared to  make her groom and his family happy by being just a housewife.  They were not allowed to dream for what they want. It should be a girl’s choice either she wants to be a housewife or a working women. If we provide them support and love then they can reach several heights. In Today’s generation, Lots of young girls are pushing themselves and making a marks in their respective fields which no one expected them to achieve. Women has a lot of substance in themselves, who can make the world or break it. Life is all about accepting changes and moving ahead without thinking about what perception society will have about you.

Marriage is not the end of someone’s career. It is a desire of two individuals whether they want to spend their life together or not. If a man can pursue his dream even after marriage and children, then why not a women can do the same ? . It is a matter which most of us try to ignore and avoid, but We need to accept the reality of having a happy married life with achieving the best in our career too. Our dreams are not made to crush by the single decision of our life . It is our life to decide the future of it. Nobody has a right to choose what is better for us. Nobody’s permission is needed for young girls to fulfill their dreams. As It’s one life, live it to the fullest.

Anonymous warns Elon Musk

Tesla CEO Elon Musk was threatened by the Hacktivist group ‘Anonymous’ for declaring in Twitter that ‘Tesla cars’ could no longer be purchased using Bitcoin because of climate change concerns. In the month of February Tesla unveiled that they bought the world’s biggest Digital Currency Bitcoin $1.5bn, in march they announced Tesla cars could be purchased using cryptocurrency but later they went back on their announcement sighting the environmental causes and this created a wave among the bitcoin investors.

The Warning:

In the video, Anonymous blamed Elon Musk for affecting the life of crypto investors and damaging the dreams of normal people who dreamt of a better life through cryptocurrency. It also stated that the company received most of its income through government subsides, Green carbon tax credit from the government of the countries it operates in. The video also mentioned the complaints of Tesla employees for extreme working environment, working of young children in lithium mines in South African to produce lithium.

“You may think you are the smartest person in the room, but now you have met your match. We are Anonymous! We are Legion! Expect Us.”- warned Anonymous.  

About Anonymous:

Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group originated in the year 2003 well known for their cyber attacks against government entities and corporations. Anonymous members wear Guy Fawkes mask in a style depicted in the graphic novel and film “V for Vendetta”. They may also prefer to not use the mask and may not cover their faces as disguise. The global group is believed to include anyone willing to join; its members are referred to as ‘anons’. They would also use voice changers or text-to-speech programs while sending the video messages for anons to mask their voice.

The members commonly use the tagline “We are Anonymous. We are Legion. We do not forgive. We do not forget. Expect Us.”

Statue of unity

The Statue of Unity is a colossal statue of Indian statesman and independence activist Vallabhbhai Patel (1875–1950), who was the first Deputy Prime Minister and Home Minister of independent India and an adherent of Mahatma Gandhi during the nonviolent Indian Independence movement. Patel was highly respected for his leadership in uniting 562 princely states of India with a major part of the former British Raj to form the single Union of India. The statue is located in the state of Gujarat, India. It is the world’s tallest statue with a height of 182 metres (597 feet).It is located on the Narmada River in the Kevadiya colony, facing the Sardar Sarovar Dam 100 kilometres (62 mi) southeast of the city of Vadodara and 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Surat. Kevadia railway station is located at a distance of just 5 kilometres from Statue of Unity.[5][6]Statue of Unity Statue of Unity.jpgStatue of Unity is located in GujaratStatue of Unity Location of the Statue of Unity in Gujarat Show map of Gujarat Show map of India Show allCoordinates21.8380°N 73.7191°E Location Narmada Valley Kevadiya colony, Narmada district, Gujarat, India Designer Ram V. Sutar Type Statue Material Steel framing, reinforced by concrete and brass coating, bronze cladding Height182 meters (597 ft)Visitors2.8 million (in 2018-19)Beginning date 31 October 2013Completion date 30 October 2018Opening date 31 October 2018Dedicated to Vallabhbhai PatelWebsitestatueofunity.inThe project was first announced in 2010 and the construction of the statue started in October 2013 by Larsen & Toubro, with a total construction cost of ₹2700 crore (₹27 billion; US$422 million).It was designed by Indian sculptor Ram V. Sutar, and was inaugurated by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 31 October 2018, the 143rd anniversary of Sardar Patel’s birth.


Narendra Modi first announced the project to commemorate Vallabhbhai Patel on 7 October 2013 at a press conference to mark the beginning of his 10th year as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. At the time, the project was dubbed, “Gujarat’s tribute to the nation”.A separate Society named Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Rashtriya Ekta Trust (SVPRET) was formed under the chairmanship of the Chief minister, Government of Gujarat, to execute the project.An outreach drive named the Statue of Unity Movement was started to support the construction of the statue. It helped collect the iron needed for the statue by asking farmers to donate their used farming instruments. By 2016, a total of 135 metric tonnes of scrap iron had been collected and about 109 tonnes of it was used to make the foundation of the statue after processing.A marathon titled Run For Unity was held on 15 December 2013 in Surat and Vadodara in support of the project.


How online food delivery marketplace apps make money?

There are numerous ways by which online food delivery marketplace businesses can make profits or revenue for their business .

  • Commission on food orders – As a platform owner of food delivery marketplace apps, you can charge fixed commission in the way of a fixed amount or percentage on each order placed on your platform. You can assign or negotiate different commissions with different restaurants to provide your platform for free but to take out platform cost you will take a commission on each order to make your revenue from the food delivery services.
  • Presenting restaurant on your platform – Restaurant spent a lot on advertising their restaurant food menu everywhere. As a platform owner, you charge them to list restaurant listing on prominent places to advertise their brands on your web & smartphone platform.
  • Delivery charges – Some restaurant business do not want to hire their delivery staff. They want to use your delivery staff for their deliveries and they will pay delivery charges to you. You can hire your own delivery staff and do deliveries and charge delivery charges per order from restaurants.
  • Convenience charge – Not only restaurant business but you can charge your platform users who place orders on your online delivery marketplace platform with the convenience charge. Although this convenience charge is a small amount per order. users happily pay them as they are using your platform without a need to go out from their residence or office.
  • Payment gateway charges – You can negotiate with payment gateway companies about the charges they charge on online payments. Because you are a platform owner you have a large number of daily transactions they will offer you the best transaction fee and you can charge above that transaction fee from your restaurant businesses.
  • Subscription earning opportunity – As an owner of food business, you will have two subscription-based earning models. You can make different plans for a restaurant business to limit the number of the food menu, the number of food orders, placements, featured listings, separate branding assets like mobile apps, social media marketing, etc. For users, you can provide them different plans for discounts, monthly subscriptions for earning reward points, etc. And charge them monthly, quarterly, halfyearly & annually.
  • Advertising third-party related services on the platform – Due to massive exposure to your traffic on your platform you have an opportunity to charge premium advertisement cost from related businesses to place their banners or listings on your web & app platforms.
  • Service-based pricing to the restaurant business – Each restaurant business has its own requirements for doing the business. Some restaurant businesses are okay to handle incoming orders from web-based software where some like to have a separate mobile app to manage orders more efficiently. Some want to have thermal printers to print order receipts some easily manage through app only. Some restaurant businesses want to have their own separate customer mobile app. You can charge them differently for these different additional services.
  • Hardware selling to the restaurant business – To run business digitally every restaurant owner need some sort of related hardware like the Android tablet for order processing, Thermal printers for order receipt printing, Point of sale systems, inventory management software, large display units for orders in the kitchen, etc. You can have to tie up with vendors of these companies and provide hardware to restaurant businesses at reasonable prices.
  • Marketing Campaigns – You can offer different plans for marketing campaigns to the restaurant business. Due to the nature of the restaurant business, restaurant owners don’t have enough time to do social media marketing or email marketing. You can provide them different plans for that and market their business to get more customers & orders to their business.
  • Text / SMS Marketing – As you have good numbers of restaurant clients and have the bandwidth to purchase large quantities of text or SMS services from any good provider. You can sell these credits to the restaurant business at reasonable pricing to promote their business.

