The fear of missing out

The basic definition of FOMO is – “Anxiety that an exciting or interesting event may currently be happening elsewhere, often aroused by posts seen on social media.”

The most important element in FOMO is the word “fear,” It makes us to do things even when we necessarily don’t want to. It’s logic versus emotion: When a compelling option is presented to us, we feel like an outsider if we say “no” to that. We may even fear that we’ll miss the opportunity of a lifetime if we say “no.”

At the same time, we know that we probably shouldn’t say ‘yes’ because we may be spreading ourselves too thin. Also, there are going to be plenty of other opportunities out there, so missing this one probably won’t make a difference after all.

When you are a victim of the fear of missing out, you are going to experience at least one of the following:

Procrastinating — Being Unfocused and Stressed

It’s obvious that when the temptation to say “yes” to a request is too big, you accept yet another task or project.

In practice, you are spreading yourself too thin. Not only are you stressed out by too many activities in your life, but it increases the likelihood for procrastination. This is because you cannot keep up with your schedule and you start finding excuses for not doing something you promised.

Losing Money

Sometimes you don’t want to feel like being an outsider in a group by making different decisions than the rest of the people, so you start spending money on the things you don’t even want because you don’t want to feel left out or miss out on anything which could have been “fun”.

Feeling Overwhelmed

Being overwhelmed is one of the symptoms of fear of missing out. When you are unable to say “no,” feeling overwhelmed is destined to happen at some point.

There are certain things you can do when you experience FOMO.

1. Be Aware of It

The first thing is to be aware of the feeling. Stop for a moment and acknowledge when you are having a feeling of FOMO.

Understand that this is a natural (although undesirable) way of reacting in a certain situation. We all wish we could say “yes” all the time, but we’re only human.

2. Be Honest With Yourself and Others

Honesty is one of the best ways to deal with the situation.

First, you have to be honest to yourself: If you say “yes,” you have to understand that you may be spreading yourself too thin.

Second, it is also important to be honest with others, too. They have to be aware that you may not be 100% committed to their requests if you have plenty of action going on at the same time.

3. Make a Quick Decision Regarding the Situation

One of the worst things you can do is be on the fence. As long as something is left undecided, it is using your brain capacity for nothing.

That’s why it is imperative to say “no” to an opportunity as quickly as possible if you feel you are unable to commit to it 100%.

When you say “no,” you may even regret your decision at first. On the other hand, if you are meant to experience the opportunity at all, it will come available to you at a later time.

4. Change Your Perspective

Lastly, one step in defeating the FOMO is to see if a situation or event supports your short or long term goals.If it doesn’t, it’s likely better for you to get off social media sites that can increase FOMO and say no. Instead, focus on everything you have to be grateful for in life at this moment. Try spending time with friends and family and improve the important relationships in your life. These are the things that you’ll really regret missing out on and what will ultimately improve your life satisfaction.

FOMO can lead you to distraction and can push you to do things you really don’t care about. However, there is a way to overcome the fear. Once you learn to handle it, you will feel better and will feel ready to take on more things that add genuine fulfillment to your life.


How to Create a Website

An Easy, Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners

So, you’d like to create a website? That’s fantastic! However, if you’ve never constructed a website before, it can be difficult to know where to begin (and what to avoid).To assist you, we’ve put up this comprehensive tutorial on how to launch a website. Before we begin, we’d like to make two guarantees to you about our guide:

Register your domain name

Your domain name should be relevant to your products or services so that buyers can quickly locate you on the internet. Customers may anticipate that your domain name will be similar to your company name.

Your email address will be based on your domain name. While a free email account like hotmail can be used, sending emails from a business address appears more professional.

If possible, get a domain name with extension when choosing a domain name. Because most people associate a website with the letter “.com,” having website makes it easier for them to remember. Because it is the most popular domain name extension, obtaining domain name is difficult. It won’t be difficult to come up with an excellent domain name if you’re imaginative enough.

Find a web hosting company

To get your domain name online, you’ll need to select a web hosting business. Web hosting is available from the majority of major internet service providers. They may also be able to give you with a number of email addresses.The cost of web hosting is determined by the size of your website and the number of visitors it receives each month.

Prepare your content

Consider what you want your visitors to be able to do when they visit your website. This will assist you in deciding which sections or pages to include. Consider what information or transactions your clients will require, and make sure the site is set up in such a way that users can easily access and complete the tasks they require.You could want to engage a professional to write and structure your content, just as you might hire a professional to design your site.

Build your website

You can either build your own website or hire a web developer to do it for you. Websites must be updated on a regular basis, so make sure you budget for this.You can create your own website with the help of a website publishing package. These are comparable to word processors, but they include built-in facilities for converting text and photos to web content and sending it to your website.If you’re new to online company, having someone else build your website is a good option. A competent web developer can help you build your site quickly and provide you advice on how to make it look good. Hiring a professional might be especially beneficial if you plan to open an online store or provide other services.


Today is the day 5 of the final match of world test championship. But sadly, there hasn’t been almost three days of play. ICC has allowed to use the reserved 6th day. Currently third innings and India’s second innings are going on. Winning the toss, Kiwi captain Kane Williamson choose to bowl. Against it, team India could only manage to score a total of 217 runs. There was am excellent partnership between the indian captain Virat Kohli and vice captain Ajinkaya Rahane. Where rest of the players struggled, skippers were there at rescue. In response to India’s struggling 217, team New Zealand scored 249 runs with a lead of 32. Kiwi skipper stood like a wall and scored 49 crutial runs for his team. At the moment, 11:10 pm IST, IND are 51-1 after 26 overs, with a lead of 19 runs.

How much runs will the Indian team score? Will NZ be able to chase us down? Or will it be a draw? Stay tunned to know!

“What is the difference between Blogging and Journalism?”

Before we continue we must first of all find out what the two really are and then we will be able to identify the difference between them.

So then, what is blogging?  Blogging was actually created by Justin Hall. It all started in 1994 when many witness the   birth of the first blog. According to creative blog,  It was  called  – a place where  creator  Justin Hall could share his musings and  his favorite  links  with the world .  It was a page where he could express himself, share his ideas and content on the web (Creative blog).

As years went by and technology progressed   in 1997 ,  many people started using their own personal websites as a place  to spotlight their ideas, the term “ weblog” was coined and  shortened to “ blog”   in 1999( Creative blog) .

People needed a place to share ideas, thoughts, express their feelings, and experiences. They found that having a place where you could share ideas and express yourself was an ideal way to share intimate information with people who are very close to you, friends and family.

According to creative blog,   when people first started blogging   they did not have to share it on Facebook or join a content network   or outwardly promote it. It was actually private   and people shared it with people they knew and they knew where to find them.

Before, blogging grew to what we know it today,   early blogger’s hosted contents on sites like Xanga. It was founded in 1998, and live journal in 1999.  Both were simple to use,  but  were  mostly  only able  to swap  out colors schemes  and minor  layout pieces, but very  effective  at allowing users to publish  quickly  and easily( Creative blog).

Many people became very interested in this new thing that they started looking beyond their intimate circle for more information to read. They started exploring, looking for the best blog and content on the web.    Blogging actually gained it roots when Charlotte Observer set up its blog and used it to share information in mainstream news something that had not been done before.  They used it and kept people informed. The Bonnie Blog set   records for page views on the observer’s site. They also set the stage along with Drudge reports breaking of the Clinton –Lewinsky scandal, for a major shift in the way blogging platform were used (Creative Blog).

Soon people started showing interest in blogging and online news.  They needed to find new ways on how to manage the content and share these ideas with the public.  According to creative blog, I n 2003 Google launch AdSense, this allowed bloggers to earn income for their work.  Soon many people were blogging. This gave them the opportunity to earn an income for the work that they do. Now it has become a profession for some people whereby they learn how to blog and make money. As we have seen what was once consider to be expression of people’s feelings , passion, ideas , thoughts and what was  going on around the world, like current events has evolve to a whole new phenomenon. Blog is abbreviated of “Weblog,”   it is used to describe websites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information.  A blog is like a personal diary type commentary and links to articles on other websites.   It ranges from personal to political and can focus on concerns of the people. It is a place where most people feel very free to write and share their concerns.

Add context to a story by linking and commenting on other material found online.  Basically  when journalist blogs , they express their view about the issues surrounding whatever they are reporting on and even does it better because there are no restrictions  like when they are actually doing journalistic work.  To be a journalist one needs an academic training or formal training from a reputable school of journalism.  To be a blogger one needs a website and need to know how to express him or herself by writing.

Simply, blogging is viewed by many as unreliable because it’s someone’s opinion and the other one is viewed as reliable because one has to verify the source of the information before it can be broadcast the world. However, I think it is a perception issue of what the public view as reliable or unreliable and I say this because when we look at the evolvement of blogging over the years we can infer that blogging has become a huge deal that even major companies are using blogs to promote their businesses on their websites  and different forums. It has become one of the reliable sources that most people rely on to read and make decisions about whether they want to do business with the firm, purchase from them or inquire about what they do and what it entails.  As mentioned before, even journalist  and others have taken to blogs in order  to share information with others.

“What is the difference between Blogging and Journalism?”


Before we continue we must first of all find out what the two really are and then we will be able to identify the difference between them.

So then, what is blogging?  Blogging was actually created by Justin Hall. It all started in 1994 when many witness the   birth of the first blog. According to creative blog,  It was  called  – a place where  creator  Justin Hall could share his musings and  his favorite  links  with the world .  It was a page where he could express himself, share his ideas and content on the web (Creative blog).

As years went by and technology progressed   in 1997 ,  many people started using their own personal websites as a place  to spotlight their ideas, the term “ weblog” was coined and  shortened to “ blog”   in 1999( Creative blog) .

People needed a place to share ideas, thoughts, express their feelings, and experiences. They found that having a place where you could share ideas and express yourself was an ideal way to share intimate information with people who are very close to you, friends and family.

According to creative blog,   when people first started blogging   they did not have to share it on Facebook or join a content network   or outwardly promote it. It was actually private   and people shared it with people they knew and they knew where to find them.

Before, blogging grew to what we know it today,   early blogger’s hosted contents on sites like Xanga. It was founded in 1998, and live journal in 1999.  Both were simple to use,  but  were  mostly  only able  to swap  out colors schemes  and minor  layout pieces, but very  effective  at allowing users to publish  quickly  and easily( Creative blog).

Many people became very interested in this new thing that they started looking beyond their intimate circle for more information to read. They started exploring, looking for the best blog and content on the web.    Blogging actually gained it roots when Charlotte Observer set up its blog and used it to share information in mainstream news something that had not been done before.  They used it and kept people informed. The Bonnie Blog set   records for page views on the observer’s site. They also set the stage along with Drudge reports breaking of the Clinton –Lewinsky scandal, for a major shift in the way blogging platform were used (Creative Blog).

Soon people started showing interest in blogging and online news.  They needed to find new ways on how to manage the content and share these ideas with the public.  According to creative blog, I n 2003 Google launch AdSense, this allowed bloggers to earn income for their work.  Soon many people were blogging. This gave them the opportunity to earn an income for the work that they do. Now it has become a profession for some people whereby they learn how to blog and make money. As we have seen what was once consider to be expression of people’s feelings , passion, ideas , thoughts and what was  going on around the world, like current events has evolve to a whole new phenomenon. Blog is abbreviated of “Weblog,”   it is used to describe websites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information.  A blog is like a personal diary type commentary and links to articles on other websites.   It ranges from personal to political and can focus on concerns of the people. It is a place where most people feel very free to write and share their concerns.

“What is the difference between Blogging and Journalism?”

 “What is the difference between Blogging and Journalism?”

Before we continue we must first of all find out what the two really are and then we will be able to identify the difference between them.

So then, what is blogging?  Blogging was actually created by Justin Hall. It all started in 1994 when many witness the   birth of the first blog. According to creative blog,  It was  called  – a place where  creator  Justin Hall could share his musings and  his favorite  links  with the world .  It was a page where he could express himself, share his ideas and content on the web (Creative blog).

As years went by and technology progressed   in 1997 ,  many people started using their own personal websites as a place  to spotlight their ideas, the term “ weblog” was coined and  shortened to “ blog”   in 1999( Creative blog) .

People needed a place to share ideas, thoughts, express their feelings, and experiences. They found that having a place where you could share ideas and express yourself was an ideal way to share intimate information with people who are very close to you, friends and family.

According to creative blog,   when people first started blogging   they did not have to share it on Facebook or join a content network   or outwardly promote it. It was actually private   and people shared it with people they knew and they knew where to find them.

Before, blogging grew to what we know it today,   early blogger’s hosted contents on sites like Xanga. It was founded in 1998, and live journal in 1999.  Both were simple to use,  but  were  mostly  only able  to swap  out colors schemes  and minor  layout pieces, but very  effective  at allowing users to publish  quickly  and easily( Creative blog).

Many people became very interested in this new thing that they started looking beyond their intimate circle for more information to read. They started exploring, looking for the best blog and content on the web.    Blogging actually gained it roots when Charlotte Observer set up its blog and used it to share information in mainstream news something that had not been done before.  They used it and kept people informed. The Bonnie Blog set   records for page views on the observer’s site. They also set the stage along with Drudge reports breaking of the Clinton –Lewinsky scandal, for a major shift in the way blogging platform were used (Creative Blog).

Soon people started showing interest in blogging and online news.  They needed to find new ways on how to manage the content and share these ideas with the public.  According to creative blog, I n 2003 Google launch AdSense, this allowed bloggers to earn income for their work.  Soon many people were blogging. This gave them the opportunity to earn an income for the work that they do. Now it has become a profession for some people whereby they learn how to blog and make money. As we have seen what was once consider to be expression of people’s feelings , passion, ideas , thoughts and what was  going on around the world, like current events has evolve to a whole new phenomenon. Blog is abbreviated of “Weblog,”   it is used to describe websites that maintain an ongoing chronicle of information.  A blog is like a personal diary type commentary and links to articles on other websites.   It ranges from personal to political and can focus on concerns of the people. It is a place where most people feel very free to write and share their concerns.

On the other hand   when we say Journalism one will wonder what it is. The  dictionary .com acknowledges that  journalism is the occupation of reporting , writing , editing , photographing  or broadcasting  news or of conducting  any  news organization as a business (   This reporting style does not include people’s opinions; however it involves data collection, authority, facts, information from reliable sources   and verification to ensure that the information is accurate and proven to be the truth.  Their work mostly consists of doing research to ensure that everything they report about actually did happened and it is the truth.  We might have seen it before.  That sometimes when an incident occurs and the network does not verify the source to make sure that the story is true they later end up apologizing for their mistakes, networks like CNN, CBS, BBC and others have done it a few times.   This is because they lack the facts and it can have a detrimental impact on the people receiving the news or on the network reporting it. According to the American Press Institute, “ the value  flows  from its purpose , to  provide people  with verified  information  they can  use  to make  better  decisions , and its  practices ,  the most important  of which  is systematic  process.  A discipline of verification that journalist use to find not just facts, but also the “truth about the facts.”

Now that we have an idea of what blogging is and what journalism is we can infer the difference between the two.

Saleem  khan  a career  journalist  reports that ,  the key difference between blogging and journalism is that, with blogging  people tend to offer more opinion  and analysis that links to news  stories  reported  by mainstream media  while  professional journalist  tend to gather   and report facts and opinion from expert source.

The art of journalism requires  that  the journalist finds a fact or premise  determine  the veracity of  that fact or premise by verifying it with different sources before reporting it  and attributing to it. With blog there is no such requirement or expectation with it.  All one needs is a blog which defined primarily by format: a web page or site comprised of series of post that typically   appear in reverse

Chronological order, which may include links commentary, multimedia content and a way of reader to comment on the site (khan).

However, with the increase involvement of people on the internet these days, Khan adds that Journalist has increasingly taken up blogging as a way to:

-Report observations on the fly share note book and story –behind –the story facts that don’t easily fit into the narrative of a formal news article.

-They cover stories that would be just a piece of a full article

Photo by cottonbro on

The irrational things about trust

The obvious and rational equation is that being trustworthy plus being transparent will lead you to be trusted. Verification of trustworthiness should lead to trust.

