Sex education in India

Sex education is the instruction of issues related to human sexuality and to help young people gain information about sexual activity including emotional relations, consent and awareness about sexual abuse.

It is often believed that these educative values would necessarily lead to identity formation and affect the behavioral patterns of the children. It has been observed that excessive ‘openness’ towards simply knowing about same gender relationships, especially when these relationships are presented in a positive way, can make child more likely to become ‘homosexual’. School is not considered to be the ideal place where much concern should be provided to the idea of homosexuality.

In India, topics such as menstruation and homosexuality are avoided and much more emphasis is given on HIV/AIDS infection. Regardless of the growing child abuse and rape cases, there is no heed paid to explaining these kind of issues to teenagers, let even differentiating between non-sexual and sexual touch. A study conducted by The Ministry of Women’s and Children Development revealed that 53% of children between 5 to 12 years have been sexually abused which was mostly the parents doing, legal guardians or a close member of the family. Many programs were initiated by the government to educate children about Sexual Education, body image, violence and abuse, especially drugs and other toxic attitudes like Adolescent Education Program, The Adolescence Reproductive and Sexual Health Education etc. were banned by most of the states because the programs content were considered ‘inappropriate’. There has been this constant claim that sexual education will spread risky behavior among teens and adolescents.

The sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents in India are overlooked or are simply not understood by the healthcare system. Due to the cultural and traditional “norms” of the society and their homophobic behaviour, topics like these are prevented from being publicly expressed.

In 2014, India’s Health Minister Harsh Vardhan expressed his thoughts about Sex Ed, further leading to ban it and said instead of that yoga should be made compulsory in schools. According to him it was against the Indian values. His comments about these raised an uproar among opposers. Around the same time as Vardhan’s comments, the right wing group Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Shiksha Bachao Andolan Samiti led an attack against teachers and schools that included threats of physical violence against teachers and schools that dared to carry out the 2007 health education program.

And after years of Sex Education being banned in India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced an sexual education program in 2018. In this program students will be taught about sexual violence and health among other topics.

We need to make sure that parents and legal guardians are able to improve interpersonal interactions with adolescents and can help in creating spaces for dialogues that are free of stigma and bias. This might be the most sustainable way to improve outcomes in adolescent sexual and reproductive health.

The biggest barrier towards sexual education in India will probably be cultural norms against talking about sex. These norms are heavily ingrained in Indian society. However, India is making small but important steps to provide more comprehensive sex education.

-Emily Joy Oomen

Biography – Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel

Vallabhbhai Patel was born on October 31, 1875, in Nadiad, Gujarat, India. He was Indian lawyer and statesman, one of the heads of the Indian National Congress during the fight for Indian independence. During the first three years of Indian independence after 1947, he worked as deputy prime minister, minister of home affairs, minister of information, and minister of states.

Early life and legal career

Patel was born into a family of self-sufficient landowning family of the Leva Patidar caste. Raised in an impression of traditional Hinduism, he took admission in primary school at Karamasad and high school at Petlad but was mostly self-taught. Patel wedded at the age of 16, graduated at 22, and passed the district pleader’s examination, which allowed him to rehearse law. In 1900 he set up an self-governing office of district advocate in Godhra, and after two years he shifted to Borsad.

As a advocate, Patel differentiated himself in staging an incontrovertible case in a accurate way and in confronting police witnesses and British judges. In 1908 Patel lost his wife, who had borne him a son and daughter, and afterwards endured as a widower. Determined to improve his career in the legal profession. Patel toured to London in August 1910 to study at the Middle Temple. There he learnt industriously and approved the final examinations with high honors.

Political philosophy

In the vital debate over the aimsof the Indian National Congress during the years 1928 to 1931, Patel trusted that the goal of the Indian National Congress should be power status within the British Commonwealth—not independence. In comparison to Jawaharlal Nehru, who overlooked violence in the fight for independence, Patel governed armed revolution, not on ethical but on practical grounds. Patel held that it would be unsuccessful and would involve severe suppression. Patel, like Gandhi, saw benefits in the future contribution of a free India in a British Commonwealth, offered that India was permitted as an equal member. He highlighted the want to nurture Indian self-reliance and self-confidence, but, dissimilar to Gandhi, he did not honour Hindu-Muslim unity as a prerequisite for independence.

Patel differed with Jawaharlal Nehru on the want to bring about economic and social changes by compulsion. A tradition rooted in traditional Hindu values, Patel demeaned the practicality of adapting collective ideas to the Indian social and economic structure. He trusted in free enterprise, thus gaining the trust of conservative elements, and thereby gathered the funds that continued the activities of the Indian National Congress.