Tell tale Heart by Edgar Allan Poe

This story by Edgar Allan Poe, is a psychological story. It is an ambiguous investigation of a man’s paranoia. The story shows how the narrator stalks his victim as if he was an intelligent animal. There are times when Poe shows us that his character is worse than a beast as when he tortures the old man and slowly kills him. What makes the story more shocking is that the narrator tries to justify his actions, until he is finally caught.

The story begins with the narrator admitting that he is a very nervous person, whose senses are sharpened as a result of this nervousness. He can hear the smallest sounds even from heaven, hell and earth that normal people cannot hear. It is this over sensitivity that plays an important role in the story. Though he suffers from paranoia, he tells us that he is not mad. His actions on the other hand, prove otherwise. For example- the reason for which he wishes to kill the old man itself is stupid- he wants to kill him because he has a ‘vulture-like blue eye’ that scares him. Although he loves the old man as a person, he is obsessed with his eye, and is always planning out ways to kill him.

This whole plan to murder someone because of an eye shows us, that he is indeed mad. But the narrator goes on to say that one must not call this obsession madness, but rather, they must look at how wisely, and cleverly he plans the whole deed. Every night at twelve o’clock for 7 days, he would slowly open the door gently, and quietly enter the room. Because he is so careful, he sometimes takes up to an hour to go in. After that he would slowly open the lantern and let the light fall on the man’s face. But so far, when the light fell on his face, the eye was closed. So he let him live and pretended to continue their friendship as if nothing had happened.

On the eighth night, however, there is a change. When the narrator opens the lantern, he makes a sound that wakes up the old man.  Because of the darkness, the old man cannot see anyone in the room. Though he sees that no one moves, he cannot go back to sleep. He has become like the narrator, paranoid, and seems to hear every little sound. As the old man lies awake, the narrator decides it is time to check once again, and so he comes out of the dark, and opens the lantern. The light falls on the man’s ‘vulture-eye’, and this makes him angry ad violent. In this state of madness he can hear the sound of a beating heart. It is here that we have our first ambiguity about ‘whose heart does he hear?’ It is a well known fact that in moments of stress and fear one’s own heartbeat increases so rapidly that we feel every beat. So, does the narrator hear his own heart beat or the old man’s?

As he waits, the heartbeat seems to become louder. Afraid that this sound will wake the neighbours the narrator drags the old man to the floor and suffocates him with the mattress. When he is dead, he narrator is happy that the eye will not torment him anymore. He cuts up the body into pieces and hides it under the floor boards of the room itself. As he does this he is very happy. He has succeeded.

But just as he finished his work the door bell rings at 4 A.M. The police were there to investigate some noises that the neighbours heard coming from the house. The narrator lets them in, completely sure that they cannot suspect him as he has not left any evidence. He even leads them to the old man’s room, in a fit of madness, and asks them to sit there and have a drink with him.

But all the time, the narrator can hear the beating sound of a heart, growing louder and louder in his ears. He wonders how the policemen cannot hear anything- and if they are only pretending they cannot hear it. He becomes more and more paranoid, and his common sense too leaves him. Eventually the guilt of what he had done, makes him shout out that he killed the old man and buried his body parts in the room.

The story is a study of character. But it is also a story of horror and suspense. The actions and the images used are scary and are meant to evoke horror. This kind of story is of the genre called Gothic, a style of writing that was very famous during the 18th and 19th centuries. Poe is one of the most famous Gothic story writers. Gothic writing is characterised by concepts like  darkness, death and dying, alienation and isolation, madness, violence, horror and inhumanity  in the behaviour of one person toward another or within an individual himself. In Tell Tale Heart, the narrator is the character whose actions are a representation of these concepts. ‘Darkness’ is both literal (the room is dark when the killing happens) and metaphorical ( his mind is full of darkness/evil). It is in darkness that the narrator kills the old man, using such violent means (suffocation) bringing into the story the concept of Death and Dying.

Alienation and isolation too have both literal and symbolic meanings – the two men are both alone in their home; they are separated from society because the man is old, and the narrator has mental issues. The most important element of the Gothic though, is the element of violence, horror and inhumanity. The narrator first plays with the old man (inhumanity), arouses his fear and paranoia, and only then kills him using the most violent of means – suffocation. To make matters worse, he laughs while cutting up the body and burying it in the same room. But, according to Poe, all these actions are the result of madness and psychotic behaviour. This behaviour makes the narrator dangerous as his thoughts and his actions are unpredictable and without sense.

Yet he is a character with a guilty conscience that shows itself in his hearing of the beating heart- not that of the old man, but his own, telling us that he feels excited to kill the old man, but is also guilty. It forces him to confess to betray his own actions to the police.


The Fawn by Khushwant Singh

The short Story, The Fawn was written The Fawn by the famous Indian Short Story writer, Khushwant Singh. Known famously for his wit and comical satire, this is a story that speaks of his love and empathy for nature and its inhabitants. It is also a scathing indictment of man and his so called humanity.

By contrasting the maternal feelings of the doe with the murderous desire of the hunter, Singh is trying to show us how sometimes man is worse than an animal itself.

The main characters of the story are two hunters who have gone for a weekly hunt to the village, so that they can get away from the monotony of a busy city life. The narrator feels that all his actions are ruled by the watch and so finds it impossible to live his life to the fullest. He has come hunting , not to kill, but just to enjoy the beauty of nature and the peaceful country life.

The other hunter, however, is much more involved in hunting. He has a terrible family life in the city, having being forced to take care of a number of step mothers, brothers and sisters, whom he hates. The frustration he feels in his personal life finds an outlet in hunting. The anger and hate that he cannot show towards his family, he shows on the animals he hunts. He hunts only for sport, and does not feel any sadness or empathy for nature.

The two hunters had planned to hunt birds, but unfortunately there were no more as another party had been there before them. So they decided to hunt deer. But because of the location of the deer on an open field they were easily seen, and the deer all ran away. Their expedition began at dawn, yet it was only in the afternoon that they actually got a chance to shoot something. As they were walking by a forest, a doe ran into their path. But it stopped halfway and turned around as if waiting for something. The other hunter realised that there was a fawn nearby, and so they waited patiently. Suddenly, a fawn appeared walking unsteadily on its legs. The hunter fired 2 shots and wounded the fawn. But he did not stop there. He also took out a razor blade and cut the fawn’s throat, killing it.

All this was seen by the doe, who began to follow the hunters as they went back to their car with the fawn’s body. It was dusk, and though they were sharing a drink, the other hunter was well aware of the doe. Suddenly the narrator hears a shot and looks to the boot of the car, where the fawn’s head was hanging out, and saw that the mother had also been shot. The other hunter wasted no time in repeating his ritual of cutting the throat, with a great deal of happiness.

Thus Singh shows us how human beings behave towards animals. They look at nature and its inhabitants as only a source of fun. They are meant to be higher beings than animals because of their humanity, but unfortunately, they are more inhuman than human.

Little Girls Wiser Than Men by Leo Tolstoy

Leo Tolstoy is a Russian author, a master of realistic fiction and one of the world’s greatest novelists. He is best known for his two longest works, War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Tolstoy is the embodiment of nature and pure vitality, others saw him as the incarnation of the world’s conscience, but for almost all who knew him or read his works, he was not just one of the greatest writers who ever lived but a living symbol of the search for life’s meaning.