This makes sense. Being trustworthy (acting in a way that’s worthy of trust) plus being transparent so that people can see your trustworthiness—this should be sufficient.

How then, do we explain that brands like Coke and Google are trusted? The recipe is secret, the algorithm is secret, and competitors like DuckDuckGo certainly act in a more trustworthy way.

In fact, trust often comes from something very different. It’s mostly about symbols, expectations and mystery.

Consider the relationship you might enter into if you need surgery. You trust this woman to cut you open, you’re putting your life in her hands… without the transparency of seeing all of her surgical statistics, interviewing all previous patients, evaluating her board scores.

Instead, we leap into surgery on the basis of the recommendation from one doctor, on how the office feels, on a few minutes of bedside manner. We walk away from surgery because of a surly receptionist, or a cold demeanor. 

The same is true for just about all the food we eat. Not only don’t we visit the slaughterhouse or the restaurant kitchen, we make an effort to avoid imagining that they even exist.

In most commercial and organizational engagements, trust is something we want and something we seek out, but we use the most basic semiotics and personal interactions to choose where to place our trust. And once the trust is broken, there’s almost no amount of transparency that will help us change our mind.

This is trust from ten thousand years ago, a hangover from a far less complex age when statistical data hadn’t been conceived of, when unearthing history was unheard of. But that’s now hard-wired into how we judge and are judged.

Quick test: Consider how much you trust Trump, or Clinton, Cruz or Sanders, Scalia or RBG. Is that trust based on transparency? On a rational analysis of public statements and private acts? Or is it more hunch-filled than that? What are the signals and tropes you rely on? Tone of voice? Posture? Appearance? Would more transparency change your mind about someone you trust? What about someone you don’t? (Here’s a fascinating story on that topic, reconstructed and revealed).

It turns out that we grab trust when we need it, and that rebuilding trust after it’s been torn is really quite difficult. Because our expectations (which weren’t based on actual data) were shown to be false.

Real trust (even in our modern culture) doesn’t always come from divulging, from providing more transparency, but from the actions that people take (or that we think they take) before our eyes. It comes from people who show up before they have to, who help us when they think no one is watching. It comes from people and organizations that play a role that we need them to play.


Rights are what every human being deserves, no matter who they are or where they live, so that they can I’ve in a world that is fair and just. A responsibility is something that a person is expected to do. It is something that affects his life and the life of others. Since the rights are for everybody, we have to take on responsibility too. Rights and responsibilities are like two sides of a coin. Whenever and wherever you have any rights, you must have corresponding responsibilities too. We have rights in the same measure as we have responsibilities or duties. If we want to have rights, we have to act responsibly to have rights too.

when we have to…
1) Express your opinion.
2) Protest laws that we think are unfair.
3) Speak freely
4) Vote for our leaders.
5) Be treated fairly.
6) Be treated with respect.

we also have the responsibility to…..
1) Treat others fairly.
2) Respect others.
3) Listen respectfully to other’s opinions.
4) Not harm others with our actions.
5) Respect the privacy of others.
6) Allow people with our words.

Exercise your rights only when you fulfill your responsibilities. Remember, both your rights and responsibilities affect others. Therefore, maintain a fine balance between the two.

Maroju Sanjana


Literature acts as a powerful tool for capturing moments. Its influence is visible from the very beginning of the human civilisation. Experiences of a particular time period can be restored mentally by the reading/rereading of a text. It also has the ability to create a new world filled with fantasy. Literary works produced in different genres are uncountable and the various methods used by the authors in different contexts help readers to connect with the social- political- economical- cultural scenarios of the time. In history how do we understand that one led to the other? How can we be certain that one was the cause and the other was an effect?  The historian links these two facts and provides a narrative where we can see the cause – effect sequence. Therefore we can know history only in the form of narrative or texts.

Texts are necessary to understand social contexts. These texts are literature. Literary texts not only reflect an age’s themes and contexts, it shapes those contexts by persuading people to accept particular believes and opinions. We can’t separate literature as an effect of historical or social contexts but have to see literature as contributing to informing, influencing and participating actively in the construction of those contexts.

Behind every illness there is a mystery; literature discuss about mysteries. Literary perspective of Pandemic become more important because it shows how disease, death, sex are affecting humans and society, socially mentally and culturally. It is also important that by recording pandemics, literature tries to show pandemic in a literary discourse rather than in a medical discourse. Pandemics in literary discourses help the common people to understand the context. Many authors used pandemic as a narrative device to showcase the effect of diseases and deaths in the lives of creatures, mainly humans. Pandemics have been fictionalised by some writers, but the advancement of science has increased the knowledge of illness by creating an understanding that truth or reality is stranger than fiction.

Pandemics are nothing new in the path of human history and pandemic literature helps to contextualise real incidents. It mirrors people’s fears about disease and societal collapse, but it simultaneously shows that survival is possible and that rebuilding ourselves into something new is not only necessary but inevitable. A story about a pandemic is rarely about the disease itself and as a genre pandemic literature focuses more on sociology, psychology and human behavior. There is a long history of authors writing about and writing in times of pandemics. Human beings have indeed for a very long time experienced pandemics (experiencing) and they have written about it.  Concept of universal fear questions the notion that humans are not in control.

At the beginning of Susan Sontag’s classic text, Illness as Metaphor, she writes, “Illness is the night-side of life, a more onerous citizenship. Everyone who is born holds dual citizenship, in the kingdom of the well and in the kingdom of the sick.” According to commonly accepted psychological theories of illness, the sick bear ultimate responsibility for both being sick and getting well. A reading of Susan Sontag’s text says that isolation is a mode of oppression. They are being constantly watched and controlled by the ‘kingdom of well’. People who are trapped in the ‘kingdom of sick’ are treated as mere biological bodies which contain infection instead of ‘normal’ human beings. Medical gazes would follow them until they reach in the ‘kingdom of well’.  Till the mid 19th century modern epidemiology was hardly in action. For most of the time people were confused about the origin and center of diseases and it’s spread. So early examples of pandemic literature focuses more on what people do during the pandemic, with a touch of moralising trend of that period.

The pandemic reached us in an unforeseen way and we’re going through a huge, collective transition. Historically distant texts felt urgent and real, with quarantines, stay-at-home orders, critical staff, and rule breakers. We started to understand the ability of literature to convey something new about the shared experience, something that was not possible to communicate through clear reporting. Perhaps it’s a stretch to say that our answer to COVID-19 gave us knowledge and experience, but we discovered dimensions of our existence that were unmistakably familiar as we entered the foreign worlds of epidemics through history.


Mother Teresa became nun at the early age to serve the mankind in sorrow and suffering, helpless and downtrodden people, the orphans, homeless and hungry. She was born on 26th August, 1910. At 18 she left home and joined the charity of Loreto, an Irish community of nuns with missionary in India.Mother Teresa was the founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to helping the poor.They are responsible for homes and hospices for those with tuberculosis, leprosy and HIV/AIDS as well as running soup kitchens, counseling programs for families, orphanages and schools. Those working for her missionaries must accept the vows of poverty, chastity, obedience and to give to those who are poor. Nun and missionary Mother Teresa, known in the Catholic church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta, devoted her life to caring for the sick and poor. Born in Macedonia to parents of Albanian-descent and having taught in India for 17 years, Mother Teresa experienced her “call within a call” in 1946. Her order established a hospice; centers for the blind, aged and disabled; and a leper colony. In 1979, Mother Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize for her humanitarian work. She died in September 1997 and was beatified in October 2003.
There are many humanitarian in the history of the world. Out of the blue, Mother Teresa stood in that crowd of people. She is a lady of great caliber who spends her whole life serving the poor and needy people. Although she was not an Indian still she came to India to help its people. Above all, in this essay on Mother Teresa, we are going to discuss the various aspects of her life.Mother Teresa was not his actual name but after becoming a nun she received this name from the church after the name of St. Teresa. By birth, she was a Christian and a great believer of God. And due to this reason, she chooses to become a Nun.
She was an angel of hope for the people but death spares no one. And this gem died serving people in Kolkata (Calcutta). Also, on her death the whole nation shred tears in her memory. With her death the poor, needy, homeless, and weak again become orphans.Many memorials were made in her honor by the Indian people. Apart from that, foreign countries also make several memorials to give tribute to her.It was a difficult task for her to manage and teach poor children. But, she manages those hardships delicately.In the beginning, of her journey, she uses to teach poor kids using a stick by writing on the ground. But after years of struggle, she finally manages to arrange the necessary things for teaching with the help of volunteers and some teachers.
She was a well know woman due to her charity works and her missions that she did around the world. I chose this person because I think that she is a great person and I admire Mother Teresa because she helped poor people and she did so many works with the homeless people.

5 Point Something on Judicial Review and Judicial Activism


In the enforcement of law, the Judiciary is in charge of three roles, firstly, as an interpreter of the constitution to eliminate any ambiguity in the language of the provisions given in the constitution; secondly, as the protector of fundamental rights which are guaranteed by the constitution to its people; and thirdly, to resolve the disputes which have been appealed after being heard in the lower judiciary.

In India the judiciary is the only authority that interprets the Constitution. By this it is meant that the Judiciary acts like the protector of the Constitution. It prevents the harm done by the executive and legislative. It provides the general public their rights that have been prescribed in the Constitution under the Directive Principles of State Policy. Judicial Review is the power of judiciary to review the laws and determine their validity. Judicial Review has not been defined in the Indian Constitution. It does not direct judicial system to practice the judicial review but it is deep rooted in the constitution itself. For instance, Article 13 states that ‘all laws in force in the territory of India before the commencement of this Constitution, in so far as they are inconsistent with the provisions of Part III shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.’

In this sense ‘judicial activism’ is treated as a necessary consequence of judicial review. Assertion of judiciary and its powers is judicial activism. The Indian courts have achieved readiness in exercising their power to cherish the values of constitution to an extent that Judicial Review has taken form of Judicial Activism. In other words, Judicial Activism is bringing justice to the doorstep of people, especially who are vulnerable. It is not something that has been invented by the courts but the lawyers, i.e. the activists themselves. It has its roots in the Article 21, ‘Right to life and liberty of a citizen’. Precisely, it is a philosophy which involves the personal views and understandings of a judge with regard to a statute. It is activism regarding a public policy and its benefits instead of constitutionalism.




  • It offers a route to justice for those adversely affected by public body decision making
  • It performs an essential tasks in that it allows the courts and judiciary oversight of government decision making, be that central or local government, or parts of the state that implement government policy.
  • Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to take an active role in ensuring that the other branches of government abide by the constitution. If two laws conflict with each other, the Court must decide on the operation of each.


The concept of Judicial Review does not consist of negative aspects but here are some limitations of the Judicial review.

  • Only the procedure followed by the authority in reaching the decision can be checked not the decision. The court is only allowed to check and limit the procedure not the decision.
  • The power is delegated to superior courts only, i.e. Supreme Court and High Courts.
  • The court cannot be involved in policy matters and political doubts unless absolutely necessary.
  • It is temporary in nature. Law once passed may become unconstitutional with changed situation; this may create vacuum in legal system. Hence, it can be said that directions given by court would be binding only till legislation is enacted.
  • The court can interpret and invalidate a law but it cannot itself make laws.



  • It provides a system of checks and balances to the other government branches. Judicial Activism is a delicate exercise involving creativity. It brings out required innovation in the form of a solution.
  • Judicial Activism provides judges to use their personal wisdom in cases where the law failed to provide a balance.
  • Judicial Activism also provides insights into the issues. The reason why this is a good thing is that it shows the instilled trust placed in the justice system and its judgments.
  • Many a time public power harms the people, so it becomes necessary for the judiciary to check misuse of public power.
  • It provides speedy solutions where the legislature gets stuck in the issue of majority.


  • Judges can override any existing law. Hence, it clearly violates the line drawn by the constitution.
  • The judicial opinions of the judges become standards for ruling other cases.
  • Judgment may be influenced by personal or selfish motives. It can further harm the public at large.
  • Repeated interference of courts can erode the faith of the people in the quality, integrity and efficiency of governmental institutions.
  • Courts limit the functioning of government, when it exceeds its power and to stop any abuse or misuse of power by government agencies.


  • Indira Gandhi vs. Raj Naraian
  • Marbury vs. Madison
  • Chandra Kumar vs. Union of India and others


  • Keshvanand Bharati vs. State of Kerala
  • Minerva Mills vs. Union of India
  • SP vs. Union of India
Judicial review is a through which a court can review an administrative action by a public body and safeguard declarations or orders. Judicial activism means judicial rulings based on personal or political considerations rather than on existing law. 
The power of Judicial Review comes from the Constitution of India itself (Article 13). The authority of judicial review is suggested to protect and implement the fundamental rights defined in Part III of the Constitution. Judicial Activism also has its roots in the Constitution of India. It has its roots in the Article 21, ‘Right to life and liberty of a citizen’.
Judicial review is concerned with the power of the Court.Judicial activism is concerned with the manner in which the power is being exercised.
Power of judicial review follows from various provisions of the Constitution of India itself like Articles 13(2), 32, 226, 227,136,141 etc.Judicial activism on the other hand is more to do with the attitude of a judge handling the case and is thus an attribute of the personality of the judge other than any provisions in the legal system.

It can be said that judicial review and judicial activism is a highly developing and complex concepts. Judicial review has its root long back and its scope and extent varies from case to case. The growth of judicial review is the inevitable response of the judiciary to ensure proper check on the exercise of public power. Growing awareness of the rights in the people; the trend of judicial scrutiny of every significant governmental action and the readiness even of the executive to seek judicial determination of debatable or controversial issues, at times, may be, to avoid its accountability for the decision, have all resulted in the increasing significance of the role of the judiciary. There is a general perception that the judiciary in this country has been active in expansion of the field of judicial review into non-traditional areas, which earlier were considered beyond judicial purview. The judges have a duty to perform, which is even more onerous to keep the judicial ship afloat on even keel. It must avoid making any ad hoc decision without the foundation of a juristic principle, particularly, when the decision appears to break new grounds.

Judicial Activism is an obligation to be shouldered and not to be shirked by the judiciary when occasion and opportunity arise and demand the same. Otherwise, the judiciary will be failing to redeem the obligations to the people in accordance with the letter and spirit of the Constitution.

Judicial review has sound justification in the function of upholding constitutional supremacy. The supremacy of Constitution itself is embedded in convincing facts of public confidence. The role of judiciary is that of sentinel qui vive (on guard). The role of judiciary in the domain of review of legislation and administrative action has reinforced faith of people in good law and good governance. Judicial review and judicial activism has been treated as the most essential function of the judiciary to set right the lapses in all the administrative actions in the interest of justice.

the morality

Morals are the right thing to do in a given situation or principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior, sometimes including or excluding if it’s illegal or not.

But there is always a conflict between the right thing and morally right thing to do. Let’s say someone’s family is extremely poor and the mother is very sick. The pharmacy has the exact medicine that could cure the mother but it is very expensive. What would the son do knowing it was right there but he couldn’t reach it? Would he break into the pharmacy? But that’s illegal but for him it’s also the right thing to do at that moment.

Of course some might say, he could be getting help from friends, going to the doctors, getting a loan and a job etc. the usual righteous heads, but that is the ambiguity of helplessness. One living in a peaceful place will easily  suggest the one living in Syria to improve their situation by talking to the government and rebel groups, talk and find a solution etc. etc. but that is and always had been the fight between practicality and idealism. Conviction is for those on the sidelines, and everyone has plans until getting punched in the face are the famous sayings which depict these situations, while there is always  what most would consider a right way out but only one in million has the ability to find and  go that path. Rest are just the common people.

There are various types of moral practices. One can practice utilitarianism where doing “what’s right” should help everyone in the long run. It has some downsides because sometimes, even if it benefits everyone, it’s not always the most moral thing to do  .

There’s also Kantianism aka deontology, where instead of considering everyone, one considers his duties to society. one does not think about the end goal or consequences, just do the duty as told by laws or what parents taught or universal duties. But even this is not the idealistic model.

Anything is wrong or imperfect to somebody. 

And that is why there is conflict between moral sets. With a deeper look in too ourselves we can see that we as human Beings are highly individualistic but also deeply social organisms.We have individualistic as well as societal interests that drive us in our decision making and choices and hence in our moral code.

