William Shakespeare was certainly a very famous writer. The man is credited with an unbelievable thirty-eight plays, two narrative poems, several other poems and a whopping one hundred fifty-four sonnets. Shakespeare is the world’s pre-eminent dramatist and according to many experts is the greatest writer in the English language. Furthermore, he is also called England’s National Poet and also has the nickname of the Bard of Avon. Such a worthy reputation is due to his top-notch unmatchable writing skills.William Shakespeare was born to a successful businessman in Stratford-upon-Avon on 23rd April in the year 1564. Shakespeare’s mother was the daughter of a landlord and came from a well-to-do family. About the age of seven, William Shakespeare began attending the Stratford Grammar School.Shakespeare was a leading member of the group from 1594 for the rest of his career. 1594 had produced at least six of Shakespeare’s plays; During Shakespeare’s life, there were two monarchs who ruled England. They were Henry the eighth and Elizabeth the first. Both were impressed with Shakespeare, which made his name known.
Shakespeare became a member of one of the famous theatre companies in the city. Moreover, this company was ‘the Lord Chamberlain’s Men’.Shakespeare was a leading member of the group from 1594 for the rest of his career. 1594 had produced at least six of Shakespeare’s plays; During Shakespeare’s life, there were two monarchs who ruled England. They were Henry the eighth and Elizabeth the first. Both were impressed with Shakespeare, which made his name known. Also, the theatre companies during that era were commercial organizations that were dependent upon the audience who came to watch the plays.From the year 1594, Shakespeare became the leading member of the acting group and remained that for almost the entire rest of his career. By the year 1594, the production of at least six plays had taken place by William Shakespeare.
William Shakespeare’s story writing skills are of an extremely high-quality. Furthermore, his works are characterized by outstanding narrative building around the topics of jealousy, mystery, love, magic, death, murder, life, revenge, and grief. That is why William Shakespeare is so famous.Some of the most famous works of William Shakespeare are as follows:Romeo and Juliet,The Merchant of Venice,Henry V,Much Ado About Nothing,Hamlet.
William Shakespeare was a very talented man known for his various works of literature. His works include poems, plays, and sonnets. His works are then broken down into tragedies, comedies, and histories. Shakespeare left this world centuries ago, but his writings continue to live throughout the world today.
Shakespeare’s poems and plays show love for nature and rural life which reflects his childhood. In London, Shakespeare’s career took off. It is believed that he may have become well I known in London theatrical life by 1592.Shakespeare was a leading member of the group from 1594 for the rest of his career. 1594 had produced at least six of Shakespeare’s plays; During Shakespeare’s life, there were two monarchs who ruled England. They were Henry the eighth and Elizabeth the first. Both were impressed with Shakespeare, which made his name known.



it is important that every human being respects them and uses morals and ethics when they were dealing with them.

Main environmental issues in India :
📌Water pollution: major rivers are polluted by sewage, chemicals, agricultural and industrial waste.
📌Air pollution: Vehicles releasing chemicals and industries releasing chemical fumes in the air are the major causes of air pollution.
📌Deforestation:reduction of trees wilfully or naturally
📌Plastics and other waste:plastic is made up of non-biodegradable material which cannot be broken down into simpler substances. They can stay on earth for more than a thousand years, thus contaminating soil and water bodies.


“Long years ago we made a tryst with destiny, and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially. At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance”

-Former PM Jawaharlal Nehru

India gained Independence from British colonial rule, after prolonged freedom movement and struggles. With Independence, India became the master of its own destiny and the process to make India a super power and self-reliant began soon. One of the challenges that the country was going to face was with regard to financial viability, as soon after Independence, the economic growth of the country was near to negligible with very low Tax collections. In the Midst of these situations, the country had to invest on human resources in order to build a responsible and knowledgeable work force for the future. As the country was in a state of desperateness, people were not financially strong to even bear the costs of educating their children. Constituent assembly of India, while deliberating with regards to the Obligation of State to educate children, considered all these factors & situations and consequently placed this obligation under Directive principle of state policy (Part IV) rather than Fundamental rights (Part III). We find this observation from the language of Article 45 of the Constitution of India, wherein the obligation on the state to educate children up to the age of Fourteen years, was deferred for Ten years from the adoption of the Constitution. But the turmoil in the Indian Politics never realized this obligation into a reality, the duty of the state underlined in Article 45 came to fora only after 55 years of Independence when 86th Constitutional Amendment act was passed by the legislature that included the Article 21A in the Indian constitution making Education a fundamental Right, also it specified the need for a legislation to describe the mode of implementation of the same which necessitated the drafting of a separate Education Bill.Consequently Right to Education Bill, 2005 (Hereinafter RTE Act) was drafted and was further enacted in 2009. It was a landmark day for the people of India, since one of the Visions of our Constitution framers was coming to life that was Right to compulsory education for children between the ages of 6 to 14 years. The Legal framework was put into place, but the hopes of the majority of population faded with each passing year. The Schools established under the abovementioned legislation, was inadequate and most of the schools even failed to pass the norms already in place governing the education system. One of the Achievements of Right to Education was that it motivated village population to allow girl students to enroll, and it subsequently saw rise in enrollment ratio with changes in some states. But, several discrepancies began to be grounded with regards to “Schools with No Education”, “Schools with No Sanitation” and Schools with No Structures”. On many occasions, even students being taught under a banyan tree was called a school under the Aegis of RTE Act, which talks about serious structural lapses on the implementation of such fundamental right. The Constitution also provides for Article 21 that is Right to Life, which has been interpreted in a very wide manner. If we were to compare the protection of Article 21A with that of 21, it would be like state saying “You have the right to life and liberty, But Sorry we are not accountable for your food”, even Right to food is a fundamental right. This example is to portray the stark differences in the Implementation of a fundamental right, revered by our constitution framers. The Situation would further worsen, if attempts are not made to sincerely take effort in uplifting the standards of Education of poor and under-privileged children. This would portray development of a country in toto.

As in the words of Abraham Lincoln, “The best way to predict your future is to create it”, If India has to achieve the goals of becoming a Super power and self-reliant, it needs to take strides in order to develop its Public Education Infrastructure.


Oil pulling is an old Ayurvedic dental action which apparently dates back approximately 3,000 years ago. It basically comprises of whooshing a tiny quantity of oil in mouth for a short time, then spitting it out. The thought is that the oil pulls out bacteria and other toxins that hide within your mouth.

How Does Oil Pulling Work?

When you get up in the morning, get a tablespoon of any oil and swish it around your mouth for about 20 minutes, like when you use mouthwash. However, don’t do it as robustly since you’ll be doing it for far longer and your jaw will get exhausted.

Mildly swirl the oil around your mouth and pull it through the spaces between your teeth. Ensure not to swallow any of it, or you’ll devour the foul things in your mouth gathered by the oil.

When you’re done, spit the oil in the dustbin. Do not spit it in your sink because when the oil congeals, it may block up your pipes. Wash your mouth out with warm water then brush and floss like normal.

What are the Benefits to Oil Pulling?

Oil pulling has been qualified to a number of advantages that include whiter teeth, better gums, clearer sinuses, stronger jaw, and a decrease in bad breath and gingivitis.

It’s important to keep in mind that oil pulling is not meant to substitute regular dental hygiene. You still need to brush, floss at least twice a day and visit your dentist twice a year.

Some of the benefits are as follows:

  1. Can kill Harmful Bacteria in your mouth

2. Could help reduce bad breath

3. May Help Prevent Cavities

4. Seems to Reduce Inflammation and Improve Gum Health.

5. May have other benefits

Some claim that it’s able to pull stains from the surface of teeth, resulting in a whitening effect, although there is no scientific research to back this up

6. Cheap and Easy to add to your routine

Two of the biggest benefits to oil pulling are how simple it is to do and how easily it can be incorporated into your daily regimen.

HOW To Oil Pulling in 4 Simple Steps

Oil pulling is easy to do and involves just a few simple steps.

Here are the 4 simple steps to do oil pulling:

  1. Measure one tablespoon of oil, such as coconut, sesame or olive oil.
  2. Swish it around in your mouth for 15–20 minutes, being careful not to swallow any.
  3. Spit the oil into a trash can once you’re done. Avoid spitting it into the sink or toilet, as this can cause a build-up of oil, which may lead to clogging.
  4. Rinse your mouth well using water before eating or drinking anything.

Repeat these steps a few times per week or up to three times daily. You may also want to work your way up, starting with swishing for just 5 minutes and increasing the duration until you’re able to do it for a full 15–20 minutes.

For best results, most recommend doing this first thing in the morning on an empty stomach, although you can adapt based on your personal preferences

New device actuates profound cerebrum neurons by joining ultrasound, hereditary qualities.

Neurological issues like Parkinson’s illness and epilepsy have had some treatment accomplishment with profound mind incitement, however those require careful gadget implantation. A multidisciplinary group at Washington University in St. Louis has fostered another cerebrum incitement method utilizing centered ultrasound that can turn explicit sorts of neurons in the mind on and off and definitely control engine action without careful gadget implantation.The group, driven by Hong Chen, collaborator teacher of biomedical designing in the McKelvey School of Engineering and of radiation oncology at the School of Medicine, is quick to give direct proof appearance noninvasive, cell-type-explicit enactment of neurons in the cerebrum of warm blooded creature by joining ultrasound-incited warming impact and hereditary qualities, which they have named sonothermogenetics. It is likewise the main work to show that the ultrasound-hereditary qualities blend can powerfully control conduct by animating a particular objective somewhere down in the cerebrum.

The senior exploration group included specialists from both the McKelvey School of Engineering and the School of Medicine, including Jianmin Cui, educator of biomedical designing; Joseph P. Educator of anesthesiology and pharmacology at the University of Washington.The work gave proof that sonothermogenetics inspires conduct reactions in unreservedly moving mice while focusing on a profound mind site. Sonothermogenetics can possibly change our methodologies for neuroscience, investigate and reveal new techniques to comprehend and treat human mind issues. Utilizing a mouse model, Chen and the group conveyed a viral development containing TRPV1 particle channels to hereditarily chosen neurons. Then, at that point, they conveyed a little eruption of warmth by means of low-power centered ultrasound to the select neurons in the mind through a wearable gadget. 

We can move the ultrasound gadget worn on the head of free-moving mice around to target various areas in the entire cerebrum,” said Yaoheng Yang, first creator of the paper and an alumni understudy in biomedical designing. The work expands on research led in Cui’s lab that was distributed in Scientific Reports in 2016. Cui and his group figured out interestingly that ultrasound alone can impact particle channel action and could prompt new and noninvasive approaches to control the action of explicit cells.

 In their work, they tracked down that engaged ultrasound regulated the flows coursing through the particle channels on normal by up to 23%, contingent upon channel and improvement power. Following this work, scientists discovered nearly 10 particle channels with this ability, however every one of them are mechanosensitive, not thermosensitive. The work likewise expands on the idea of optogenetics, the blend of the designated articulation of light-delicate particle channels and the exact conveyance of light to invigorate neurons somewhere down in the mind.. Sonothermogenetics has the guarantee to focus on any area in the mouse mind with a millimetre-scale goal without making any harm to the cerebrum, Chen said. She and the group keep on streamlining the procedure and further approve their discoveries.


Even though no village in India is without an elementary school, the students who come out of these schools are not able to compete with English medium school students or with others who have had their education in private schools in towns and cities. When elementary education, which is the foundation of one’s education itself, is very weak, there can be no concrete superstructure. In rural India, parents cannot send their children to elementary schools at age five due to grinding poverty. Even otherwise, the quality of instruction and the infrastructure are far from satisfactory. This stands in the way of a sound education. Therefore, the government must make an introspection to improve the quality of elementary education in rural areas. There should not be a problem if the government is sincere about raising the standard of education in the villages.
It is imperative to construct strong buildings with all facilities, especially blackboards and furniture, and separate toilets for boys and girls. It is well known that the number of teachers falls far short of the requirements in rural elementary schools. A teacher has to look after three or four classes at a time. Hence, it is impossible to pay individual attention to the growing children necessary at the elementary level. The students in their tender age must be taught with models as envisaged by the Montessori system. This adds color to teaching and draws the children’s attention towards the lessons being taught. All said and done, and the playground facilities must receive special attention. In rural India, space is no problem, but the facilities and sports equipment are nowhere to be seen. There can be no sound education without a sound body. Sports have become an instrument of national pride in the international sphere. Hence, the students at the elementary stage must be given training in various disciplines of sports. This will certainly contribute to enhance the standards of the sport of our country. In the process, the rural youth may find gainful occupation in places of their birth and help develop the villages they live in. It will also help reverse the exodus of unemployed youth into the already extended city problems. The implementation of these suggestions should be taken seriously by powers to realize the dream of our funding fathers.

Maroju Sanjana


• Pandemic – affected the Indian children
 Orphaned
 Child Labour

• Factors of Child Labour – pre existed.

• Third decade of the 21st century:
 152 million – child Labour
 73 million – hazardous work.


• 2011 census – 10.1 million children (5-14 years) are working.
 8.1 million – rural areas
 26% – cultivators;
32.9% – agricultural labourers.

• UNESCO’s estimates
 38.1 million – out of school. • Rapid Survey on Children (2013-14)
 Less than half of children – 10-14 years have completed primary education.
Child Labour:
 long-term devastating consequences – education, skills and acquisition.
 reduce – possibilities to overcome poverty, incomplete education and poor-quality jobs.

Policy and programmatic interventions

• Contributions
 Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) 2005
 the Right to Education Act 2009
 Mid-Day Meal Scheme.

• Education and wage employment (unskilled) for rural families.

• Ratification – ILO child labour Conventions
 Convention No. 138 – Minimum Age
 Convention No. 182 – Worst Forms of Child Labour.

• Online portal – allows to share information and
to coordinate on child Labour at all levels for
effective enforcement of child Labour laws.

• Child Labour – rate of reduction slowed by two-thirds .

• Important – consider the trends while developing policy and response.

• India – slower economic growth and rising unemployment.
• Lockdowns – backtrack the efforts invested and the gains made in eliminating child Labour.

• Present – economic insecurity, lack of social
protection and reduced household income
 Children – to contribute to their family income.
 Exposed to risk and exploitative work.
 Distant learning – child drop out.

• Digital divide.
 Annual Status of Education Report, 2020 – a third of the total number of enrolled
children received learning materials

Way Forward

• Right level of commitment, policy and programmatic interventions.

• Strong alliance – ending child Labour in all its forms by 2025 as agreed to in Sustainable Development
 Goal 8.7
 Eradicate forced Labour and to end modern slavery and human trafficking.
 Secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child Labour in all its forms by the end of 2025.

Tips for safe internet banking

All through the year, banks and financial institution are taking up innovative measures to protect its customers from such banking frauds. But sometimes it’s our very own negligence that makes us fall prey to such thefts. Whilst, both the banks and financial institutions are doing their part, we should too adopt a cautious attitude to protect ourselves. So, to help you out in this process, we have a gathered a list of some tips for safe internet banking that you can consider doing.

Digital advancements have made our lives much easier, we can now order food or purchase things in the comfort of our homes. These rapidly evolving advancements are also transforming the banking and financial sector in India. Whether someone is transferring funds, paying a bill or applying for such loans such technologies are enabling customers to do it in a more efficient and effective way. The number of users opting for internet banking is expected to double by 2020, making India an important hub for financial innovation. However, internet banking, just like like any other medium if not done with utmost precaution can prove to be risky. There are scams like phishing( fraudulent means for attaining confidential information) associated with internet banking which enables a third-party to access and misuse your personal information.

Banking online has made managing money a lot more convenient than it used to be. We don’t have to visit the bank to transfer our funds, or wait for the next paper statement to know what the balance is. All that information is at our fingertips. But while online banking has made things easier for us, it’s also made things easier for thieves.

Criminals don’t need to plan a heist to rob someone’s bank account anymore. All they need to do is wait for you to let your guard down and expose your personal information, or send out a virus that will collect the information. The only way to avoid becoming a thief’s next victim is to carefully guard your personal information and always practice these online banking safety tips. 

1. Don’t access your bank accounts on public Wi-Fi

When you’re on public Wi-Fi, hackers can more easily access your computer and steal personal information from it. You should never access your bank’s website through a computer, tablet, or mobile phone unless you’re on a secure Wi-Fi network with a password, or using your own cell phone data connection. This is much more difficult for thieves to hack, so it keeps your information safer.

2. Avoid saving your login information

Some websites give you the option to save your login information for future use, but if someone uses your computer or mobile device after you, they could gain access to your bank accounts. To at least help prevent this from happening, many banking sites now time out after a certain number of minutes of inactivity, and do not save your information.

3. Use strong passwords and change them often

Strong passwords have a mix of upper- and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols. Many banks now require your online accounts to carry a password meeting these requirements. You should also change your password every couple of months, and use different passwords for all of your online accounts so that hackers will have a more difficult time gaining access to your information.

4. Use two-factor authentication whenever possible

Two-factor authentication is the next level of security that many banks are now offering. Usually, you give your bank your phone number, and it texts a code when you log in online. Some banks also enable you to request a code via email or a phone call. You must enter this code in addition to your password to log in. This way, even if someone has stolen your password, they cannot access your accounts. It’s another hoop to jump through, but it could help keep your money safe, so set it up if your bank offers it.

Internet Banking

The innovations of information technology and internet have opened the new horizons to the Banking service delivery to the customers. Banking services are available on the finger tips of the customer via Internet Banking. Internet Banking, Net Banking or online banking allows you to perform various financial and non-financial transactions in your account with a click of button without visiting branch or ATM. It offers you a whole lot of features that earlier available only with the branch

In today’s fast-paced life, you need on-demand banking solutions for a better lifestyle. Internet Banking service gives you complete control over fund in your accounts online. Say bid-adieu to long queues and tired teller counter clerk. Now do banking from the comfort of your home or office, vacations ANYWHERE and ANYTIME!