Patel was the second applicant after Gandhi to the presidency of the 1929 Lahore session of the Indian National Congress. Gandhi avoided the presidency in an effort to avoid the adoption of the resolution of independence and exerted pressure on Patel to withdraw, thus, Jawaharlal Nehru was elected. During the 1930 Salt Satyagraha, Patel helped three months’ custody. In March 1931 Patel controlled over the Karachi session of the Indian National Congress.

The secrets to happiness

Having good, supportive friendships, a strong marriage or close and loving relationships with our family members will make us much more likely to be happy.
Action steps: Take time, today, to spend time with your loved ones, to tell them what they mean to you, to listen to them, and develop your relationship with them.

People find greatest enjoyment not when they’re passively mindless, but when they’re absorbed in a mindful challenge. This is flow, when we’re so immersed in our task that we lose track of time.
Action steps: Find work and hobbies that you’re passionate about and that fully engage you.

These are some of the best indicators of people who lead happy lives. Happy people feel empowered, in control of their lives, and have a positive outlook on life.
Action steps: Get into the habit of squashing all negative thoughts and replacing them with positive ones.

Discover The Path to Happiness - Online Course - FutureLearn

Things within us that to appreciate – they can make us happy, no matter what’s going on outside:

  1. Being generous

2. Being loving and kind

3. Feeling compassion and empathy

4. Being skilled at something

5. Being a good listener

6. Knowing how to appreciate the beauty in nature and in others

7. Being determined

8. Being creative.

Phenomena that happen outside of us don’t cause happiness. They might be correlated with happiness but it’s not a cause-and-effect relationship.
The most important part is what happens in our brain between the external event (a good cup of coffee) and our state of happiness.

The key skill is to learn to notice, accept and appreciate everything around us, and everyone we see and interact with.
Often if we fail to see good in things or people around us (or ourselves), it’s a failure to pay close attention. All around us are examples of beauty, creativity, inspiration, triumph, pain, joy, life.

Benefits of Internships

People at times become a bit doubtful when deciding whether or not to take an internship. Frequently, when newly graduating you lack sufficient experience to get a full-time stable job, so internships, traineeships and work experience are your only choices.

Although, we require to stop considering these things negatively and think of everything we can obtain from internships and work placements. They are frequently the best option for you because you want to get a feel for work without being thrown into the deep end straight away and this gives you with the opportunity to learn and grow.

Here are 5 reasons you should take the internship and feel good about your decision:

1. To gain experience.

You lack experience and this is the solitary way to get it. The finest experience hail from internships because you get to do a bit of the whole thing! You get to observe and experience the special roles that people play in particular companies and glance the working life from different perspectives. This is nice to take into the working world with you because at times, you will be enquired to do various tasks including different elements of the company. This way, you would have already had a go at things and comprehended how to multitask.

2. To have a better understanding.

An internship permits you to take time to realize your role, responsibilities and the industry. Internships want you to leave knowledge more than you came with, and this is most likely the result. Take this chance to recognize each task you are given and each new tool you use. Scribble things down, ask questions and do things repeatedly to make sure you are doing everything with 100% effort.

3. Have the opportunity to learn and watch.

You can learn from the best during an internship. People will be viewing over you and working carefully with you on projects so that you have somebody to consult to and a goal to work towards. Maybe you will learn new skills from these people and new things about the industry and life that you didn’t saw before. Communication and relations is key so ask plenty of questions and don’t be afraid to offer new ideas!

4. Gain the ability to put new things into practice.

You can attempt new skills and tools without the burden of being wrong and doing any mistake. Internships are a time to try new things and do experiment, and people who employ you for that internship know that. They suppose you to learn from your mistakes and apply this as motivation to get better at the things you were not so great at before! Take these new ideas and skills to your next job and find a way to include them into any tasks you are given.

5. To communicate

Internships provide you the chance to work with both independently and within a team. You study to communicate in new ways to build professional working relationships with people of all ages. This is good because it permits you to be open to other people’s ideas and to get imaginative in a team in order to construct better ideas and eventually, to build a better company.

Commitment issues

Many people have unrealistic expectations of dieting, viewing it as a temporary solution, seeking immediate results, or resorting to exotic and extreme fad diets.
Balance and moderation should be your motto, and you should never give up. Good health practices become a habit and a way of life.

Sleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin). When you don’t get enough sleep, your level of ghrelin goes up and your level of leptin goes down; this makes you feel hungrier than when you’re well-rested.
Get 7-8 hours of sleep around the same time each night and you will be ready to seize the day.