Individuals aspire to fulfill personal needs and desires while societal interests are directed towards predictability in the group and enhance safety and growth and development of the group. Perceived societal interests are expressed/implied in the form of moral code because conflicts between morals can lead to unpredictability in human behaviour and cause physical or psychological harm and may not always benefit in the long run. Common morality prevents people to a certain extent from violating the societal code thereby ensuring peace and preventing chaos.

Therefore, whenever an individual or a set of individuals break the moral code, society tends to stigmatise them or outcast them as a form of punishment and also to deter further violations.

However, since moral codes are very abstract in nature and are just perceptions in their true nature, individuals with enough power or majority of individuals happen to redefine morals from time to time.

Since morals have been accepted as basic to co-living, they are deeply embedded in mind. When we find ourselves violating the moral code, we tend to feel guilty and unhappy with our actions.

Moral codes are not found only in human societies but in almost all animals which live in groups are found to be practicing moral codes. So in the end we can only say that the more we study morality, the more we encounter ambiguity.

Digital Marketing

“Marketing is no longer about the stuff that you make, but about the stories you tell.” –Seth Godin, Bestselling Author, and Blogger

Digital marketing, also known as online marketing can be defined as the promotion of brands that is done to connect with potential customers with the help of the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel. Therefore, simple if a marketing campaign involves digital communication, it’s digital marketing.

Digital marketing aims at reaching a larger audience than one could reach through the means of traditional methods. It helps in targeting the prospects who are most likely to buy your product or service. It has been observed it is often more cost-effective as compared to traditional advertising, and enables you to measure success daily and pivot as you see fit.

One can easily get confused between digital marketing and inbound marketing. This is because digital marketing utilizes similar tools as inbound marketing that is email, content on an online platform, and many more. Both marketing schemes capture the attention of prospects through the buyer’s journey and turn them into customers. So, where does the difference lies? The views of the relationship between the tool and the goal in the two are the area of difference.

Role of digital marketing

By the virtue of the internet, digital marketing can operate electronically and online. This paves the way for far more possibilities for brands to reach customers, including email, video, social media, and search engines.

For one’s business and brand awareness, digital marketing has proved to be very essential. Nowadays, almost every brand has a website. And if they don’t, they at least have a social media presence or digital ad strategy. Digital content and marketing are so common that consumers now expect and rely on them as a way to learn about brands. 

Types of digital marketing

There are many ways of interacting using digital media similarly there are various types of specializations under digital marketing. 

  1. Search engine optimization
  2. Content marketing
  3. Social media marketing
  4. Pay-per-click, or PPC
  5. Affiliate marketing
  6. Native advertising
  7. Marketing automation
  8. Email marketing

Advantages of digital marketing

Trading at a global level

A website allows one to find new markets and trade globally for only a small investment.


A digital marketing campaign that is properly planned and well-targeted can reach the right audience at a much lower cost as compared to traditional marketing methods.

Easy Tracking and Measurable results

One can always measure or predict the results through digital marketing. It enables the business owner to measure his/her online marketing with web analytics and other online metric tools makes it easier for them to establish how effective their campaign has been. 


If your customer database is linked to your website, then whenever someone visits the site, one can greet them with targeted offers. The more they buy from you, the more you can refine your customer profile and market effectively to them.


By getting involved with social media and managing it carefully, one can build customer loyalty and create a reputation for being easy to engage with.

Social currency 

Digital marketing lets you create engaging campaigns using content marketing tactics. This content (images, videos, articles) can gain social currency – being passed from user to user and becoming viral.

Disadvantages of digital marketing

There are some challenges and drawbacks when it comes to digital marketing.

Right Skill Set

One needs to make sure that their staff has the right knowledge and expertise to carry out digital marketing with success. The staff needs to up-to-date with all the tools, platforms, and trends as they keep changing at a fast rate.


Optimising online advertising campaigns and creating marketing content are some of the areas which can take up a lot of time. It’s important to measure your results to ensure a return on investment. 

The competition is high

All businesses are up against the global competition as everyone utilizes digital marketing nowadays. It can be a challenge to stand out against competitors and to grab attention among the many messages aimed at consumers online.












Friendship is one of the greatest bonds anyone can ever wish for. Lucky are those who have friends they can trust. Friendship is a devoted relationship between two individuals. They both feel immense care and love for each other.You meet many along the way of life but only some stay with you forever. Those are your real friends who stay by your side through thick and thin. Friendship is the most beautiful gift you can present to anyone. It is one which stays with a person forever.Friendship means familiar and liking of each other’s mind. People who are friends talk to each other and spend time together The strength of the bond of friendship between two people can vary. If the bond is very strong, they are called best friends.
The ones with whom we have a special bond of love and affection. In other words, having a true friend makes our lives easier and full of happiness.true friendship stands for a relationship free of any judgments. In a true friendship, a person can be themselves completely without the fear of being judged. It makes you feel loved and accepted. This kind of freedom is what every human strives to have in their lives.True friendship is what gives us reason to stay strong in life. Having a loving family and all is okay but you also need true friendship to be completely happy. Some people don’t even have families but they have friends who’re like their family only. Thus, we see having true friends means a lot to everyone.
Friendship is important in life because it teaches us a great deal about life. We learn so many lessons from friendship which we won’t find anywhere else. You learn to love someone other than your family. You know how to be yourself in front of friends.Friendship never leaves us in bad times. You learn how to understand people and trust others. Your real friends will always motivate you and cheer for you. They will take you on the right path and save you from any evil.friendship also teaches you a lot about loyalty. It helps us to become loyal and get loyalty in return. There is no greater feeling in the world than having a friend who is loyal to you.Moreover, friendship makes us stronger. It tests us and helps us grow. We see how we fight with our friends yet come back together after setting aside our differences. This is what makes us strong and teaches us patience.Therefore, there is no doubt that best friends help us in our difficulties and bad times of life. They always try to save us in our dangers as well as offer timely advice. True friends are like the best assets of our life because they share our sorrow, sooth our pain and make us feel happy.Friendship is one of the most precious gifts of life. A person who has true friends in life is lucky enough Friendship makes life thrilling. It makes life sweet and pleasant experience. Friendship is indeed, an asset in life. It can lead us to success or to doom. It all depends on how we choose our friends.

human resource

Human resource management (HRM or HR) is the strategic approach to the effective and efficient management of people in a company or organization such that they help their business gain a competitive advantage. It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer’s strategic objectives.[1][need quotation to verify] Human resource management is primarily concerned with the management of people within organizations, focusing on policies and systems.[2] HR departments are responsible for overseeing employee-benefits design, employee recruitmenttraining and developmentperformance appraisal, and reward management, such as managing pay and Employee benefits benefit systems.[3] HR also concerns itself with organizational change and industrial relations, or the balancing of organizational practices with requirements arising from collective bargaining and governmental laws.[4][need quotation to verify]

The overall purpose of human resources (HR) is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people.[5] HR professionals manage the human capital of an organization and focus on implementing policies and processes. They can specialize in finding, recruiting, training, and developing employees, as well as maintaining employee relations or benefits. Training and development professionals ensure that employees are trained and have continuous development. This is done through training programs, performance evaluations, and reward programs. Employee relations deals with the concerns of employees when policies are broken, such as cases involving harassment or discrimination. Managing employee benefits includes developing compensation structures, parental leave programs, discounts, and other benefits for employees. On the other side of the field are HR generalists or business partners. These HR professionals could work in all areas or be labour relations representatives working with unionized employees.

HR is a product of the human relations movement of the early 20th Century, when researchers began documenting ways of creating business value through the strategic management of the workforce.[6] It was initially dominated by transactional work, such as payroll and benefits administration, but due to globalization, company consolidation, technological advances, and further research, HR as of 2015 focuses on strategic initiatives like mergers and acquisitionstalent managementsuccession planningindustrial and labor relations, and diversity and inclusion. In the current global work environment, most companies focus on lowering employee turnover and on retaining the talent and knowledge held by their workforce.[citation needed] New hiring not only entails a high cost but also increases the risk of a new employee not being able to adequately replace the position of the previous employee. HR departments strive to offer benefits that will appeal to workers, thus reducing the risk of losing employee commitment and psychological ownership.

What is Carbon Market?

“By the time we see that climate change is really bad, your ability to fix it is extremely limited… The carbon gets up there, but the heating effect is delayed. And then the effect of that heat on the species and ecosystem is delayed. That means that even when you turn virtuous, things are going to get worse for quite a while.” – Bill Gates

The sole purpose of carbon markets is to decrease the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by burning fossil fuels cost-effectively by setting limits on emissions and enabling the trading of emission units, which are instruments representing emission reductions. This trading helps to reduce the emissions at a lower cost to be paid to do so by higher-cost emitters, thus lowering the economic cost of reducing emissions.

The carbon market is also known as carbon trading, emissions trading, and carbon emissions trading, and in simple words, the carbon market is an environmental policy device that places an economic cost on carbon emissions.

How does it operate?

Carbon markets are similar to the “cap-and-trade” systems used by the E.U. and California, what happens in this trade is that the government puts a cap on the number of greenhouse gases that can be emitted by various industries or any other sector of the economy. A fixed amount of allowance is given to businesses according to the metric tons of CO2 they can emit. Those who emit less than their allotment can sell the extra to other businesses or companies, motivating other industries to reduce emissions produced by them faster. This means that if a company reduces its carbon emissions significantly, it can trade the excess permits on the carbon market for cash. If it’s not able to limit its emissions it may have to buy extra permits.

This scheme of international carbon market or carbon trading was set up under the U.N.’s 1997 Kyoto protocol on climate change. Under that agreement, developed countries aimed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions, but developing countries did not. So, if a developing country curbs its emissions for example by building a solar panel plant or planting trees, they could sell a “credit” to a developed country, which could count that emission reduction in its target.

Benefits of a carbon market

The carbon trading schemes have been successful in managing environmental problems like global warming in the past, with the help of trading in sulfur dioxide permits helping to limit acid rain in the US. One of the major attractions for governments concerned with stemming CO2 is that the cap-and-trade scheme is so much easier to implement as compared to the expensive direct regulations, and unpopular carbon taxes.

If regional carbon trading schemes can be joined up globally, with a high price at carbon, it could be a better and speedy method to help the world decarbonise.

Disadvantages of a carbon market

One main drawback which is observed is that creating a market in something called carbon dioxide which has absolutely no intrinsic value is very difficult. You need to promote scarcity – and you have to strictly limit the right to emit so that it can be traded. In the world’s biggest carbon trading scheme, the EU ETS, political interference has created gluts of permits.

Another disadvantage is that the offset permits, gained from paying for pollution reductions in poorer countries, are allowed to be traded as well. Because of this, the importance and effectiveness have become questionable of these permits in reducing carbon emissions.














Cat, (Felis catus), also called house cat or domestic cat, domesticated member of the family Felidae, order Carnivora, and the smallest member of that family. Like all felids, domestic cats are characterized by supple low-slung bodies, finely molded heads, long tails that aid in balance, and specialized teeth and claws that adapt them admirably to a life of active hunting. Cats possess other features of their wild relatives in being basically carnivorous, remarkably agile and powerful, and finely coordinated in movement.
It is noteworthy that the ancestors of the other common household pet, the dog, were social animals that lived together in packs in which there was subordination to a leader, and the dog has readily transferred its allegiance from pack leader to human master. The cat, however, has not yielded as readily to subjugation. Consequently, the house cat is able to revert to complete self-reliance more quickly and more successfully than most domesticated dogs. For an account of the relationship of the family of cats to other carnivores, see carnivore.The “cat pattern,” established very early in the evolution of modern mammals, was a successful one: early cats were already typical in form at a time when the ancestors of most other modern mammalian types were scarcely recognizable. They first appeared in the early Pliocene Epoch (5.3 to 3.6 million years ago), and they have continued with remarkably little change into modern times.


Cats are believed to be the only mammals who don’t taste sweetness.
Cats are nearsighted, but their peripheral vision and night vision are much better than that of humans.
Cats are supposed to have 18 toes (five toes on each front paw; four toes on each back paw).
Cats can jump up to six times their length.
Cats’ claws all curve downward, which means that they can’t climb down trees head-first. Instead, they have to back down the trunk.
Cats’ collarbones don’t connect to their other bones, as these bones are buried in their shoulder muscles.
Cats have 230 bones, while humans only have 206.
Cats have an extra organ that allows them to taste scents on the air, which is why your cat stares at you with her mouth open from time to time.
Cats have whiskers on the backs of their front legs, as well.
Cats have nearly twice the amount of neurons in their cerebral cortex as dogs.
Cats have the largest eyes relative to their head size of any mammal.
Cats make very little noise when they walk around. The thick, soft pads on their paws allow them to sneak up on their prey — or you!
Cats’ rough tongues can lick a bone clean of any shred of meat.
Cats use their long tails to balance themselves when they’re jumping or walking along narrow ledges.
Cats use their whiskers to “feel” the world around them in an effort to determine which small spaces they can fit into. A cat’s whiskers are generally about the same width as its body. (This is why you should never, EVER cut their whiskers.)
Cats walk like camels and giraffes: They move both of their right feet first, then move both of their left feet. No other animals walk this way.
Male cats are more likely to be left-pawed, while female cats are more likely to be right-pawed.
Though cats can notice the fast movements of their prey, it often seems to them that slow-moving objects are actually stagnant.
Some cats are ambidextrous, but 40 percent are either left- or right-pawed.
Some cats can swim.

The heart of Asia

Afghanistan, which has been given the epithet of the heart of Asia, is going through a transition. The United States troops that were deployed in the country will pull back by 11 September 2021. This comes after suffering from heavy losses- both militarily because of the loss of life of US soldiers and economically. This change which came after two decades will determine the fate of the entire region.

The experts believe that this might form a power vacuum because, in the absence of support for the United States, the elected government would not be able to hold peace and the Taliban might take over once again. The radical ideology supported by the group might retract the freedom that the afghans enjoyed during the brief period of an order under the Afghan government. However, the youth who received non-religious education might resist such surrender of rights, the pen cannot win a war against gun.

Peace in Afghanistan seems a distant goal because the tensions between the Afghan government and the Taliban were not resolved. The US endeavour failed because the peace process, which is a power sharing agreement, was never conceded by the Taliban. They see the US retreat as a victory. They will try to expand their influence which was confined to 19% of the country after a long and tiring operation in the past 20 years.

The Biden administration decision to leave the country in this state is being condemned globally and rightly so. The conditions in Afghanistan are conducive for a civil war. The biggest fear is that the rollback of US troops will bring things back to square one. All the progress achieved might vanish. In the end, it all boils down to the innocent lives that will churn in the politics and power play. Half of the pullback process is complete and the rush to fast track the process is clearly visible. Along with the US, Australia also closed its embassy till matters settle.

India and Afghanistan

India has upheld its stand. It will work for peace keeping in the Hindu Kush state. Assistance has been provided from India’s side in the past as well. These include road project from Zaranj to Delram, Salma dam power project in Herat province and construction of the Afghan Parliament. The American actions will have an impact on Indian investment in the region. India, along with other countries will have to play a bigger role in maintaining the gains that were achieved in the past while working for a peaceful Afghanistan. The developmental work done in the country will give some advantage to India. Also now India has opened communication with the Taliban. This gives a chance to serve as a better mediation of peace terms. India has been an advocate of ‘Afghan led, Afghan owned and Afghan controlled’ peace process.

A developed and peaceful Afghanistan will be good for Asia as a whole. Lastly, the heart of Asia should not suffer from a stroke. The issue needs a resolution and the countries will have to come together to help Afghanistan.


       “MOTHER” – is it a person or a simple concept?

Pretty obviously, the word consists of 6 letters. But, at the same time the word stands for 6 different characters all over the world each and every time – elder sister, mother, one’s better half, younger sister,  one’s friend(named as “girlfriend” if true love exists there) and lastly and most evidently, world’s strongest warrior. Everyone gets an idea but a few can execute that. With due respect to all the fathers, it must be said that if father is an idea , then mother is the execution of that idea or in a broader sense, if male is a thought, then female is the picture perfect setting of that. They are the true backbone, just like the way a tree gets grown up gradually after sowing the seed or just like the way the moon shines standing before the sun in a moon-lit night. If one knows the answer of a problem, one needs steps to prove it right? Same exists here.