Internet banking allows banking user to get connected to it’s bank’s internet banking portal to perform desire banking functions. If you are a Bank customer then you can avail Internet Banking facility after having received secure access of your net banking account from your bank. After secure login you will have direct access to your account. All the banking functions, financial and non-financials, that bank has made available on the internet banking mode will be displayed in menu of your online user account. You can select to perform any transaction and further result will be as per the policy for the nature of the service.

Your internet banking works on the concept of data centralization in the core banking system and allowing restricted access through net banking channel.

You must be apprehensive about the safety and security of online banking. Nelito’s Internet Banking product has following features to make your banking safe and secure:

  • Internet Banking product is developed on SSL protocol and 128-bit encryption technology to provide a secure channel for data exchange – which keeps your online banking data secure and safe.
  • Customer login is also verified at 2 levels by userid-password combination and PAN Number or Date of Birth authentications.
  • 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) requires you to input OTP (One Time Password) sent only on to your registered mobile number for all key transactions.
  • Your login session gets expired after a certain period in case there is no activity in your logged in session. This secures any unauthorized access to your logged in session.
  • Tracking of wrong OTP and passwork attempts.

Thus your Netbanking is safe, fast and secure, enabling you to perform your banking transaction with total peace of mind .

Range of services and features on internet banking includes:

  • Account Balance of all accounts linked to your customer ID
  • View and Download account statement.
  • Fund transfer through NEFT & RTGS
  • Avail Different Deposit Schemes and Banking Services like insurance, credit cards, demand draft etc.
  • Cheque Status and Stop Payment Request
  • Pay government taxes
  • Pay online your utility bills like Electricity, Telephone, Subscription payments along with Charity and Donation.
  • Recharge your mobile/DTH connection.
  • 24 x 7 Money Transfer through IMPS
  • Set up standing instructions for transfer of fixed amount to be executed at fixed intervals.
  • Various non-financial transactions like cheque book request, profile change, KYC, inquiries 


Some say if you want success surround yourself with successful people. I say if you want true and lasting success surround yourself with people of integrity

                                                                                                      Charles F. Glassman,

It is often regarded as brain drain. It’s a serious problem of developing countries. Talented students of India get migrated to several foreign institutes every year.

Needless to say, it’s a great loss to our country. Developed countries like USA, UK etc. offer the best students the best jobs with lucrative salaries and the best opportunities to research. As a result students become reluctant to lose the opportunity

To solve the problem government should set up the infrastructure and facilities up to the mark for those students who are getting migrated every year.

According to me it should not be the case of the government only. Students should also have the patriotism and responsibility towards their motherland. If they become enough qualified and get the confidence in themselves to make more like him or her literate, then that would be more beneficial for him and the government too.


To be honest, prosperous villages have turned into the towns of today. It should also be mentioned that a town life and the country life can never be compared because both of them have merits and demerits.

In town there are good market shops good means of communication, there good hospitals schools etc. People can get good physicians, nursing homes medical centres in town but a town life is thickly polluted. Every single element of environment gets polluted by the atmosphere created in town. Indeed, it is the fault of the people who live there. The factories take part in both air pollution and water pollution. Also in times of festivals, people use loudspeakers crackers with vigour to create noise pollution.

In the other hand, village is free of pollution there are lots of extensive meadows, green fields ,lots of fruits, flowers, trees, plants .Villagers can enjoy fresh food and vegetables and sound sleep and comfortable  rest, free of sound and air pollution. But in village, one cannot get good nursing homes good physicians hospitals proper education and necessary communications.

If one lives in a town, he will be deprived of fresh air and a satisfactory atmosphere. Also if one lives in village, he will be deprived of all the necessary things which are needed in the modern era.

At the end we can conclude by saying that one should be satisfied bye by the conditions made in the particular area so that one never get deprived by himself.


Citizens are getting modern. Human beings are touching the sands of moon. People also have witnessed the magic of computer and have entered an era of curiosity. But there are some age – old beliefs which are neither scientific nor reasonable. Those are called superstitions.

At the time of starting from somewhere, if someone sneezes or someone calls one back or a cat crosses path, one must stop and start afresh. The hooting of an owl, shouting of a domestic dog and the site of one Martin bird is held ominous. In rural backward places, people believe in witchcraft and sometimes kill innocent old hags out of superstition. It destroys the power of one reasoning .They decelerate one’s progress and sometimes make one inhuman and eccentric.

The only way to stop spreading superstition is education. If students get the proper education, they can spread it at a large scale and after becoming the new citizens they can witness a society which will be free of superstition.

At least we can hope so.

Diwali – Festival of Lights

First of all, to understand that India is a country of festivals. However, none of the festivals is Diwali. It is to be one of the biggest festivals in India. It is likely to be the fairest of them all, the festival of the world. People from different religions celebrate Diwali. The most notable of these is the festival signifies the victory of light over darkness. This also means that it is the triumph of good over evil, and knowledge, than of ignorance and is also known as festival of lights. It is, therefore, a clear light on the whole of the country during Diwali. In the essay on Diwali, you will see that the religious and spiritual significance of Diwali.

The Religious Significance of Diwali
The religious significance of this festival is different. It varies from region to region in India. This is a group of many deities, culture, and traditions of Diwali. The reasons for these differences are likely to be for the local harvest festival. So, there was a merger of the harvest festival in one pan-Hindu festival.

As per Ramayna this day is when Lord Rama returned to Ayodhya. The return was made after Rama defeated the demon king, Ravana. In addition, Rama’s brother, Lakshmana, and Hanuman came back to Ayodhya is to prevail in the end.

It is a popular tradition for the sole purpose of Diwali. Here is Lord Vishnu as incarnation of Krishna killed Narakasura. Narakasura was a demon. This victory brought with it the release of 16000 caught up to the girls.

In addition, this victory shows the triumph of good over evil. This is due to the most high, the Lord is good, and the Narakasura’s wrong.

The association of Diwali with Goddess

Lakshmi is the belief of many Hindus. Lakshmi is the wife of Lord Vishnu.

According to the legend, Diwali, it is the night of Lakshmi’s wedding. This is the night that they chose and wed Vishnu. In eastern India, and is Considered to be the associate Diwali with the Goddess Durga, or kali. Some Hindus believe Diwali is the beginning of a new year.

The Spiritual Significance of Diwali
Well, first of all, a lot of people are trying to get people to forgive, ” during Diwali. This is definitely a place that people are going to forget that one of the monitors. Therefore, friendships, and relationships are stronger during Diwali. People need to take away all the feelings of hatred from their hearts.

This is a wonderful festival and bring prosperity. The hindu traders to open an account with, this is a book to be discovered. In addition, they are also to pray for happiness and prosperity. People buy new clothes for themselves and for others.

In light of this, the festival will bring peace to the people. It brings the light of peace and love in your heart. Diwali is sure to bring peace of mind to the people. To share the joy and happiness is the spiritual benefit of Diwali. People visit each other’s homes during the festival of lights. And they’re doing it, communications, and eat well, and enjoy the fireworks.

Finally, to sum it up, Diwali, it is a great joy to be at the moment in India. It is one of the happiest and joyful festivals in the world.


Education is a social process; education is growth; education is not a preparation for life but is life itself. 
                                                                              -John Dewey

Privatisation in education in India is an interesting issue. Critics think that it will make education a luxury commodity and some of them also think that the above is not correct at all.

If you think deeply, then we can realise that if education is privatised the whole system will run on the principles of commerce. So poor people will be deprived of higher education, in this way the poor but meritorious students will not get the place they should achieve and may suffer from anxiety, depression and other mental problems.

Our Indian constitution says that every student has the equal right of education but if education gets privatised poor students will be the example of obligation of our national constitution.

But those who support it, argue that a privatised system will demand quality education and teachers will be compelled to teach seriously so the overall system will improve.

In a conclusion, we must say that it may be right or wrong but to make it perfect and achievable the government should work accordingly and make a strong administration to maintain it for a long time.

Internet and our lives

We are living in the age of the internet. It is also a very important part of our life that we just can’t live without it. By the way, the internet is an invention of the high-end science and technology. Apart from the fact that we are connected to the internet 24×7. We also have a large and a small size of the messages and data being lost faster than ever before. In this paper, the Internet, and we are going to discuss about several things, when it comes to the internet.

The coverage of the Internet
It is very difficult to estimate, the area in which it is included. Also, each and every second, a million people are connected to each other in order to continue to have an issue or a question. Apart from that, as well as all of the things that the internet has had a number of good and bad effect on the lives of people. So, the first thing we need to do is learn about it, the good and the bad effect of internet.

Well, the good effects of the internet is to do all of the things that it is possible to do. Yes, these are the things that will make our lives easier and more reliable.

They are the bad effects of the internet is to do all of the things that we can’t do it, because that’s the internet. Even the things that are causing problems for themselves and for others.

You can also get access to every corner of the globe. It is very easy to use and manage. In today’s world, and we can’t imagine our lives without it.

The Use Of The Internet
From that time on, as it were, for the first time in her life, up until now, the internet has been on a long journey. During the trip, the internet has a lot of things, and it was becoming more and more user-friendly and interactive. By the way, all of the big and the little things are available and on the internet, and in the article or material you need, which can be downloaded from the internet.

Tim Berners-Lee, it may be referred to as one of the main father of the internet, which is where he invented/discovered in the World Wide Web (WWW), which will be used at each location. There are millions of pages and websites of the internet like it’s going to take years to go through all of them.

The Internet can be used to show different things that you can learn, to learn, to research, to write, to share, to receive, via e-mail, in order to explore and surf the web on the internet.

The Ease, Thanks To The Internet
As a result, the internet, our lives are becoming more and more useful compared to the times when we do not have access to the internet. We have already been in the queue in order to send an e-mail, letter), and, for the record, or by a deposit of money, or to book tickets, etc, etc., but the date of birth of the internet, all of these things are going to be very easy to make. Also, we don’t need to waste precious time standing in long lines.

The Internet has made a great contribution to the environment, and that many of the office buildings (public and private), and the school, and the school has been in the digital sector, as it will save you countless paper.

However, there is no doubt that internet has made our life more comfortable and convenient, but we can’t get away from it, in fact, that it has led to a lot of the major problems in the past. And with the speed we are getting dependent on it, there will come a day when you are going to be one of our basic needs.


A sound mind is one that dreams of a better world and works for a better world while being mindful of the limitations of the present world.”

  • Abhijit Naskar,

Indian society is burnt with the cause of many social evils many great people came in front of the society to form the society in a new pattern.

Ram Mohan Roy made a vehement protest against the age-old evil practice like the notorious suttee rite. He succeeded in persuading the British governor general lord William Bentinck to declare it illegal.

Another great man was Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar who came forward and spread female education he set up schools for this purpose not only that he introduced widow marriage and stop child marriage he had to struggle hard for introducing this to reforms.

However there are some places in India where the social reforms are not even working perfectly many places like Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh have not get the light of this social reforms made by this great human beings.

In this case West Bengal should also be considered as a matter of disgrace. Malda and some other districts of this state is also a victim of several social causes people should stand family and sincerely against the social evils to make better and expected society in the new generation.


Pollution is making something dirty or impure by adding harmful substances. It is the greatest misery of today’s world. Each and every segment of environment is getting polluted by human activities.

Everybody knows that air is life. But sadly air is being polluted by smoke from factories and gases emitted by motor vehicles. Not only has that people through cigarettes and things like those polluted the air. Nuclear explosions also contribute a lot to air pollution a number of diseases such as tuberculosis bronchitis heart and nerve diseases are caused by air pollution.

Man cannot live without trees but water is the main ingredient of protoplasm which is the main thing to survive for plants. Chemicals and other wastes from factories pollute water. polluted water kills fishes and other aquatic animals and makes the situation more grave the problem of arsenic contamination is also there we suffer from various water borne diseases and skin diseases by using polluted water.

Noise pollution also takes place at the same time it is caused by the indiscriminate use of electric horns microphones and crackers the bursting of bombs and tires also causes sound pollution it affects the attention of students and the steps sleep and best especially of the patients children and the aged people.

As it is our world we think it is our bounden duty to stand against the pollution and recreate our surroundings by planting more and more if we fail to check this pollution the world of tomorrow would be a deaf world.


Clearly, the title emphasises the education of women. Yes, it is important. The male-female ratio in our India is not correct. Moreover, the education of women is dominated in several parts of India. To prove them, they need a competence and hence the education is significant.

            But history says that Indian women had equal position and honourable status like men in the Aryan ages. Women then had the right to educate themselves, they took part in studying and writing the Vedas and holy scriptures-  Gargi, Apala,Ghosha ,Lopamudra are some of them. Then a drastic demotion in women education came all over the India and remained for a long time.

However, now girls are getting the same education as boys in an institution meaning indicated girls are coming out of s nurses teachers and doctors now so they are self supporting and bringing financial help to their families above all a well educated mother only can make an ideal family.

Artificial Intelligence- future of the country

Artificial intelligence: I think therefore I am?

It is a well-known fact that Artificial Intelligence is developing at a rapid rate. Artificial Intelligence would take over 90 percent of the jobs in the future. It is no lie that we see Artificial Intelligence applications frequently in our everyday life- net banking, speed cameras, face recognition, etc. Soon, knowing artificial intelligence would become a must to get selected in a job. In a developing country like India, technology becomes a necessity. Therefore, it is the right time to learn and explore it. This article would guide you to become an amateur even though you are tech-savvy or not.
1) So the first step should be to contact your teacher if you are in school and inquire about the artificial intelligence courses. Even if you are in college, you would be able to join a ai course
2) However, if your school and colleges are not offering any courses, try searching online. You can find free interactive courses on Udemy and Guvi.
3) Once you are through the basics- machine learning, deep learning, and neural network, you can go for advanced paid courses.
4) If you feel like you have accomplished well, you can go for internships on Internshala and let’s intern.
This self-learning would not require more than two months if you put in your full efforts. In case you are still not sure that why you should invest your time. Perhaps this might help you.
1) Studying AI soon can provide you with a career as a software engineer studying neural networks, human-machine interfaces, and quantum artificial intelligence.
2) Cramming artificial intelligence presents a life of opportunities. At a fundamental level, you will adequately explain the systems and tools that you associate with daily. And if you adhere to the subject and study more, you can help create cutting-edge AI applications, like the Google Self Driving Cars. In the field of artificial intelligence, the possibilities are truly endless.
3) The use of Artificial Intelligence is capable of creating, transforming, and improving many facets of human life. For example, farming in the United States has been made easier with Farmlogs, a software that provides farmers with information about the weather and soil as well as tracking plant growth to achieve better profits. Some countries are even implementing AI in improving environmental planning, disaster management, and crime prevention.
Here are ten people who made their career through Artificial Intelligence:-
1) Elon Musk
2) Anita Schjøll Brede
3) Jürgen Schmidhuber
4) Fei-Fei Li
5)Dorian Selz
6)Richard Socher
7)Demis Hassabis
8)Rita Cucchiara
9)Anders Hardebring
10)Robin Li

You can be one of them. It is considered that all AI regularities are complex. Yet, like several human-based rules and traditional software, some AI systems are manageable and straightforward to explain. AI explainability is developing as a rich area of study that gives insight into why a particular system works positively and helps in improving the clarity of decision-making. In a lockdown, many students have lost the track of their career, Artificial Intelligence can help you to get on track. You are the future of the nation, so is AI.

Generation gap

A generation gap is a difference in values and attitudes between one generation and another, especially between young people and their parents. These differences stem from the fact that older and younger people do not understand each other because of the differences in the experiences, thoughts, attitudes, and behaviors.

Technical skills are important as well. How technology has an impact on the generation of the gap depends on how many older people are able to learn and use new technologies. This book is, as usual, was written by Millennials, for the younger generation, many of the older people it can get away with it if things move too fast.

The difference in age between parents and their children, and that they have experienced in their most vulnerable years, in a variety of different cultures. Adolescence is often a time when people will be most influenced by the society around them, and this is because our world is going to evolve and change, things rarely stay the same, will lead to a generational gap between parents and their children.

Here are some of the reasons for the gap between the parents and the children:

1. Lack Of Understanding
Sometimes, it seems that the different generations speak different languages. Due to the changes in the society, as parents and grew up to be what happens when one of their children all the time, even how they think and what they would tend to be different.

2. Mistakes Are Rarely Made,
The parents often don’t make mistakes, and tend to punish their children. Children need to make mistakes in order to learn and to grow in their lives, but if they’re only being punished, it will increase the gap and creates a lack of communication.

Parents often dream about their children, and most of the time, they have a tendency to force them to do so, not taking into account the child’s wishes.

4. To A Lot Of Equations
To compare children with each other, or even, what they were like as children, and it is another reason for the division is great. This often causes them to lose confidence in himself, and destroy the enthusiasm she had before.

5. Not Enough Interaction
Because of the responsibilities of an adult, and the stress of the job, as parents, are often too tired to spend a lot of time with their children every day. This leads to a lack of communication and interaction, making the gap between the generations. How To Bridge The Generation Gap Between Parents And Their Children.


To bridge the gap between generations
In support of the multi-generational division. The best way to get people to accept each other’s differences in order to be together, to be …
And cultural values. and …
With the introduction of technologies that have the role of a facilitator. ..

Sex education

Sex education has positive effects, including an increase in younger people, and for the improvement of their attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health and behavior. Sex education inside and outside of the schools, an increase in sexual activity, risky sexual behavior, or STI/HIV infection rates.

Why do I need a technical consultation on sexual health education?

The country is increasingly recognizing the importance of young people’s behavior, knowledge, and skills that will enable them to make the right choices in life. CSE supports the empowerment of young people by enhancing their analytical and communication skills for the health and well-being in relation to sexuality, the human rights, values, and healthy, and valuable relationships, culture, and social norms, gender equality, non-discrimination, sexual harassment, sexual violence, consent, and sexual violence, and harmful practices.