In Little Girls Wiser Than Men by Leo Tolstoy we have the theme of connection, friendship, fear, conflict, shame and control. Narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator the reader realises from the beginning of the story that Tolstoy may be exploring the theme of connection. Both Akoulya and Malasha share a connection with each other something that Tolstoy may be highlighting through not only the fact that the girls are playing in the puddle together but also through how both girls are dressed. They are both wearing frocks that they do not wish to get dirty as they know that their mothers will scold them. It is also interesting that Malasha is afraid of how deep the puddle will be. Symbolically this may be important as the unknown depth of the puddle mirrors the unknown depths that Akoulya and Malasha’s parents will go to in order to resolve the dispute that occurs. Despite the incident of Malasha accidentally splashing Akoulya’s frock it would seem that the whole village is in uproar over something that seems to be very minor. This may be important as Tolstoy may be suggesting that at times people can get heated and hostile with others over minor or silly things. Which is very much the case in the story.

It may also be important that Tolstoy never names any of the parents as he could be suggesting that all parents have the ability to react as those in the story do. Regardless of what village, town, city or country they may live in. Parents will protect their own child and react negatively at times. Something that happens when Akoulya’s mother strikes Malasha on the neck. It is Akoulya’s mother’s reaction which escalates the situation and when the matter is not resolved by Akoulya and Malasha’s mothers their fathers intervene. While those in the village look on in amazement. If anything both sets of parents are acting more childish than Akoulya and Malasha. Yet at the time they do not recognise this due to the fact that they are angry over what has happened. Which again the reader must remember has been a minor incident that does not deserve the hostility the issue is being given. The fact that Akoulya’s mother strikes Malasha might also suggest that Akoulya’s mother has gone too far. She is basing her decision to hit Malasha on the fact that Akoulya has told her mother that what Malasha has done was done on purpose. When the reality is it was an accident.

The fact that tempers are heated throughout the story and the fact that the truth of what has happened is lost on everyone might also be important. As Tolstoy may be suggesting that people when angry can forget about the root cause of an argument. Rather than asking Malasha did she deliberately splash Akoulya’s frock everybody beings to argue and fight with one another. Believing one side of the story (Akoulya’s). It is also interesting that the only two people who seems to be practical in the story are Akoulya who cleans her frock and Akoulya’s grandmother by being the voice of reason. Everybody else is lost in an argument that does not need to happen. Nobody has been injured or hurt. All that has happened is that Akoulya’s frock has accidentally being dirtied by the water from the puddle. Throughout the story most of the characters are in conflict with one another and because they have lost control do not understand how minor the incident of the water on Akoulya’s frock is.

The end of the story is also interesting as both Akoulya and Malasha continue to play with each other despite the fact that everyone else is fighting with one another. Not only does this further suggest that both girls have a common bond or connection but it may also serve to highlight that the girls will not let the incident of the splashed water on Akoulya’s frock end their friendship. Despite everything they still remain friends. However the same can not necessarily be said for Akoulya and Malasha’s parents. It is only when Akoulya’s grandmother intervenes that both girls’ parents realise they are in the wrong. A petty argument between two friends has long been forgotten by the girls yet the men in the village very nearly came to blows over the incident. Tolstoy highlighting how quickly a minor incident can escalate into something more serious. It is also through the grandmother’s character that those who were about to physically fight each other realise that there is shame in what they are doing. Not only are they not setting a good example for their children but they are prepared to fight their neighbour. When the reality is that nobody has been hurt and there is no need to fight one another. Both sets of parents would do well to learn from Akoulya and Malasha. Just as they continue to remain as friends despite what has happened. So too should the parents. Rather than being quick to judge as Akoulya’s mother does Tolstoy might be suggesting it would be better for people to step back before they react.


Kamala Das is an Indian poet in English  well known  author in Malayalam from Kerala. She is  one of the most prominent feminist voices in the postcolonial era. On account of her extensive contribution to the poetry in our country, she earned the label ‘The Mother of Modern Indian English Poetry’. Some of her notable works in English are the novel Alphabet of Lust (1977), the collection of short stories Padmavati the Harlot and other stories (1992) and a compilation of her poetry Summer in Calcutta (1973).

Ammu, a small girl who talks of a village, which she visits during her summer vacation, is the narrator of the story ‘Summer Vacation’. It is her grandmother’s place. Ammu lost her mother. She is worried if her grandmother, Muthassi who is sixty-eight years old also would die and leave her. The story interweaves the bonding, affinity and affection between Ammu and Muthassi who belong to an upper class and the other mothers and their children who belong to the lower classes.

The various themes in the story are childhood, nostalgia, motherhood, fear of separation from loved ones and caste discrimination. The story opens with a description of a Nyaval tree. The narrator uses adjectives like “emaciated”, “bent” and “shrivelled up branches” to describe the tree, which work as foregrounding devices to show that Muthassi is growing old. The motherless Ammu looks at her ageing grandmother as a figure of her mother. She is worried if her grandmother would also die like her mother. Das thus brings out the fears, anxieties and insecurities in Ammu that come as filters between their close bonding. On the other hand, we see acceptance and matured outlook towards life and death in Muthassi.

Kamala Das draws out the theme of motherhood in different ways. She depicts the pride of the mother of simply owning a child through the words and actions of Bharati. The unruly, insensitive nature of the illiterate women is evident when a woman with greying hair takes pity on Ammu and says, ‘Poor Child! How can she know? Just think of her fate. So very sad” in response to Bharati when she says, “No one loves a child more than its own mother does.” In their house, Muthassi asks Ammu to have her snacks in the kitchen itself. When Ammu asks if she can have her milk with others in the ‘Tekkini’, she bluntly replies, “No, That’s the way I want it done. That’s all”. Thus, Muthassi turns out to be a protective mother who does not want the child to be hurt in anyway.

Another interesting woman character through whom we can see a different way of raising up a child is Nani Amma, a maid who belongs to the lower strata of the society. Das compares the various attitudes of women towards motherhood and gives a detailed account of their mother-daughter relationships. Nani Amma is a woman who pounds rice at homes for her living. She has a five-year old daughter Amini. Class discrimination is seen when Muthassi says that she can’t allow her to come and grind whenever she wants money. Ammu who is of the same age as Amini just observes how Nani Amma caresses her daughter, which she feels she lacks in her own life.

Social hierarchy in terms of economy is evident when Nani Amma says, “We are poor people child and you are rich” in a shaky voice when Ammu accuses her of stealing the tamarind.

When it is time for Ammu to leave the place, she feels even more distanced from her grandmother. Death is a recurring theme in the story. Ammu is worried about death and the fear lingers in her heart about Muthassi. Despite the differences in caste and status, the love of the mother for her child is undying. The theme of motherhood and fear of death of our loved ones are evident from these characters in the story.

Little Girls Wiser Than Men

Leo Tolstoy is a Russian author, a master of realistic fiction and one of the world’s greatest novelists. He is best known for his two longest works, War and Peace and Anna Karenina. Tolstoy is the embodiment of nature and pure vitality, others saw him as the incarnation of the world’s conscience, but for almost all who knew him or read his works, he was not just one of the greatest writers who ever lived but a living symbol of the search for life’s meaning.

In Little Girls Wiser Than Men by Leo Tolstoy we have the theme of connection, friendship, fear, conflict, shame and control. Narrated in the third person by an unnamed narrator the reader realises from the beginning of the story that Tolstoy may be exploring the theme of connection. Both Akoulya and Malasha share a connection with each other something that Tolstoy may be highlighting through not only the fact that the girls are playing in the puddle together but also through how both girls are dressed. They are both wearing frocks that they do not wish to get dirty as they know that their mothers will scold them. It is also interesting that Malasha is afraid of how deep the puddle will be. Symbolically this may be important as the unknown depth of the puddle mirrors the unknown depths that Akoulya and Malasha’s parents will go to in order to resolve the dispute that occurs. Despite the incident of Malasha accidentally splashing Akoulya’s frock it would seem that the whole village is in uproar over something that seems to be very minor. This may be important as Tolstoy may be suggesting that at times people can get heated and hostile with others over minor or silly things. Which is very much the case in the story.