By incorporating a little exercise whenever possible — such as choosing to walk or bike instead of driving, or taking the stairs instead of the elevator — you will burn calories and slowly build up stamina.
If you’re timing your meals right and getting enough sleep, you should have plenty of rest and energy to burn more calories than you’re consuming.

Irregular eating schedules have subtle, yet traceable negative health effects and are associated with increased risks of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and inflammation.
Simply by staying in sync with your circadian rhythm will facilitate weight loss. Try eating breakfast every day within one hour of waking up, then having a healthy snack or meal every three to four hours.

By keeping an honest diet journal, you can begin to have a better awareness of your calorie intake. Dieters who keep a daily food diary tend to lose twice as much weight as those who do not.
There are many other important factors to consider in choosing your next meal. For example, if the food you eat contains fiber, it will keep you feeling full longer, which can prevent you from reaching for “extra” calories in order to fill yourself up.

1.) Get painfully candid with yourself about your food intake. Be aware of every bite that crosses your lips that has a calorie attached to it.

2.) Set a pattern of consistency with the way you eat so you can see your trends and areas of opportunity to modify. While not every day will go off without a hitch, you can string together more days if you have a system for tracking the days you were on or not.

3.) Realize that your path will have potholes and detours. Plan for them, expect them and have a workaround for when they occur (also know as “Plan B”, “In The Event Of Emergency” or “Things I Crave When It’s That Time Of The Month.”)

4.) Commit to a longer term than something which promises results in 30-days or less. No one fixed their marriage, their job or their outlook on life in less than 30 days. Your food plan will be no different.

5.) Try to have some fun along the way. Learn to experiment with different recipes, cuisines and cultures to develop a wider palette of tastes and foods.

Causes of stress

What Causes Stress in the Workplace?

Stress points certainly vary among industries and different roles, but many overlap. These can include:

Downsizing

A bad economy or a company experiencing a budget crunch leads to downsizing. Every worker, whether hourly or salaried, experience stress from the fear of losing their job, particularly if they see others around them getting the pink slip.

Increased work loads

When there are layoffs, other workers are required to pick up the extra load. This is both physically and mentally exhausting. Salaried workers may find themselves putting in longer hours to get their work done without the benefit of overtime, and hourly workers may be forced to work harder to get the job done in the same amount of time. Either way, it’s stressful.

Pressure to perform

A workplace that fixates heavily on measuring performance and productivity might not realize that those things are putting stress on workers.

Longer work hours.

Foreign Markets entry strategy-an overview

Direct Export

The organisation produces their product in their home market and then sells them to customers overseas.

Indirect Export

The organisations sells their product to a third party who then sells it on within the foreign market.

Licensing

Another less risky market entry method is licensing. Here the Licensor will grant an organisation in the foreign market a license to produce the product, use the brand name etc. in return that they will receive a royalty payment.

Franchising

Franchising is another form of licensing. Here the organisation puts together a package of the ‘successful’ ingredients that made them a success in their home market and then franchise this package to overseas investors. The Franchise holder may help out by providing training and marketing the services or product. McDonalds is a popular example of a Franchising option for expanding in international markets.

Financial Consultant

consultant is essentially the same . They often offer a number of services, with their financial advice being based on the client’s specific needs and goals. In some cases, a financial consultant may have more financial planning experience than the typical financial advisor. Financial consultants usually provide investment services as well, though. To find a financial advisor or consultant in your

What Is a Financial Consultant?

“Financial consultant” is a somewhat antiquated term that’s largely been replaced by the term “financial advisor.” Financial consultants may work for a firm or as a self-employed contractor, and their clients may be companies or individuals.

In short, financial consultants offer personalized advice to help investors build wealth. They may offer financial planning, identify well-suited investments and guide insurance decisions. They often direct the buying and selling like stocks and bonds, on their clients’ behalf. Some may also sell financial products.

A financial consultant usually meets with clients to assess their financial situation before they make any recommendations. Any time a client experiences a major life change (marriagethey’ll likely request another meeting.

Consultants also spend time marketing their businesses. They often travel and work outside normal business hours to accommodate their clients’ schedules.

Social Responsibility for Business

Social Responsibility

What Is Social Responsibility?