Now, no matter who this mother is, one can produce it by itself. Going beyond the society, it can be witnessed that people are growing up alone. At times of misery, people are there to show people the way out and get out of ruin. They are the backbone of themselves, just like the way some trees get themselves attached to a support to get stabilise them by their own. They need none to take care of them. For them nothing like “mother” stands.

So without concluding, traditionally, a question can be arisen that does “MOTHER” exist in reality to make things easier or is it  just a concept which necessitates the existence of self- characterization?

About music…

If you want to keep your brain engaged in the aging process, listening to or playing music is a great tool for you. Provides a full-brain workout.” Studies have shown that listening to music can reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and pain, as it will improve the quality of your sleep, mood, mental alertness, and memory.

Music therapy is an established form of therapy that helps people meet the physical, emotional, cognitive, and social needs,” said Mirgein. Music helps to lower the heart rate, lower blood pressure and reduce your body’s cortisol levels. It relieves anxiety and it can help improve your mental health.”

It should be noted that the increase in body surface temperature, and after listening to therapeutic music is particularly pronounced. Together, these results suggest that listening to music is soothing for the mind, body, and soul. … Examination of the blood, and heart rate variability (hrv), and to the body’s surface temperature when listening to music.

The music has a strong affect on a person. It could be a boost to memory, to build endurance tasks, and ease the mood, reducing anxiety and depression, fatigue, and boost your response to the pain, as well as help you to work more efficiently.

Music has the ability to evoke a strong emotional response from the audience, such as chills and goose bumps all over. The positive emotions will dominate the musical experience. Pleasant music can trigger the release of reward-related neurotransmitters, such as dopamine. Listening to music is an easy way to keep your mood and relieve stress.

But at the same time:

Research shows that music has a great impact in our lives. This may have an impact on disease, depression, costs, and productivity, as well as our perception of the world. Some studies have shown that it may increase aggressive thoughts and to encourage crime.




Today most of the business and common rely upon computer. We have become more dependent on this machine that it has become an integral part of our day to day life.
The other reason why some people consider it to be vital is because of the ease of communication. Communication has become so simple and easy and you can talk to your friends and family even from work or even while travelling.
From time to time I took break from computer and internet. It always felt good, and I always had a feeling that I had more time when I am not in front of the computer. Or it is because I am too much into computer that I don’t even realize time going away.
Whenever I took break from internet and computer, it was always planned, also I did it by my own will. So I knew I wont be on the computer or internet for the next day or two. In short, I would be mentally prepared for a lifestyle without computer and internet. Once I even took a break and went on a trip to a remote place where there was no mobile signal. I enjoyed my trip and it felt really good.
But whenever my ISP goes down suddenly and I find that I do not have access to the internet, I really feel terrible. Sometimes I even feel that I have no connection to the outside world. I know it is silly, but can’t help, that is how I feel. And I go crazy as shown in the clip.
I felt the same way when my computer crashed early this week and failed to boot up. I literally panicked. When the technical support executive told me that the motherboard has to be replaced and a service engineer would visit me soon, the first question I asked was “if he will come today” . He said that the service guy will visit only after getting the essential parts (my case motherboard), this made me to worry further and I hoped that the parts are available readily.
Now, since I knew I wont have computer at home for another day or at least till the service guy comes, I made up my mind and planned my evening according to it.
When the motherboard was replaced and the service guy found that there was still some problem with the hard disk, it made me to worry again. He told me to call the technical support once again to place a complaint for the hard disk replacement. So, I thought another two days with no computer at home.
But somehow, I managed to boot up the system, so at least I could get online and read some news and talk to couple of friends.
This time the technical support person told me that I have to wait for around two days for the hard disk replacement. I don’t know what the reason is, but if they don’t come by the end of second day, I should end up waiting for another two days because of weekend.
All I hope is, my computer don’t crash during this waiting period and the hard disk get replaced as soon as possible.
I find it strange, I can live without computer and internet.


Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India.Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father’s three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Though a constitutional monarch, privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality.

Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet “the grandmother of Europe” and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert’s death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, republicanism in the United Kingdom temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.During Victoria’s reign, the political climate in British Parliament went through a major transition. The Tory Party split, forming the Liberal and Conservative parties, and started a succession of opposing administrations. Victoria played a crucial role as a mediator between arriving and departing prime ministers.Life in Britain during the 19th century was known as Victorian England because of Victoria’s long reign and the indelible stamp it and her persona placed on the country. Her strict ethics and personality have become synonymous with the era.Victoria died after a lengthy period of poor health on January 22, 1901, at the age of 81. Her son, the future King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany, were both at her bedside.Prince Albert Edward Wettin, Victoria’s eldest son, succeeded her to the British throne as King Edward VII upon her death in 1901.

Three-Phase AC Induction Motor- Construction and its Working

What is 3-phase Induction Motor?

An electrical motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. For AC Supply, the most widely used motor is a three phase induction motor because these types of motor does not require a starter and have various other advantages to them. These types of motor are also known as Self-Starting Induction Motor.


There are only two main parts of induction motor:

  • Stator- It is stationary part of the motor and is made up of silicon steel stampings i.e. thin sheets and these stampings are slotted. These slots are formed on inner side of stator. In, these slots a three phase winding is accommodated, the winding may be connected in star or delta. The three ends of this winding are brought out from terminal box, where three phase AC supply is connected.
Diagram of Three Phase Induction Motor
  • Rotor- It is the moving part of the induction motor. There are two types of induction motors present based on construction of rotor:
  • Squirrel Cage type rotor: This is simples and most rugged construction. The rotor consist of a cylindrical laminated core with skewed rotor slots. The rotor conductors which are thick copper rods are placed in these slots and welded to end rings. The rotor conductors are permanently short circuited and hence an external resistance can’t be added in between. The rotor body is made up of silicon steel stampings. The Construction of this rotor looks like cage of squirrel.
Squirrel Cage Rotor
  • Wounded Type Rotor with Slip Rings: In this type of induction motor, the rotor is wound for same number of poles as that on the stator. The rotor is made up of laminations with slots on the outer periphery in which a three phase rotor winding is placed in star connection. The remaining three terminals are brought out and connected to slip rings mounted on the shaft. The slip rings are made up of copper or phosphor bronze and has three brushes resting on them. The external connection and additional resistance can be added at brushes.When running under normal conditions, the slip rings are short circuited by a metal collar which is pushed along shaft and brushes are lifted from slip ring to avoid friction and mechanical losses. This type of rotor is also called as slip ring type rotor because of use of slip rings in it.
Slip-Ring Rotor

Working of Three Phase Induction Motor:

The stator of the motor consists of overlapping winding offset by an electrical angle of 120o. When we connect the primary winding, or the stator to a 3 phase AC source, it establishes a rotating magnetic field which rotates at the synchronous speed.

Production of Torque

Let, us consider a rotor is stationary and the rotor conductors are present on it and the direction of magnetic field be clockwise. A magnetic field moving clockwise is equivalent to a conductor moving in anti clockwise direction in a stationary field. Now, according to Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction, a voltage will be induced in the conductor and a current will start to flow in the rotor conductors.

By right-hand rule the direction of induced current is downwards as shown in above figure b. Now the current flowing in rotor conductors produces its own magnetic field due to which a force starts acting on the rotor conductors, whose direction can be determined by using left-hand rule. Now, we see that the direction of force is in the same direction as that of the rotating magnetic field i.e. clockwise.

Now, since the rotor conductors are present in slots rotor, the force acts in tangential direction to the rotor and a torque is developed. Now, similarly the torque is developed on all the rotor conductors in same direction. And now since the rotor is free to move it starts moving in the clockwise direction. Hence, the three phase induction motor is self starting. The speed of motor can be varied by increasing or decreasing supply current and various other methods.

Some of the advantages like low cost, rugged design less complex, and easy to maintain AC motors results in many of the industrial operations are performed with the use of AC machine.

Athenian philosopher-PLATO

Plato is one of the world’s best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle, and he wrote in the middle of the fourth century B.C.E. in ancient Greece. Though influenced primarily by Socrates, to the extent that Socrates is usually the main character in many of Plato’s writings, he was also influenced by Heraclitus, Parmenides, and the Pythagoreans.

There are varying degrees of controversy over which of Plato’s works are authentic, and in what order they were written, due to their antiquity and the manner of their preservation through time. Nonetheless, his earliest works are generally regarded as the most reliable of the ancient sources on Socrates, and the character Socrates that we know through these writings is considered to be one of the greatest of the ancient philosophers.

Plato’s middle to later works, including his most famous work, the Republic, are generally regarded as providing Plato’s own philosophy, where the main character in effect speaks for Plato himself. These works blend ethics, political philosophy, moral psychology, epistemology, and metaphysics into an interconnected and systematic philosophy. It is most of all from Plato that we get the theory of Forms, according to which the world we know through the senses is only an imitation of the pure, eternal, and unchanging world of the Forms. Plato’s works also contain the origins of the familiar complaint that the arts work by inflaming the passions, and are mere illusions. We also are introduced to the ideal of “Platonic love:” Plato saw love as motivated by a longing for the highest Form of beauty—The Beautiful Itself, and love as the motivational power through which the highest of achievements are possible. Because they tended to distract us into accepting less than our highest potentials, however, Plato mistrusted and generally advised against physical expressions of love.Plato’s actual given name was apparently Aristocles, after his grandfather. “Plato” seems to have started as a nickname (for platos, or “broad”), perhaps first given to him by his wrestling teacher for his physique, or for the breadth of his style, or even the breadth of his forehead (all given in D.L. 3.4). Although the name Aristocles was still given as Plato’s name on one of the two epitaphs on his tomb (see D.L. 3.43), history knows him as Plato.Plato’s most famous work is the Republic, which details a wise society run by a philosopher. He is also famous for his dialogues .
Plato’s final years were spent at the Academy and with his writing. The circumstances surrounding his death are clouded, though it is fairly certain that he died in Athens around 348 B.C.E., when he was in his early 80s. Some scholars suggest that he died while attending a wedding, while others believe he died peacefully in his sleep.

How long does Covid-19 last on paper?

The COVID-19 virus can spread via direct contact, airborne transmission, or through droplets. There have also been a few reported cases potentially spread through surfaces. But the risk of this is very low. The chance of COVID-19 surface transmission is less than 1 in 10,000.

Different Kinds of Surfaces

It’s unlikely to catch COVID-19 from a surface, but the risk still exists. Lab studies have found that the virus may last on different materials for varying amounts of time. We don’t know if these findings always apply in the real world, but we can use them as a guideline.

What You Can Do ?

It’s a good idea to regularly clean your home to protect you and your family from viruses like COVID-19.

*Clean frequently touched surfaces (like doorknobs, handles, tables, countertops, and light switches) regularly and after you have visitors in your home.

*Clean any surface in your home when it’s noticeably dirty.

*If people in your household are more likely to get sick from COVID-19, clean your surfaces more frequently. You may also want to use a disinfectant in this case.

*Make sure that you use a cleaning product that is suitable for the type of surface. Follow the instructions on the product.

There are also ways that you can reduce the likelihood of surfaces becoming contaminated by COVID-19:

*  Follow guidelines for fully vaccinated people before you welcome visitors into your home.

*Ask that people who haven’t been vaccinated wear a mask inside your home.

*Make sure that everyone in your household washes their hands often, especially when they come back home.

*Keep people with COVID-19 isolated from others.

If Someone in Your Household Has COVID-19 

If you live with someone who has COVID-19 or have had a guest with a positive case in your home within 24 hours, disinfect your house in addition to regular cleaning. This will kill any leftover germs and lower the chance of the virus spreading.

Read the instructions on the disinfectant first.

*Wear gloves while disinfecting and cleaning.

*If your disinfectant doesn’t have a cleaning agent, wash dirty areas with soap first, and then use the disinfectant.

*Wash your hands often for 20 seconds with soap if you’re cleaning a household with a positive COVID-19 case. Always clean your hands after wearing gloves.

*Make sure you have good ventilation while using a disinfectant.

If you’re unable to keep a separate bedroom or bathroom from the person with COVID-19, make sure they clean and disinfect shared spaces after each use. If the sick person is unable to clean, wear a mask and use gloves to clean and disinfect their area only when needed. Make sure to open windows or doors, and use fans, heating, ventilation, and air condition to get proper air circulation.

Once the person is no longer sick, it’s important to cleanse the area they stayed in. Wear a mask when you clean and disinfect. Wait as long as possible before you do this. If you’re able to wait 24 hours before you clean their area, you only need to cleanse that space, not disinfect it.

If you wait 3 days after the person in your household was sick, no extra cleaning (besides routine cleanup) is necessary.









Akshar – A Unique school in Guwahati

Have you ever heard of a school which collects plastics as fee?

Here it is, Akshar school at Pamohi village in Guwahati, Assam where students pay plastics as fee and to get education in that school. A polythene bag full of plastic waste is the only form of fee the school accepts.

Akshar is a model school which allows children from economically backward family to get quality education. It was founded in the year 2016 by Parmita Sarma and Mazin Muktar. They initially started free education in the village, but they noticed high use of plastics in the surrounding and villagers had the habit of burning plastics to keep themselves warm during winter. Their classroom also used to be filled with those toxic fumes at times because of smoke from burning plastic. Therefore, they introduced this fee structure where students bring 10 – 20 plastic waste per week to school as fees for learning. The students were taught to effectively recycle the plastic waste, the students learnt to make eco – bricks and have already built plant guarder in their school premises.

They follow different format from system that is followed across India. The have conventional subjects as well as vocational subjects. They teach children how to teach. The students of higher class educate the younger students of the school and they also receive a reward currency like in games which allows them to make purchases from school store. The school has created awareness on hazards of plastic and has also changed mindset of student’s family. Their class division is not age but IQ based where children are taught lessons based on IQ level. They have plans to expand Akshar school across India.


“I would not stop till I had filled up a bucket with my sweat. I would push myself so much that in the end I would collapse and I would have to be admitted to hospital, I would pray to God to save me, promise that I would.”
– Late Shri Milkha Singh ji

Every sports person around the world wants to achieve the highest glory in sports by securing an Olympic medal, as it is considered as the most competitive and oldest championship for sportspersons worldwide. Even our most cherished sprinter Late Shri Milkha singh ji saw this dream to bring medal for India in Olympics but missed by a whisker in 1960 Rome Olympics. In lieu of the dream, players devote their time and money for more than a decade to come at par with players around the world and compete them.India, after independence has participated in 18 Olympic Events but the performance have not been equivalent to even the countries who gained Independence at the same juncture as India. The Sorry state of affairs for the Olympic preparedness can be attributed towards several factors. One such being “Sports vis-à-vis education”, people in India do not consider sports being a profitable field and thus try to restrain their children from opting any sports such as wrestling, judo, swimming, etc. as a career option, Instead they force their children towards being doctor or engineer. The Second factor is “Lack of Political will”, from years we have seen lack of adequate funds for even the players who represent the country in International Events. Dutee chand, Ace Sprinter who qualified for 2016 Rio Olympics stated “My main concern is to acquire a new pair of spike shoes, as mine are worn out. The running shoes are quite expensive, and I request the state government to provide a set of tracksuit and a pair of running shoes so that I could give my best performance.” This statement came at a time when Target Olympics Podium Scheme was already flagged off in 2014, but its implementation was stagnant. There have been development in the political will since 2016 Rio Olympics, after which various sports federations have been revived and Sports Budget have been raised significantly in 2019-20 Budget. The third factor is “Lack of Social Outlook”, India is a developing country where significant number of people are below poverty line, who fight for even two times of meal in a day. People are struggling for employment and society has also absorbed the same kind of tendency. Even today, First salary from of an Engineer son or daughter is valued more in society rather than an Olympic medal. An observation of this situation after Inception of 21st century reveals that there has been change in this outlook. After the drought of an Olympic gold for 28 Years, when Abhinav Bindra won Gold at Beijing olympics, it acted as an eye opener for the Indian Society. The Olympic medals won by Two women ( Sakshi Malik and P.V Sindhu) at Rio De Janeiro gave a boost to women empowerment in India.There are other numerous factors, which play an important role in reducing the chances of India getting Olympic medal but India has been taking long strides since 2014 in strengthening its sports infrastructure and providing every facility and equipment to the potential players. We have seen improvement in performances of players through other international tournaments. Hopes are high and fingers are crossed for the Indian Contingent for Tokyo Olympics 2021.

career counselling

Generally, counselling is the process of helping an individual by giving him/her guidance, moral support, and exploring solutions for his/her problems. Counselling is mainly related to a professional who helps you out from the problems. This professional is known as Counsellor who expertise in understanding human behavior, their personality, and knows well how to give the right direction to their thoughts. Career counselling is a process with the primary focus on helping the person to understand himself as well as work trends so that one can take a wise step in terms of his/her career and education. Career Counselling helps in sort out the range of problems such as low concentration levels, poor time management, and trust issues with the parents and family, non-agreement between parents and children on the career selection.