It may also be important that Tolstoy never names any of the parents as he could be suggesting that all parents have the ability to react as those in the story do. Regardless of what village, town, city or country they may live in. Parents will protect their own child and react negatively at times. Something that happens when Akoulya’s mother strikes Malasha on the neck. It is Akoulya’s mother’s reaction which escalates the situation and when the matter is not resolved by Akoulya and Malasha’s mothers their fathers intervene. While those in the village look on in amazement. If anything both sets of parents are acting more childish than Akoulya and Malasha. Yet at the time they do not recognise this due to the fact that they are angry over what has happened. Which again the reader must remember has been a minor incident that does not deserve the hostility the issue is being given. The fact that Akoulya’s mother strikes Malasha might also suggest that Akoulya’s mother has gone too far. She is basing her decision to hit Malasha on the fact that Akoulya has told her mother that what Malasha has done was done on purpose. When the reality is it was an accident.

The fact that tempers are heated throughout the story and the fact that the truth of what has happened is lost on everyone might also be important. As Tolstoy may be suggesting that people when angry can forget about the root cause of an argument. Rather than asking Malasha did she deliberately splash Akoulya’s frock everybody beings to argue and fight with one another. Believing one side of the story (Akoulya’s). It is also interesting that the only two people who seems to be practical in the story are Akoulya who cleans her frock and Akoulya’s grandmother by being the voice of reason. Everybody else is lost in an argument that does not need to happen. Nobody has been injured or hurt. All that has happened is that Akoulya’s frock has accidentally being dirtied by the water from the puddle. Throughout the story most of the characters are in conflict with one another and because they have lost control do not understand how minor the incident of the water on Akoulya’s frock is.

The end of the story is also interesting as both Akoulya and Malasha continue to play with each other despite the fact that everyone else is fighting with one another. Not only does this further suggest that both girls have a common bond or connection but it may also serve to highlight that the girls will not let the incident of the splashed water on Akoulya’s frock end their friendship. Despite everything they still remain friends. However the same can not necessarily be said for Akoulya and Malasha’s parents. It is only when Akoulya’s grandmother intervenes that both girls’ parents realise they are in the wrong. A petty argument between two friends has long been forgotten by the girls yet the men in the village very nearly came to blows over the incident. Tolstoy highlighting how quickly a minor incident can escalate into something more serious. It is also through the grandmother’s character that those who were about to physically fight each other realise that there is shame in what they are doing. Not only are they not setting a good example for their children but they are prepared to fight their neighbour. When the reality is that nobody has been hurt and there is no need to fight one another. Both sets of parents would do well to learn from Akoulya and Malasha. Just as they continue to remain as friends despite what has happened. So too should the parents. Rather than being quick to judge as Akoulya’s mother does Tolstoy might be suggesting it would be better for people to step back before they react.

The Diamond Necklace- Guy de Maupassants

Guy de Maupassant’s short story “The Necklace” was first published in the Paris newspaper “Le Gaulois” on February 17, 1884, and he was successfully incorporated into “Tales of Night,” his 1885 collection of short stories. “Like most Maupassant short fiction, it was an instantaneous achievement, and it has become his most widely read and anthologized story” Smith Christopher. TheDiamond Necklace describes Madame Loisel as beautiful and born into an average family. She is unsatisfied with her impoverished life and decides to borrow a diamond necklace from a former rich friend to fulfill her happiness. Maupassant presents the theme that one should be true to one’s self trough his use of situational irony by which he tells the story of Madame Loisel.


Maupassant describes Mathilde’s external conflicts in the story “The Necklace.” Though she is “pretty” and “charming”(1), she does not appreciate anything in life. She feels her life should have been blessed with wealth. Although her husband works at a ministry of education as a minor clerk, the money he is bringing to his wife is not enough for the kind of life Mathilde has always dreamed of. For instance, her vision is to “live in a mansion, dinning in famous restaurants, and dance among the riches” (1). She is embarrassed of her poor lifestyle, and decides not to invite any of her former friends who become rich to her home. Therefore, she suffers enormously because her whole life has been based on deficiency of luxury. The love of her husband Charles and the efforts he makes to keep his family healthy is not enough to please Mathilde. However, she happens to be a self-centered person who cares only about her appearance, instead of being thankful for the love of her husband. The author analyzes Mathilde’s internal conflicts in the story. She is unhappy and miserable. She is disappointed in herself because she thinks she deserves more than she has. Mathilde appears to be a round person; although she is attractive and pretty, she also seems depressed because of the lack of money. She is a dynamic person; she is not content with herself because her husband is not well off financially. Otherwise, she would be a cheerful person if her husband was wealthy.


Guy de Maupassant describes the characters’ verbal irony in the story; Monsieur Loisel makes an effort to invite his wife to a ball dance because he thinks she would be pleased to get out of the house. However, Mathilde chooses to reject her husband’s invitation by saying, “Give your invitation to some colleague whose wife has a more suitable gown than I”(2). She concerned more about her look and what others might think of her. Still, she convinces her husband to take money out of their life savings to buy a lovely dress for the occasion. Mathilde’s irony in the story is discontentment because she does not have anything to wear with the dress; she realizes she needs a jewel to look her best, so she will not appear as poor as she is among the women at the ministry. Furthermore, Mathilde goes to her former friend to borrow one of her diamond necklaces, which she loses unexpectedly. In the story “The Necklace,” the situational irony occurs when Mathilda sacrifices her life for years to work twice as hard to repay the loan they take to return the necklace. She loses her beauty; “she looks older, and there are traces of gray in her hair”(4). She ruins her husband and her life by not making a smart choice, and her selfishness causes her family’s pain. Nevertheless, the dramatic irony happens when she comes to learn the diamond necklace she loses is an imitation. The resolution of the story reveals that Mathilde realizes she made a fool of herself for not telling her friend exactly what had happened to the necklace. Therefore, she wastes her husband’s and her time for nothing to replace something that was not even real.


The writer points out the theme of the story as Malthilde cares only about her appearance, and her greed puts her through so much suffering in life. She should appreciate the sacrifice that her husband makes for her to buy the dress. Her attention is to “dance joyfully with everyone, intoxicates with pleasure, and to be on a cloud of happiness”(3). She does not worry too much about her husband’s feeling toward his happiness. However, she comes to discover the diamond necklace she borrows from Madame Forestier is missing, her husband Monsieur Loisel sympathetically helps her look for the necklace. Moreover, he sacrifices everything he can in his life to help his wife replace the necklace. She confidently lies to Madame Loisel about the necklace. Possibly, if she has told the truth, all the pain and misery could have been avoided. Besides all the pain she puts Monsieur Loisel through, Mathilde wishes she married a wealthy man, but she is “a poor girl with no dowry to offer” (2). Money and material things have stopped her to improve the living she desires. As a result, she loses her beauty and works harder to replace a necklace that is fake.