Social responsibility means that businesses, in addition to maximizing value, must act in a manner that benefits society. Social responsibility has become increasingly important to investors and consumers who seek investments that are not just profitable but also contribute to the welfare of society and the environment. However, critics argue that the basic nature of business does not consider society as a st

KEY TAKEAWAYS

  • Social responsibility means that businesses, in addition to maximizing shareholder value, should act in a manner that benefits society.
  • Socially responsible companies should adopt policies that promote the well-being of society and the environment while lessening negative impacts on them.
  • Companies can act responsibly in many ways, such as promoting volunteering, making changes that benefit the environment, and engaging in charitable giving.
  • Consumers are more actively looking to buy goods and services from socially responsible companies, hence impacting their profitability.
  • Critics assert that being socially responsible is the opposite of why businesses exist.

What is Corporate Social Responsibility?

Understanding Social Responsibility

Social responsibility means that individuals and companies have a duty to act in the best interests of their environment and society as a whole. Social responsibility, as it applies to business, is known as (CSR), and is becoming a more prominent area of focus within businesses due to shifting social norms.

The crux of this theory is to enact policies that promote an ethical balance between the dual mandates of striving for profitability and benefiting society as a whole. These policies can be either ones of commission (philanthropy: donations of money, time, or resources) or omission (e.g., “go green” initiatives like reducing greenhouse gases or abiding by EPA regulations to limit pollution).

Additionally, more and more investors and consumers are factoring in a company’s commitment to socially responsible practices before making an investment or purchase. As such, embracing social responsibility can benefit the prime directive: maximization of shareholder value.

There is a moral imperative, as well. Actions, or lack thereof, will affect future generations. Put simply, being socially responsible is just good business practice, and a failure to do so can have a deleterious effect on the balance sheet.

In general, social responsibility is more effective when a company takes it on voluntarily, as opposed to being required by the government to do so through regulation. Social responsibility can boost company morale, and this is especially true when a company can engage employees with its social causes.

Social Responsibility in Practice

emphasizes that a business’s ability to maintain a balance between pursuing economic performance and adhering to societal and environmental issues is a critical factor in operating efficiently and effectively. 

Social responsibility takes on different meanings within industries and companies. For example, Starbucks Corp. and Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Holdings Inc. have blended social responsibility into the core of their operations.

Both companies purchase Fair Trade Certified ingredients to manufacture their products and actively support sustainable farming in the regions where they source ingredients. Big-box retailer Target Corp., also well known for its social responsibility programs, has donated money to communities in which the stores operate, including education grants. 

The key ways a company embraces social responsibility include philanthropy, promoting volunteering, and environmental changes. Companies managing their environmental impact might look to reduce their carbon footprint and limit waste. There’s also the social responsibility of ethical practices for employees, which can mean offering a fair wage, which arises when there are limited employee protection laws.

Criticism of Social Responsibility

Not everyone believes that businesses should have a social conscience. Econ stated that “social responsibilities of business are notable for their analytical looseness and lack of rigor.” Friedman believed that only individuals can have a sense of social responsibility. Businesses, by their very nature, cannot. Some experts believe that social responsibility defies the very point of being in business: profit above all else.

ARTICLE SOURCES

Divestment vs Disinvestment

One of the most common reasons for both is to raise capital. Other common reasons include social or political pressures from third parties. There is very little difference between divestment and disinvestment, and both achieve the same goal of reducing and not replenishing capital.

Divestment

When a company divests, the company disposes of part or all of its business. Divestments commonly occur when a particular division of a company does not live up to its expectations. This can result from financial reasons or because the division has violated the principles of the parent company. Another common reason for divestment is social pressure placed on a company conducting business in or with a country that has an unfavorable political climate.

Disinvestment

Disinvestment, also known as divestiture, occurs when an organization liquidates or sells part of its assets or an entire division without the intent of reinvesting in it. The divestiture typically occurs so that the organization can use the assets to improve another division. A disinvestment can occur with the sale of capital goods or closure of a division.

Interpersonal skills

Interpersonal Skills Definition

So what are interpersonal skills and why are they important? Before we get to examples, it is essential to first define interpersonal skills.

Interpersonal skills are the qualities and behaviors we exhibit while interacting with other people. They are considered to be one of the most

We demonstrate them whenever we engage in any kind of verbal or nonverbal communication. In fact, qualities as basic as body language and attitude toward others

Strong interpersonal skills are a key indicator of success in a working environment, as benefits include the ability to cooperate with teammates to solve difficult problems, as well as simply enhancing your popularity around the office.

On the other hand, lacking them might lead to conflicts with colleagues or management and cause others to see you as a hindrance to getting the job done.

When applying for a position, consider what interpersonal skills are necessary in your target role and industry. You then need to make every effort to match those requirements with demonstrated examples from your own experiences.