What’s new in the revised Statements?

The original one and international guidelines, published in 2009, has been placed on sexual education in the first place, as a part of the fight against HIV / aids. However, while HIV remains a vital, evidence, and practice to show that sex education is more of a general interest to other problems, and not just for the sexual and reproductive health of young people, but also for the general well-being and personal development.

Modified the christian Guide to a positive approach, in view of the fact that the CSE is about more than just education on the subject of reproduction, threats, and other diseases. It is a confirmation of the position of the sexual health education in the context of human rights, and gender equality. It is also a reflection on the contribution of sexual health education, the implementation of a number of international agreements in the field of sexual and reproductive health, as well as for the implementation of the objectives and goals of the 2030 Agenda. in the realm of health and well-being, and quality of inclusive education, gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls.

the rage of power, violence, character traits, ethics, law, and the evolutionary pressures that some of the explanations for sexual violence, and to give, for example, acts of violence, rape, sexual violence, sexual harassment, etc.).


Therefore, the contract of training is the key to the prevention of gender-based violence. Healthy relationships are important to the topic of sex education. Students will learn positive ways to express intimacy and affection are set out in the personal limits, as well as the development of strategies to prevent or end an unhealthy relationship.





The poor and middle class people all over the world are facing a lot of problems today. The gravest of them is perhaps the price rise.

The prices of essential commodities are getting higher by leaps and bounds. Continuing a healthy and safe life is becoming a impossible task for middle class families. In this way, rich people are getting richer and poor are getting poorer.

Some cases are there which must be executed. People often collect these needed commodities and create an artificial scarcity so that the price get raised in an unexpected rate. Goods are not present according to the demand and that’s why price rise takes place.

However, the national economy gets affected harshly. A comprehensive economy policy and strict vigilance are urgently needed.


Need for measures

● Pending cases:
 3.27 crore cases pending before Indian courts.
 85,000 cases – pending for over 30 years.

• Delays in Justice delivery –
accumulation of cases burden on the court system.

• Pandemic and lockdown – restriction in mobility and closure of physical courts – need for ICT enabled court
systems .

E-Court Project

• Conceptualized by ‘National Policy and Action Plan for
Implementation of ICT’.

• Phases I and II – digitisation of the judiciary.
 e-filing
 Tracking cases online
 Uploading judgments online etc.

• Phase III – ecosystem approach – commitments are:
 Digitisation of court processes.
 Plans to upgrade the electronic infrastructure of the judiciary.
 Enable access to lawyers and litigants. Etc.

• Governed by E-Committee of the Supreme Court.
 Transform the judicial
system of the country by
ICT enablement of courts .

• Monitored and funded by the Department of Justice.

Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS)

• Initiative of the e-Committee.

• Seamless transfer of data and information among different pillars of the criminal justice system.

Hybrid Hearing

• News – E-Committee Chairperson Justice D.Y. Chandrachud – hybrid
hearings to continue considering the pandemic situation.

• Integration of Physical hearing of cases along with video conferences.

Negative Aspects of Phase-III e-courts projects

• Seamless exchange of information between various branches of the State – judiciary, police and prison system.
 Data creation happens at local police stations – increase existing class and caste inequalities.

• 360-degree profile – integrating interactions with
government agencies.
 Leads to profiling and surveillance.

• Data collected, shared and collated – housed within the Home Ministry under the ICJS – no clear explanation.

• Large-scale gathering and storage of data.
 Privacy of Individuals – a concern – SC must care not to
violate the privacy standards – Puttaswamy case 2017.



The G7 comes from the meeting of the current board members of the G7, with the exception of Canada, which took place in 1975. At that time, the world’s economy into a recession and, as a result of the OPEC oil embargo. With the energy crisis escalates, the U.S. Secretary of finance, George, He had decided that it would be useful to have the major players in the international arena, and to co-ordinate their actions in the macro-economic initiatives in the future. After the first summit, the eu, and agreed to, and, a year later, in Canada, he was invited to join a group, that is, the formal establishment of the “big Seven” as we know it. In 1977, the President of the European Commission, was invited to attend the meeting, and after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, and the other to thaw in relations between the East and the West of Ireland, he was invited to become a member of the group in the year 1998. After that, the group was called the “Great Eight” at the end of 2014, when Russia was banned from the Ukraine, and the annexation of the Crimea.
The Group of 7 (G7) is an informal group of seven countries, including the United States, Canada, australia, France, Germany, hungary, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom, where the leaders are to hold an annual summit with the participation of the European Union and other invited guests. In the eu member states, 40% of the global GDP and 10% of the world’s population. In contrast to other organs, such as the NATO, the G7 does not have the legal existence of a permanent secretariat and the official members. Also, there is no obligation to follow the impact of the policies, and all of the decisions and agreements made at the G7 meeting shall be ratified, and independent of the member States.

The election of Donald Trump in 2016, and that led to some friction between the G7 countries. In the run-up to the G7 summit in Sicily, in 2017, Trump refused to reaffirm OUR commitment in the 2015 climate agreement, and, in Germany, criticized the surplus on the trade balance is likely to block U.S. imports of German cars. In response, the German Chancellor, Angela Merkel, has questioned the integrity of the G7, said that for the first time since the second world War, in Europe, must be the fate in their own hands.At this year’s G7 summit, the countries took the unusual step of their exclusion from the U.S. of the last statement, saying that the US is still, in view of its role in the Paris Agreement. After the 2018 summit, Trump once again caused controversy by tweeting about his decision not to approve an official statement from the G7, because he was offended by the way, Canadian prime Minister Trudeau’s comments at a news conference. In the same year, Trump asked Russia to be reinstated into the group, a proposition that was rejected by other countries. In 2020, the G7 summit was cancelled for the first time, as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.


The G7 summit was the birthplace of many global projects and initiatives. In 1997, the G7 countries have agreed to allocate $ 300 million to deal with the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Then, at the end of 2002, the organization, the members decided to launch a co-ordinated response to the threat posed by hiv / Aids, tuberculosis, and malaria. Their efforts have led to the creation of the Global Fund, an innovative funding to more than $ 45 billion in aid, and, according to its website, it has saved the lives of more than 38 million people. The Apollo is a Global Program that was launched recently at the G7 summit in 2015. The Apollo program, which is designed to fight against climate change through clean energy, research and development, was established in the united kingdom, but did not succeed in making the other G7 countries have agreed to support it. The program calls for developed nations to commit to spending 0.02% of their GDP in the fight against climate change between 2015 and 2025, an amount on which payments of up to $ 150 billion over a 10-year period.

In spite of its success, the G7, it is also a great deal of criticism, and has been involved in a number of legal challenges. Up until the mid-1980s, the G7, the meetings were held behind closed doors, and it is informal. However, in the discussions at the G7 summit in 1985, in the member states, was signed later on the Plaza Agreement, which has had a serious impact on the global currency markets. Their actions have led to a strong international response, as well as in other countries, were disappointed that a meeting between a small group of countries, you can have such a disproportionate impact on the global economy. After the negative reaction to the Group of Seven, and began with the announcement of the agenda for the meetings in advance, so that as the markets prepare for the potential changes in the global macro-economic policies. However, in some countries, and some of the people still have the perception of the G7, as a unique group that is the honest exercise of its power over other nations. As a result, almost all of the peaks, since the year 2000, have been met with protests and demonstrations in the country where they are being held.

  1. The Agenda of the Meeting:
    The G7 Summit will provide a forum for member states to discuss shared values and concerns. Although it is primarily focused on international economic policy-making, in the 1980s, the Group of Seven, has expanded its mandate and also the issues related to foreign policy and security issues. In the past few years, the G7 leaders will have to meet the development of joint responses to challenges such as the fight against terrorism, the development of education, health, human rights, and climate change.


The modern era is another name of SCIENCE. Actually we are surrounded by presents of science. The newspaper, with which the day starts of a middle class family, is a product of science to satisfy our hunger of information. The television is also a part of our life which connects two different worlds. The electric light used to lighten rooms or the oven to prepare breakfast is example of presence of science without which we cannot even imagine anything.

Two of the gifts of science which should be mentioned specially are mobile and computer. At a time, it was a part of luxury in human life. But now, it has become a necessity. Mobile has no external wire, hence it can be carried anywhere. It is important in the present life of haste and hurry. The whole world gets contained in the tiny screen of mobile. Same stands for computer. As it has external wire, laptop has been invented t make things easier.

The think which also should be covered that numerous fierce weapons comes under the invention of science. Countries are behaving like rivalry warriors to show their greatness and abusing the SCIENCE. So to conclude, we can say that science is a concept. We just have to change our approach to catch it.

Green Technology: Shielding the Atmosphere

“In the long run, the only solution I see to the problem of diversity is the expansion of mankind into the universe by means of green technology… Green technology means we do not live-in cans but adapt our plants and our animals and ourselves to live wild in the universe as we find it… When life invades a new habitat, she never moves with a single species. She comes with a variety of species, and as soon as she is established, her species spread and diversify further. Our spread through the galaxy will follow her ancient pattern.”-Freeman Dyson

Today the century in which we all live that is the twenty-first century is called the “century of the atmosphere.” We as a part of this human community cannot simply ignore the social challenges like pollution, degradation of natural resources, and global climate change and treat them as something which is set aside for future generations to take care of. Through policy, research, education, incentives, and advanced relationships with businesses, the government can play a central role in building an experienced future, community by community.


What exactly is Green Technology?

Green Technology or Green-tech is recognized as an umbrella term that describes the utilization of technology and science to form environmentally friendly merchandise. The objective of green-tech is to shield the atmosphere and, in some cases, to even repair the past injury done to the atmosphere.

Global warming is a reality. It’s a growing downside displeasing government and society normally and is endangering our health and also the atmosphere. 

Engineers and scientists around the world are developing technological solutions geared toward reducing and eliminating everything that causes warming and, therefore, climate change.

A few inexperienced technologies are given below:

1. Effluent Treatment

In this, the key development embraces membrane filtration, microbe fuel cells, applied science, the development of biological treatments, and natural treatment systems like wetlands. This technology supports in considerable scale back the presence of pollutants from what’s discharged into the ocean and rivers.

2. Utilization and Waste Management

The increase in home and industrial waste has been disproportionate. Managing solid waste should be taken as a commitment as people. Outstanding technologies like sensible containers, machine-controlled refuse pursuit systems, and automatic optical scanning technologies will facilitate kind mixed plastics by separating them from others.

3. Self-Sustaining Buildings

Self-sufficient buildings are those constructions that will perform by themselves by generating energy while not requiring external contribution. A method for larger productivity of energy with the use of solar panels is can be proven to be effective.

5. Waste-to-Energy

The generation of energy from waste additionally referred to as Waste-to-Energy, is that the technology that generates energy from garbage. In this scientists tend to develop waste treatment solutions that generate energy within the style of steam, hot water, or electricity that every company will later use for internal processes.

6. Vertical gardens and farms

The installation of vertical gardens in buildings additionally helps save energy and brings several edges to the atmosphere. Vertical gardens do not require watering routines that involve needless use of water, and since they’re put in on a wall, they scale back the extraordinary hearing pollution that comes from the skin and even that one that you simply will generate. Moreover, it helps isolate the high temperatures that are conferred by global climate change, leading to important savings in energy, heating, and air-con. If we tend to extrapolate this technology to farms, we will save plenty of water and watch out for the fertile soil. Today, there are vertical farms of up to a hundred hectares.

The main aim is to conserve the environment and to reduce the negative impact that humans have on it. Since the 1990’s a lot of focus is being put on green technology. It offers a lot of benefits to not only nature itself but also for a clean and greener human lifestyle. Human beings need Earth to stay alive. This technology ensures that the Earth remains healthy for all life to continue existing.


















Labour is sacred, labour is honourable.

  • Thomas Carlyle.

Some people are so proud and consider manual work to be below their dignity. It must be remembered that all work ranks the same. Every person with his/her profession contributes a lot to the nation. To be honest, in behalf of the majority, can be claimed that people like to have some white collar jobs and paid a handsome salary.

At the same time, there are taxi drivers, rickshaw pullers, butchers, cobblers, teachers who do their jobs efficiently to give themselves and the nation too. People of India should understand the dignity of labour and work accordingly. The students at first should understand this concept. They should be learnt this things so that the upcoming generation become morally strong.

When everyone will realise the dignity of labour, self-reliance, strength and independence will be created. In India, manual labour is now a part of the curriculum of the education.



Writing is vital for success in most careers and disciplines today, so students must begin to acquire good writing skills early to prepare for adult life. Sometimes students need additional help to develop these skills. This is true for both public/private school and homeschooled children. In the classroom, the teacher doesn’t always have the time to work one-on-one with students. At home, parents who may well excel at teaching (and grading) math and other more straightforward subjects, are often uncomfortable critiquing their children’s writing. Not to mention that writing is a process, requiring much “re-doing,” which can lead to power struggles between parents and students.

Developing strong writing skills has a number of benefits for students:

1.Improvement in all coursework, not just language arts.

2.Preparation for standardized testing (including the all-important SAT)

3.Enhancing college entrance and performance

4.Boosting career possibilities.

5.Thinking critically.

6.Becoming a better overall communicator throughout life.

In other words, helping a student grow as a writer is an investment in their future. But how can an online writing tutor help them develop these skills?

Depending on a student’s level, it may be helpful to begin with online writing tutorials covering the basics such as sentence structure, then working systematically through paragraph writing and essay writing. An effective writing instructor provides engaging exercises and encouraging feedback, guiding students until they reach the point where they can write effortlessly and reason convincingly.

So, whether to improve school grades, score well on standardized tests, or develop lifelong communication and reasoning skills, an online writing tutor can help students achieve both these short-term and long-term goals. At Time4Writing, every writing teacher is a certified teacher who works individually with each student to improve writing skills.

It All Starts With Sentence Writing:

Sometimes a sentence can be as simple in construction and easy in comprehension as “I love peanut butter and jelly.” How would you complete this sentence? “Peanut butter and jelly ____ delicious.” Would you use is or are? Learning the intricacies of subject-verb agreement from an online writing tutor is just the start of developing strong writing skills, from simple statements to more complex sentences. Once students learn the foundational concepts, it isn’t long before they move on to higher levels of creative writing.

Even middle school students who haven’t truly mastered the subtleties of strong sentences can benefit from an Elementary School Sentence Writing review. Knowing the basic sentence-writing concepts of subject-verb agreement, singular and plural nouns, as well as declarative and interrogative sentences is key to being able to move toward crafting compelling paragraphs.

A dynamic writing tutor teaches these ideas through fun and interesting writing assignments, so students look forward to and enjoy learning the early steps in the writing process. With this sort of personalized writing help, students are soon writing detailed, well-constructed sentences, with proper punctuation and language.

Ready for Paragraph Writing:

Imagine the great feeling when a student recognizes the power sentences have as the building blocks of paragraphs! A capable online writing tutor can lift homeschoolers and other students to this point, moving from a simple understanding of the structure of paragraphs all the way to using them to create a complex and nuanced argument in an essay. Beginning with tutorials in the objectives of Elementary School Paragraph Writing, students get the full overview of paragraphs from topic sentences through closing sentences.

Once students understand these writing basics, the sky is the limit! Their online writing tutor helps them become more adept at making a point and getting it across. From Middle School Writing Paragraphs to High School and College Prep Paragraphs, an online writing tutor shows students how to create writing paragraphs that are interesting as well as informative. With the support of an online writing tutor, students come to know how to make people want to read what they write.

Essay Writing:

Fact versus opinion: do students know the difference? Teaching that difference is one of the crucial tasks of an online writing tutor focused on longer-form styles of writing such as essays. Starting with Elementary School Essay Writing, students learn how to construct an argument with adverbs and verb tenses, character and plot, and how to put all of these details together. An online writing teacher makes sure students learn these concepts systematically, reducing confusion or frustration along the way. To make essay writing even more engaging for students who need an extra challenge, a creative way to introduce elementary level students to Narrative Writing and Informative Writing is by adding the incentive of the wild animal kingdom!

By the time students complete Middle School Essay Writing, their online tutoring in writing has taught them how they can research sources for interesting information to use in their essays as well as how to back up their conclusions. At the Middle School Advanced Essay stage, the students’ online writing tutor shows them how to use the “five W’s” (and the “H”), as well as how to use scripts and dialogue, as they learn to persuade with their words.

At the High School & College Prep Essay Writing level, students’ work reaches a pinnacle as their online writing tutor teaches them polish and finishing. Soon, it becomes almost effortless for them to take their writing ideas and build from an opening statement toward a conclusion. Other important steps in the writing process with which an online writing tutor helps students include editing, revising, proofreading, and finally publishing their work. All these steps are critical to college writing success and will also serve a student well in any future career they pursue.

Don’t Forget the Grammar:

All along the way of writing progress, students need the reinforcement of correct grammar and mechanics. The one-on-one input of an online tutor is invaluable especially at the Elementary School writing level. This is when homeschoolers and classroom students learn about nouns, verbs, and other parts of speech, and begin dealing with subjects, predicates, and structure.

Voyaging through basic Middle School grammar courses, advanced Middle School writing enhancement, and on to High School & College Prep grammar, an online writing tutor guides students through the areas of plural and possessive nouns, subject-verb agreement, and the rules of correct punctuation. Not every student gets excited about the rules of proper grammar, so a masterful writing tutor will integrate activities that engage students to go farther than rote memorization of mechanics principles. Seeing grammar and usage concepts put into action goes a long way toward helping students remember them.

-Jerisha. S



Journalism has rarely had a fiercer critic, nor a finer practitioner than the longtime writer for The New Yorker, Janet Malcolm, who died last week aged 86.