The short story, Test of True Love is a romantic story about a young lieutenant Blandford and lady, Hollis Meynell, who had fallen in love with each other. The author shows us the possibility of existence of a real strong relationships even though a great distances and the fact that two people can be very close to each other even having never seen each other. The young lieutenant Blandford would do anything just to win the love of Meynell and he serves during the war time, while once he faced some witty notes in the book he had been reading. They were made by a woman, whom he contacted later and who has had the power to reach inside of him through writing and renew his strength even from a far. They have been in touch during thirteen years. “YEA, THOUGH I WALK THROUGH THE VALLEY OF THE SHADOW OF DEATH, I SHALL FEAR NO EVIL” This sentence strengthened Blandford and gave him courage whenever he feared. This time the woman, who was 30, supported the lieutenant and they both trusted their true inner feelings and instincts. Now the tall young lieutenant was waiting for this woman in Grand Central Station and worried a lot. They knew about each other only from their own words. The first woman he saw was a beautiful lady, wearing a green suit but she had no red rose on her jacket, as it was in their agreement to identify each other. Then he turned around and a woman well past forty appeared to be the one he had been waiting for. However, the lieutenant behaves like a real man and doesn’t escape from the place or pretense to be somebody else. She tells him the truth that the girl he was waiting for is the one he had seen some minutes ago. The message provided by the author is that the real love can exist even in incredible conditions. The fact that two people had been in touch for such a long time and who had never met before, but finally can share a mutual feeling and emotions can prove it. The writer accomplishes this message to the reader through the use of the setting, tone and each individual character in the story. Although the setting is used to describe the atmosphere, the tone is used effectively to communicate the complete and compelling feeling and emotion to the reader. The author uses a clear image of every character. The young lieutenant is shown from the very introduction of the story. The description of the Blandford’s states includes a mixture of emotions and feelings. By drawing all attention to the lieutenant, the reader is immediately given a clear image of Lieutenant Blandford, standing anxiously waiting to meet the woman who he has never seen but claims to love To better show us the emotions of lieutenant and the drama of the situation the author uses the value of time and place. Throughout the story, the author brings the reader out of the station to places that the lieutenant has recalled thinking of this woman. The author stretches the time by retrospect. Time plays a very important role throughout the story, to show how could the time stretch while waiting an important event in your life. The whole story is set on a time schedule as the author begins the story by saying, “Six minutes to six”, and the author creates a feeling of uncertainty for the lieutenant. The time lasts eternity. The figure of the lieutenant is the reflection of many common features which is common to a real man. He’s brave (he participates in battles and combats), here his remembrance of the fight should be mentioned when his plane had been caught in the midst of a pack of Zeros. He is honest as well, and responsible – he was on time at the place of the appointment. However, the lady, Hollis Meynell, quite cunning or even sly, because one can’t approve of her trick she played with a young lieutenant. It’s cruel to examine another person’s feeling in the way she did. But after her final test to Blandford she was sure, that he is a real man, noble, honest and responsible. The atmosphere of the story changes with every line from anxiety, uncertainty and uneasiness to the disappointment (for some seconds). The author accomplishes such instant change in the mood of the story by having the lieutenant meet a woman that he did not expect to meet. As soon as the author has the reader convinced that the mood has changed from excitement to sadness, he once again effectively changes the mood, changing the story head over heels. The author uses a suspenseful tone and it grips the reader’s attention throughout the whole story, the effect makes the reader waiting anxiously from the first line to the end. By doing this, the author creates a feeling of excitement as the reader realizes something exciting is about to happen and this is a real mastery.

Short story

Origin of short story Origins. The evolution of the short story first began before humans could write. … Consequently, many of the oldest narratives in the world, such as the ancient Babylonian tale the Epic of Gilgamesh, are in verse. The earliest versions of the American short story can be traced back to Germany where writers such Heinrich von Kleist, E.T.A. Hoffmann, and Ludwig Tieck were popularizing a hybrid narrative art form that combined the sketch and the tale The father of the short story                    Guy de Maupassant Biography   of Guy de Maupassant, Father of the Short Story. Esther Lombardi, M.A., is a journalist who has covered books and literature for over twenty years EVOLUTION OF GENRE: Genre is a style or category of art, music, or literature. As an author, genre controls what you write and how you write it. It describes the style and focus of the novel you write. Genres give you blueprints for different types of stories.Jan 15, 2016 Books form a genre when, according to their readers, they contain a sufficient number of similar words to take them together as a group in contrast to books that do not have a sufficient number of those similar words. … The way in which the words are distributed over books may indicate their genre– specific value. The earliest recorded systems of genre in Western history can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle. Gérard Genette, a French literary theorist author of The Architext, describes Plato as creating three Imitational genres: dramatic dialogue, pure narrative, and epic (a mixture of dialogue and narrative). Features Of  A Short Story     What is a Short Story? short story is a short piece of fiction aiming at unity of characterization, theme and effect. It aims to produce a single narrative effect with the greatest economy of means and utmost emphasis. Did you know that modern short story writers tend to base their narratives on their own experience? Here the focus is much more on the less spectacular aspects of life, on the significance underlying what is apparently trivial. The result of such perceptive writing is to reveal the subtleties of the human mind and of human behaviour.   What makes a good short story?
  • A short story is a piece of prose fiction which can be read at a single sitting.
  • It ought to combine matter-of-fact description with poetic atmosphere.
  • It ought to present a unified impression of temper, tone, colour, and effect.
  • It mostly shows a decisive moment of life.
  • There is often little action, hardly any character development, but we get a snapshot of life.
Its plot is not very complex (in contrast to the novel), but it creates a unified impression and leaves us with a vivid sensation rather than a number of remembered facts. There is a close connection between the short story and the poem as there is both a unique union of idea and structure.   Short Story feautures Setting — The time and location in which a story takes place is called the setting.  For some stories the setting is very important, while for others it is not.  There are several aspects of a story’s setting to consider when examining how setting contributes to a story (some, or all, may be present in a story): Place – geographical location.  Where is the action of the story taking place? Time – When is the story taking place? (historical period, time of day, year, etc) Weather conditions – Is it rainy, sunny, stormy, etc? Social conditions – What is the daily life of the characters like? Does the story contain local colour (writing that focuses on the speech, dress, mannerisms, customs, etc. of a particular  place)? Mood or atmosphere – What feeling is created at the beginning of the story?  Is it bright and cheerful or dark and frightening? Plot — The plot is how the author arranges events to develop his basic idea;  It is the sequence of events in a story or play.  The plot is a planned, logical series of events having a beginning, middle, and end.  The short story usually has one plot so it can be read in one sitting.  There are five essential parts of plot: Introduction /Orientation– The beginning of the story where the characters and the setting is revealed. A narrative work beginning in medias res (Classical Latin, means  “into the middle of things”) opens in the midst of the plot Often, exposition is bypassed and filled in gradually, through dialogue, flashbacks or description of past events. Rising Action – This is where the events in the story become complicated and the conflict in the story is revealed (events between the introduction and climax). Climax – This is the highest point of interest and the turning point of the story.  The reader wonders what will happen next; will the conflict be resolved or not? Falling action – The events and complications begin to resolve themselves.  The reader knows what has happened next and if the conflict was resolved or not (events between climax and denouement). Resolution / Denouement – This is the final outcome or untangling of events in the story. Generally, it is helpful to consider the climax as a three-fold phenomenon: the main character receives new information
  • accepts this information (realizes it but does not necessarily agree with it)
  • acts on this information (makes a choice that will determine whether or not he/she gains his objective).
Conflict—   Conflict is also essential to the plot.  Without conflict there is no plot.  It is the opposition of forces which ties one incident to another and makes the plot move.  Conflict is not merely limited to open arguments, rather it is any form of opposition that faces the main character. Within a short story there may be only one central struggle, or there may be one dominant struggle with many minor ones. Did you know that there are two types of conflict?  They are … 1)  External – A struggle with a force outside one’s self. 2)  Internal – A struggle within one’s self; a person must make some decision, overcome pain, quiet their temper, resist an urge, etc. Conflict can also occur in the following situations:
  • Man vs. Man (physical) – The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals.
  • Man vs. Circumstances (classical) – The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her.
  • Man vs. Society (social) – The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people.
  • Man vs. Himself/Herself (psychological) – The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
  Characters   Character — There are two meanings for the word character:
  • The person in a work of fiction.
  • The characteristics of a person.
Persons in a work of fiction – Antagonist and Protagonist Short stories use few characters.  One character is clearly central to the story with all major events having some importance to this character – he/she is the PROTAGONIST.  The opposer of the main character is called the ANTAGONIST. The Characteristics of a Person – In order for a story to seem real to the reader its characters must seem real.  Characterization is the information the author gives the reader about the characters themselves.  Characters are convincing if they are:  consistent, motivated, and life-like (resemble real people) Can you guess how does the author reveal a character? Well, it is done in several ways through:
  1. a) his/her physical appearance
  2. b) what he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams
  3. c) what he/she does or does not do
  4. d) what others say about him/her and how others react to him/her
Characters can be …
  1. Individual – round, many sided and complex personalities.
  2. Developing – dynamic, many sided personalities that change, for better or worse, by the end of the story.
  3. Static – Stereotype, have one or two characteristics that never change and are emphasized e.g. brilliant detective, drunk, scrooge, cruel stepmother, etc.
  Point of View   Point of view, is defined as the angle from which the story is told.
  • Innocent Eye – The story is told through the eyes of a child (his/her judgment being different from that of an adult) .
  • Stream of Consciousness – The story is told so that the reader feels as if they are inside the head of one character and knows all their thoughts and reactions.
  • First Person – The story is told by the protagonist or one of the characters who interacts closely with the protagonist or other characters (using pronouns I, me, we, etc).  The reader sees the story through this person’s eyes as he/she experiences it and only knows what he/she knows or feels.
  • Omniscient– The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses.  There are two main types of omniscient point of view:
  1. a) Omniscient Limited – The author tells the story in third person (using pronouns they, she, he, it, etc). We know only what the character knows and what the author allows him/her to tell us. We can see the thoughts and feelings of characters if the author chooses to reveal them to us.
  2. b) Omniscient Objective – The author tells the story in the third person. It appears as though a camera is following the characters, going anywhere, and recording only what is seen and heard.  There is no comment on the characters or their thoughts. No interpretations are offered.  The reader is placed in the position of spectator without the author there to explain.  The reader has to interpret events on his own.
  Theme Theme — The theme in a piece of fiction is its controlling idea or its central insight.  It is the author’s underlying meaning or main idea that he is trying to convey.  The theme may be the author’s thoughts about a topic or view of human nature.  The title of the short story usually points to what the writer is saying and he may use various figures of speech to emphasize his theme, such as: symbol, allusion, simile, metaphor, hyperbole, or irony.   Some simple examples of common themes from literature, TV, and film are: Things are not always as they appear to be. Love is blind. Believe in yourself. People are afraid of change. Don’t judge a book by its cover.    