After all, employers are not only looking for a candidate with the right credentials, but also one who will fit in with the culture of the company and contribute to its growth.

Business Communication-An overview

Managementcannot be performed well without effective communication.

Business communication involves constant flow of information. Feedback is integral part of business communication. Organizations these days are verly large and involve large number of people. There are various levels of hierarchy in an organization. Greater the number of levels, the more difficult is the job of managing the organization. Communication here plays a very important role in process of directing and controlling the people in the oragnization. Immediate feedback can be obtained and misunderstandings if any can be avoided. There should be effective communication between superiors and subordinated in an organization, between organization and society at large (for example between management and trade unions). It is essential for success and growth of an organization. Communication gaps should not occur in any organization.

Leadership in organisation

Leadership Basics

What is Leadership

Leadership is a process by which an executive can direct, guide and influence the behavior and work of others towards accomplishment of specific goals in a given situation. Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce the subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.

Leadership is the potential to influence behaviour of others. It is also defined as the capacity to influence a group towards the realization of a goal. Leaders are required to develop future visions, and to motivate the organizational members to want to achieve the visions.

According to Keith Davis, “Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives enthusiastically. It is the human factor which binds a group together and motivates it towards goals.”

Characteristics of Leadership

  1. It is a inter-personal process in which a manager is into influencing and guiding workers towards attainment of goals.
  2. It denotes a few qualities to be present in a person which includes intelligence, maturity and personality.
  3. It is a group process. It involves two or more people interacting with each other.
  4. A leader is involved in shaping and moulding the behaviour of the group towards accomplishment of organizational goals.
  5. Leadership is situation bound. There is no best style of leadership. It all depends upon tackling with the situations.

Foreign Direct investment- An overview

Foreign Direct Investment or FDI

Foreign Direct Investment, or FDI, is one of the most crucial channels of direct investments between countries. Unlike Foreign Portfolio Investment or FPIs, an investor in one country can hold a controlling stake of any business or organisation in a foreign country that receives the investment. FDI is also a significant and insightful indicator of a certain country’s political and socio-economic stability.

This essentially implies a country that receives large amounts of investments from foreign entities on a regular basis is more likely to have a dynamic and vibrant economy.

Understanding Foreign Direct Investment Better

Foreign investments can be either ‘organic’ or ‘inorganic’. With organic investments, a foreign investor will pump in funds to expand and accelerate growth in established businesses. Inorganic investments are instances when an investing entity buys out a business in their target country.

In developing and emerging economies like India and other parts of South-East Asia, FDIs offer a much-needed fillip to businesses which may be in poor financial shape. The Government of India has undertaken several measures to ensure that larger chunks of investments pour into the country across sectors including defence production, the telecom sector, PSU oil refineries and IT.

Since Foreign Direct Investment is a non-debt financial resource, it has the potential to become a major driver of economic development in India.

Globalisation and internationalisation are 2 factors which made FDI possible. However, the celebrated Canadian economist Stephen Hymer, considered the ‘Father of International Business‘, theorised in the 1960s that foreign investments would continue growing rapidly because –

  • It provided control over companies in a foreign land.
  • It helped certain business sectors overthrow monopolistic practices, and
  • Most importantly, since market imperfections will always exist, such investments provide companies with a cushioning effect if there was a sharp and unpredictable decline in business activity.

Perks of Maintaining Day Journal/Diary

There are several reasons why we should maintain journal. From travel journals, dream journals, gratitude journals to prayer journals, we keep specific journals for various parts of our life. Earlier, many people used to keep private journals, where they detailed their day’s events and their observations. Without memoir writer like Anne Frank and Samuel Pepys, we would not be able to know much about the personal side of our history. Though people nowadays keep blogs or vlogs, and record their lives on social media, very rare people among us jot in a journal and write down their experiences. So why not give it a try?

There are many perks of keeping a journal. Here are the top 8 reasons why you should start writing a journal today:

Keep your thoughts Arranged.

Diaries assist us to systematize our opinions and make them understandable. We can jot daily events, thoughts and feelings about certain occurrences or opinions.

Help you to progress your writing.

Journaling assists you to train your writing. If you want to rehearse or expand on your writing, one of the finest things to do is to start a journal. You may not have the flawless topic. All you need to do is to start writing your thoughts and opinions in Journey. The more you write, the more your writing improves.

Set & achieve your goals.

A journal is a suitable place to write your goals, objectives, ambitions and new year resolutions. By maintaining them in a diary, you can check your progress and feel driven to continue to focus on your next milestone!

Record ideas on-the-go.