Nowadays, career counselling is become a need of the hour, as most student pick commonly known streams as their career. It is an effort for students; give them guidance while they are choosing their career paths as per their interest and stream of academics. There are a number of factors that influence your career development, including your interest, abilities, values, personality, background, and circumstances and career counselling is the way that will help you to know and understand yourself and the world of work in order to make a career, educational, and life decisions. Through the career counselling, the counsellor comes to know about the interests and also the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate which further helps in selecting the appropriate career for the candidate. The objective of career counselling is not only help you in making the decisions you need to make in your career path but also give you the knowledge and skills you need to make future career and life decisions.


There are some services listed below given by the career consultants or counsellors to their customers.

  • Career Counselling
  • Training and Development
  • Skill Test
  • Career Guidance
  • Career Workshop
  • Admission Guidance
  • Study Abroad
  • Education Planner
  • Group Discussion Tips
  • Placement Assistance

Career counselling plays a vital role in the student’s life. There are several roles played by career counselling in the making of a student to a professional as discussed below:

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT-By teaching the subjects to students cannot develop them intellectually. Self knowledge is the factor which enhances the intellectual of learners. It is the forgotten factor in our educational system. So, it’s the primary focus of the counselling process. Counselling helps the students to understand their self so that they come to know about their needs and interests.
  2. DETERMINE THE POTENTIAL-There are various students who have clear thoughts about what they want to become, whereas, on the other hand, there are various others who are either in dilemma or have no idea about their career preferences. Career counsellors conduct the regular aptitude test and counselling sessions which can help students in finding out the right career options and fields in which they show interest. On the basis of these counselling results, students can make the right selection regarding in which course they want to enroll in order to accomplish their career goals.
  3. VARIOUS CAREER OPPORTUNITIES-Career Counsellors are well aware of the jobs in the market and the skills that are required for specific fields. For instance, there are many rewarding fields such as bartending, ethical hacking, astrophysics,etc. that are still un-tapped and many people are not aware of these streams. There are also other careers such as Aviation and Defence, about which you may not know how to get into them. Hence, with the help of their experience and knowledge, a career counsellor helps you explore and discover various career opportunities for career selection and growth.
  4. CLARITY ON FUTURE GOALS-Every student has set a goal to achieve in his life. There are various question roaming in the mind of a student like what ambitions or targets do you have? Where do you see yourself five years from now? The best aspect of career counselling is that it is objective and strategic. A clear picture of your goal can be created informing you about where you will head and what obstacles you will face on this journey. After having a serious discussion with the counsellor, you should be confident of the fact that the future you are heading for is fun-filled and something that you will be able to stick on to for long.
  5. IDEAL COURSES-These professionals provide you with the best information about the ideal colleges and courses in India as well as overseas. If you want to stay in India or overseas then you might have some knowledge about the future aspects of the courses which you want to do. But if you want to go overseas for studies and for career growth, you might not have all the information related to that country’s market. You do not know whether the future for that field is growing or diminishing. In this case, career advice from experts is the best way to understand the prospects of an option in different countries.
  6. AIM LEADS TO SUCCESS-A counsellor can help the students to choose the right aim and help them with the process of achieving it. Futhermore, an experienced counsellor can help them with a well planned track to reach the goal. A step by step career map of reaching the goal in a realistic manner helps the students to achieve their desired career faster. With right goal setting, a person can attend career success over a very short time period.

However, candidates who are willing to take the career counselling should be aware of the consequences if they choose the wrong consultant because it is related to your future and a single wrong will be harmful to your coming life. Your career consultant or counsellor should be experienced so that they serves you in a better way. After consulting with your counsellor, do homework on the suggestion provided by the consultant. Check over the internet, books and magazines about the course and college which you are going to choose. Nowadays, various online career websites are available on the internet, on which you can check anything related to your career queries. Career counselling is to get the necessary guidance from a qualified professional that would help the student in making the right choice regarding his or her career. Career counsellors should try and use the best elements from various approaches in their work. Their allegiance should, ultimately, be to find the best ways to useful to clients. So, you should consult with them before taking any career related step.

Gandhi Market Reopens in trichy


Both wholesale and retail traders resumed business at the Gandhi Market here on Sunday night after a gap of about six weeks.In the wake of second wave of COVID-19, the market was closed in the second week of May. The operations were shifted on West Boulevard Road from Kamaraj arch to Marakkadai corner. While wholesale traders carried out business in night, retail traders were asked to transact business from 6 to 10 am.

Though there were no major issues for the traders until the intense lockdown was in force, the retail traders started facing problems after the standalone shops were allowed to reopen their businesses two weeks ago. The owners of hardware, sanitaryware and furniture showrooms on West Boulevard Road had urged the authorities to shift the vegetable traders immediately citing overcrowding, chaos, confusion and congestion on the road Collector S. Sivarasu permitted the wholesale traders to resume their operations from Sunday night. Tiruchi City Corporation authorities opened the main gates of the market. Soon after the opening of the gates, wholesale traders began their trading as usual. Though the retail trading was not officially allowed, retailers too reopened their shops and started transacting business from Monday morning.senior official of the Tiruchi Corporation, who visited the market on Sunday night, had told the wholesale traders to wind up the trading within 3 a.m. on Monday. He reportedly asked the retail traders not to reopen their shops as they were not permitted. But the retail traders refused to listen to him and continued their trading during the day. They threatened to stage a protest by dumping the vegetables and fruits on the road if they were not allowed to trade. However, flower traders heeded to the instructions and decided to wait for one more week to resume trade at the Gandhi Market.
Sources said that business was dull on Monday as many people were not aware of the reopening of the market. Business was expected to be on a full scale from Tuesday.A section of traders have suggested opening all 10 gates of the market so as to ease restrictions on entry and exit of the customers and traders M.K. Kamalakannan of the Gandhi Market Viyabarigal Munnetra Sangam said that the customers could quickly go out or gain entry if all gates were opened. Opening of just six gates of the market would restrict free movement of customers and traders, thereby leading to overcrowding. Moreover, there should not be any restriction on the timing of trading, the covid 19 lockdown time closed the market now only it’s reopened. Market will be activated in morning to Evening 5.30 so we have social distension in the time .

By :G Gnana Priya dharshini

It may be the road end for this iphone

From the months there might be a rumor about iPhone Apple pulling the plug of the one of the 2020 iPhone now another report suggests it might be the end of 2020 iPhone mini according to a report by trendyforce the iPhone 12 mini have been reached end of the life ahead by 2021 this means Apple could stop his production of its smallest iPhone12 mini has suffered a disappointing sale in the world market the sale of iPhone 12 mini is facing huge loss day by day as there is no sale for iPhone that rumors has been spreading the Apple is stopped to produce the production of its last year newly announced and released phone they might stop the production of iPhone has lost the sales in market further Apple is focusing on driving sale of three mini models in the iPhone 12 series in 2021 the trendforce expect the latest iPhone 12 series in 2021 trendforce expect the latest phone device to account to about 39% of total Apple annual production volume for 2021 as all iPhone 12 handset contains 5G modems of 5G model in all over the iPhone production is expected to projected to expand from massively from 39% in 2020 to 75% in 2021 by trendyforce news report in February this year, JP Morgan supply chain analyst William yang received it on 2021 iPhone build plan mix with a major impact on iPhone 12 mini yang noted that given the seemingly weak demand for the iPhone 12 mini the chain supply may stop producing it by second quarter in 2021 considering that the iPhone 12 is doing quite well as per yang it might be the size is a problem with smartphone becomes the one stop shop for everything from consuming content to editing docs the iPhone 12 mini size could be a factor the other factor could be the battery performance being a small phone the mini has a mini battery doesn’t last long . APPLE IPHONE MINI: RAM: 6GB,4GB CAMER A:12mp+12mp+12mp display 5.4inches (13.7cm) performance Apple A13 biotonic storage:64GB Battery: 3210 mah Price in india:49,200/_Launch date in india:October 13 2020 unofficial key soecs: front camera 12mp .GENERAL: … . Launch in india:13 October 2020 (unofficial) Brand:Apple Model:iPhone mini Operating systems: ios v13.0 Sim slot: Dual sim Gs m+GSM Sim Size: SIM1 Nano,SIM2: eSIM Network: 4G Available supports Indian brand .Fingerprint sensor:yes Price in India:49,200


Screen size:5.4inches(13.7cm) Display type:oLED


2020 Tokyo Olympics, IPL 2021, ICC World Championship, Wimbledon Grand Slam Championship, Euro Football Championships, Formula One are some of the many sports events that were postponed due to the outbreak of Covid-19 in 2020. Some of them were conducted this year while some still stays postponed. With the sporting world on hold, what happens to the players who depend on it?

Photo by MAM Ashfaq on

There are entities who depend on the conduct of the sporting events. Players have rested for so long, they need to get back in the form. Fans want to see their favorite players and role model live in action. Along with sports, the running of gyms in the country has also been jeopardized. They have been closed for over a year now, and the trainers claim that most of the infections are not because of the gym being open. All the physical fitness freaks have been locked at home, forced to use the equipment available at home, sometimes make shift ones.

It isn’t only the players who depend on the events being conducted, but a whole community from the ground keepers to the administrators who depend on the sporting events for a livelihood. Fan packed stadiums are a sight that everyone longs to see. US has managed to vaccinate majority of the population and recently a stadium full of 52,000 fans was witnessed in the Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles. Only fully vaccinated fans were allowed to enjoy the game in person.

Photo by Frederico Erthal on

Staying fit has always been a requirement for a healthy mind. And for many of the fans, seeing their idols fit in shape will be an inspiration for them too, to stay fit. But since they haven’t been to see their heroes in action, it has been a big disappointment. There was a mixed opinion when BCCI conducted IPL in the month of April. Though fans were overjoyed, the happiness was short lived when many of the players and the management tested positive for the virus. Following games were indefinitely postponed.

There went the only source of entertainment for sports fans who were tired of watching highlights of old games. But they have to be patient and pray for the situation to turn back to normal and for their favorite teams to play, happy and healthy.

We have to accept that this is the new normal. The world is not like what it was before. Wearing masks and carrying a hand sanitizer will be normal, and so will be us being careful. Sports will eventually return to its old galore, but for that we must cooperate and vaccinate ourselves. There will come a day where we will be watching our favorite teams playing and it won’t be highlights for once.



Avenue Supermarts Limited, d/b/a DMart, is an Indian retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets in India. It was founded by Radhakishan Damani in 2002, with its first branch in Powai’s Hiranandani Gardens.[3] As of 31 December 2019, it had 196 stores in 72 cities across 11 states in India including Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Rajasthan, National Capital Region, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Daman and Punjab.[4][5]Avenue Supermarts Limited DMart Logo.svgD-Mart Official logo Dmart tirupati.jpgDMart store in Tirupati, India Trade name DMart Type Public Traded as BSE: 540376NSE: DMARTISININE192R01011IndustryRetailFoundedMay 15, 2002; 19 years ago Founder Radhakishan Damani Head quarters Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Number of locations214[1] (June 2020)Area served India Key people Radhakishan Damani(Chairman)Ignatius Navil Noronha(CEO)Products Grocery & StaplesDaily EssentialsDairy & FrozenHome and furnitureHome AppliancesBed & BathClothingFootwearToysCrockeryLuggageHealth and beautySporting goods and fitnessGroceryFruits & Vegetables Revenue Increase ₹24,930 crore (US$3.5 billion) (2020)[2]Operating income Increase ₹1,813 crore (US$250 million) (2020)[2]Net income Increase ₹1,300 crore (US$180 million) (2020)[2]Total assets Increase ₹12,076 crore (US$1.7 billion) (2020)[2]Total equity Increase ₹10,431 crore (US$1.5 billion) (2020)[2]Number of employees9,456 permanent (2020)[2]38,952 contractual (2020)[2]Websitewww.dmartindia.comDMart is promoted by Avenue Supermarts Ltd. (ASL).[6] The company has its headquarters in Mumbai. As of 31 March 2019, DMart had a total of 7,713 permanent employees and 33,597 employees hired on contractual basis.[7]After the IPO listing (as Avenue Supermarts Ltd.), it made a record opening on the market on the National Stock Exchange. After the close of the stock on 22 March 2017, its market value rose to ₹39,988 crore. This pegged it as the 65th most valuable Indian firm, ahead of Britannia Industries, Marico and Bank of Baroda. [8]As of 21 November 2019, the market capitalization of DMart is close to ₹114,000 crore, making it the 33rd largest company listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange.

Windows 11 will finally introduce advanced multi-monitor settings

Windows 10 has been around for a while but little has been done to improve the multi-monitor experience for users. And using more than one monitor in 2021 isn’t a rare thing too. A growing number of users have asked Microsoft to do something about it in the Feedback Hub and we can finally see the company making some efforts.In the leaked Windows 11 build, there’s an option that allows the OS to remember each window location based on the monitor connection. This means that if you leave a bunch of windows opened on both monitors, once you re-connect a display or when you wake up the PC. This should potentially fix the issue of moving random windows or tabs or cramming up all the opened apps on one of the monitors.Additionally, once you disconnect one of your monitors, instead of moving the program to the still plugged monitor, the OS will minimize the app to the tray.

Climate change effects

Global climate change has already had observable effects on the environment. Glaciers have shrunk, ice on rivers and lakes is breaking up earlier, plant and animal ranges have shifted and trees are flowering sooner.

Effects that scientists had predicted in the past would result from global climate change are now occurring: loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, cientists have high confidence that global temperatures will continue to rise for decades to come, largely due to greenhouse gases produced by human activities. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which includes more than 1,300 scientists from the United States and other countries, forecasts a temperature rise of 2.5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century.

According to the IPCC, the extent of climate change effects on individual regions will vary over time and with the ability of different societal and environmental systems to mitigate or adapt to change.

The IPCC predicts that increases in global mean temperature of less than 1.8 to 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit (1 to 3 degrees Celsius) above 1990 levels will produce beneficial impacts in some regions and harmful ones in others. Net annual costs will increase over time as global temperatures increase.

“Taken as a whole,” the IPCC states, “the range of published evidence indicates that the net damage costs of climate change are likely to be significant and to increase over time.” 1-2

Future Effects
Some of the long-term effects of global climate change in the United States are as follows, according to the Third and Fourth National Climate Assessment Reports:

India receives 64 billion dollars in Foreign Direct Investment in 2020

India received 64 billion dollars in Foreign Direct Investment in 2020, the fifth largest recipient of inflows in the world, according to a UN report. The report said, in India, Foreign Direct Investment increased 27 percent, to 64 billion dollars in 2020, from 51 billion dollars in 2019, pushed up by acquisitions in the information and communication technology industry.

The World Investment Report 2021 by the UN Conference on Trade and Development released today, said global Foreign Direct Investment flows have been severely hit by the pandemic and they plunged 35 percent in 2020, to 1 trillion dollars from 1.5 trillion dollars the previous year. 