As with the early Internet, the dark web has also gained a reputation as a haven for illegal activities. The dark web, like the web before it, is frequently implicated in horrible crimes, such as child abuse and murder for hire. While the dark web has unfortunately played a hand in both illegal and unethical transactions, it has also provided a social outlet for people who may otherwise be persecuted for their identities or political beliefs. It has also provided legal authorities with additional tools to apprehend the perpetrators of unethical activities.

It is crucial to avoid confusing the dark web with the cryptocurrencies often used to make purchases there. The dark web makes it easier to set up and access websites that offer a high degree of anonymity for everyone involved. Many of these sites contain only information, with no ability to buy or sell anything. It is true that cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin and Monero, are often used for transactions on the dark web. However, one does not have to use the dark web to use cryptocurrencies.

The dark web and the deep web are also often erroneously used interchangeably. The deep web includes all the pages that don’t pop up when you run a web search. The dark web is just one part of the deep web. The deep web also contains everything requiring a login, such as online banking, pay sites, and file hosting services.

Advantages of the Dark Web

The dark web helps people to maintain privacy and freely express their views. Privacy is essential for many innocent people terrorized by stalkers and other criminals. The increasing tendency of potential employers to track posts on social media can also make it difficult to engage in honest discussions publicly. Finally, the popularity of the dark web with criminals makes it a perfect way for undercover police officers to communicate.

Disadvantages of the Dark Web

The dark web empowers ordinary people, but some people will inevitably abuse that power. The dark web can make it easier to commit some of the worst crimes. For example, the combination of the dark web and cryptocurrencies theoretically makes it much easier to hire someone to commit a murder. While the dark web promises privacy to its users, it can also be used to violate the privacy of others. Private photos, medical records, and financial information have all been stolen and shared on the dark web.

A Guide for your Mental Health

Many teenagers have developed a well-known problem amidst the pandemic- anxiety. It is no lie that many of us spend our time sitting idle in our rooms, just wondering over things and overthinking about life. Gradually we start to sense an uneasy aroma around us. We begin to get overwhelmed about stuff and commence to screech at petty things. However, this is not the main problem; the pain arouses when we begin to grieve over our behavior. We have no choice but to stumble down due to weighing bars of grief. Gradually, teenagers endure panic attacks, anxiety disorders, and perhaps OCD. Hence, let us examine we can deal with it by taking mere footsteps. While the topic of mental health awareness has recently made its way to social media, the origins of mental illnesses operate deep into history. Therefore, our foremost step becomes to study more about it rather than being ashamed of it. It is a common cliche that knowledge is one of the most vital resources, so why not examine mental health disorders? Invest your valuable time in productive activities. Try spending some time listening to cheerful music, watching birds, artwork, reading valuable books, and playing board games with your family, and yoga. Besides all these things, you need to have a good diet and enough sleep. Also, try eating healthy food like salads, fruits, chapatis, etc. Perhaps this may sound challenging, but seek help from your friends and family. Communicate your enigmas through unshamed conversations. This step will help to lay of weighing insecurities. You can always seek help from the experts in this criteria. Numerous emotional factors significantly affect our fitness level, like depression, aggression, negative thinking, anxiety, frustration, etc. Yet, these factors could be avoided with consistency in your routine and faith in yourself. Try making mere changes in your lifestyle today for a vibrant tomorrow. We can not deny the fact that it will take time, maybe a year but keep going. Several people with mental illnesses are now striving to raise awareness of disorders like depression and anxiety, and some claim that the best way to educate about mental illnesses is to teach about them in schools. Hence, schools and colleges should host interactive sessions to discuss the importance of mental health. Via educating about mental illnesses in schools, activists hope to build understanding about the topic and limit teenagers who have mental illnesses from feeling abandoned. This step has the strength to reduce teenage suicide rates. Remember, man; is entirely deemed superior to other animals because of his highly advanced brain. Hence, a person needs to keep both his body and brain fit and well. Both mental health and physical health go hand in hand and are evenly significant for optimum performance and quality of life. Never be ashamed of what you are feeling, do not let your emotions bottled up. “One small crack does not mean that you are broken, it means that you were put to the test and you didn’t fall apart.” — Linda Poindexter.

How to Stop Worrying

If you want to stop worrying, then you need to stop thinking so much. Thinking is a good thing of course but when you focus a lot of time over analyzing things, it can cause a lot of stress. Sometimes worrying is a good thing because it’s your mind’s way of acknowledging the importance of the situation. However, many times we worry excessively for invalid reasons. This article will give you a couple of different ways to help you to worry a little bit less.