Some might quibble with the description of Malcolm as a journalist, but journalism is a far more supple practice than commonly believed. One list of the best American journalism of the 20th century, for instance, had Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward’s Watergate reporting for The Washington Post ranked highly, but the top place went to John Hersey’s Hiroshima.

Published in 1946 in The New Yorker, Hersey’s 31,000-word article revealed in horrifying details the experiences of the victims of the first atomic bomb. It was also a pioneering, influential piece of what we would now call narrative non-fiction.

Malcolm began contributing to the magazine 17 years later, in 1963.

Over the next nearly six decades, she wrote many long reported pieces, profiles and essays that were published first in the magazine, then as books. Few journalists’ work has had as much influence on the way people thought about a range of topics – psychoanalysis, journalism, biography and the law.

She achieved this through a formidably sharp intelligence and sentences that were, as the magazine’s current editor, David Remnick, wrote last week, “clear as gin, spare as arrows, like no one else’s”.

A quiver of these sentences opens her withering critique of journalism, The Journalist and the Murderer, published in 1989.

“Every journalist who is not too stupid or too full of himself [sic] to notice what is going on knows that what he does is morally indefensible. He is a kind of confidence man, preying on people’s vanity, ignorance, or loneliness, gaining their trust and betraying them without remorse”

When this was published, journalists exploded in outrage, not least because Malcolm had pierced the omertà observed by journalists concerning how they went about their work. There are all sorts of legitimate qualifications to be made about Malcolm’s insight, but more than three decades later it remains a key prod to any journalist, especially those working on longer projects, to reflect on the messy complexities inherent in the relationship between themselves and their sources.

Helen Garner’s ‘shard of horror:

Malcolm’s influence extends to Australia, primarily through Helen Garner, who came to fame through her fiction but forged a second career as one of the nation’s foremost practitioners of narrative non-fiction, and a highly controversial one, too.

When Garner read The Journalist and the Murderer, she said it immediately struck a chord. “It sends a shard of horror right through you,” she said in an interview for Meanjin in 2012.

Later in the same interview with Sonya Voumard, she talked about her debt to Malcolm when writing The First Stone (1995), her still much-debated account of a sexual harassment case at Melbourne University’s Ormond College in the early 1990s.She recalled interviewing a retired judge who had once chaired the Ormond College council and was a “tough, smart old lawyer” who revealed little. As they talked and drank tea, Garner found herself gobbling up the homemade shortbread biscuits he had provided.

After she’d had three, he put the lid on the jar, saying “I didn’t do that to keep you out”, but he had.

Garner recalled:

“It wouldn’t have occurred to me, unless I’d read Janet Malcolm, to put a Freudian interpretation on his closing the jar – I mean Freudian in the sense that people are always doing and saying things that enact their real purpose. He would have thought the incident was about biscuits. But unconsciously he was indicating to me that he was in charge of how much would be given and taken”

A writer of unusual intellectual courage:

At that stage Garner had been reading Malcolm’s The Silent Woman (1993), her excoriating attack on biography in general and the industry surrounding the short life and tragic death of Sylvia Plath in particular.

In it, Malcolm likens biographers to professional burglars:

The voyeurism and busybodyism that impel writers and readers of biography alike are obscured by an apparatus of scholarship designed to give the enterprise an appearance of banklike blandness and solidity.

Readers, as well as biographers, are skewered for colluding in the exciting, forbidden undertaking of “tiptoeing down the corridor together, to stand in front of the bedroom door and try to peep through the keyhole”.
Biographers were as outraged as journalists had been a few years earlier. Readers don’t appear to have objected. They — we — seem to think Malcolm must be talking about other readers, the voyeuristic ones. She couldn’t possibly be talking about us.

But she was, of course. One of the paradoxes of Malcolm’s work is she continued to practice the crafts that she forensically critiques — journalism and biography. For some, this might amount to hypocrisy. To me, it underscores her intellectual courage, taking seriously the power and influence inherent in the practice of these two forms, and refusing to shelter behind loyalty to her tribe.

Which brings me to my favourite rhetorical aria of Malcolm’s, also from The Silent Woman:

The narratives of journalism (significantly called ‘stories’), like those of mythology and folklore, derive their power from their firm undeviating sympathies and antipathies. Cinderella must remain good and the stepsisters bad. ‘Second stepsister not so bad after all’ is not a good story.

Malcolm refused to write fairytales. Her stories may be as sharp as arrows; they also fly true.

– Jerisha. S



It is not uncommon for English language lessons to favour communication over accuracy: real life is nothing like a classroom! In real-life situations, when you make a mistake in the language you are learning, context provides ample information as to what the intended message is. In fact, most of the time, impeccable accuracy is not needed at all! ‘Don’t worry about making mistakes,’ I used to tell my English language students, ‘communicating is the most important thing!’

What does the research say?

While making mistakes when trying to master a language might seem counter-intuitive, letting learners freely communicate and negotiate meaning is key to success. A learner who communicates a lot while making a few mistakes is much more likely to develop confidence for dealing with real-life situations than a learner who communicates very little because they’re afraid of making any. In communicative language teaching, for example, the teacher is tasked with both encouraging the learner to express themselves and with providing corrective feedback in a way that is not obstructive to communication .

This means that if a learner says, ‘I go swimming last night,’ it is much more effective to respond with, ‘Oh, that’s nice, you went swimming. What did you do after?’ rather than, ‘No! You went swimming! Use past simple for past events!’ – the former encourages the learner to continue their narrative while the latter is much more likely to make the learner stop in their tracks, re-evaluate the context, and think twice before expressing themselves again in the future, for the fear of making a mistake again. Teachers need to be careful not to parrot back everything the students say in this manner, of course, but the technique can be an effective method of acknowledging the content of a student’s response, while also providing feedback on accuracy.

The importance of the freedom to make mistakes in language learning is also supported by research in psychology, which suggests that learners who try a task without having mastered it completely experience improved retention of new information (e.g. Kornell et al 2009, Moser et al 2011). A similar experiment in the context of language learning also indicates that the process of making mistakes activates a greater network of related knowledge in the brain, which leads to superior learning outcomes .

Top tips for helping learners … make mistakes!

In Cambridge English, we believe that the key to helping learners feel relaxed and ready for communicating freely in the classroom is authenticity. This means that there should be both a real communicative need for a learner to speak and the authentic reaction from those around to what the learner has said.

Let’s look at how this works in our new language-learning world in Minecraft. There’s a dwarf called Hungry who asks the player for some fruit. The player of course responds to Hungry not because they will get a mark from their teacher for it, but because they want to progress through the game, and because Hungry is nice and there’s also an alluring vending machine full of treats nearby! Just like in real life, the player is free to choose whatever they like from the vending machine. There isn’t a low mark for buying the wrong item. Instead, Hungry rewards the player with more language, pronouncing the name of the food item he’s brought, and sending the player back to try again.

Here are a few ways of how such authentic communicative interactions can be practised in the classroom:

surround learners with the English language – encourage them to speak to you and each other in English
don’t worry about diverging from topics that are not strictly covered in your lesson plan – sometimes the best communication is spontaneous
model communication by telling your students stories and anecdotes about your own life and encourage them to do the same
let your learners have fun with English – give them colloquial expressions to try and ask them to share some expressions that they’ve heard or seen elsewhere
do not overcorrect – if an error is recurring, make a note of it and cover it in subsequent lessons
avoid the temptation to turn what was intended as speaking practice into a full-on grammar lesson.
While easier said than done, especially when the outcome of an exam is at stake, it is worth remembering that Cambridge English examiners, just like the people that our learners might come to interact with outside of the classroom, are driven by the natural desire to understand the people they communicate with. This is especially powerful when practised in the context of a classroom – via role-playing activities or language-learning experiences like the one we’ve built in Minecraft. They set the learners up for success in real-life communication.

– Jerisha. S

What is Classical Literature?

“That is part of the beauty of all literature. You discover that your longings are universal longings, that you’re not lonely and isolated from anyone. You belong” ― F. Scott Fitzgerald

According to ancient times, the great masterpieces of Greek, Roman, and other civilizations are referred to as classical literature. The term, “classical,” is also used when the given literature of any language is written in a period of notable excellence and enduring quality of writers. Ancient Greek and Roman authors were viewed to be of the highest quality. This notable period of excellence and enduring quality of writers in ancient Greece extended from about 500 to 320 BCE. The Golden Age of Rome ran from about 70 BCE to 18 CE. 

Other than Greek and Roman, French literature of the second half of the 17th century is considered classical, similar is the case with English literature of 1660–1714. 

Classical literature isn’t just limited to novels. It includes epic, lyric, tragedy, comedy, pastoral, and several other forms of writing. For students who study humanities them the study of classical literature was considered to be vital. The study of their work was once seen as the mark of elite education. While these books generally still find their way into high school and college English classes, there is however a plunge in the reading of such books. The expansion of literature has offered readers and academics more to choose from. The works of Homer, Ovid, and Sophocles are all examples of classical literature.

How is classic literature different from other forms of literature?

Classic literature is basically an expression of life, truth, and beauty. It is categorized among high artistic quality, at least for the time in which it was written. A classic is generally appreciated for its construction and literary art. Although we know that different styles will come and go and a piece of classical literature may not be a bestseller today due to pacing and dated language, but one can learn from it and can draw inspiration.

It expresses artistic quality and is usually considered to be a representation of the period in which it was written. Classical literature is known to have a universal appeal. This is because these are based on themes like love, hate, death, life, and faith. These works touch upon readers emotionally. For example, when one reads the works of Jane Austen, the reader can relate to the characters and the situations despite the difference in the era. In fact, a classic can alter one’s perspective about history to see how little has changed in our basic human makeup.

Times of course have changed, and the study of Greek and Latin is no longer has its place in the centre like it once held in the curriculum. 

Classical literature today has become a small, shrinking university discipline kept alive, where it can be afforded, more because of prestige and tradition than because of a recognition of its central role in liberal education and in teaching the foundations of Western civilization. Its time people realize that these are masterpieces that are written by great writers and are works of antiquity.
















When Gordon Brown, a Labour history PhD, became British Prime Minister in 2007, it was perhaps a sign that labour history had come of age, though one tempered by New Labour’s perceived ahistorical tendencies in government. Perhaps a more relevant sign of the discipline’s contemporary weight is the existence of a Wikipedia entry for ‘labor’ history.

The origins of the modern subject can be dated to 1960, the year when the Society for the Study of Labour History (SSLH) was formed and first published its bulletin – now Labour History Review – in the UK, and Labor History (its US equivalent) also started.

Labour history journals for Scotland and Wales followed,and later in the 1960s and 1970s still extant labour history journals covering the north-west and north-east of England emerged.

Marcel Van Der Linden, in a magisterial survey, has argued that the origins of labour history can be dated back to the third quarter of the 19th century when the first labour and working-class movements were active internationally.

Van Der Linden notes that although the subject has always been internationally based, many of the most authoritative figures in labour history – Royden Harrison, Eric Hobsbawm, John Saville, E. P. Thompson – are British, and many of the categories of the subject are characterised by British origins.

Key people such as Sidney and Beatrice Webb and G. D. H. Cole provided parameters for the discipline, and Essays in Labour History, edited by Asa Briggs, supplied some important indicators for the development of the subject. That volume contained E. P. Thompson’s essay about the birth of the British Independent Labour Party in the north of England in the 1880s, ‘Homage to Tom Maguire’.

In his opening paragraphs Thompson laid down some ideas about where and how he would like labour history to develop. He suggested that histories that focused on institutional developments in trade union head offices in London did not reflect the real labour movement, noting that ‘the national historian … tends to have a curiously distorted views of goings-on in the provinces’.

In the 1960s Thompson did a huge amount to shape a view of labour history which was not focused on General Secretaries and trade union machines. His landmark Making of the English Working Class led to Thompson becoming the first head of the Centre for the Study of Social History at Warwick University.

However, this raises an important issue of definition. Van Der Linden notes that only in English is it possible to deploy the term ‘labour history’ to cover what in other languages is differentiated as Marxist history, people’s history, working-class history, and so on. Hence there is no fully agreed remit for what labour history does or does not cover. It remains a subject whose boundaries are comparatively fluid.

In his edited volume People’s History and Socialist Theory Raphael Samuel included labour history as one part of the whole, but later in the same decade Eric Hobsbawm wrote about it as a distinct and separate subject. Hobsbawm argued against any trend for labour history to be antiquarian and underlined that while recovering the history of working people is important the resulting research must still be robust, asking awkward questions of the subject matter where necessary

Writing in Social Science History Harold Perkin raised a sharp criticism of the way the subject had grown, heavily influenced, he suggested, by Marxist historians focused on the cadre of the labour movement with a certain view of how working-class movements should develop and how they should not.

Yet as Ian Birchall and Norah Carlin note in a review of the work of Eric Hobsbawm, understanding how labour movements become revolutionary, or why they do not, is an important historical question for the labour historian. Hobsbawm focused on the same issue in an earlier and influential essay, ‘Trends in the British labour movement’, published in the (at the time largely unproblematically gender-specific) collection Labouring Men. In the same volume Hobsbawm reviewed his pioneering work on the concept of a labour aristocracy as one explanation for the failure of revolutionary hopes.

Perkin argued for a labour history that was written by worker historians, something which was encouraged by the History Workshop movement from the mid 1960s, and history written about workers who were not necessarily revolutionary and perhaps even reactionary. A landmark text here was the edited volume by Raphael Samuel, Village Life and Labour, where in an extended essay he wrote about working-class life in an Oxford suburb which was based on quarrying.

By the 1970s the subject of ‘labor’ history was also making significant inroads in the US and Canada, influenced by the British historians, but promoting a new layer of authoritative figures such as Herbert Gutman and David Montgomery.

With the collapse of official communism during the 1980s and defeats for labour movements in much of the world the old certainties of labour history were questioned and post-modernist categories began to have an influence. Questions of identity, ethnicity and gender started to have a more significant presence, but historians like Neville Kirk were able to demonstrate how these could be effectively encompassed in a Marxist approach to the subject.

More recent times have seen the boundaries of the subject expand further. Historians like John Breuilly and Rick Halpern have pioneered a comparative approach to labour history, which has led to studies that look at labour movements in the US, South Africa, the UK and elsewhere. Meanwhile historians such as Peter Alexander, writing on miners, and Ralph Darlington, on syndicalism,have produced pioneering works.

The future for labour history may well include further moves away from its previously Anglocentric base, but there remains work to be done on this terrain. Histories of trade unions, and what general secretaries, union executives, head offices and labour parties got up to, have become deeply unfashionable. There is a need for historians who can address these not as the Webbs or G. D. H. Cole might have done but with the new insights that E. P. Thompson, and feminist and comparative historians have brought to the subject over the last 50 years.

-Jerisha. S




The Five-Step Writing Process for Persuasive Essays:


At Time4Writing, we believe the five-step writing process is the best approach to learning how to write a persuasive essay. Here are persuasive essay tips for each phase of the writing process.



1) Prewriting for the Persuasive Essay:


The prewriting phase of writing a persuasive essay is extremely important. During this phase, students should plan every aspect of the essay:


1)Choose a position. Students should think about the issue and pick the side they wish to advocate.


2)Understand the audience. In order to write an effective persuasive essay, the writer must understand the reader’s perspective. Is the reader undecided or inclined to favor one side or the other?


3)Do the research. A persuasive essay depends upon solid, convincing evidence. Don’t rely on a single source. Pull information from multiple websites and reference materials. Speak with community experts and teachers. Read and take notes. There is no substitute for knowledge of both sides of the issue.


4)Identify the most convincing evidence, as well as the key points for the opposing view.


Organizing the Persuasive Essay: Outline and Structure:


Next, create an outline. Organize the evidence to build the strongest possible argument. If the teacher has specified an essay structure, incorporate it into the outline. Typically, the persuasive essay comprises five or six paragraphs.


Persuasive Essay Outline


Introductory Paragraph:


Grab the reader’s attention by using a “hook.”

Give an overview of the argument.

Close with a thesis statement that reveals the position to be argued.


Body Paragraphs:


Each body paragraph should focus on one piece of evidence.

Within each paragraph, provide sufficient supporting detail.


Opposing View Paragraph:


Describe and then refute the key points of the opposing view.


Concluding Paragraph:


Restate and reinforce the thesis and supporting evidence.


2)Drafting the Persuasive Essay:


When writing the initial draft of a persuasive essay, consider the following suggestions:


The introductory paragraph should have a strong “hook” that grabs the reader’s attention. Open with an unusual fact or statistic, a question or quotation, or an emphatic statement. For example: “Driving while talking on a cell phone, even hands-free, is the equivalent of driving drunk.”

The thesis statement should leave no doubts about the writer’s position.

Each body paragraph should cover a separate point, and the sentences of each paragraph should offer strong evidence in the form of facts, statistics, quotes from experts, and real-life examples.Consider various ways to make the argument, including using an analogy, drawing comparisons, or illustrating with hypothetical situation (e.g., what if, suppose that…).

Don’t assume the audience has in-depth knowledge of the issue. Define terms and give background information.

The concluding paragraph should summarize the most important evidence and encourage the reader to adopt the position or take action. The closing sentence can be a dramatic plea, a prediction that implies urgent action is needed, a question that provokes readers to think seriously about the issue, or a recommendation that gives readers specific ideas on what they can do.


3)Revising the Persuasive Essay:


In the revision phase, students review, modify, and reorganize their work with the goal of making it the best it can be. Keep these considerations in mind:


Does the essay present a firm position on the issue, supported by relevant facts, statistics, quotes, and examples?

Does the essay open with an effective “hook” that intrigues readers and keeps them reading?

Does each paragraph offer compelling evidence focused on a single supporting point?

Is the opposing point of view presented and convincingly refuted?

Is the sentence structure varied? Is the word choice precise? Do the transitions between sentences and paragraphs help the reader’s understanding?