Govt proposes several amendments in e-commerce rules to bring transparency

Union Government has proposed several amendments in the e-commerce rules to bring transparency and curb the prevalent unfair trade practices in the online marketing platforms. The government is sharing a draft of the proposed amendments to the Consumer Protection (E-commerce) Rules, 2020, to protect the interests of consumers and encourage free and fair competition in the market.
According to the proposed rules, the e-commerce platforms will need to appoint a Chief Compliance Officer, a Nodal Officer, a Resident Grievance Officer and other officials to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Act and Rules.
It has been proposed to put in place a framework for registration of every e-commerce entity with the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade for allotment of registration number. This registration number will be displayed prominently on the website as well as the invoice of every order.
The government has also proposed prohibiting mis-selling, in which entities sell goods or services by misrepresenting information. To ensure that consumers are aware about the expiry date of the products they are buying on the e-commerce platform, all sellers will have to mention ‘best before or use before date’ to enable consumers to make an informed purchase decision. 
The government has clarified that conventional e-commerce flash sales are not banned, but specific flash sales or back to back sales which limit customer choice, increase prices and prevent a level playing field are not allowed.
The Centre has sought views and suggestions on these amendments till 6th of July.

ARDE, Pune develops State-of-the-Art Canopy Severance System for fighter aircraft which helps safe ejection of pilot in distress

All modern aircraft are equipped with a Canopy Severance System (CSS), which is an escape path clearance system for the pilot in case of emergencies occurring on the aircraft. State-of-the-art CSS has been developed ab-initio at Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), Pune in association with High Energy Material Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Pune, for the indigenously developed LCA Tejas and Trainer Aircraft, HJT-36 Aircraft and HTT-40 Aircraft. It provides safe passage by pre-weakening/severing the canopy to facilitate the smooth escape of the pilot in the shortest possible time.

A Transfer of Technology (ToT) Certificate Award Ceremony was held yesterday evening at ARDE in the gracious presence of  Distinguished Scientist and Director General of Armament and Combat Engineering P.K. Mehta of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Director, ARDE Dr V. Venkateswara Rao and Director, HEMRL KPS Murthy handed over the certificate to Chairman and Managing Director (CMD) S. Pramanik and General Manager (GM) R Chandra of M/s GOCL Corporation Ltd., effecting Transfer of Technology (ToT) for the Production of CSS for the indigenously developed aircraft.

CSS has two independent sub-systems. The first one is the In-flight Egress System (IES) for in-flight emergencies, which is integrated with the seat ejection operation and the second one is the Ground Egress System (GES) for on-ground emergencies, which is independent of seat ejection. CSS works on the principle of controlled propagation of detonation using explosive mechanical energy. It consists of critical mechanical and explosive components qualified to military-grade requirements and demonstrating high reliability.

CSS for LCA Tejas were tested successfully in seat ejection trials at M/s Martin Baker Co., London, UK and for trainer aircraft at M/s. Zvezda, Moscow, Russia. The CSS design has been cleared by Certifying Agency RCMA (AA), Pune and CEMILAC, Bangalore has issued Type Approval. ARDE and HEMRL are now capable of developing CSS for any Military Aircraft as required by Indian Air Force.

India’s active COVID -19 caseload declines to around seven lakh; National recovery rate touches 96.36 percent

India’s active COVID caseload has declined to seven lakh two thousand 887. Health Ministry said, India reported 53 thousand 256 new cases during the last 24 hours, which is lowest in 88 days. Over 78 thousand patients recovered during last 24 hours taking the total recoveries across the country to more than two crore 88 lakh 44 thousand so far.  

Daily recoveries continue to outnumber the daily new cases for the 39th consecutive day. The recovery rate has increased to 96.36 per cent.

International Day of Yoga celebrated across globe; PM Modi launches ‘WHO M-Yoga’ App

The world observed the 7th International Day of Yoga today. The main theme for this year is – Yoga for Wellness, which is aligned to the current pre-occupations. 

International Yoga Day is being observed in about 190 countries across the globe. AIR Correspondent reports that the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) proclaimed 21st June as the International Day of Yoga (IDY) in their resolution adopted on 11th December 2014. Since 2015, the IDY has evolved into a mass movement for health, around the world. The observance of Yoga Day is timely as health is foremost in the thoughts of one and all today, following the COVID-19 pandemic.

President Ram Nath Kovind has greeted the people on the occasion of International Day of Yoga. In his message, the President said the vision of  India’s ancient seers of bringing mind-body together to achieve holistic health and happiness has benefited millions over millennia. He termed Yoga as one of India’s great gifts to the world saying it can be especially helpful during Covid-19.

The President also did Yoga in the lawns of Rashtrapati Bhawan on the occasion.

The Prime Minister on the occasion of IYD said, India has taken another important step today in this direction along with the United Nations. Mr. Modi launched ‘WHO M-Yoga’ App. This app will provide many videos of Yoga training and practice based on common Yoga protocol in many languages. Terming this as a great example of fusion of modern technology and ancient science, the Prime Minister expressed the hope that M-Yoga app will help in spreading Yoga world over and will contribute to the efforts of ‘One World, One Health’.





                                               REACH TECHNOLOGY

REACH TEACHNOLOGY is globally, apparel/fashion is a USD 2.4 trillion market. According to Mckinsey Consulting :” If it were ranked alongside individual countries’ GDP,the global fashion industry would represent the world’s seventh largest economy.”

Apparel is also one of the most fragmented sectors with complex supply chains characterized by friction in information exchange and transactions between various stakeholders.

The vast majority of apparel manufacturing organizations are Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises( MSME s).

Quite a lot of technology enablement has happened on the demand side ( eg. online sales catalogues, AI to understand consumer preferences and make recommendations etc.) However,on the supply side, technology enabling millions of apparel MSMEs is work far from done.

Tech enabling millions of apparel manufacturing MSMEs will benefit all stakeholders in the value chain, including big retailers and brands, as no amount of demand forecasting will ensure that the merchandise reaches the store in time if apparel manufacturing firms are not IT enabled.

Carrying out Pattern Engineering, Grading and Marker Planning manually is a notoriously inefficient and cumbersome process. REACH CAD effects significant time and labor savings by automating this process.

REACH CAD streamlines and improves efficiency of the product development team by safeguarding against people turnover, eliminating manual errors, building a knowledge base that can be used to create and re-create patterns and markers and by enabling collaborative team working. Manual patterns get worn-out and torn and cannot be re-used to create even slightly different styles.

REACH CAD uses apparel specific intuitive and user-friendly tools to engineer patterns, grade the base pattern to various other sizes and to tightly pack these patterns to form the most efficient markers. Figuring out optimal layout of patterns to form tight markers needs the application of spatial visualization skills: this is best done on a computer monitor and not by going back and forth on a table.



What Does Women Empowerment Mean?

Women Empowerment is the process that creates power in women to live a happy and respectable life in a society. Women are empowered when they are able to access opportunities in a variety of fields such as in education, profession, lifestyle, etc., without any limitations and restrictions. It includes raising their status through education, awareness, literacy and training. It also includes the authority to take decisions. When a woman makes a crucial decision, she feels empowered.

Women’s empowerment is the most crucial point for the overall development of a country. Suppose, in a family, there is one earning person, while in another family, both men and women are earning, then who will have a better lifestyle. The answer is simple, the family where both men and women are earning money. Thus, the country where men and women work together develops at a faster rate.

Need for Women Empowerment

History says that women were ill-treated. The Sati Pratha in the ancient times to the girl child abortion in the present scenario, women continue facing such violence. Not only this, heinous crimes against women such as rape, acid attack, dowry system, honour killing, domestic violence, etc., are still happening in India.

Out of the total population, 50% of the population should consist of women. However, due to female foeticide practices, girl child numbers are decreasing sharply in India. It has also impacted the sex ratio in India. The literacy rate in girls is very low. Most of the girls are not even provided with primary education. Moreover, they are married early and made to raise children and shoulder only household work. They are not allowed to go out and are dominated by their husbands. Women are taken for granted by men as they are considered their property. Even at the workplace, women are discriminated against. They are paid less for the same work as compared to their male counterparts.

Steps to Empower Women

Women can be empowered in various ways. It can be done through government schemes as well as on an individual basis. At the individual level, we should start respecting women and start giving them opportunities equal to men. We should promote and encourage them to take up jobs, higher education, business activities, etc. The Government has come up with various schemes such as Beti Bachao Beti Padhao Yojana, Mahila-E-Haat, Mahila Shakti Kendra, Working Women Hostel, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana, etc. to empower women. Apart from these schemes, we as individuals can also empower women by abolishing social evils like the dowry system, child marriage. These small steps will change the situation of women in society and make them feel empowered.

INDIA -2030

India is changing both at an economic level and at a deeper level in terms of attitudes, values and behavior of the people. Obviously, there are generational changes as nations evolve but the pace at which it is happening amongst Indian consumers in terms of their attitudes, values and behavior is breathtaking. The major factors which are causing this tectonic shift are changes in demographics, increase in empowerment of certain segments of society, global exposure, improvement in infrastructure and worries about health and sustainability. These changes will be reflected in terms of how identities will evolve – how confident and free do Indians feel in being able to express themselves and hence what will they seek to stimulate their senses. Will technology enable or disable relationships or the very nature of relationships will change? How will Indians deal with creativity – will it be a part of their DNA? And finally, what parameters will define well-being and how willing will the Indian consumer be to pursue it.By 2030, urban India will account for nearly 75% of the GDP and Indian cities will act as engines of economic growth for the country’s built environment. The Indian economic transition and workforce expansion will also offer vast development and investment opportunities for the real estate sector.”Growth will naturally slow as India becomes more economically developed, with the annual GDP growth expected to sink to 5.8 per cent in 2035.” “This growth trajectory will see India become the world’s third largest economy by 2030, overtaking the UK in 2025, Germany in 2027 and Japan in 2030,”On the other hand, a high density of population and fast-paced economic growth has made India extremely susceptible to climate change; however, the country is working towards minimising this impact by launching several green initiatives at the national, state and local level.India’s demographic dividend and a sharp rise in working population would be some of the contributing factors that would enable the country to achieve projected GDP of USD 9 trillion and per capita income of USD 5,625 by 2030.By 2030, urban India will account for nearly 75% of the GDP and Indian cities will act as engines of economic growth for the country’s built environment.


Music is a thing which will connect with our emotions. The noise is available all around the world if the rain comes it is a type of noise. In this specific day we can find out how noise is different from music because today is the music day. Music is a sound that produces a pleasing sensation. … Noise is an unwanted and unpleasant sound produced by horns of vehicles, by machines, etc. If a musical sound is made too loud, it becomes a noise. Musical sound is a pleasant, continuous and uniform sound produced by regular and periodic vibrations, e.g., sound produced by a violin, flute, tuning fork etc. Noise is harsh, unpleasant sound produced by an irregular succession of disturbances and is discontinuous, e.g., sound produced by a gunshot etc… The musical day is celebrated to encourage amateurs and professional musicians to perform in the streets. French composer Maurice Fleuret, who was also Minister of Culture in the French government in 1981, started this tradition in 1982. We celebrate June 21 is internationally celebrated as World Music Day. This World Music Day was founded by Jack Lang and Maurice Fleuret and was first held in Paris, France in 1982. The idea behind the day is to get musicians, both professionals, and amateurs, to come out onto the streets and play their instruments. The music is so emotional because the study found that music that creates pleasurable emotions lights up the mesolimbic pathway, the reward bit of the brain that gives us happy feelings. But that wasn’t all; music also creates responses from the amygdale (which modulates emotional networks) and hippocampus (which centers on emotions around attachment).

CLASSICAL MUSIC:  Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture generally considered to have begun in Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the late 5th century CE and continuing to present day. Classical music refers to Western musical traditions considered to be apart from or a refinement of Western folk music or popular music traditions.

ROCK MUSIC:   Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as “rock and roll” in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, developing into a range of different styles in the mid-1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style that drew directly from the blues and rhythm and blues genres of African-American music and from country music.

HIP HOP MUSIC:   Hip hop music, also known as rap music, is a genre of popular music developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans and Latino Americans in the Bronx borough of New York City in the 1970s.

These are some of the types of music but actually music plays an important role in our daily life. It has a big connect with human beings because the new born baby will react to the music sometimes dogs and cats also like some particular music.


                                     MUSIC IS A BEST THING TO RELATE TO AN EMOTION


Founded in 2010, Paytm started as a prepaid mobile recharge website. Currently, its business is not only limited to recharge. Still, it has expanded as an online payment platform including mobile recharges, utility bill payment, wallet payment, and wallet-to-wallet and wallet-to-bank transfers for many leading internet-based companies like Bookmyshow, Makemytrip, FoodPanda, IRCTC, and many others.

It was founded under the implemented idea of Vijay Shekhar Sharma and has got the first-mover advantage in the mobile industry. The company has been backed up by Alibaba group and Ratan Tata. The firm raised $575 million from Alibaba group for a share of 25% in the company.

Paytm is growing faster, and they have over 20 million registered users as per their current data. Their website and mobile app have been transformed into a fully-fledged e-commerce marketplace offering categories from electronics, mobile phones, sports & health, home & kitchen, books, baby & toys, and many more types.

The app downloaded on various platforms has touched the mark of 7 million. The additional features added, like Bargain power which is not currently available at any other marketplace, and a unified dashboard has made the selling and buying more interesting. Monthly order of over 15 million is completed over here.

Success Story

In his initial college days, Vijay Shekhar has started his firm Xs! Corporation with his batchmate Harinder Takhar, which offers web guide services to clients. They received seed money of 20,000 from one of the Angel investors. They merged two of their more friends with them and worked for the company till 1999. After that, they sold it to Living Media India for half a million dollars which is now the India Today group.

After selling the firm, Vijay worked for some time in a company but soon got bored. He had two lacks with him, which was enough for him to start a company independently. Along with his colleague, Rajiv Shukla, co-founded One97 Communications Ltd, a mobile value-added services company. But in the 9/11 tragedy, their business crashed. His partner left him. He was with no money now. He started using public transport, lived on two cups of tea. It was again a hard time for him. His father asked him to take a job. The whole family members were willing to get him married, but no girl was ready to marry him!

For sustaining his life, he took up a job. But the zeal of doing something of his own keeps his interest alive from inside. Observing the popularity of smartphones, he decided to do something around it, and in December 2010, he launched Paytm a mobile wallet. Paytm has 50 million consumers doing 60 million transactions a month and is expected to touch 100 million consumers by the end of 2015.

Paytm in February 2014, launched its mobile-based marketplace and recently has launched a seller-dedicated app with a zero-commission model.

Besides, Paytm has also contracted with IRCTC to make Paytm wallet one of the online payment options while booking a ticket. IRCTC processes around 180 million transactions every year; Paytm has a strong base of 60 million wallet users who can use their wallets instead of using plastic card details. These wallet holders can shop over the app and pay with Paytm wallet across 21,000 merchants.

Over the next six months, the Noida-based firm is considering 25,000+ tickets per day using Paytm wallet on the IRCTC platform.

According to a report, “Paytm claims to earn revenues of over $500 million now, but Sharma says this will jump to $2 billion by December 2015. Half of Paytm’s run rate will then come from the e-commerce marketplace push. And the focus will be on getting more users. Alibaba also echoed its view, and Erik Jing of Alipay says, “We don’t care about profitability. We care about SMEs, users on the Paytm wallet.”

Paytm has recently joined in the hyper-local venture by starting grocery delivery in Bangalore. The hyper-local market has raised more than $60 million over the past two months from various venture capitalists.

Paytm has shot up to its business as it has just raised $575 million from the Chinese e-commerce company Alibaba Group. In the same month, India’s leading investor and businessman Ratan Tata has also invested in the company. Paytm will utilize the fund in recruiting fresh talent, acquisitions, marketing, and brand building.

Gurgaon-based Paytm, Grofers, grabbed $45 million while PepperTap snatched $12 million from the investors.

The company currently deals in mobile, DTH recharge, bill payments, bus tickets, data card recharges, an e-commerce marketplace, payment gateway, Paytm deals, and coupons.

Vijay Shekhar said, “We do 400,000 orders per day, which is second highest in the country after IRCTC”. Over 50% of the orders are from the mobile app making use of the largest mobile commerce platform. An amount of INR 500crore is allocated for marketing in 2015, “said the founder.”

(This article is not owned by me, this is used just for reference)

Warren Buffett: The Investment Guru.

Buffett: A Brief History

Warren Buffett was born in Omaha in 1930. He developed an interest in the business world and invested early, including in the stock market. Buffett started his education at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania before moving back to the University of Nebraska, where he received an undergraduate degree in business administration. Buffett later went to the Columbia Business School, where he earned his graduate degree in economics.