When we worry, what we are actually doing is projecting our mind out into the future. We picture negative scenarios and images. We think about the worse possible situations. Students may spend a lot of time worrying about how they did on the test they just took. The person who is running late and is stuck in traffic is worried about what people will think of him when he shows up to the meeting late. The employee watches the news during his lunch time in the break room and sees that unemployment rate is climbing starts to worry about the security of his job.

In all of these situations, the person is worried about something that hasn’t happened yet. Not only that, they are worried about something that they have no control over at the present moment. If you want to know how to stop worrying, then you need to learn how to be in the moment. Realize that the majority of things people worry about coming true, never come true. You can spend a great majority of your waking life worrying yourself to the point where you start to lower your happiness level. You may even start to draw back from life because you’re afraid of every possible negative situation that you have imagined in your head coming true.


how do you just stop worrying about everything? Here’s a simple rule. If you can’t do anything to improve the situation at the moment, let it go. Stop worrying so much about things that you have no control over. The student who is worried about what score he got is just wasting his time because what’s done is done. Whether he spends his time worrying or having fun, it’s not going to change the outcome. The employee who sees the unemployment rate increasing can worry about his job and perhaps start working harder but at the moment, during his lunch, he can’t do much about it so there is no point in worrying.

A great book about this topic that you should read is called, “How to Stop Worrying and Start Living” by Dale Carnegie. The book offers a lot of great ways to help you reduce your habit of worrying. You can try writing down the things you are worried about and find out what percentage of those things actually come true. Once you realize that there was really no point in stressing over things you can do anything about and stop worrying about everything, you will start to enjoy life a lot more.


Poverty refers to a situation in which a person remain underprivileged from the basic necessities of life. In addition, the person does not have an inadequate supply of food, shelter, and clothes. In India, most of the people who are suffering from poverty cannot afford to pay for a single meal a day. Also, they sleep on the roadside; wear dirty old clothes. In addition, they do not get proper healthy and nutritious food, neither medicine nor any other necessary thing.

The rate of poverty in India is increasing because of the increase in the urban population. The rural people are migrating to cities to find better employment. Most of these people find an underpaid job or an activity that pays only for their food. Most importantly, around crores of urban people are below the poverty line and many of the people are on the borderline of poverty.

Furthermore, there are many reasons that we can say are the major cause of poverty in India. These causes include corruption, growing population, poor agriculture,the wide gap of rich and poor, old customs, illiteracy, unemployment and few more.

the rich are growing richer and the poor are getting poorer creating an economic gap that is difficult to fill up.

Poverty has various effects that include illiteracy, reduced nutrition and diet, poor housing, child labor, unemployment, poor hygiene and lifestyle, and feminization of poverty, etc. Besides, this poor people cannot afford a healthy and balanced diet, nice clothes, proper education, a stable and clean house, etc. because all these facilities require money and they don’t even have money to feed two meals a day then how can they afford to pay for these facilities.

illiterate people should be given the required training so that they can live a better life. To check the rising population, family planning should be followed, providing proper facilities to farmers.

Besides, measures should be taken to end corruption, so that we can deal with the gap between rich and poor.

it is necessary for us to act quickly and correctly. Poverty is a major problem in the World and it have to be solved on a serious note. Our government is taking a large number of steps to reduce poverty. Eradication of poverty would ensure a sustainable and inclusive growth of economy and society. We all should do our best to help alleviate poverty from our country.




Breakfast is an essential need to start your day and have a healthy body. A healthy body means a healthy mind and a healthy mind means a successful human being.




Many people especially young people tend to skip breakfast which is not good for their health. Young people in India are busy studying and doing jobs and due to their busy life, they miss their breakfast.


Skipping breakfast can lead to an irregular daily routine, it affects the cognitive functioning of the brain, affects metabolism and can cause weakness and migraine. Breakfast should never be left by diabetes patients. It can lead them to serious heart issues, affect their mood and lower energy levels.


Therefore, one should always have a healthy breakfast to start their day and normally healthy breakfast foods contains the following variety of foods:


Eggs: Eggs are the foremost food that is widely consumed worldwide and recommended by every dietician and nutritionist. An egg contains high-quality proteins, fats, iron, minerals, vitamins A and D, Zinc and other many nutrients, which are beneficial for both mind and body. Egg maintains the sugar level and insulin of the body. Egg white does not increase the cholesterol level and most importantly it decreases the chance of a heart attack.




Vegetables: This is an essential part of our daily meals. Its consumption can be more helpful if it is taken at breakfast. Fresh vegetable consumption at breakfast time can boost-up your energy for the whole day. You can have an energized and delicious breakfast if kale and spinach are mixed as a salad.


Baked potatoes can also be consumed by putting a little spice and masala on it. Take some beans along-side.


Fruits: Apple, grapes, berries and citrus fruits should be a necessary part of the breakfast to stay fresh and healthy for many hours in a day. Strawberries are other fruits to maintain health. These sweet and juicy strawberries contain fewer calories and high levels of antioxidants. They are super helpful for women. It gives them beauty, their smoothies are very healthy and reduce the chance of a heart attack.


Creamy yogurt: Yogurt has calcium and it can be taken with other healthy breakfast foods. It is very healthy and lets you have a quick breakfast. Just carry it along and eat to stay fit the whole day.


Juices: Orange juices and Cranberry juice are best to have at breakfast. These are themselves quite healthy. Orange juice reduces osteoporosis, depression, reduces inflammation, improves heart health and prevents kidney stones. Cranberry juice reduces bacterial attacks. But it should not be consumed daily as it has high acidity which can affect the bladder.


Breakfast at the right time in the morning is always the best choice. It keeps you free from all the diseases and makes the person healthy.





“To eat is a necessity, but to eat intelligently is an art”




Cosmetic products have become an essential utility for ladies. Almost all women are fond of it but the side effects of make-up that appear later are largely unknown. This article discusses the 5 harmful effects of cosmetic products on the body.

All ladies love to wear make-up to look pretty and flaunt their gorgeous looks as this is their nature. Some cosmetic products are made-up of special natural products that are harmless but then many contain a high amount of different chemicals that are full of harm. In Pakistan, many low rated cosmetic products are easily available at low prices but their buyers do not know the side effects of those products containing chemical ingredients.

Some of the harmful side effects of make-up products on a human are as follows:

Skin aging:

Chemicals used in cosmetic products are the reason for premature aging of the skin. Minerals, vitamins and natural oils in the skin get dried when these chemicals react with the skin. This reaction starts forming dry patches and wrinkles on the skin. The reason behind it is the clever marketing strategy of cosmetic companies. They first create such make-up products that give aging effect and wrinkles to the face and then they market anti-aging products and this how their business goes on. Pakistan imports some of the high-quality products that are too expensive that no common man can buy and that is why women do not even know the originality of real cosmetic products.

Poisoning of lipstick:

Almost all lipsticks contain chemicals and such oils that dry the lips. Moreover, it contains lead that is highly harmful if consumed. The ingestion of things in lipstick causes brain damage. Ladies wear lipsticks and most of them consume it from their lips unintentionally by eating something or in any way. This causes different diseases in their immune system.

Allergies of skin:

Make-up is the foremost reason for skin allergies. Cosmetics like deodorants contain alcohol which causes redness. Itching and irritation that leads to pigmentation of the skin. Moreover, make-up closes the skin pores and block the sweat gland which causes many different types of allergies.

On the other hand, fairness creams are highly in use, especially in Pakistan. Men and women both are highly conscious of their complexion and with their fair complex they tend to buy different type of fairness creams that contain highly toxic and dangerous chemicals that give a fair appearance at the start but later it starts showing the side effects on skin and in this way many people do loses their natural skin foundation color.

Skin specialists never prohibit using cosmetic products rather they recommend using original and natural product-based cosmetics. They do not have harmful effects.