The pros of maintaining a daily journal is that you can record all of your ideas in one place anytime and at anywhere. At whatever time an idea comes to your mind, you can write it down in your journal. You can then re-enter into these ideas later on to look for new links, form conclusions or even get a fresh and new idea!

Releases stress.

Scripting down your feelings and moods helps you to “brain-dump” your worries, irritations and pains on a journal. This can help you to decrease and relieve any stress which you have gathered overtime. A good way to relive stress is to script in the flow of consciousness style first thing in the morning called “Morning pages”. You can also use the mood trailer found in Journey to signify your emotional level. Overall, conveying yourself in a diary is a fine way to let go any tension that restricts you from feeling happy.

Allow yourself to self-reflect.

As Ferris Bueller once said, “Life moves pretty fast. If you don’t stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” Our fast-paced lives can become even more frenzied as we start bearing on more responsibilities, making us feel the burden as others place high hopes on us. This causes in us getting hectic as we are easily caught up with the day-to-day.

Improves your memory.

Your brain is likely to accumulate information that you have written down in your diary. Your brain will make tougher connections with the information you have learnt after you jot them down in a diary, making it easier for you to remember in the future too!

Sustainable economy

Sustainable growth

Economic growth occurs increases over time. Real output is measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) at constant price so that the effect of price rises on the value of national output is rem

sustainableconomic growth means a rate of growth which can be maintained without creating other significant economic problems, especially for future generations. There is clearly a trade-off between rapid economic growth today, and growth in the future. Rapid growth today may exhaust resources and create environmental problems for future generations, including the depletion of oil and fish stocks, and global warming.

Periods of growth are often triggered by increases in AD, such as a rise in consumer spending, but sustained growth must involve an increase outputIf output does not increase, any extra demand will push up the prices level

Growth based on debt

In terms of sustainability, it may be argued that growth based on short-term public debt, rather than long term productivity, is unsustainable – hence worries about the build-up of sovereign d

PPFs and economic growth

For an economy to continue to grow in the future, it needs to increase its capacity to grow.  An increase in an economy’s productive potential can be shown by an outward shift in the economy’s PPF.

Covid consequences on economy A short overview

COVID-19 is not only a global pandemic and public health crisis; it has also severely affected the global economy and financial markets. Significant reductions in income, a rise in unemployment, and disruptions in the transportation, service, and manufacturing industries are among the consequences of the disease mitigation measures that have been implemented in many countries. It has become clear that most governments in the world underestimated the risks of rapid COVID-19 spread and were mostly reactive in their crisis response. As disease outbreaks are not likely to disappear in the near future, proactive international actions are required to not only save lives but also protect economic prosperity.

Foreign Trade and International Trades

What is foreign trade and international trade

Trade

Trade itself is confused with foreign trade in its origin, since from the beginning of time, one community when negotiating with the other, were already practicing this trade, initially exchanging goods for merchandise, and then, by finding a commodity as standard (the salt, for example), began to use it as currency until we got to the paper money.

Commercial activity can be internal (within the country) or international (between countries). International trade is a branch of the commercial sciences that make up the Political Economy.

International Trade

It is the set of studies and commercial operations between two or more countries where there is exchange of goods, services and/or capital.

Foreign Trade

It is the set of studies and commercial operations expressed in national rules, norms and laws.

Foreign Trade is executed by the State or Government and International Trade is exercised by companies and/or individuals and/or institutions. Therefore, when we study the Foreign Trade of a country, we are studying its rules, norms, laws and its commercial policy. And when we speak of International Trade, we are referring to exports and imports of goods, services and capital.

Export

It is the output of a commodity and/or service from a customs territory, generating a currency inflow (currency).

Import

It is the entry of a commodity and/or service into a customs territory, generating an outflow of currency (currency).

Ratio analysis

Ratio analysis is the process of examining and comparing financial information by calculating meaningful financial statement figure percentages instead of comparing line items from each financial statement.

Managers and investors use a number of different tools and comparisons to tell whether a company is doing well and whether it is worth investing in. The most common ways people analysis a company’s performance are horizontal analysi and ratio analysis. Horizontal and vertical analyzes compare a company’s performance over time and to a base or set of

SWOT ANALYSIS

What Is a SWOT Analysis?

SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, and so a SWOT Analysis is a technique for assessing these four aspects of your business.

You can use SWOT Analysis to make the most of what you’ve got, to your organization’s best advantage. And you can reduce the chances of failure, by understanding what you’re lacking, and eliminating hazards that would otherwise catch you unawares.