Buffett began his career as an investment salesperson in the early 1950s but formed Buffett Associates in 1956. Less than ten years later, in 1965, he was in control of Berkshire Hathaway. In June 2006, Buffett announced his plans to donate his entire fortune to charity.2 Then, in 2010, Buffett and Bill Gates announced that they formed the Giving Pledge campaign to encourage other wealthy individuals to pursue philanthropy.3 

In 2012, Buffett announced he was diagnosed with prostate cancer.4 He has since completed his treatment. Buffett recently began collaborating with Jeff Bezos and Jamie Dimon to develop a new healthcare company focused on employee healthcare.5 The three have tapped Brigham & Women’s doctor Atul Gawande to serve as chief executive officer (CEO

Buffett’s Philosophy

Buffett follows the Benjamin Graham school of value investing. Value investors look for securities with prices that are unjustifiably low based on their intrinsic worth. There isn’t a universally accepted way to determine inherent worth, but it’s most often estimated by analyzing a company’s fundamentals. Like bargain hunters, the value investor searches for stocks believed to be undervalued by the market or stocks that are valuable but not recognized by most other buyers.

Buffett takes this value investing approach to another level. Many value investors do not support the efficient market hypothesis (EMH). This theory suggests that stocks always trade at their fair value, making it harder for investors to either buy stocks that are undervalued or sell them at inflated prices. They trust that the market will eventually start to favor those quality stocks that were undervalued for a time.

Investors like Buffett trust that the market will eventually favor quality stocks undervalued for a specific time.

Buffett, however, isn’t concerned with the supply and demand intricacies of the stock market. He’s not concerned with the activities of the stock market at all. This is the implication in his famous paraphrase of a Benjamin Graham quote: “In the short run, a market is a voting machine, but in the long run, it is a weighing machine.”6

He looks at each company as a whole, so he chooses stocks solely based on their overall potential as a company. Holding these stocks as a long-term play, Buffett doesn’t seek capital gain but ownership in quality companies extremely capable of generating earnings. When Buffett invests in a company, he isn’t concerned with whether the market will eventually recognize its worth. He is concerned with how well that company can make money as a business.

Buffett’s Methodology

Warren Buffett finds low-priced value by asking himself some questions to evaluate the relationship between a stock’s level of excellence and its price.7 Keep in mind these are not the only things he analyzes, but rather a summary of what he looks for in his investment approach.

  1. Company Performance

Sometimes return on equity (ROE) is referred to as a stockholder’s return on investment. It reveals the rate at which shareholders earn income on their shares. Buffett always looks at ROE to see whether a company has consistently performed well compared to other companies in the same industry.8 ROE is calculated as follows:

ROE = Net Income ÷ Shareholder’s Equity

Looking at the ROE in just the last year isn’t enough. The investor should view the ROE from the past five to 10 years to analyze historical performance.

2. Company Debt 

The debt-to-equity ratio (D/E) is another crucial characteristic Buffett considers carefully. Buffett prefers to see a small amount of debt so that earnings growth is being generated from shareholders’ equity instead of borrowed money.9 The D/E ratio is calculated as follows:

Debt-to-Equity Ratio = Total Liabilities ÷ Shareholders’ Equity

This ratio shows the proportion of equity and debt the company uses to finance its assets. The higher the percentage, the more debt—rather than equity—is funding the company. A high debt level compared to equity can result in volatile earnings and significant interest expenses. For a more stringent test, investors sometimes use only long-term debt instead of total liabilities in the calculation above.

3. Profit Margins

A company’s profitability depends not only on having a good profit margin but also on consistently increasing it. This margin is calculated by dividing net income by net sales. For a good indication of historical profit margins, investors should look back at least five years. A high profit margin indicates the company is executing its business well, but increasing margins mean management has been highly efficient and successful at controlling expenses.

4. Is the Company Public?

Buffett typically considers only companies that have been around for at least ten years.10 As a result, most of the technology companies with their initial public offering (IPOs) in the past decade wouldn’t get on Buffett’s radar. He’s said he doesn’t understand many of today’s technology companies’ mechanics and only invests in a business that he fully understands.11 Value investing requires identifying companies that have stood the test of time but are currently undervalued.

Never underestimate the value of historical performance. This demonstrates the company’s ability (or inability) to increase shareholder value. Do keep in mind, however, that a stock’s past performance does not guarantee future performance. The value investor’s job is to determine how well the company can perform as it did in the past. Determining this is inherently tricky. But evidently, Buffett is very good at it.

One important point to remember about public companies is that the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) requires that they file regular financial statements. 12 These documents can help you analyze essential company data—including current and past performance—so you can make important investment decisions.

5. Commodity Reliance

You might initially think of this question as a radical approach to narrowing down a company. Buffett, however, sees this question as an important one. He tends to shy away (but not always) from companies whose products are indistinguishable from those of competitors and those that rely solely on a commodity such as oil and gas. If the company does not offer anything different from another firm within the same industry, Buffett sees little that sets the company apart. Any characteristic that is hard to replicate is what Buffett calls a company’s economic moat or competitive advantage.13 The more comprehensive the moat, the more challenging it is for a competitor to gain market share.

6. Is it Cheap?

This is the kicker. Finding companies that meet the other five criteria is one thing, but determining whether they are undervalued is the most challenging part of value investing. And it’s Buffett’s most important skill.

To check this, an investor must determine a company’s intrinsic value by analyzing several business fundamentals, including earnings, revenues, and assets. And a company’s intrinsic value is usually higher (and more complicated) than its liquidation value, which is what a company would be worth if it were broken up and sold today. The liquidation value doesn’t include intangibles such as the value of a brand name, which is not directly stated on the financial statements.

Once Buffett determines the company’s intrinsic value as a whole, he compares it to its current market capitalization—the current total worth or price.14

Sounds easy. Well, Buffett’s success, however, depends on his unmatched skill in accurately determining this intrinsic value. While we can outline some of his criteria, we have no way of knowing exactly how he gained such precise mastery of calculating value. The Bottom Line

As you’ve probably noticed, Buffett’s investing style is like the shopping style of a bargain hunter. It reflects a practical, down-to-earth attitude. Buffett maintains this attitude in other areas of his life: He doesn’t live in a huge house, he doesn’t collect cars, and he doesn’t take a limousine to work. The value-investing style is not without its critics, but whether you support Buffett or not, the proof is in the pudding.

(This articles is not mine it is just used for reference.)



CINEMA adverts are less likely to affect you if you are eating popcorn. You are more likely to underestimate the calories in a cake if it has a strawberry on top. And you’re more likely to place a higher bid on eBay if the auction website has a red background. These are just some of the recent findings from the world of consumer psychology.We all like to think we are rational, independent shoppers who make objective decisions, unswayed by lighting, music, aromas, packaging or wording.

But it seems science knows us better than we know ourselves. Research by consumer psychologists proves time after time that the way we buy goods and services is influenced by myriad factors. Upbeat music makes us eat faster, for example, (good news for fast-food restaurants) whereas small floor tiles make us walk slower (good news for supermarkets).

Not surprisingly, advertising, marketing and customer experience agencies are desperate to get their hands on this insight and the people who can generate it. In the past they have recruited graduates from either an arts or science background to do the job – people with marketing, arts, humanities, business and English degrees to handle the creative and social side, those with traditional psychology degrees to do the science and mathematicians to crunch the statistics.But increasingly, companies want the whole package, says Adrianne Carter, general manager of UK research and analysis company Shopping Behaviour Xplained.

“We have recruited psychology students and marketing students but it’s those who have actually studied consumer psychology who have the edge,” she said.

Gareth Harvey, consumer psychology lecturer at Glyndwr University in the UK, agrees. From September, he will be leading the new BSc in Marketing and Consumer Psychology course at Glyndwr Business School. The institution, which has campuses in Wales and London, is one of the first in the world to offer consumer psychology at undergraduate level.

“All too often, marketing companies have based their campaigns on gut instinct – their intuition of how consumers will behave,” said Dr Harvey. “Yet to develop a truly effective campaign, you need to know how the mind works, how people make decisions. You also need to be able to test and evaluate the success of a campaign.

“These are the domains of psychologists and statisticians. But traditional psychologists struggle to apply their knowledge to a commercial setting, and statistics alone won’t give you the big picture.

“Increasingly, marketing and advertising companies are looking for a combination of skillsets – people who understand the psychological processes behind consumer behaviour, who can test and evaluate their theories and can turn their insight into effective marketing campaigns.”

“At the moment this big drive is coming from the UK and USA but Germany is also pushing consumer psychology and demand is growing in China.”


The rise of consumer psychology is being driven by technological advances in the new field of neuromarketing, which studies people’s cognitive and affective responses to marketing stimuli.

Eye-tracking glasses, for example, can show exactly what a person is looking at as he or she walks around a supermarket. The data can be turned into maps that highlight the goods or signs that attract the most attention from shoppers.

Galvanic skin response systems are being used to pick up shoppers’ sweat secretion, which can be a sign that an individual is excited (or nervous) about something.

And functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is being used to pinpoint parts of the brain that are activated by different marketing stimuli.

Some companies have set up their own laboratories or are partnering with universities on major projects using these technologies

-Jerisha. S



At a first glance it seems easier to accept public administration as an art. It is just the administration of Government affairs and for most part it does not follow the laws of Science like absence of normative value, predictability of behavior and universal application. So, does that mean we cannot list it into a respectable category of scientific subjects?

There are many authors who ferociously defended it and argued that public administration as an area of study is indeed a Science. The earliest of them was Lorenz von Stein an 1855, a German professor from Vienna who said that public administration is an integrated Science and viewing it just as administrative laws was a restrictive definition. In modern times, categorizing public administration as Science found favor with many, the most important one being the father of American public administration, President Woodrow Wilson. We shall read more about the Wilsonian view of public administration in the next article, however he mainly emphasized that the objective of administrative study is to discover what government can properly and successfully do and how it can do those things with utmost efficiency with least possible cost of money or energy.

After Wilson another important argument came from Frederick Taylor who wrote a book called The Principles of Scientific Management (1911) in which he proposed to discover one best way of doing things/operation and thus save on cost on time and energy. Luther Gulick and L Urvick collectively published, Papers on the Science of Administration which reaffirmed its status as a Science. W F Willoughby stated that public administration like Science has certain fundamental principles which can be generally applied and therefore it is a Science.

However, there still remain certain aspects to be established before public administration can be actually and in real terms, be classified as a Science. The places of normative values in public administration should be clearly defined. More efforts should be put in to understanding the human nature and dynamics at play in public administration. Lastly, the principles of public administration should derive references from across the worlds, cultures, type of states etc to make them more universal and free of cultural, religious and political biases.

The advent of the modern welfare state itself has added, to the changing approach to public administration. The kind of activities and sphere of works have never been more varied and dynamic and there has been a never before interest in actually improving the efficiency of the government.

Subject matter experts like Frederick Taylor have opened ways to exploration, experimentation, observation, collection of data and analysis based on which principles and laws can be made. There are increasing number of authors like Metcalfe, Fayol, Emerson, Follett, Mooney, and more recently Drucker etc who have written on the subjects of administration. In-fact Drucker wrote a book called “The Age of Discontinuity” and one of the chapters of the book called The Sickness of Government became the basis of the New Public Management theory popular in 1980s which emphasized the market oriented management of the public sector.

So, one can safely say that with the changing times and more and more studies carried out in the field of social sciences, administration and human relations, the subject of public administration can no longer take the shelter of art and would have to emerge stronger with relevant and fundamental principles like that of Science.


Case Study of CRED.

Firstly, we are going to bear what CRED is. So CRED is an Indian fintech startup based out of Bangalore, Karnataka. Kunal Shah founded it within the year 2018. CRED’s main feature is to permit users to create mastercard payments through their app, that the users get rewarded. Later, CRED added certain more features like making house rent payments and introducing short-term credit lines. By 2021, the corporate had onboarded over 6 million users & processed about 20% of all mastercard payments in India. CRED is currently valued at $2.2 billion as of April 2021. Despite many huge profits, the corporate also posted losses of around Rs. 360 crores in 2020, caused mainly because of the high expenditure on marketing and advertising campaigns.
Many new startup ecosystems are coming into today’s world, and that they all primarily work on a model named- The cash burn model. Behind such an incredible business model and putting in of a totally new startup, three significant steps were taken:
Step 1- Cash burn rate:

The cash burn rate is that the cash spent or used over a selected time, which may be determined through income statements. And it indicates the negative income. This rate is sometimes calculated by new businesses and is employed to investigate the cash spent or the expenditure for generating revenues or cash flows. during this model, a brand new company comes, they see and address a major problem in society and supply a selected solution for that & for that purpose, they gather colossal funding. Through the budget, they entice the potential customers, and after customers avail their services, they offer huge offers, which seems quite unbelievable from time to time.
For example, when Jio came for the first time, it invested nearly Rs.1.5 lakh crores, and it initially started providing completely free internet within the country. They identified a big problem of internet accessibility within the biggest democracy of the globe. Therefore, they invested and commenced a corporation named Jio. the same as this, CRED identified three significant problems in mastercard payments:
Banks kindle the price of hidden charges.
Banks charge late fees and take huge penalties.
In late fees, interest rates became very high, as per-day interest rates were counted.
Many times, the mastercard holders weren’t able to think why they’re charged most. So, for these three problems, CRED urged the people to form mastercard payments through their medium at the proper time and ensured the purchasers that they might get rewards from the corporate. Initially, they even gave IPOD as an award. This helped the purchasers in saving their money.
Step 2- Habituation:

Kunal Shah wanted to make such a difference that folks do not get back to the normal methods, but instead, they’ll become habitual of the new model. In a meet, he asked a pair of audiences to convey ratings (out of 10) to 2 different models (One being traditional and therefore the other being a replacement model). He said if the difference of ratings between the 2 is over 4, then the new model are going to be more efficient, and that they will attempt to make it the mainstream model. And if the difference is below 4, people should persist with the standard one. the 2 models he took, for instance, were those of the taxi services. One was the standard method, and therefore the other was online mode ( ola & uber). The audience responded more to the new one. This gave him the thought.
Step 3- Goldmine profitability: 

During this stage, after implementing the strategies, the gross margin rose to such an extent that investors, at some extent in time, weren’t ready to decide where to place their money.
Such an amazing idea and a distinct model by Kunal Shah revolutionized the complete finance cycle and brought a replacement dimension to fintech.




ALONG with the technological advancements, the entrepreneurship and business landscape has changed considerably around the world. In the United Kingdom in 2014, there has been a record number of start-ups set up, according to, with 581,173 businesses being registered with Companies House.


Are you thinking of setting up your own company? Or want to advance in your role in your current company? A master’s degree in entrepreneurship or an MBA with a focus on entrepreneurship may be what you may want to consider helping give a boost to your business and management skills.The changes on the jobs market, the changes in how people connect and communicate have also brought about changes in how people work. There are more and more examples of professionals who have decided to venture on setting up their own business. While ‘starting a business is easier, quicker and cheaper than ever thanks to new technology’ (according to the Chairman of the Centre for Entrepreneurs, Luke Johnson quoted on, according to a research by RSA quoted by the Telegraph, half of the UK start-ups fail within five years. This is a sign that such projects need well prepared people to focus on long term planning, operations, managing day to day business but also innovation and motivating and engaging employees.




The goal of a master’s in entrepreneurship or an MBA with a focus on entrepreneurship is to prepare innovative professionals to become entrepreneurial leaders and, in many cases, in a global setting. The courses taught range from innovation management, organisational management, finance, business creation and development, marketing for entrepreneurial firms to project management. Their aim is to provide you with the necessary entrepreneurial skills to succeed in a rapidly changing globalised world, granting both professional and personal development.


The programs put emphasis on the development of personal communication skills, team-working and people management as well as presentation skills, useful for future entrepreneurs, who have to be well prepared to convince investors, attract new business and improve their probability of success.