Causes cancer:

The excessive use of low-quality products ultimately leads to skin cancer. Lipsticks contain lead and aluminum that causes anemia and glucose intolerance. And other make-up products contain sulfate and zinc oxide that is toxic which fails organs like kidney or liver. To preserve cosmetics, Parabens are heavily used in products that cause severe cancer.

Permanency of dark circles:

This side effect is also included in the 5 harmful effects of cosmetic. According to experts, less make-up should be applied around the eyes as the area is sensitive compared to the rest of the face. Chemicals easily and quickly affect that particular area. The cosmetics should be applied around the eyes after all it leads to the dark circles and bags under eyes. Dark circles once appear there are fewer chances to get rid of them.



what after petrol.

Petrol is the byproduct of crude oil which is extracted from deep sources beneath the earth. Which is further filtered to produce diesel, kerosene, etc. Now the 98% of the vehicles in the world are running on petrol and which is the major cause of pollution nowadays, only the Cars and Trucks are responsible for about 5% contributor to the pollution alone in which the main fuel of source is petrol with diesel. With the increase in use of petrol as the main source of fuel the carbon emission have seen an increment of an about 100% in last 100 years.

Petrol is a sustainable source of fuel as of now, till they are availability. But after the extinction of the petrol, we need to find more sources of the fuel which can take the place of generation of fuels are as follows :


Hydrogen is a clean fuel that can be used in fuel cell, in which the byproduct only water is produced. Hydrogen can be produced from a various means of resources , such as natural gas, nuclear power, biomass, and renewable power like solar and wind. These qualities make hydrogen an attractive fuel option for transportation and electricity generation application. It can be used in cars, in houses, and in many more appliances for a clean energy.

Production of Hydrogen is done by various methods.


Thermal processes for hydrogen production typically involve steam reforming, a high-temperature process in which steam reacts with a hydrocarbon fuel to produce hydrogen. Many hydrocarbon fuels can be reformed to produce hydrogen, including natural gas, diesel, renewable liquid fuels, gasified coal, or gasified biomass. Today, about 95% of all hydrogen is produced from steam reforming of natural gas.


Water can be separated into oxygen and hydrogen through a process called electrolysis. Electrolytic processes take place in an electrolyzer, which functions much like a fuel cell in reverse—instead of using the energy of a hydrogen molecule, like a fuel cell does, an electrolyzer creates hydrogen from water molecules.


Biological processes use microbes such as bacteria and microalgae and can produce hydrogen through biological reactions. In microbial biomass conversion, the microbes break down organic matter like biomass or wastewater to produce hydrogen, while in photobiological processes the microbes use sunlight as the energy source.

These are some methods by which hydrogen can be produced.


Electricity is highly recommended source of energy as it is widely adopted by the mankind in the hole world. This type of energy is the clean and clear. And can be produced by various processes such renewable energy and non renewable energy.

1.Renewable Energy

  • Solar energy
Renewable energy - solar panels

Sunlight is one of our planet’s most abundant and freely available energy resources. The amount of solar energy that reaches the earth’s surface in one hour is more than the planet’s total energy requirements for a whole year. Although it sounds like a perfect renewable energy source, the amount of solar energy we can use varies according to the time of day and the season of the year as well as geographical location. In the UK, solar energy is an increasingly popular way to supplement your energy usage.

  • Wind Energy
Renewable energy - wind farm

Wind is a plentiful source of clean energy. Wind farms are an increasingly familiar sight in the UK with wind power making an ever-increasing contribution to the National Grid. To harness electricity from wind energy, turbines are used to drive generators which then feed electricity into the National Grid. Although domestic or ‘off-grid’ generation systems are available, not every property is suitable for a domestic wind turbine.

  • Hydro energy
renewable energy - hydro energy

As a renewable energy resource, hydro power is one of the most commercially developed. By building a dam or barrier, a large reservoir can be used to create a controlled flow of water that will drive a turbine, generating electricity. This energy source can often be more reliable than solar or wind power (especially if it’s tidal rather than river) and also allows electricity to be stored for use when demand reaches a peak. Like wind energy, in certain situations hydro can be more viable as a commercial energy source (dependant on type and compared to other sources of energy) but depending very much on the type of property, it can be used for domestic, ‘off-grid’ generation.

There are even more processes such as tidal energy, biomass energy.

2. non renewable energy

  • Coal

Coal comes from the remains of plants that died hundreds of millions of years ago. It has the highest level of carbon of all fossil fuels.

  • Oil

Oil – also known as petroleum – can be extracted and refined in order to make products such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel.

  • Natural Gas

Natural gas was formed from the remains of tiny sea plants and animals that died millions of years ago. It is mainly composed of methane.

  • Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy is released when atoms’ nuclei are fused together (fusion) or split apart (fission). Nuclear power plants produce electricity through nuclear fission.

The lgbtqia+ community in India

This is the best time around to write about this. Although the pride month is dedicated to queer rights, they sadly have to fight for their right to existence 24/7 and not only for a single month in the year. And as our laws are turning progressive day by day, giving us all hopes, the general mindset of our country just isn’t.

The people (especially of India) like to dismiss this topic in the name of preserving their “culture.” So here, we are going to talk about whether our culture really prohibits homosexuality or not. I am mainly going to talk about Hinduism in this article since I am one and I can speak out the perspective.

I have heard the saying ” Homosexuality is a foreign concept” in my life enough times to do proper research on it. But is it really?

The research proves out to be quite conflicting. It is now being said that the stigma around homosexuality and sex education is, in fact, a foreign concept “gifted” to us by the Britishers when they colonized us. The liberals keep their perspective that homosexuality and even polyamory were “recognized” in the ancient history of India, and they keep forward various ancient carvings, books, and art as proof.

While on the other side of the spectrum, some people have argued that the carvings were made by poor carvers who projected their knowledge and fantasies through their art, since talking about it was socially unacceptable at that time. The truth can actually fall on any side of the spectrum but we can’t be oblivious to the fact that our gods did not forbid homosexuality either. In fact, they represented the communities.

“Many deities in Hinduism and Indian epics are represented as both male and female at different times and in different incarnations or may manifest with characteristics of both genders at once, such as Ardhanarishvara, created by the merging of the god Shiva and his consort Parvati whose half right body is a fully male body and half left body is full female.

Many chronicles of changes in sex and polyamory are often found both in traditional religious narratives such as the Vedas, Mahabharata, Ramayana, and Puranas as well as in regional folklore. But then again, there are no direct mentions and so, these interpretations might go on to hurt religious sentiments.

Regardless of whether our pasts and religions have shown proves of supporting the community or not, our society should unfold to progress towards a world where all human beings are valid and loved. Because in my interpretation of a “religion”, peace and love comes before beliefs and rules. God supports humans who support other humans in overcoming their battles in life.

  1. Moral education- We have been pressing on the topic of proper sex education in schools while letting the importance of home values and life skills slip. Because education starts at home and that’s where a child is mainly raised. Although, moral education in schools is very good start, it should be modified to not only focus on children, but on parents as well.
  2. Better inclusion in the parliaments and mainstream media – People and especially children need to realize that the people belonging to the LGBTQIA+ community are also normal human beings like them and are capable of handling honorable positions.
  3. Inclusion of struggles and stories in the curriculum- Children need to know from the very beginning that this world has been pretty cruel and this world needs determined people to bring about a change which is the need of the hour.
  4. Individual change- Speak up against any prejudice in your households or anywhere else. The topic of homosexuality is pretty massive, so don’t step back when it comes to educating yourself and other people about this.

“Equality means more than passing laws. The struggle is really won in the hearts and minds of the community, where it really counts.” – Barbara Gittings

Because nobody gets the right to prohibit someone else from living their lives. So just keep spreading love !