Better still, you can start to craft a strategy that distinguishes you from your competitors, and so compete successfully in your market

Career strategy

Career strategy is an organized way of developing capabilities, skills, understanding tools and their usage to achieve a desirable position or role in your career. It could be done on a personal level, and many organizations also do it for their employees. Following the few essential tips below can ensure that you get to the place you want to see yourself in the next five or ten years.

Tips to Have an Effective Career Strategy

  1. Focus:Being focused is very vital while devising a career strategy. It should not be a like a New Year resolution that is being followed for a couple of days. Additionally, all individuals have a varied interest and it is quite important to know where your heart is. For example, if you are planning to switch your career from an IT industry and moving into the creative field, even the specific creative field needs to be cleared defined.
  2. Know Your Past:Life experiences teach you more than any classroom could have done it for you. So sit down and look back at when you excelled in your performance and when you were the worst. What were the factors and influences at that time? Remembering your past has two advantages – first you could never forget your mistakes and never repeat them, and second you would always remember your well-wishers.
  3. Devise a Plan with a Strategy:You need a strategy to attack, and it should be unique enough to attract a group of people. For example, you thought about being a PRO trader in next five years and started reading all related material. However, a strategic move could be joining community of like minded people. Discussing your knowledge and ideas with these set of people would help you gain direct knowledge.Additionally, networking helps you build your contacts and crossing your comfort zone.
  4. Value your Ethics:When you know your work ethics matches the organization you are about to join, you would feel more motivated and challenged. Therefore, it is essential to know your ethics and value them.

Promotional strategy

What is Promotional Strategy?

Promotional strategy is a method used by companies to advertise, promote & sell their goods. A company chooses its promotional strategy based on factors like product type, marketing budget, target audience etc. It is a critical activity to increase product awareness & thereby increase sales. An effective promotional strategy gets more revenue as compared to the marketing spend.

Importance of Promotional Strategy

Promotion for any product or service is essential for any company. It is because only through promotion people would come to know about the product. Only after knowing about the product they consider purchasing. Since there are some many companies & brands competing to sell their products to the same set of customers, advertising & promotion are important tools to ensure each brand is differentiated & identified

Digital Marketing

What is digital marketing

also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not nd web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel.

Essentially, if a marketing campaign involves digital communication, it’s digital marketing.

Inbound marketing versus digital marketing

Digital marketing and inbound marketing and for good reason. Digital marketing uses many of the same tools as inbound marketing—email and online content, to name a few. Both exist to capture the attention of prospects through the buyer’s journey and turn them into customers. But the 2 approaches take different views of the relationship between the tool and

Digital marketing considers how each individual tool caprospects. A brand’s digital focus all of its efforts on 1 platform.

Inbound marketing is a holistic concept. It considers the goal first, then looks at the available tools to determine which will effectively reach target customers, and then at which stage of the sales funnel that should happen.

The most important thing to remember about digital marketing and inbound marketing is that as a marketing professional, you don’t have to choose between the 2. In fact, they work best together. Inbound marketing provides structure and purpose for effective digital marketing to digital marketing efforts, making sure that each digital marketing channel works toward a goal.

Customer Relations Management overview

Benefits of CRM 

Improves Customer Service

CRM manages all your contacts and aggregates lead and customer information to build profiles of everyone you interact with. This gives you easy access to important information on customer behavior like purchase records and previous communications with contacts across different channels (social media, chat, email, etc.). Customers won’t have to repeat their stories over and over to you, and you’ll be able to address issues with best practice and less effort for improved customer loyalty.

Increase in Sales

Streamlining and improving the sales process, building a sales pipeline, automating tasks, and analyzing your sales data will inevitably lead to one outcome—increased sales and sales productivity. CRM allows you to have all your customer-facing voice, chat, social media, and email touchpoints accessible in one place. You’ll clinch more deals by building a repeatable, proven sales process, and delivering the right message on the right channel at just the right time.

Retain More Customers

Retention and churn rates are extremely important determiners for a company’s success; customer churn is a major obstacle to business growth. CRM tools like sentiment analysis, automated ticketing, and customer support and customer service automation can dramatically improve your retention by letting human agents defuse problems. Analytics tools that look at customer life cycle can show you when churn happens and why, so you can identify and address pain points.

Better Analytics

Analytical CRM tools make your data available, intelligible, and relevant to your business needs. All your heaps of sales data, finance data, and marketing data flow into CRM to become visible metrics, with data warehousing and data mining there to make sense of everything. The net benefit is customer acquisition, customer retention, and better data management.