Does the concluding paragraph convey the value of the writer’s position and urge the reader to think and act?

If the essay is still missing the mark, take another look the thesis. Does it present the strongest argument? Test it by writing a thesis statement for the opposing viewpoint. In comparison, does the original thesis need strengthening? Once the thesis presents a well-built argument with a clear adversarial viewpoint, the rest of the essay should fall into place more easily.



4)Editing the Persuasive Essay:


Next, proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having a friend read the essay helps writers edit with a fresh perspective.


5)Publishing the Persuasive Essay:


Sharing a persuasive essay with the rest of the class or with family and friends can be both exciting and intimidating. Learn from the experience and use the feedback to make the next essay even better.







Field marketing is a type of direct marketing that involves selling one’s service. This is done primarily by interacting with potential customers face to face.


Field marketers can use the personal contact they have as an advantage. This helps encourage customers to take action on their offer.


The goal of field marketing is not only to sell products and services. It is also to generate revenue through leads generated from prospects. In this article, we will cover everything you need to know.


So whenever you’re ready to dive deep into this topic, keep reading and get your notes handy.



Field Marketing Basics:



For marketing to be “field marketing”, it must occur outside of the four walls of one’s office. Field marketing can be subject to classification as either corporate or consumer field marketing. This depends on who it is targeting and what type of product/service they are selling.


Field marketers use a variety of tools to create connections with potential customers. Some of the ones used in their local communities are:



1.Personal contact at tradeshows or other events where people gather for similar interests (i.e., outdoor sports)


2.Pamphlets distributed door-to-door that offer coupons for services such as car washes


3)Coupons mailed out to residents in specific areas which give them discounts when they visit certain stores.


4.Pamphlets or postcards sent out to selected households that feature coupons for local stores and restaurants.



Field marketing is subject to use as an effective way to reach potential customers in your area. Primarily, this is a great way to reach that may not be aware of your services. However, it’s important to note what type of field marketing is best suited for your business prior to spending any money.



Which Customers Are Targeted Best By Field Marketing?


When it comes to field marketing, the best customer to target is one who is not currently a client of your business.


Typically, these prospective customers are within the same community as your storefront. They may even live nearby.


They probably know very little about what you do. But, they are likely to be receptive to getting information from a trusted source. For instance, a friend or neighbor.



Field marketing strategy can involve sending flyers door-to-door that list deals on certain products. Or, you can visit local neighborhoods with pamphlets promoting specific services at a discounted rate.


How about advertising special offers through social media channels such as Facebook groups? What about participating in religious events by passing out fliers mentioning offer discounts?


Field marketing is any form of advertising that relies on personal interaction with customers, usually by someone who lives in the same area as they do. It’s a great way to get your message out.


List shoppers and browsers alike are important to the success of any business.


Effective merchandising is key in attracting these different types of customers. Retailers recognize through promotional campaigns target shapers who influence their friends’ purchase decisions. These are people who share positive experiences with them.


Field Marketing Tips:


To succeed with field marketing, some things can be done right and some things can be done wrong. To succeed with field marketing, you must have a plan in place before you start going door to door. This is where mapping out neighborhoods can come into play.


Did you know someone living near their clients could provide an emotional connection? It’s not likely they’ll give up personal information on their neighbors. But, they may offer helpful information about places nearby businesses are located.


It also helps when you have a map outlining what areas will be covered. This can be how many doors will need to be knocked on within one day (i.e., 20). Be sure to factor in travel time between destinations too!


You should also establish trust with your customer by establishing an emotional connection to the product or service.


Next, advertise and brand yourself before you go into the field marketing process. This is so customers are aware of who they’re dealing with when they see someone from your company.


It’s helpful if this occurs through some sort of media, such as social media accounts, websites, and mailers.


Be knowledgeable about what type of branding will get good results for your business (or know how to find out). This may depend on whether you need people to remember you from across the street or just down the block. It also depends on where most potential clients live: city, suburb, or rural area.


Be aware of the potential risks or disadvantages that field marketing poses to your company and be prepared for them. You don’t want to be met with thousands of issues that you simply did not have the courage to foresee. Take your time and learn the ins and outs of field marketing.


Street Promotions:


Street promotions are a great way for marketers to get the word out about their business. A promotion could be anything from handing out flyers, coupons, or incentive cards with your contact information on them.


All of these things will ensure that people associate you and your brand with being fun!


When done right, consumers may come back in anticipation of another chance at winning.




Merchandising is making sure that retail displays are attractive to customers. They require coordinating with retailers.


Savvy retailers will make sure that products face with the customer and well-stocked. But a marketer can negotiate special displays or particular shelf space.


A savvy retailer would not purchase your product unless you provide them an incentive such as negotiating bulk purchase discounts in advance. This is so they won’t lose profits when consumers buy it at higher prices later down the line!


The field marketist aims to cultivate his/her relationship with both companies. This includes other digital marketing professionals who work in similar fields like merchandising.


This is because working together, everyone wins. After all, without teamwork, the dream doesn’t work.


Lassitude of Human rights system in India

Photo by Sora Shimazaki on Pexels.com

The Human freedom index 2020 ranked India 111th among 162 countries. India fell 17 spots compared to the 2019 rank. The index scans the civil, economic and personal freedom within a country. In the past year, a lot happened in India. The protest against the farm bill, unimaginably large list of cases under UAPA, sedition charges, the new norms for social media platform and the face-off between the private companies and the government with regard to this issue are to name a few. In fact, the new IT rules allegedly infringe the right to privacy which is again a human right.

By definition, human rights are simply the rights and the freedom that an individual enjoys by virtue of being a human. The Universal Declaration of human rights is the document but lays down its foundation. It was proclaimed by United Nations General Assembly in Paris in 1948. The document comprehensively along with the two covenants- the international covenant for civil and political rights and the international covenant for economic, social and cultural rights the International Bill of Rights.

On the lines of the document, India established statutory committees in 1993 the National Human Rights Commission and State Human Rights Commission under the protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. It is a watchdog institution. Recently it was amended in 2019. Despite having a statutory body to overlook human rights Indian performance in the human freedom index was dismal. According to many experts, the Commission is a toothless body. The Commission has practically no power of investigation and hence it is reduced to a recommendatory body. Government can reject its recommendations. Also, most of the pleads go unheard since the legal period for registering a complaint is one year from the incident. The chairperson of the National Commission can be a person who has been chief justice of the Supreme Court or a judge of the Supreme Court. There are three members (At least one should be a woman) who are selected from amongst retired judge of the Supreme Court or retired Chief Justice of a High Court. From the structure itself, it is clear that most of the members are judicial and therefore critics often complain about NHRC being a retirement plan for judges. State Human Rights Commission have even more restricted powers.

We all know what is required to rehaul the system and make it more resilient. Firstly, few changes in the structure of the National Human Rights Commission and states Human Rights Commission by giving them more investigative powers can be the starting point of reforms. Secondly, dissensions should not be muffled. The government should withstand the scrutiny of the activists and answer their queries. No government is bigger than human rights in a democracy. Sedition charges or UAPA should not be used as tools of silencing. These are not new suggestions. The supreme court in its numerous judgements, expert committees and civil society have advocated for a robust human rights system. The wait for a more responsive system is not over and the people are sanguine that reforms will happen in future.




Planet Earth is now trapping twice as much heat as it did 14 years ago, according to findings of a new study, which raise concerns about the possible acceleration of climate change.

For the study, researchers looked at data from the Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument, which flies on several NASA Earth-observation satellites and measures how much energy the planet absorbs in the form of sunlight and how much of that it emits back into space in the form of infrared radiation.


The difference between the incoming and outflowing energy is called the energy imbalance, and the study found that in the period between 2005 and 2019 the imbalance doubled compared to the years before.The scientists used additional data from Argo, an international network of robotic sensors distributed all over the world’s oceans, which measure the rate at which oceans heat up. The researchers said comparing CERES data to Argo helped strengthen the findings as global oceans are known to absorb up to 90% of the excess energy trapped by the planet.”The two very independent ways of looking at changes in Earth’s energy imbalance are in really, really good agreement, and they’re both showing this very large trend,” Norman Loeb, lead author for the new study and principal investigator for CERES at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, said in a statement. “The trends we found were quite alarming in a sense,” he added.


Loeb and his team concluded the increased heating is a result of both naturally occurring and human-made processes. Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane in Earth’s atmosphere lead to more heat being trapped by the planet.


Meanwhile, the shrinking size of ice sheets, caused by the planet’s warming, leads to less of the incoming energy being reflected away from the planet’s surface.But the researchers found that a natural recurring pattern called the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is also contributing. The PDO cycle causes regular fluctuations in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean with its western parts becoming cooler and the eastern parts warming for ten years, following an opposite trend a decade after. An unusually intense PDO phase that began in about 2014 caused a reduction in cloud formation above the ocean, which also resulted in the increased absorption of incoming energy by the planet, the scientists said.


  1. “It’s likely a mix of anthropogenic forcing and internal variability,” said Loeb, referring to the effects human activity has on the heat exchange between the Earth’s atmosphere and the surrounding space environment and the natural variations in the behavior of the planet’s ecosystem. “Over this period they’re both causing warming, which leads to a fairly large change in Earth’s energy imbalance. The magnitude of the increase is unprecedented in this record.”


“I only feel angry when I see waste.

“The Earth is what we all have in common.”

“Progress is impossible without change, and those who cannot change their minds cannot change anything.”

“Time spent among trees is never time wasted.”

“Away, away, from men and towns.







During the first half of the 20th century most historians would have agreed with the maxim attributed to Sir John Seeley that: ‘History is past politics; and politics present history’. While he was a keen partisan of late Victorian British imperialism, Seeley’s assertion echoed a view, then common among many continental European intellectuals, which emphasised the supreme importance of the nation-state, with which ‘politics’ was exclusively identified. As the influential German philosopher Georg Hegel argued earlier in the 19th century, the state constituted a moral and spiritual force existing beyond the material interests of its subjects and was consequently the principal agent of historical change. This meant that political history was, to all intents and purposes, history.


Seeley was, moreover, not alone in believing that the study of history in British universities was a vital means through which future governors of the empire – like those mostly male, upper-class Cambridge students who attended his lectures – could learn valuable lessons. The ultimate purpose of history was, as a result, conceived as the development of the elite’s ability to rule over Queen Victoria’s subjects, be they East End dockers or Indian peasants, and to defend the empire’s integrity from external threats. Consequently, political history was kept within narrow, institutional terms, comprising the history of the state, of relations between states, and of great statesmen. Political history was, in effect, the history of the state.


Most of these Victorian assumptions unravelled during the latter half of the 20th century. Even so, when many today speak of ‘political history’ they appear to imagine that it still just comprises the study of Westminster and Whitehall and of those men – and occasionally women – who have steered the ship of state. This ‘high’ or elite or some may even say ‘traditional’ political history continues to be written. It has, however, been complemented by other ways of thinking about the subject. This ‘new’ political history reflects changes within the discipline of history resulting from the transformed context in which it is now studied; and echoes the very different ways in which the state and politics are perceived at the start of the 21st century.


The most important challenge to ‘traditional’ political history came with the ‘democratisation’ of society, that is, the extension of the franchise to all adults and the creation of the welfare state. This promoted the belief that government should reflect the interests of the people, rather than those of the ruling elite or the state itself. The expansion of higher education also saw previously dispossessed groups enter universities as students and teachers who then criticised established views of the state. Socialists and feminists, enjoying a uniquely loud voice during the 1960s and 1970s, outlined alternative ways of practising politics, hoping to develop more popular forms of participation in decision-making.


This radical wave had largely dissipated by the 1980s, but it left an imprint on academic conceptions of the purpose of ‘politics’. The succeeding neo-liberalism of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan also advanced criticisms of the state and curtailed much of its influence in the name of ‘freedom’. Thus, by the end of the 20th century, there was much talk of the decline of the nation-state: the institutions that had once defined politics appeared to have been bypassed and undermined by ‘globalisation’ on the one hand and consumerist, empowered individuals on the other.


As a result, political history suffered a significant decline in status within the wider discipline. It was pushed from the centre of most narratives thanks to the proliferation of newer areas of interest, most notably social history and its offshoots, which stressed the importance of popular experience and highlighted oppressed groups’ struggles against the ruling elite. If Seeley had assumed agency resided only in the state, others now believed in the potential of the ‘people’ to be active in the making of their own histories.


Consequently, since the 1970s historians have increasingly eschewed subjects associated with representative politics in favour of culture, consumption, gender, race and sexuality. This shift, from concerns with the body politic to an interest in the politics of the body, from the public to the private, highlights once neglected issues of importance. It nonetheless threatens to distort a complete understanding of the dynamics of historical change by exaggerating the importance of popular potential and diminishing the significance of the state and other institutions of representative politics, most obviously political parties


What is referred to as the ‘new’ political history is an attempt to engage with some of these developments without losing sight of the power of politics to shape society. This has, in fact, been a matter of abiding interest to a minority of historians long unhappy with the established forms of political history. Thus, when in 1944 G. M. Trevelyan defined social history as ‘the history of a people with the politics left out’, this was not because he endorsed such a negative classification. In fact Trevelyan thought it was a necessary expedient to compensate for political histories which, he claimed, had been ‘written without reference to their social environment.


Few political historians consciously rejected the importance of this ‘social environment’. Even Geoffrey Elton, that doyen of ‘traditional’ political history, declared in 1970: ‘All the forms of history that have existed belong to the world which the political historian inhabits all things are relevant to politics’.They were nonetheless unwilling to invest much thought into the nature of the relationship between their conception of politics and wider society and culture. During the interwar period, some innovative historians of Parliament did nonetheless look beyond Westminster and tried to account for the ‘social foundations’ of politics, most notably Lewis Namier.


Matters changed in the post-war period. Even before 1939, diplomatic and international history had annexed much of political history’s former territory, meaning that it was conceived increasingly in domestic and especially electoral terms. For the extension of the franchise had turned political parties into highly significant subjects. Moreover, given that the parties were the point at which society and formal politics came into collision, some kind of systematic thinking about the relationship between the two now became necessary.


The ‘Nuffield School’ of contemporary political sociology influenced many of those interested in the history of electoral politics in the 1960s and 1970s. This advanced the view that social and economic forces beyond politicians’ control had established the terms of party competition. Leaders might exploit electoral opportunities presented by these deeper influences but were incapable of doing more than associate their parties with – usually class – identities or interests with which voters already adhered. Thus, for example, the rise of the Labour party and fall of the Liberals could be seen as the by-product of the expansion of the manual working class. The role of representative politics was merely to manage such phenomena.


Not all political historians embraced this fatalistic view. Most notably Maurice Cowling in a series of remarkable monographs published in the late 1960s and early 1970s took on labour and social historians who were starting to emphasise the role of the working class in Westminster politics. In particular he debated the causes of the 1867 Reform Act, rebutting the proposition that it was the product of working-class pressure, arguing instead that Disraeli extended the franchise to skilled male workers because it suited his Parliamentary purposes.


Cowling did not claim that Disraeli operated in a social vacuum but argued that political decisions could only be advanced through the political structure, that is ‘through existing concentrations of power’, during which process they would inevitably be ‘transformed in order to be made tolerable to ruling opinion’. Elsewhere he maintained that it was the ‘language they used, the images they formed, the myths they left’, which allowed political leaders to shape what others thought. Politicians, even with the arrival of a fully democratic franchise, tried ‘not merely to say what electors wanted to hear but to make electors want them to say what they wanted to say in the first place’ – and they usually succeeded.


Cowling was mistrusted by ‘traditional’ political historians for his methods and disliked by social and labour historians for his conclusions. As a result, the implications of his work have taken some time to be properly appreciated, in particular his gesturing to the need to integrate the relative autonomy of politics to shape popular thinking with the need to take account of the means by which the social and cultural position of politics structured its possibilities. It was only during the 1990s that (consciously or not) political historians from many differing perspectives – but all of them unhappy with the deterministic social approach and critical of the narrowness of traditional political history – began to emphasise the constructive role of politics within a nuanced understanding of its cultural context.


If some believed in the political potential of the ‘people’ they also played due regard to the means by which politics – in the shape of the state or parties – could manipulate or even create identities in a way amenable to their purposes. Much recent work on modern British political history now operates within this new paradigm, emphasising the significance of the press, posters, public meetings, printed propaganda and even popular fictions, thereby focussing on the interactive relationship between politics and the people. Some have even taken the hallmark topics of traditional political history – such as leadership – and breathed into them new life, most notably Philip Williamson’s study of Stanley Baldwin which focuses on the constructed nature of Baldwin’s public personality, and the resonances it generated within popular culture which he was then able to exploit.


Political history may now be but one of a number of ways of understanding the past but it is a more diverse and dynamic subject than ever it was. It more accurately reflects the true nature of politics which, as the future Prime Minister Harold Macmillan noted of one 1950s Cabinet, could embrace topics ‘ranging from Homosexuality to the price of milk.


Adieu for Apple Daily Newspaper in Hongkong

Apple Daily was founded by Jimmy Lai on 20th June 1995. It is a pro-democracy newspaper which openly criticized on Chinese and Hongkong government. It also voiced for rights and freedom of Hongkong people. In August 2020 Chinese National security officers raided the office of Apple Daily in Hongkong as it was alleged for the violation of newly imposed national security. They arrested Jimmy Lai and later several other editors, executives and social activists were also arrested.

On 24 June people of Hongkong people lined up early in front of the newspaper booth to buy the last edition of Apple Daily newspaper as it was forced to end its 26 years of functioning. The journal will not be able to continue as the funds amounting $2.3 million was frozen.