Choosing the right program to lead you to your future business career is the most important step before embarking on this journey, so knowing the opportunities available is the first step to take. There is a great variety of business and management related and entrepreneurship related master’s and MBA programs offered by business schools across Europe. If you are considering the UK, for instance, London School of Business offers master’s courses in Strategy and Entrepreneurship, and Organisational Behaviour; Saïd Business School at the University of Oxford gives you the chance to study Organisational Leadership, and Strategy and Innovation. You may also want to check out a master’s focusing on Management Entrepreneurship and Innovation, at the University of Birmingham Business School, Manchester Business School, Imperial College Business School, Nottingham University Business School, or the Innovation, Creativity and Entrepreneurship Master at Newcastle University Business School. If you are looking for an MBA with focus on Entrepreneurship check out the program offered by Nottingham University Business School.


If you are looking for an international learning experience and want to study outside of the UK you can check out master’s degrees or MBAs with a focus on entrepreneurship like the Global Entrepreneurship Program offered by the EMLYON Business School in France, or the Advanced Master in Innovation and Entrepreneurship offered by Solvay Business School in Belgium.


Through such internationally focused programs, you get to gain competitive language skills, you manage to expand a global network, you get to understand and value the different cultures. You learn how to work and live in a multicultural setting and this helps in your business, not just in local markets but in global business cultures.




The UK, with especially London, but also Manchester and Birmingham, is a real magnet for prospective businessmen. One of the biggest advantages of studying a business and entrepreneurship focused degree is the practical aspect and the connection with the professional world.


Last year, venture capital funding in tech companies rose by 78 percent, according to the 2014 European Tech Report by CB Insights. Based on the report, the UK is leader in Europe, with a total of 225 deals, followed by Germany, with 154, and France, with 63.


There are plenty of career opportunities and a lot of companies organise start-up competitions or incubators to help support new enterprises. To give you some quick examples, check out the London Google Campus, where entrepreneurs go to learn, share ideas, present their business and attract investors or business partners; or accelerators and incubators such as Seedcamp, Microsoft Ventures, Tech Stars, JLAB or Wayra by Telefonica.


Universities and business schools themselves also help students connect with companies and investors through their campus events, incubators and technology and innovation centres.


Such a degree will help you sharpen your logic skills and develop strategic thinking in order to make a change within an organisation, by bringing innovation in, or even set up your own business. You will be given the necessary conditions and framework to develop your entrepreneurial skills and make your business ideas come true.


If you are interested in entrepreneurship focused degrees, check out the entrepreneurship and innovation programs available at institutions in the UK and the rest of Europe in the online directory at QS Course Finder.




The American Revolution was a war in which the 13 American colonies won their independence from Great Britain. It started in 1775 and ended in 1783. The revolution led to the founding of a new nation, the United States of America.



When the first settlers came to the new world in the 17th century they were on their own. They had to choose their own leaders and solve the problems that they faced. Great Britain was not really interested in the colonists and, in addition, faced problems at home too.

In the middle of the 18th century Britain defeated France in a war that spread to the New World. Britain’s victory gave it control over most of the territories in North America. They ruled the New World from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River. However fighting against France cost a lot of money and the British government decided that the colonies in America should also pay for this war.

Colonists were angry at the British rulers, not only because they wanted more money from them, but because they also forbade them to settle in areas west of the Appalachian Mountains. These regions were reserved for the Indians, whom the British did not want to make angry



After the end of the war with France Great Britain started to make the colonists pay more money in the form of taxes. One of these laws, the Stamp Act, put a tax on documents and newspapers. The colonists got even angrier because they were not represented in British parliament and had no way of expressing their ideas. They wanted to be treated in a fair way and believed they had certain rights that others should respect.

At the beginning of the 1770s Great Britain sent soldiers to keep order in the American colonies. While many tax laws were abolished a tax on tea remained. In 1773 colonists, disguised as Indians, went aboard British ships and dumped all the tea into the harbour of Boston. This event became known as the Boston Tea Party.

During the 1770s the relationship between Britain and the colonies became worse. The settlers started boycotting everything that the British wanted to sell to them.



In 1775 the colonists decided that they had had enough of British rule. They got ready to fight. American soldiers fought the first battle of the war at Lexington, Massachusetts. In the next few months the Americans formed their own army under the leadership of George Washington.

Not all the colonists were in favour of going to war against the British. Those who wanted to stay with Great Britain were called loyalists; those who were in favour of independence were called patriots.

The American colonies were not prepared for war. They were not united and had no central government. As soon as the war stared delegates of all 13 colonies formed a national congress, at which they met.


More and more colonists became convinced that they could not rely on Great Britain to solve their problems. They wanted to be free and govern themselves. On July 4, 1776 the signing of the Declaration of Independence made the colonies an independent country.


During the early part of the war the British army won major battles because they were better equipped and had more firepower. However, on Christmas night, 1776, George Washington’s army won important battles in Trenton and Princeton New Jersey.

In October 1777, The Battle of Saratoga brought an important victory for the colonists. France decided to send ships and soldiers to the New World to help the colonists in their fight against their long-time enemy, the British.

The winter months were very difficult for George Washington and his men. They had little food to eat and suffered from illnesses. But in the end they proved to be the better fighters and defeated the British army in major battles. Thousands of African American slaves also fought for the colonists.

Britain, on the other side, was faced with having to transport soldiers and weapons over thousands of kilometres.


In the final years of the war fighting focused on the southern colonies. In 1781 British soldiers were defeated by Americans and the French in Yorktown, Virginia. The British surrendered and signed a peace treaty with the Americans in Paris.

Although over 7000 American soldiers died in the Revolutionary War, independence brought along many changes in American society. Prosperity and growth in a vast new country began.
About 25% of all the slaves were freed. The northern states abolished slavery altogether.
A written constitution, which went into effect in 1789, gave the new country a set of laws and its people political and religious freedom.

-Jerisha. S




We have read about the dichotomy between the politics and administration. Subsequently, we also read about how the later authors and subject matter experts opposed the earlier dichotomy and insisted that politics and administration cannot be viewed in isolation. In this section let us try to understand the relationship between the politics and administration.


According to the political scientist James Pfiffner, the politics and administration are so closely knit together that it becomes difficult to draw the line where one ends and the other begins. Politics is the study of power which is the latest definition of the term. According to Raymond Aron, politics is the study of authority relations between the individual and groups and the hierarchy power which establishes itself within all numerous and complex communities. As per this definition, since, power is kind of omnipresent, it is safe to assume that it has an important say in the matters of public administration as well.


Another important figure in the field was Dwight Waldo, an American political scientist and a prominent figure in the area of modern public administration. In his book: The administrative state: a study of the political theory of American public administration, he explains an interesting phenomenon regarding the evolution of reforms in civil services in USA. The principal concern of early civil service reformers was not greater administrative efficiency but was cleansing and promoting democracy. The primary issue was not increasing efficiency but was protecting and building moral.


There is no argument regarding the fact that public administration emerged as a discipline of political science, the former deals with the output of the Government machinery and the latter with the input. It can also be put as such that, political science provides the framework within which public administration functions. From the academic perspective, both these subjects share a number of common areas of study like constitutional law, administrative law, delegated legislation, government budgeting and local governments amongst many other. So, a comprehensive understanding of both the subjects is mutually inclusive to each other, to learn one, the other has to be mastered as well.


Another important academic field from which public administration heavily borrows and is deeply influenced is the Sociology. It is a branch of study which deals with social order, change, class, conflict, problems, associations and institutions. According to Marshal Edward Dimock, administration takes place in a social setting and it is the society which determines the pattern of administration. He goes ahead and adds that through an administrative leadership however, the society itself can be changed for good. He says that the job of a public administrator is not mere administration but that of a social engineer who can bring about desirable changes in the society.


In the modern times, the various activities which the society governed and administered itself like community welfare, health, security etc have been taken over by the Government and public administration departments. The social control has been replaced by administrative controls and hence, it makes sense for the public administrators to be in sync with societal goals.


We have constantly been referring to diverse subjects to understand public administration better; the reader is now in a position to understand the relevance, importance and vastness of this subject which has an immediate and direct interaction with us in our everyday lives.






The Vietnam War was a long-lasting conflict in Southeast Asia. It started after World War II and ended in 1975. More than one million Vietnamese soldiers and over 50,000 Americans were killed in the war. It also cost the lives of over two million civilians .




Before World War II the French controlled most of Indochina, today’s Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. After Japan had lost the war left the country in 1945 the French wanted to take control of Vietnam again. When China became a Communist country in 1949, Communist influence in Vietnam became stronger too. A nationalist leader, Ho Chi Minh, declared Vietnam an independent country. Soon afterwards a war between Ho Chi Minh’s followers and the French began. It ended after the French had lost an important battle at Dien Bien Phu.


The French were forced out of the country and Vietnam was divided . The Communists controlled the northern part and those who still supported the French controlled South Vietnam. The government in the south was weak and more and more people turned against it. Communist rebels started coming in from the north. They were trained and armed by North Vietnam and called themselves Vietcong.




During the Cold War America fought Communism in many places around the world. US presidents promised to help countries that were threatened by Communism. They thought that if they let Communists take over the southern part of Vietnam other countries in the region would become Communist too. This was called the “ Domino Theory ”.


President John F. Kennedy saw this danger and started sending military advisers to help the South Vietnamese army. After an American warship was attacked off the coast of North Vietnam Kennedy’s successor , Lyndon Johnson started sending ground troops to southeast Asia.




In the following years more and more American soldiers were sent to fight the Vietcong and the North Vietnamese army. By 1968, the US had half a million troops in the country.


The United States bombed highways, bridges, railroads and cities in North Vietnam, as well as the Ho Chi Minh trail , a route that led from North Vietnam through Laos and Cambodia to the south. Vietcong guerrillas received supplies and weapons from the north along this route.


The Americans thought that they would win the war quickly because they had modern weapons . They relied on their firepower and bombs to stop Communist aggression. On the other side the North Vietnamese and Vietcong led a completely different war. They could move faster than the Americans and used guerrilla tactics , attacking American troops by surprise.


This was new to American soldiers because they never knew where the enemy really was. The Vietcong also knew the jungle better and got used to moving around in such a difficult terrain .




At first Americans at home thought it was a good idea to stop Communism. They supported American involvement . As time went on and more and more American soldiers got killed in Vietnam Americans changed their attitudes about the war. People saw the brutal war on television. Anti-war protests spread throughout the country. Americans believed Vietnam was a place they did not belong in.




Towards the end of the 1960s the Vietcong and North Vietnam started attacking the south on a larger scale . Under pressure from the public at home the American government changed its policy . President Lyndon Johnson started withdrawing troops and peace talks began in Paris.

When Richard Nixon became president American bombing of Vietnamese hiding places in neighbouring Laos and Cambodia become even more intense . On the other side he continued bringing more and more troops back home. By this time, Americans at home mostly opposed the war .




In 1973 North Vietnam, South Vietnam, the United States and the Vietcong signed a peace agreement . However it was not kept. The North Vietnamese army and the Vietcong pushed further to the south. They met little resistance because South Vietnam’s army was too weak and couldn’t fight alone. Thousands of civilians fled from the oncoming enemies. In 1975 Communist troops entered Saigon and the South Vietnamese surrendered .

The war was officially over in 1976. North and South Vietnam were reunited under a Communist government . Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City.




The Vietnam war was a brutal war with many casualties . Many civilians lost their lives and millions became refugees .

Much of North Vietnam was destroyed by American bombs. Chemicals used to clear the jungle destroyed much of the land permanently . After the war the North Vietnamese put many Southerners into prison . As a result over a million civilians fled South Vietnam.

The Vietnam War also changed the United States’ role in the world. It was the first war that the Americans had lost.


Soldiers who came back suffered from psychological problems and had a hard time returning to normal life. While men who came home from World War I and II were seen as heroes , those who came home from Vietnam were seen as losers.



Mental Health issues due to Covid-19.

21st Century is the most stressful period for all of us, where there are not one but many factors responsible for this type of condition, which is very hectic; this may lead to many other challenges which anyone can face this time. The work from home category of jobs has its downsides too, which may be as; 

1. Lack of efficiency due to the surrounding environment.

2. Sometimes lack creativeness due to hectic seclude.

3. Sleeping issues due to long hours of setback, And much more.  

But nowadays, we are forced to work mostly from home due to this Covid-19 pandemic, which has made us lazier, more lonely, dumber, and much more. Due to this pandemic, people are losing their jobs, leading to a significant financial crisis for all humans; most working-class people have lost their jobs and returned to their villages for survival. Mental stress due to salary deduction, Health issues, financial issues, personal issues, and much more. They are more responsible for the instability of mental health. Extra stress may be responsible for problems which are;

1. Feelings of fear, anger, sadness, worry, numbness, or frustration

2. Changes in appetite, energy, desires, and interests

3. Difficulty concentrating and making decisions

4. Difficulty sleeping or nightmares

5. Physical reactions, such as headaches, body pains, stomach problems, and skin rashes

6. Worsening of chronic health problems

7. Worsening of mental health conditions

Depression due to these situations may cause effects in married couples too, which may lead to harmful conditions if not handled properly on time. The teams may have communication issues due to work pressure and other similar reasons. The character of a person affects drastically due to loneliness because there is a common saying in all of us; ‘Empty mind is devils’ house’, which means if we are busy, then our thoughts change negatively.

We must stay fit and healthy out of this busy schedule, which may help in reducing our mental instability. Some ways to cope up with mental health and to stay mentally healthy are; 

  1. Take care of our body by doing meditation and yoga, which helps control our brain and keep it calm.
  2. Taking a balanced diet can also help reduce stress, which realizes good hormones in our body to make us free from other pressures.
  3. Exercising regularly will make our muscles accessible, which can eventually help improve mental and physical health.
  4. Avoid excessive alcohol, tobacco, and substance use.
  5. Continue with routine preventive measures (such as vaccinations, cancer screenings, etc.) as recommended by your healthcare provider.
  6. Get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine when available.
  7. Make time to unwind. Try to do some other activities you enjoy.
  8. Connect with others. Talk with people external icon you trust about your concerns and how you are feeling.
  9. Connect with your community- or faith-based organizations. While social distancing measures are in place, try connecting online, through social media, or by phone or mail.

More about Demisexuality

In today’s world where dating is complicated and sex is seen as a necessity, there exists a section of people who don’t feel sexually attracted to a person unless you form an emotional connection to them. These people require having a meaningful attachment with a person before wanting to take things any further with them. If this sounds familiar to your perspective towards sex, relationship, and emotions, then chances are you ‘demisexual.

The true meaning of ‘demisexuality’ can be defined as ‘A sexual orientation in which someone feels sexual attraction only to people with whom they have an emotional bond.’ The term comes from the asexuality spectrum. However, this doesn’t mean a demisexual doesn’t aspire for sex. In fact, every demisexual experiences sexual desires.

We understand this can be a little confusing. After all, we only read about sexual and asexual in our biology textbooks, isn’t it? If you are still not sure, demisexuality is for real. To understand better, we suggest you lookout for the following signs of a demisexual.

  1. Sleeping together with someone entices you more than having sex: Sex isn’t the most important factor for any demisexual. The idea of sleeping (and spending more time) with your beloved is more peaceful than the act of making love.
  2. You like to befriend people before dating: Did you and your partner started off as friends? As a demisexual, you have to be friends first before dating someone. This gives them the time to know each other. However, when it comes to friendship, if a demisexual says,” We are just friends.” They mean it!
  3. Personality plays a vital role overlooks: A demisexual doesn’t get turn on by looks; they thrive for deeper connection in people. A good personality is sexy for them.
  4. One night stands or casual sex is not your cup of tea: Casual sex, a one-night stand or even kissing strangers is pretty much a no-go for a demisexual.
  1. You just don’t feel like being intimate or having sex at all- If you show these signs, you might simply be asexual.
  2. You stay away from intimacy for religious purposes or societal pressure- It is very common to feel ashamed of having sex before marriage in some communities but this doesn’t make you demisexual.
  3. Personal choice- If you want to stay away from any kind of personal contact for personal reasons, you don’t fall under this category either.
  4. you are afraid of sex- If you have a psychology of being afraid or ashamed of having sex for various reasons, you are not demisexual.
  5. You don’t feel attracted to the opposite gender in any way- You might be gay ,lesbian or simply asexual if you don’t feel attracted to the opposite gender, but not demisexual.

Sexuality is more of a spectrum than a definition and hence, we should embrace it rather than trying to label it or fit a certain sexuality all the time.