For the final edition, Apple Daily printed 1 million copies up from 80,000 copies. On 23rd June night about 100 people stood before office in rain to show their support. Next day people queued up to buy the final outlet which in front page flashed the image of Apple Daily employee waving to supporters in front of the office. People of Hongkong bid farewell to the famous newspaper with heavy heart.



exercise helps people lose weight and lower the risk of some disease.exercise requalrly lowers a person risk of developing some disease including obesity type

Exercise also can help keep your body at healthy weight.Exercise. can help a person age well .

exercise improve muscle strength

exercise improve brain function


Wild life conservation is our duty. Wildlife is becoming extinct day by day. Wildlife habitats are being depleted by factories all around. Special measures should be taken to protect them from the administration. Wild life is our resource.

Contaminants from all the surrounding factories have entered the forest and disturbed the wildlife. The forest zones are on the wane. We humans have been deprived of the ability of wildlife to move freely.

If we endanger their existence, we ourselves will fall in graver danger. It is our duty to keep them healthy and normal. We should give them a healthy environment. We should let them live, as long as they are healthy, we remain healthy.


Asteroids are small, rocky objects that orbit the sun. Although asteroids orbit the sun like planets, they are much smaller than planets. There are lots of asteroids in our solar system. Most of them live in the main asteroid belt—a region between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids hang out in other places, too. For example, some asteroids are found in the orbital path of planets. This means that the asteroid and the planet follow the same path around the sun. Earth and a few other planets have asteroids like this. These asteroids come from the left over of the formation of our solar system. Our solar system began about 4.6 billion years ago when a big cloud of gas and dust collapsed. When this happened, most of the material fell to the center of the cloud and formed the sun. Some of the condensing dust in the cloud became planets. The objects in the asteroid belt never had the chance to be incorporated into planets. They are leftovers from that time long ago when planets formed. Asteroids are many but there are different because asteroids formed in different locations at different distances from the sun, no two asteroids are alike. Here are a few ways that they differ:

• Asteroids aren’t all round like planets. They have jagged and irregular shapes.

• Some asteroids are hundreds of miles in diameter, but many more are as small as pebbles.

• Most asteroids are made of different kinds of rocks, but some have clays or metals, such as nickel and iron.

I have learned that while travelling in the rocket the asteroids will be moving sometimes it will hit the rocket. While it is coming they will be changing the rocket slightly because it will come in a big force so it may hit the rocket. The rocket uphold the damages some damages it will consider it will do its work but some time it may give a problem. There are many myths about these asteroids this found in that time itself that when two asteroids stroke together while in the speed it is sounded as thunderstorm but the real fact is a thunderstorm, also known as an electrical storm or a lightning storm, is a storm characterized … Strong or severe thunderstorms include some of the most dangerous weather … or where two winds converge forcing air upwards, or where winds blow over … The downdraft hitting the ground creates an outflow boundary. Recently in the year 2016, NASA launched the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft to study an asteroid near Earth named Bennu. After studying Bennu for a few years, OSIRIS-REx scooped up a sample of dust and rocks from the asteroid’s surface. This Asteroid Day is celebrated on 30th June who was the person to find this day for asteroids a day is the co-founded by Stephen Hawking, filmmaker Grigorij Richters, B612 Foundation President, Danica Remy, Apollo 9 astronaut Rusty Schweickart and Brian May, Queen Guitarist and astrophysicist. This International asteroid day is kept because it aims to raise public awareness about the asteroid impact hazard and to inform the public about the crisis communication actions to be taken at the global level in case of a credible near-Earth object threat.


 The issue of child labour is a very crucial matter. Child labour should be stopped as soon as possible. Children need to do mental labour instead of manual labour. Instead of going to the factory, children should go to school and study.

The economic base of any country needs to be strengthened to stop child labour. Birth cycle should be reduced if child labour is to be prevented. Young children are working in factories instead of going to school for adequate salaries and allowances, which is very unfortunate.

There are some families who are completely dependent on child fatigue because financial support comes to their families from child employment, which must be stopped completely. The administration of the country has taken many steps in this regard though. The overall development of the country is impossible unless child distress is stopped.


Tolerance provides many norms in many cases. Listening patiently to everything and then speaking appropriately is one of the characteristics of tolerance. It gives every human being his due status. It provides the unity of many nations and religions.

Tolerance is essential for moving forward in life. No one can survive normally without tolerance. It is necessary in every sphere of life. It is an essential element of multi-national unity equality.

Without tolerance and co-existence no one can live in peace and happiness. Tolerance helps to unite multilingual people. Without tolerance, national unity will collapse. It helps a country to rise to international prominence. If there is tolerance, national strength will be maintained, national unity will be maintained.  


Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Xhosa; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the country’s first black head of state and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalized racism and fostering racial reconciliation. Ideologically an African nationalist and socialist, he served as the president of the African National Congress (ANC) party from 1991 to 1997. As a result of his leadership he had many good qualities As a leader, South African President Nelson Mandela demonstrated remarkable leadership qualities, including advocacy for peace, powerful presence that disarmed enemies with his smile, high level of forgiveness, positive thinking, ability to see the big picture, focus on goals and missions beyond himself, remarkable. “I Am Prepared to Die” is the name given to the three-hour speech given by Nelson Mandela on 20 April 1964 from the dock of the defendant at the Rivonia Trial. The speech is so titled because it ends with the words “it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die”. Nelson is a good hearted person he is a  Former South African president and civil rights advocate Nelson Mandela dedicated his life to fighting for equality—and ultimately helped topple South Africa’s racist system of apartheid. His accomplishments are now celebrated each year on July 18, Nelson Mandela International Day. He had changed the world The South African activist and former president Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) helped bring an end to apartheid and has been a global advocate for human rights. … His actions landed him in prison for nearly three decades and made him the face of the antiapartheid movement both within his country and internationally. Mandela was fighting against apartheid, but he was also fighting for something: a better world, in which the freedom, justice and dignity of all were respected. Even before his release in 1990, Mandela began negotiating with the government to end apartheid. Nelson Mandela, leader of the movement to end South African apartheid, is released from prison after 27 years on February 11, 1990. … Convicted and sentenced to five years at Robben Island Prison, he was put on trial again in 1964 on charges of sabotage. In this world I am damn sure that there will be no person will stay in jail for 27 years for the sake of the country people. He thought other person suffering as his it has made him to stay in prison and gave courage to fight against anything like this. There were many pains in his life time mostly he had spent the days for the freedom and achieved it. It is a good inspiration story which he had left for the future generations every one can achieve if there is hardwork and will power to achieve it he had given an example by living his life as a lesson for others. He had died on 5 December 2013, Nelson Mandela, the first President of South Africa to be elected in a fully representative democratic election, as well as the country’s first black head of state, died at the age of 95 after suffering from a prolonged respiratory infection.



India is a vast country with many beautiful spots, historical sites and places of pilgrimage. From the Himalayas in the north to Kanyakumari in the south we have numerous tourist spots which are attractive in the truest sense all over the world. Agra with the Tajmahal, Ajanta and Ellora with rock cut caves, Mawsynram with its vigorous presence – are all tourist spots of international frame.

Also West Bengal takes the lead when it comes to the matter of beauty. Darjeeling – the mountain queen, Hazarduari palace in Murshidabad, Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata, and so on – are the places which are at the bangalees’ hearts and of course, all over India.

However, tourism in India also helps India to increase the economy rate and takes part in increasing the national GDP. We should salute to the people to take care of the tourism and make several minds free of misery, anxiety and all other mental problems which are a matter of disgrace nowadays.


• Survey carried out on a massive scale to collect information on many parameters.

• Data helps the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) to frame policies and programs to help in the upliftment of the vulnerable groups in India.

• First round conducted in 1992-92.

• NFHS 5 – started in 2018-19.
• International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) Mumbai – nodal agency for providing coordination and technical guidance for the

 United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
 United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
 MoHFW (Government of India).


• Only 29% of girl students attended higher secondary school in rural Gujarat.

• 93.6% of girl students attended higher secondary
school in rural Kerala.

• Only 45% of male students attended higher secondary school in rural Gujarat.

• 90.8% of male students attended higher secondary
school in rural Kerala.

• In all States – school attendance dropped as the
education level increased.
 Fall was more pronounced when students reached the higher secondary level.
 Drop in attendance was much lower in rural Kerala, it was the highest in rural Gujarat.

• Bihar – attendance levels were relatively poor right from primary level of education.
 Poor in Meghalaya and Nagaland for the same level. • In 10 States, less than 70% of rural girl students attended higher secondary school.


• Poor levels were observed among rural boys in 9 States.

• Rural Gujarat recorded the highest fall in attendance levels as students progressed from lower to higher education.

• The attendance levels did not drop much in rural Kerala with increase in education levels.


John Keats, (born October 31, 1795, London, England—died February 23, 1821, Rome, Papal States [Italy]), English Romantic lyric poet who devoted his short life to the perfection of a poetry marked by vivid imagery, great sensuous appeal, and an attempt to express a philosophy through classical legend.
The son of a livery-stable manager, John Keats received relatively little formal education. His father died in 1804, and his mother remarried almost immediately. Throughout his life Keats had close emotional ties to his sister, Fanny, and his two brothers, George and Tom. After the breakup of their mother’s second marriage, the Keats children lived with their widowed grandmother at Edmonton, Middlesex. John attended a school at Enfield, two miles away, that was run by John Clarke, whose son Charles Cowden Clarke did much to encourage Keats’s literary aspirations. At school Keats was noted as a pugnacious lad and was decidedly “not literary,” but in 1809 he began to read voraciously. After the death of the Keats children’s mother in 1810, their grandmother put the children’s affairs into the hands of a guardian, Richard Abbey. At Abbey’s instigation John Keats was apprenticed to a surgeon at Edmonton in 1811. He broke off his apprenticeship in 1814 and went to live in London, where he worked as a dresser, or junior house surgeon, at Guy’s and St. Thomas’ hospitals. His literary interests had crystallized by this time, and after 1817 he devoted himself entirely to poetry. From then until his early death, the story of his life is largely the story of the poetry he wrote.
In the summer of 1818 Keats went on a walking tour in the Lake District (of northern England) and Scotland with his friend Charles Brown, and his exposure and overexertions on that trip brought on the first symptoms of the tuberculosis of which he was to die. On his return to London a brutal criticism of his early poems appeared in Blackwood’s Magazine, followed by a similar attack on Endymion in the Quarterly Review. Contrary to later assertions, Keats met these reviews with a calm assertion of his own talents, and he went on steadily writing poetry. But there were family troubles. Keats’s brother Tom had been suffering from tuberculosis for some time, and in the autumn of 1818 the poet nursed him through his last illness. About the same time, he met Fanny Brawne, a near neighbour in Hampstead, with whom he soon fell hopelessly and tragically in love. The relation with Fanny had a decisive effect on Keats’s development. She seems to have been an unexceptional young woman, of firm and generous character, and kindly disposed toward Keats. But he expected more, perhaps more than anyone could give, as is evident from his overwrought letters.
It is impossible to say how much has been lost by Keats’s early death. His reputation grew steadily throughout the 19th century, though as late as the 1840s the Pre-Raphaelite painter William Holman Hunt could refer to him as “this little-known poet.” His influence is found everywhere in the decorative Romantic verse of the Victorian Age, from the early work of Alfred, Lord Tennyson, onward. His general emotional temper and the minute delicacy of his natural observation were greatly admired by the Pre-Raphaelites, who both echoed his poetry in their own and illustrated it in their paintings. Keats’s 19th-century followers on the whole valued the more superficial aspects of his work, and it was largely left for the 20th century to realize the full range of his technical and intellectual achievement.


Population growth is a very significant question at present. As the population grows, the balance between population density and population will be lost. Population growth needs to be prevented. Men-women ratio of population density should be maintained equally.

As the population will grow, illiteracy, unequal distribution of wealth and unemployment will increase. According to population ratio-India is the second largest country in the world next to China.

Thus, if the population continues to grow, the economic unequal distribution will spread at an equal rate. Either way the population needs to be reduced. As a result of population growth, we are constantly lagging behind in international competition. A fine balance of the population needs to be created at any cost. If population growth continues like this, we will gradually fall towards unequal distribution. So, the population needs to be reduced as soon as possible with a fine balance of population density.


Quite obviously the title is showing us something beyond our notice. YES, I think these two are different. Antonyms are the words which say the opposite meaning of that particular word. So at the slightest view, there is no difference.

But if we think deeply, in our exams, when we are supposed to write the antonym of singing, toppers will write dancing and will get full marks, obvious though. Now the thing comes to the surface that is dancing is that opposite of singing? Dancing not at all opposes the meaning of singing entirely. Rather we could write anything except singing.

Several examples can be made under this concept. But the thing is, are we getting wrong somewhere? We the antonym of singing, is not, playing? If one thinks deeply, the question can be made. ANTONYMS should be replaced by NEGATION WORDS, so that we can make a clear vision of what we should understand and what not. Our vocabulary is pretty good and important too. But, there is something should be changed. It’s a simple demonstration of the deep thought about opposite words and antonyms.

India’s deep ocean mission

Deep ocean

• Below 200 meters – little or no light. • Depth at which light begins to dwindle, typically around 200 meters (656 feet).

• Extreme conditions:
 Temperature reduces to 4°Celsius – constantly stays near freezing.
 Pressure – ranges from 40 to over 110 times the pressure of Earth’s atmosphere.

• Creatures exist microorganisms in hydrothermal vents, deep sea corals, fish, and other bizarre creatures.
• Harsh conditions – difficult to explore. • 95% of the ocean is unexplored and unutilised. • Countries exploring the deep ocean – China,France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, and Russia.

• Deep ocean mission of India – in line with, GoI’s Vision of New India by 2030.
 Blue Economy – one of core dimensions of growth.

Deep Ocean Mission

• Multi-ministerial multi-disciplinary programme.

• Objective – explore deep ocean for resources and develop deep sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources.

• Phase-wise implementation for 5 years.
 First phase – 2021-2024.

• Estimated cost – Rs. 4077 crores.

• Mission mode project to support the Blue Economy Initiatives of GoI.

• Nodal implementing Ministry – Ministry of Earth Sciences.
• Six major components:

  1. Development of Technologies for Deep Sea Mining, and Manned Submersible.
     Development of manned submersible – will carry 3 people to a depth of 6000 m in the ocean + scientific sensors and tools.
     Development of Integrated Mining System for mining Polymetallic Nodules from 6000 m depth in the central Indian Ocean.
     Future commercial exploitation of minerals in
    deep ocean.
     Blue Economy priority area – ‘exploring and
    harnessing of deep sea minerals and energy’.

Polymetallic nodules (PMN)

• Manganese or ferromanganese nodules.

• Potato-shaped, largely porous nodules.

• Found in deep sea – in abundance carpeting the sea
floor of world oceans.

• Metals – manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt,lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium.
 Nickel, cobalt, manganese and copper – of economic and strategic importance.
• 15 year contract of India with International Seabed Authority (ISA) in 2002 – for exploration of PMN in CIOB.
 Extended 5 more years – 2017-22.
 Presently allocated an area of 75,000
sq.km. – located 2000 km away from southern tip.
 Estimated polymetallic nodule resource potential – 380 million tonnes.
 Nickel – 4.7 million tonnes
 Copper – 4.29 million tonnes
 Cobalt – 0.55 million tonnes
 Manganese – 92.59 million tonnes

2.Development of Ocean Climate Change Advisory
 Developing observations & models to understand &
provide future projections of important climate variables on seasonal to decadal time scales.
 Blue Economy priority area – coastal tourism.

3.Technological innovations for exploration and
conservation of deep-sea biodiversity
 Bio-prospecting of deep-sea flora and fauna including microbes.
 Studies on sustainable utilization of deep-sea
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Fisheries and allied services.

4. Deep Ocean Survey and Exploration
 Explore and identify potential sites of multi-metal Hydrothermal Sulphides
mineralization along the Indian Ocean mid-oceanic ridges.
 Hydrothermal Sulphides or seafloor massive sulphides – only metal-bearing deposits of (current) commercial significance that form
at active plate boundaries – high concentrations of copper, zinc, lead,arsenic, cobalt, silver, gold and other metals.
 Blue Economy priority area – deep sea exploration of ocean resources.

5.Energy and freshwater from the Ocean
 Studies and detailed engineering design for offshore Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powered desalination plant.
 Blue Economy priority area – off-shore energy development.

6.Advanced Marine Station for Ocean Biology
 Development of human capacity and enterprise in ocean biology and engineering.
 Research into industrial application and product development through on-site business incubator facilities.
 Blue Economy priority area – Marine Biology, Blue trade and Blue manufacturing.
• Benefits:
 Attempts to indigenise technologies by collaborating with leading institutes and
private industries.
 Design, development and fabrication of specialised equipment, ships and setting
up of required infrastructure – will spur the growth of the Indian industry, especially the MSME and Start-ups.
 Generating employment
 Research vessel for deep ocean exploration to be built in Indian shipyard.
 Capacity development in Marine Biology.

Article On Drawing

Drawing is a form of visual art. In this one person uses various drawing tools to mark the outside of the paper or another wet spot. Equipment includes graphite charcoal, pen and ink, ink brushes, wax colored charcoal, paint sticks, charcoal, chalk, pastels, erasers, markers, styluses, various metals (such as silver dot) and electronic drawing.

Drawing is often used in business description, animation, architecture, engineering and technical drawing in addition to its many art forms. A quick, barely hand-drawn, usually not thought of as a finished work, sometimes called a sketch. An artist who practices or works on a technical map can be called a trapper, trappersmen or tradesmen.

Drawing is one of the main forms of expression in the visual arts. It is generally based on the marking of lines and areas of tone marked on paper / other materials. It is in this paper or material that the exact representation of the visual world is expressed on a flat surface. Traditional drawings are monochromatic, or at least slightly lighter in color, while modern color-pencil drawings can access or cross the line between drawing and paint.

In Western terms, drawings differ from paint, although identical media are often used in both jobs. Dry media, such as chalk, which are commonly associated with drawing, can be used for pastel coloring. The map can be drawn with a liquid medium, brushes or pens. Similar materials can be used in both drawing and paint. Painting usually involves the application of liquid paint on prepared canvas or panels. But sometimes an initial map is drawn first on the same support as mentioned above.

In fields outside art, technical drawings or plans of buildings, machinery, circuitry and other things are often called “drawings” Technical drawings or plans of buildings, machinery, circuitry and other things outside the field of art are often called “drawings”. Even if they are transferred to another medium by printing.

Drawing on contacts

Drawing is one of the oldest forms of human expression. There is evidence that this predates written communication. Drawing is believed to have been used as a special form of communication before the use of written language, as evidenced by cave and rock paintings painted about 30,000 years ago (Upper Paleolithic chronology).

Drawing in manuscripts

Before paper became widely available, 12th-century monks in European monasteries used intricate drawings to make envelopes and illuminated manuscripts illustrated on parchment. Drawing is widely used in the field of science as a method of discovery, understanding and interpretation.

Drawing in science

In 1609, astronomer Galileo Galilei illustrated the phases of the moon’s with his laboratory telescope maps. In 1924, geologist Alfred Weckner used illustrations to illustrate the appearance of continents.

Drawing as an expression of art

Drawing is used to express one’s creativity. So it is important in the art world. For most of history, drawing has been the basis of art practice. Initially, artists repeatedly used wood tablets to produce their drawings. Following the widespread availability of paper in the 14th century, the use of drawing in the arts increased. During this time, drawing was generally used as a tool for thought and inquiry, as a research medium as artists prepared for their final work.

Newsletter and typewriter can be useful for training and sketches. Tracking paper is used to test the semi-finished map and to change the shape from one sheet to another. Cartridge paper is the basic type of paper sold in strips. Bristol board Bristol board and why heavy acid-free boards with soft results are often used to paint fine detail.

The basic tools are a drawing board or desk, pencil sharpener and eraser, and ink spying paper for ink drawing. Other tools used include circular compass, gauge, and set square. Material that stabilizes dyes is used to prevent from pencil and crayon markings.

Shading is the technique of differentiating the tone values ​​on paper to represent the shadow of the object and the location of the shadows. Focusing on the reflected light, shadows and highlights will result in the most realistic reality of the film.Shading techniques that introduce texture to drawing include hatching and stipling.A light edge near a dark background is easily visible to the eye and appears almost horizontally above the surface.

The blending of film is an important work in creating an interesting work of artistic merit. The artist plans to feature a piece of art to communicate ideas and feelings with the audience. Composition can determine the focus of art and it ends up with an aesthetic appeal and evocative, coherent wholeness.


India is among the first countries in the world to have passed legislation granting Farmers’ Rights in the form of the Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 (PPVFR). India’s law is unique in that it simultaneously aims to protect both breeders and farmers. In the before year 2020 the farmers were against this law they were struggling against the government for more than 3 weeks then with their family they struggled for 1 week then they left the struggle. The Farmers’ Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020, The Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020 The Essential Commodities (Amendment), 2020 — are the three key legislations passed by Parliament in September 2020. This three new farm laws is not accepted by the farmers. They are telling they cannot get the actual money which they are in need. We cannot be as our ancestors led a life because there farming system was totally different in that time most of them were farmers but now if we are doing farming all will think litter lower than their status. Farmers are the backbone of India we cannot satisfy our stomach four times in a day without the farmers. In this law the first is farmers can get the amount in high prize because they can sell to the private companies but the farmers don’t want this to happen, because this would become loss for them. This will become a great a loss because the private company may take the farmers product for high price or low price according to the quantity before it was a fixed price by government now they are leaving it to the private concern. This will become a great loss for the farmers already they are very poor this will became a big burden for the farmers. These laws allow the Secretary of Agriculture to allocate a certain amount of farmland for the production of a particular crop, and to divide the land among the states capable of producing the crop. The system is intended to protect against crop surpluses and shortages, thereby preserving economic stability. The Union government enacted two new farm laws for agriculture, and modified the Essential Commodities Act 1951 for agricultural;-food stu, in September 2020. The new acts have been widely acclaimed as historic, path-breaking, and a “1991 movement” for agriculture. There are many agricultural laws which were invited by the farmers but this was not accepted by the farmers. This farmer law should be there in the back of the history before 2020 happened is this. In 2017, the central government had released a number of model farming acts. The Standing Committee on Agriculture (2018–19), however, noted that several reforms suggested in the model acts had not been implemented by the states. In particular the Committee found that the laws that regulated Indian agricultural markets (such as those related to agricultural produce market committees or APMCs) were not being implemented fairly and honestly or serving their purpose. Centralization was thought to be reducing competition and (accordingly) participation, with undue commissions, market fees, and monopoly of associations damaging the agricultural sector. A committee consisting of seven Chief Ministers was set up in July 2019 to discuss implementation. The committee is yet to submit its report. The centre promulgated three ordinances in the first week of June 2020 so this was started and slowly the farmers learning and they started the protest against this law in September 2020.

Human Psychology

Psychology is the discipline of study and application of the scientific study of the functions and behaviors of the mind. A professional practitioner or researcher in this field is called a psychologist. Psychologists are also classified as social or behavioral scientists.

The basic study of psychology consists of intuition, cognitive ability, attention, mental or emotional speed, natural motivation, brain functions, personality, behavior and intrinsic interactions. Some, especially profound psychologists, consider the mind to be unconscious.

Vocabulary edit

Psychology is a term derived from the Greek word “logia”. Its meaning is ‘studying the mind’. psukhē means ‘breath, spirit, soul’ -λογία. Logia means ‘research’ which is also about the syllabus discipline and scientific human and animal psychology and behavior in an academy. When used from time to time against or in addition to a scientific method, it depends on symbolic interpretation and critical analysis. Nevertheless it is less important than the social sciences such as social sciences.

Psychological wisdom is used in various fields of human activity. Practices in everyday life, ie family, education, occupation and treatment of mental health problems are explored.  Psychological research includes subfields and its applications. Such fields are: human development, sports, health, industry, media, and law. Psychology is the integration of research into the social sciences, the natural sciences, and the arts, literature, and humanities.


Psychological research philosophically goes back in time to learn about ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece, China, India, and Persia. In 1802, the French psychologist Pierre Capanis wrote and pioneered an essay on biological psychology: Rapports du physique et du moral de l’homme. Its meaning is: on the relations of the physical and moral aspects of man. Kapanis argues that material interpretation is based on previous biological studies, but possesses both the nervous system and the psyche.

With the publication of Alzheimer’s Visual Studies in 1021, it is time to go back in time to the details of the psychoanalytic method. As a result, psychology began as an experimental field for an independent study in 1879. German physicist Wilhelm Wundt established one of the first laboratories. It was founded at the University of Leipzig, Germany, exclusively for psychological research. Wund is therefore hailed as the “Father of Psychology”.

1879 is therefore sometimes considered the “birthday” of psychology. The book The Psychological Principles, published in 1890 by William James, an American philosopher and psychologist, set the stage for various questions. So psychologists continued to focus on it for many more years.

Various schools of thought have argued that all or the majority of human behavior should be described using a particular model as a guiding principle. But even its popularity has waned over the years. Some psychologists are those who insist on a particular school of thought and ignore others. However, it is argued that access to understanding the mind is paramount, and that mutual theories are not considered necessary.

Psychology gives us the maturity to accept many theories and make us ‘pannalat aggregator’. All it has to do is attract knowledge from other fields. Only then can psychological rarity be explained and understood. In addition, psychologists make extensive use of three types of hypotheses. According to CS Pierce, inference, synthesis, extraction, and (emergence of a general theory of interpretation) are the norm. , Propose considering the benefit of those who seek it. In most areas of psychology, research is conducted scientifically according to standards.

Experimental psychology research is conducted in a laboratory with controlled conditions. This method is used to understand behavior in a scientific way.

Experimental analysts use different types of measurements, compliance rate, reaction time, and various psychometric measurements. Experiments tend to evaluate process relationships (both in the normative approach) and (in the syntactic approach) to test specific temporal semantic theories. They help researchers establish relationships between behavior and context.

The philosopher Thomas Kuhn in 1962 was in a position to make a pre-grammatical quote about psychology as a whole, often referring to psychological critiques of psychology as “a confused” science. Physics. Maturing as a chemical is not theoretically consistent with science. So psychologists and philosophers have tried to solve that problem in various ways.d

This is because parts of psychology depend on surveys and quizzes that are research methods. It is unscientific. (Survey research is highly correlated) critics complained. What psychologists diligently explore as other rarities is that personality, counting, and arousal cannot be measured directly. It is often mentioned that self-reports have problems with it too!

what affiliate marketing efforts should you use in 2021?

Isn’t it genuine that we as a whole wish for a wellspring of easy revenue? It’s anything but a fantasy to bring in cash while dozing. You get this opportunity with an offshoot promoting plan. You should simply advise individuals about various items and benefits, and you’ll get paid.

In this day and age of new online assets, there is wild competition for labor and products. Accordingly, drawing in new clients and turning out to be famous can’t be simple. Thus, drawing in new clients and turning out to be well known can’t be simple. Accordingly, partner programs presently aid the securing of new customers just as the age of income. Besides, the most widely recognized online business devices are email showcasing and partner advertising. They are answerable for 16% of all web orders each day. In this paper, I’ll clarify what a subsidiary program is, the reason you need one, and how it can assist you with bringing in cash.

What is Affiliate Marketing?

Affiliate Marketing is an online methodology of advancing a business. Numerous website admins benefit from it. They present a novel connection on another site on their web asset. The associate gets a money related award when clients click on this connection and complete a particular activity on the client’s gateway (register, purchase anything).

Coming up next is the helpful guideline: A stage works with the proprietors of effective entrances, sites, and YouTube channels to assemble associations. The website admin gets the essential promoting materials and special connections from the purchaser. They are distributed on the accomplice’s assets. Following that, he is paid if purchasers click on his connection and take specific exercises on the sponsor’s site.

Advantages of Affiliate Marketing

Followings are the advantages of affiliate marketing for website admins:

  1. A reasonable compensation;
  2. no compelling reason to think of your own promoting technique.
  3. Standards, articles, watchwords, and different things are given by the sponsor.
  4. Income from a uninvolved source. Clients visit your connection in any event, when you’re unwinding, expanding your profit;
  5. Work that is far away. To partake in an associate program, all you need is an Internet-associated PC or cell phone.
  6. Therefore, you can partake in member advertising from anyplace on the planet.
  7. Keeping up long haul connecting with projects; a new and mainstream vocation;
  8. the chance of proceeded with proficient advancement.
  9. Fast compensation for time and cash contributed. You can make your first benefit in as little as a day.

How Does Affiliate Marketing Work?

Every affiliate is given a unique URL, and the merchant maintains track of whose affiliate is responsible for the promotion. Normally, the given link will look something like this:When a customer clicks on a certain link, a little file is saved on their devices as an affiliate cookie.The cookie is mostly used for two purposes:

  1. It aides the dealer in initiating a transaction with the appropriate individual.
  2. It usually includes a termination date, so the affiliate is paid even if a customer clicks on the link and makes a purchase after the date has passed.

How To Start Affiliate Marketing?

You’ll need to develop and manage a database of your affiliates, generate and track their unique links, and integrate those bespoke links into your e-commerce process so you can pay them the necessary commissions if you want to start an affiliate marketing program. Does it appear to be a bit intimidating?

Step 1: Select a platform.

Building an audience and increasing affiliate sales is significantly easier through one of two channels: a blog or a YouTube channel.Today, starting a blog is relatively simple and inexpensive.

There are numerous tutorials available online that will show you how to get started. What’s the best part? It’ll probably only set you back a few dollars a month.Once your site is up and running, optimize it for search engines to increase your chances of ranking. You can then incorporate affiliate links into your post. (There is an art to this, which we will discuss later in this guide.)YouTube is the other platform. Because creating and publishing material to YouTube is free, it appeals to a wide range of people.

Step 2: Discover your Niche.

So to figure out who you’re going to target is the most important factor. But just because it’s beginning doesn’t mean it’ll be simple.Finding your topic is one of the most important aspects of getting started with affiliate marketing. The wrong niche makes selling more difficult, whereas the appropriate niche makes it easier.

Begin by posing questions such as:

  1. What are some of my favorite topics?
  2. Do people look for my selected niche on the internet?
  3. Will demand for my niche remain stable?
  4. Is my niche subject to a lot of competition?
  5. Is it possible to find affiliate programs that operate in my selected niche?

These questions will assist you with deciding if the item you’re mulling over is one you’d prefer to promote consistently. These are the issues that will decide if you succeed or come up short with associate advertising.

Step 3: Select Affiliate Programs to Affiliate With.

1. Low-Volume, High-Paying Volume Affiliate Programs:

This affiliate network has a high compensation for categorized products. As a result, there is increased rivalry for huge commissions. It may be difficult for those who are just beginning to produce money to compete against experienced marketers.

2. High-volume, Low-paying Affiliate Programs.

This affiliate scheme is used to promote products with a wide appeal but modest compensation. Another key point to note is that marketers may be paid commissions on all purchases made, not just the recommended product.

3. High-volume, High-paying Affiliate Programs

These are affiliate programs that compensation out a ton of cash for items that have a many individuals intrigued by them. Credit cards are one model. Everybody need a credit card, and most of clients stay with the organization for quite a long time (if not many years!)

This is dependent on your skill and niche.If you’re targeting customers, the model of low paying and higher sales volume will probably be your best bet. If you’re targeting a business audience, you’ll almost certainly choose the model: high-paying and low volume. Software and web hosting-related products are the most popular programs here.

Step- 4: Build Appropriate Content.

If you want your affiliate site to be successful, you need to provide high-quality content that includes affiliate links.

Use the tool to see what your competitors are up to on social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Google, and YouTube.

Step 5: Get people to visit your affiliate site.

After you’ve finished developing exceptional content, the next step is to enlist the help of more target consumers to interpret it. As a result, they’ll wind up clicking on the affiliate links you’ve provided. SEO, email marketing are the tools to get traffic.

Step 6: Increase the number of people who click on an affiliate link.

Snaps will be rare if the entirety of your affiliate links are close to the lower part of the page, where visitors once in a while scroll.

Using callouts like buttons, tables, and boxes can assist draw attention to your content and make it easier to scan.

Step 7: Convert clicks to sales.

To generate money in affiliate marketing, you must complete two conversions.The click to the product page is the initial conversion.You have complete power over this situation.

Affiliate marketing efforts for future

In affiliate marketing, building trust with your crowd is pivotal, and the fastest method to obliterate trust is to suggest things you haven’t attempted or that are certainly not a solid match for your crowd. Additionally, recollect that you are simply supporting an item when you encourage somebody to get it. The more accommodating you are and the more incredible proposals you give, the more probable your site guests will get back to profit with your insight.

It’s critical to understand the origins of your traffic as well as the demographics of your target audience. This will allow you to personalize your messaging and make the finest affiliate product suggestions possible. You should concentrate not only on the vertical in which you operate, but also on the traffic sources and audience that visits your site. Organic, paid, social media, referral, display, email, and direct traffic are all possible sources of traffic.In Google Analytics, you can view traffic source data to see things like time on page, bounce rate, geo location, age, gender, time of day, and devices.


Most importantly, focus on making your first partner deal. Put out new objectives for your site as it grows, and continue to try. This is the means by which you build a affiliate program that will at last make you cash.


Ecology or biological environment refers to the natural environment in which all living and non-living elements around an organism or population, and as a result all factors affecting the survival, development, evolution, or aggregation of a particular organism or population.

The biological environment can be explored at different levels, from the microscopic level to the global level. As well as many different environments depending on the nature of the environment, such as the oceanic environment, atmospheric environment, and terrestrial environment. Assuming that each individual organism has an environment of its own, it can be known that there are innumerable biological environments.


The word environment can be distinguished by comparing it with the terms social environment and economic environment. In many cases, the term environment refers to the natural environment. The environment can also be referred to as the environment.

Ecological interaction

All surviving organisms have adapted to their environment. Factors such as temperature, light, humidity, soil, nutrients, etc. can affect them, regardless of race or environment. However organisms also change their positions and systems. Through the history of our planet, many changes that have taken place in the long run are very significant. For example the incorporation of oxygen into our atmosphere. Anaerobic microorganisms break down carbon dioxide during their metabolic process to produce oxygen. This was followed by the development of plants and animals that use oxygen.

Environmental studies

Humans can be seen feeding on wildlife living in the ecosystem in a park. Ecology is the study of the interactions that take place in the biological environment. Part of this study examines the impact of human activities on the environment.

Ecology is a part of ecology and biology. However, the impact of humans on the environment is often misunderstood as ecology. Ecology is a very broad field of study. It contains a systematic study of the interaction between man and the environment. It explores the natural environment, the structured environment and the social environment.


Ecology is a major social and philosophical movement. This seeks to minimize the negative impact of human activities on the biological environment and to compensate for the effects of such impacts. Ecologists are particularly concerned about the impact on the natural environment. The most important of these are climate change, species extinction, environmental pollution, and the presence of natural forests that are not affected by external influences.One of the disciplines is to study the biological environment, including geographical information.

Environmental degradation

Environmental degradation is a major threat to world life. The environment around us is getting polluted day by day. The lifespan of world life is shrinking due to these pollution. This prevents a good healthy life. Human activities play a major role in polluting the environment. It has been realized that the best way to protect the environment is to remove pollution and have a good healthy life.

Population and environment

Thirty crore faces, said Bharathi. Bharat, which had a population of 30 crore during Bharati’s period, now has a population of over one hundred crore, increasing the population living area in the stable area of ​​the country. For this, forests and arable lands are being destroyed and houses and other buildings are being erected. More and more urban areas are appearing. All these pollute the environment to a great extent. Although the human race is educated and aware of the dangers of these, it does not exaggerate the notion that this is one of the social changes that can be brought about. This is likely to pose a great danger to the human race.

Environmental improvement measures

Awareness is created about the consequences of human activities for their descendants and society in the future, and steps are taken to improve it.

The New seven Wonders of the World

The New Seven Wonders of the World (New 7 Wonders of the World, 2000-2007) is an update on the idea of ​​the Seven Wonders of the World with a list of new wonders. The New7 Wonders Foundation, a private company, organized a celebrity poll, and the winners were announced on July 7, 2007 in Lisbon, Portugal.

The Swiss-based New seven Wonders Foundation reports that more than 100 million people have registered to vote online or over the phone. This poll is considered “absolutely unscientific” because there is no way to prevent one person from registering multiple votes. According to John Jogby, founder and current chairman / CEO of Jogby International, a Washington – based poll firm, the New7Wonders Foundation has conducted “the largest poll ever recorded in history.”

The project received a wide range of official reactions. Some countries sought to garner more votes for their finals, while others ignored or criticized the contest. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which initially supported the New 7 Wonders Foundation at the beginning of the campaign and provided advice on the selection of miracles, withdrew from the organization in 2007.

Additional monuments were supported by websites dedicated to them or by strong support advertisements on national websites. National leaders and celebrities in many countries have encouraged the New 7 Wonders campaign. New7Wonders reports that the number of registered voters and the geographical and cultural diversity of the registered voters show that its mission of global dialogue and cultural exchange has been achieved.

Founded in 2001, the New7Wonders Foundation operates with private donations and broadcasting rights and does not accept any public money or taxpayer money. Following the announcement of the decision, New7 Wonders stated that it had not received any returns and was able to recoup some of its investment.

Bernard Weber, chairman of the New7Wonders Foundation, called the referendum on the New Seven Wonders of the World the first global democratic process in human history. The Foundation launched a similar competition in 2007 called the New7Wonders of Nature, and applications were accepted until November 11, 2011. New7Wonders Cities is a project currently in progress. The referendum will be held until January 2014.

Herodotus (484 BC – 425 BC) and Callimachus (305 – 240 BC) go back in time to think of the seven wonders of the world, including the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Hanging Garden of Babylon, the Statue of Zeus in Ephesus, Ephesus The list includes the Temple of Artemis, the Maserati Monument in Halicarnassus, the Colossus of Rhodes and the Alexandria Lighthouse. Only the Great Pyramid of Giza still stands. The other six were destroyed by an earthquake, fire, or other cause

According to New7 Wonders’ Milestones page, the project was launched in September 1999 by Bernard Weber, a Canadian film director and pilot based in Switzerland. The project’s website was launched in 2001. Weber donated $ 700 to a site operating from Canada. To be included in this new list, miracles must be man-made, completed by the year 2000, and preserved in an acceptable way. As of November 24, 2005, 177 monuments were under consideration.

As of January 1, 2006, there are only 21 sites on the list, with a team of six of the world’s foremost architects from five continents, including Saga Hadith, Caesar Belle, Tado Anto, Harry Seattler, Aziz Diobe, and Jung Ho Chang, a former UNESCO leader. New7Wonders said it was selected by Director General Professor Petrico Meyer. The remains of the Seven Old Wonders of the World, the Giza Pyramids, were removed from the poll and the list was reduced to 20, with the Giza Pyramid being awarded the prestigious New 7 Wonders Eligibility.

The project decided the reasons for each final choice, such as the diligence of the Great Wall of China, the love for the Taj Mahal, and the awe of the Easter Island statues. A top 10 list, including 7 victory symbols in between, as well as the Acropolis, Easter Island, and the Eiffel Tower, was published with points. Former UNESCO Director-General Petrico Meyer was the individual chairman of the project’s expert panel. The New 7 Wonders is not affiliated with UNESCO.


Organizers said the primary goal of the campaign was to promote global exchange and admiration between cultures. In addition, the New7Wonders created a so-called “World Memory”, which means 7 things that everyone around the world will remember and share. New7Wonders also seeks to use a portion of the proceeds from competition between world-renowned monuments, future polls, related businesses, and voter database usage, [20] to build or support various recovery projects around the world.

Raising awareness about the world’s unique cultural sites has always been a goal of New7Wonders. Newsweek and MSNBC reported on July 5, 2007, “It would be wonderful to cultivate this feeling.”

Honours of war

The honours of war are a set of privileges that are granted to a defeated army during their surrender pomp. This honours symbolises the bravery of the defeated army and grew to a custom during thee age early modern warfare.

When full honour of war are granted the army can March-out with its flag flying, drum beats out and beyonets fixed. During the occasion the Musketman matches on the both tye ends of the musket balls and keep it in their mouth which takes place during the matchlock era. When they are marching out they can play any music of their choice which is customarily an enemy tune. Yet, there is no need for the defeated army to select an enemy tune. The British Army at the battles of saratoga play the tune of the British Geranadiers.

After the March out the defeated army will arrange their arms and they will give any of teh government property to the victor, however the officers the take their own possessions. The defeated army can also take couple of cannons with them and also along with the symbolic supply of ammunition.

It was common for the commanders to stack the honours of war in retaliation for some other incidents. The American’s refused the honours of war when they surrendered after the Seige of Charleston. When declining the surrender of British Army at Yorktown a year later the American general George Washington insisted that the same honours will be provided for the surrendering Army as wore granted to the Garrison of Charles Town. As a result the British army had to March with flags and their band play was “A British or German March”

This Honours of war is considered to be a symbol of valiant defense. Therefore the Victorious general can also refuse to give the honours of war for the surrendering army if the general feels that the general feels that their enemies had given up too easily. For example, after the death of British Commander who was killed by the shot of Cannonball at the Battle of Fort Oswego his replacement quickly decided to give up and so the French general refuse to grant the honours of war as the general Little hales had not put up enough of a fight against them.

The honours of war became traditional during the early modern warfare, when the blockades were more common which made it difficult to corner the defeated army after the victory. However this practice continued in the age of industrial welfare.

After the seige of Metz the Prussians offered the honours of war to the French but the French general refused to talk it and in world war II the Germans offered the honours of war to the French general at the seige of lille. The British granted the Honours of War to the defeated Italian Army at the Battle of Amba Alagi.

independent children

Teaching a child to be independent is important because it teaches them to think for themselves, be self reliant and take on responsibilities in life. When you teach them to be independent, you are also helping them become confident adults who will successful in life. To become successful in life, you need to work for success by overcoming all the odds, at the same time believing in yourself. Fostering independence in kids give them the ability to believe in themselves. Many people push through their days and live their whole lives not doing the things they dream of, only because they are afraid. They don’t believe in themselves. They are afraid of failing and they have all these limiting beliefs that hold them back when they want to attempt something. Many of them come from childhood programming. As I live through and fight against my own limiting beliefs that got instilled in me as a child, I realize how much I can do as a mother to make my children’s life different. I know that if I teach them to be self reliant, they will grow up being more sure of themselves and venture out into their dreams. They won’t be afraid of failure and trying new things. Some of the things we should do to raise independent children are :

  1. LET GO OF YOUR FEAR AND SENSE OF CONTROL-If you have raised a toddler, you know how strong their will to be independent can be. There is no stopping them because they think they can do anything. If you have noticed children in general, they don’t have self doubts about what they can do anything and offer us help too. It is us adults who restrict children because we think of them as incapable. Of course, we can’t let them do anything they ask for. But we need to think before restricting them. So often I have been amazed by the ability of the kids to help in the kitchen or other household chores because I had clearly underestimated them. But if they insist, they should let them do it, it’s far better than how parents thought it would be. Therefore, now we should let go of may fear and the need to control. This alone can help them try various things and increase confident. Instead of judging them and saying”No” outright, we can say, “Let’s try to do this”.
  2. AGE APPROPRIATE CHORES-Encouraging kids to take part in household chores is a good idea to make them independent. Understand your child’s abilities and entrust them with appropriate tasks. Your son may not be able to do what your friend’s son does. Each child has different abilities. Therefore, don’t pressurize or compare them with others. The aim is to make them independent, not compare them with others and make them feel bad about themselves. It will lead to just the opposite effect, that is, develop low self esteem and a belief of “not good enough”.
  3. LET THEM FAIL-It might feel bad when you see the child struggling with something. You don’t want him to suffer. And love for him might interfere and you will want to do it for him. Children can sense your fear and it will gradually cause children to lose self confidence and have a tendency to be more dependent. So, let them do what they want on their own. Or if you think they are old enough to take care of some of their activities, encourage them to do it. You need to stop in only when something life- threatening happens. Otherwise, just trust and let go of your protective instincts. When they fail, let them try again and again. In fact, there is nothing called “failure’ in life. There are only “lessons”. Every time you try something and fail to achieve the desired result, you learn something new. This will open new perspective for them to view life.
  4. MAKE THE HOME ENVIRONMENT SUPPORTIVE-Kids can start doing the tasks that they want if we can set up home environment accordingly. Keep their clothes, toys, utensils and other belonging on the lower parts of storage shelves, so that they don’t have to seek your help for completing chores. You can ask them to get ready to school on their own. And also, they can pick up the toys after playing and put it back without anyone’s help. Keep a safe stool in the bathroom so that the toddler can brush his teeth by himself. Or, reach for things that will help him accomplish his tasks.
  5. LET THEM RESPONSIBILITY FOR THEIR ACTIONS-Kids should understand that there are consequences for their actions. Let them face it so that they learn their lesson from experience. For example, if the child keeps forgetting about keeping books in his bag according to the timetable, let him face the natural consequence once. The lesson from his experience will be far more effective than your constant verbal reminders. When he faces the natural consequences, he will be more self dependent on making changes. For smaller kids, you can them clean the mess they make or make them pick up the toys and ask them to keep everything where they belong.
  6. TEACH THEM TO MANAGE MONEY-Teaching kids about money management is a life skill that will decide how independent and successful they will be in the future. The child should be taught to able to let go of so many impulsive purchases and save money and regret, by asking this question to myself. And that decision would most probably be right. When kids ask for more toys, you should remind them about the toys they already have and that they simply don’t need another one now. Instill saving habits in them by encouraging them to save. If they want to buy a toy, help them count and save money for the target amount from their allowances. Now, I won’t ask my young kids to save money for whatever they want to buy. We provide for them and but them what they need.

Indian airlines fleet contract by 15 to 20 aircraft less than 700 in current fiscal year through March 2022

indian airlines are renewed pressure to raise cash or face the risk of having to downsize consolidate or having their planes repossessed by lessors as a surge of Covid 19 virus infections rolls traveller passengers traffic fell by nearly 30% in April from a month before and has halved again so far in the may forcing the country, s biggest and most cashed up carrier,INDIGO,in act,Indigo,s Parent, interglobe aviation (INGL.NS) met on Friday to consider an equity raising just months after it abandoned plans to raise up to 40 million rupees ($543)million) in January in response to a speedy recovery in travel interglobe has decided to continue exploring all options to increase liquidity including by a way of share sale to investors, the company told the stock exchange with traffic plummeting according to avaition minister data IndiGo cash burns in expected to raise to $3.4million a day a level last seen in September from $2 million a day at the end of 2020,am analyst who tracks the company said this means Indigo which has more than a 50% share of a market may took to Raise $543 million to $679 million amounting to at least two quarters to cash burn said the analyst who was declined to be named as he was not authorized to speak publicly while Indigo is seen as a survivor, the situation is worse for smaller carriers particularly whose without large backers, some of which were struggling before the novel coronavirus hit,analyst said.india haven’t provided much government assistance or support to private airlines will need to turn to private sector, independent Aviation analyst brendan sobie said,, the cash all comes from inian carriers are expected to report total losses of$4 to $4.5 billion in the fiscal year that ended on the march 31 and will lose similar amount this year avaition consultancy CAPA india said a note on this week with more people losing loved ones and the outlook of the economy jobs and incomes coming down a recovery in domestic travel which had been expected by the end of 2021 may not come until a least the first quarter of 2022,estimate to make matters worse ,several countries including Britain and united states with which the state which india had been bilateral arrangements to operate charter flights for restricted arrivals because of high infections rate the charter offered a lucrative revenue stream for local carriers from Indian government shutdown regular international flights with the pandemic hit a recovery in international traffic to pre covid levels is expected only by 2024,CAPA says smaller carriers such as spicejet put Ltd privately owned Goair could come under the pressure of reduce capacity find partner of consolidate, analyst say particular as aircraft lessoner take a harder line spicejet said it passengers and cargo business engaged…….the airline in less talks with tenders of debt and private investors for further capitalism the airlines spokesman have adding that is also expectsthe compensation due to Boeing (BA.n)for the 737_max aircraft to bloster its finance…CAPA expects 250 to 300 planes to be grounded in the first half of the current fiscal year while lessors might not be a patient as last year in allowed delayed repayment now air travel is resuming in places such as the United States and China there is more demand for aircraft and they would rather have the asset back then let airlines use it for free and depreciate it said Sanjeev Kapoor, former chief commercial officer of indian airlines vistara This hopefully will be a temporary setback for all airlines we will have to see it,if all the players will be able to weather the storm said sobie.Reporting by aditi shah in New delhi and Jamie freed in Sydney .

How Does an Automatic Transmission Work?

#Autotransmission #autogear

Most automobiles use a form of automatic transmission called a hydraulic planetary automatic transmission, which is also used in a scaled-up version in some industrial and commercial equipment and heavy-duty vehicles. The friction clutch is replaced by fluid coupling and the system defines a set of gear ranges depending on the needs of the auto. When you put the vehicle in park, all the gears lock to prevent the car from rolling forward or backward.less common option is the automated manual transmission (AMT). Sometimes called a semi-automatic transmission, this model pairs the clutches and gears of a manual transmission with a set of actuators, sensors, processors, and pneumatics. AMTs operate like an automatic while providing the affordability and fuel-saving benefits of a manual transmission. With this type of transmission, the driver can manually shift gears or opt for automatic shifting. Either way, he or she does not need to use the clutch, which is operated by a hydraulic system.

History of the Automatic Transmission General Motors and REO both released semi-automatic vehicle transmissions in 1934. These models posed fewer challenges than the traditional manual transmission but still required the use of a clutch to change gears. The GM transmission was the first of its kind to use a hydraulically controlled planetary gearbox, allowing the gears to shift depending on the vehicle’s travel speed.The planetary transmission was one of the most important developments on the road to the modern automatic transmission. Although GM was the first to use the version with hydraulic controls, this technology actually dates to a 1900 invention by Wilson-Pilcher. That innovation consisted of four forward gears on two trains that could be shifted with a single lever.

Operation of an Automatic Transmission

The most common type of automatic transmission uses hydraulic power to shift gears. According to How Stuff Works, this device combines a torque or fluid coupling converter with gearsets that provide the desired range of gears for the vehicle. The torque converter connects the engine to the transmission and uses pressurized fluid to transfer power to the gears. This apparatus replaces a manual friction clutch and lets the vehicle come to a complete stop without stalling.Information from Art of Manliness depicts the operation of an automatic transmission. As the engine transmits power to the pump of the torque converter, the pump converts this power into transmission fluid that powers the turbine of the torque converter. This apparatus increases the power of the fluid and transmits even more power back to the turbine, which creates a vortex power rotation that spins the turbine and the attached central shaft. The power created by this rotation is then transmitted from the shaft to the transmission’s first planetary gear set.This type of transmission has what is called hydraulic control.

The transmission fluid is pressurized by an oil pump, which allows the speed to change depending on the vehicle’s speed, tire revolutions per minute, and other factors. The gear pump is placed between the planetary gearset and torque converter, where it pulls and pressurizers transmission fluid from a sump. The pump input leads directly to the housing of the torque converter attached to the flexplate of the engine. When the engine is not running, the transmission does not have the oil pressure needed to operate and thus the vehicle cannot be push-started.The planetary gear train is a mechanical system in which the gears are connected with a set of bands and clutches. When the driver changes gears, the bands hold one gear still while rotating another to transmit torque from the engine and increase or decrease gears.The different gears are sometimes called the sun gear, the ring gear, and the planetary gear. The arrangement of the gears determines how much power will flow from one gear to another and out to the drive train of the vehicle when you shift.

Gears of an Automatic Transmission The gears of an automatic transmission include the following:According to How a Car Works, when you shift your vehicle into drive, you engage all available forward gear ratios. This means that the transmission can move between its full range of gears as needed. Six-speed automatic transmissions are the most common number of gears, but older cars and entry-level compact cars may still have either four or five automatic gears.Third gear either locks the transmission in third gear or limits it to the first, second, and third gear ratios. This provides the power and traction needed to go either uphill or downhill or to tow a boat, RV, or trailer. When the engine reaches a designated level of revolutions per minute (RPM), most vehicles automatically drop third gear to keep the engine from harm.Second gear either locks the transmission in second gear or limits it to the first and second gear ratios. This gear is ideal for going uphill and downhill in slippery conditions as well as driving during ice, snow, and other types of inclement weather.First gear is used when you want to lock the transmission in first gear, although some vehicles will automatically switch out of this gear to protect the engine at a certain RPM. Like second and third gear, this gear is best used for towing, driving uphill or downhill, and when traveling during slippery, icy conditions.

Advantages of an Automatic Transmission According to How Stuff Works, the biggest advantage of an automatic transmission is the ability to drive without the need for a clutch as is required with a manual transmission. Individuals with many disabilities are able to drive using an automatic since operation only requires two usable limbs.

The lack of a clutch also eliminates the need to pay attention to shifting manually and monitoring the tachometer to make the necessary shifts, which gives you more attention to focus on the task of driving.

Many drivers also find it easier to control an automatic transmission at low speeds than a manual transmission. The hydraulic automatic transmission creates a phenomenon called idle creep, which encourages the vehicle to move forward even when idling.