Higher Efficiency

Having all your major day-to-day business functions in one place makes for better workflow, easier collaboration between team members, and better project management. Task automation eliminates menial, repetitive work and gives more time for the cognitive tasks humans are best at. Dashboards and analytics will help you gain insights into your work and optimize all kinds of business processes.

Better knowledge sharing

Miscommunication and lack of information transfer are two major time-wasters. When people take time self-learning to do things other team members already know how to do, or work on redundant tasks, you’re losing a lot of hours per week. Collaborative CRM tools can streamline your teamwork by letting you build a knowledge base, establish best practice workflows, and allowing for frictionless communication between team members. 

More transparency

CRM allows you to foster greater transparency in your organization by assigning tasks, showing work, and delineating exactly who is who and who is doing what. If your main concern is sales, you can make use of performance tracking for individual sales agents. CRM allows everyone in your organization to gain visibility on your business processes, fostering more mutual understanding and collaboration. 

GLOBAL WARMING: CONCERN FOR THE WORLD

“GLACIERS ARE MELTING”, “HURRICANES WILL BECOME STRONGER”, “ARCTIC LIKELY TO BECOME ICE-FREE” WHY?? GLOBAL WARMING!

“Global Warming isn’t a prediction. Its happening”! YES! Its happening.

We all have heard the term GLOBAL WARMING. GLOBAL WARMING has been an active threat in all our lives. It has been causing disasters and destroying habitats around the world. We have to CONSERVE our ENVIRONMENT and PLANET. We must take care of the place we live in. We need to realise that how valuable our environment and climate is and that we cannot risk it at any cost. But, before knowing the steps that we need to take to protect our environment from this danger we must know:

WHAT IS THIS GLOBAL WARMING? WHAT CAUSES IT? Well, Global Warming as the term itself suggests is the “consistent rise in the overall average temperature of the planet”. GLOBAL WARMING is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in the temperature near the EARTH’S SURFACE. This phenomenon has been observed over the past one or two centuries. This change has disturbed the climatic pattern of the Earth. Over the past 50 years, the GLOBAL AVERAGE TEMPERATURE has increased at the fastest rate in recorded history. And experts see this trend is accelerating: All but one of 16 hottest years in NASA’s 134 year record have occurred since 2000. Climate change deniers have argued that there has been a “pause” or a “slowdown” in rising global temperatures, but several recent studies, have disproved this claim. And Scientists say that unless we curb GLOBAL WARMING EMISSIONS average temperatures increase up to 10 degrees Fahrenheit, over the next century. There are several causes of GLOBAL WARMING, which have a negative effect on humans, plants and animals. These causes may be natural or might be the outcome of human activity.

“GLOBAL WARMING is a gradual increase in the EARTH’S TEMPERATURE generally due to the GREENHOUSE EFFECT caused by increased levels of CARBON DIOXIDE, CHLORO FLOURO CARBONS (CFCs) ,and other pollutants”. It occurs when CARBON DIOXIDE and other Air pollutants and GREENHOUSE GASES collect in the atmosphere and absorb sunlight and solar radiation that have bounced off the EARTH’S SURFACE. These pollutants trap the heat in the atmosphere and cause the planet to get hotter. That’s what’s known as the GREENHOUSE EFFECT.

Here are other causes: *Deforestation: Cutting down the trees has been a major factor in causing Global warming. Plants are the main source of oxygen. They take in CARBONDIOXIDE and releases Oxygen thereby maintaining ENVIRONMENTAL BALANCE. Forests are being depleted for many domestic and commercial purposes. This has led to an ENVIRONMENTAL IMBALANCE, thereby giving rise to GLOBAL WARMING.

*USE OF VEHICLES: The use of VEHICLES, even for s very short distance results in various gaseous emissions vehicles burn FOSSIL FUELS which emit a large amount of CARBONDIOXIDE and other toxins into the atmosphere resulting in a temperature increase.

Just like all these factors there are many other factors Ranging from man made factors like INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT, OVERPOPULATION, USES OF FOSSIL FUELS, to NATURAL FACTORS like, VOLCANOES, WATER VAPOUR, FOREST FIRES, etc. causing a rise in earth’s atmosphere.

But Can we say that the World is IGNORING this fact? The world is not aware of this situation? No! It would be wrong to say that!

“Change only happens when individuals take Actions”. – “Aliya haq”, Deputy director of NRDC. SPEAK UP! There are many changes that we can bring about in our life, ranging from STOP CUTTING TREES, PLANT MORE TREES! The GOAL is simple! CARBON DIOXIDE IS THE CLIMATE’S WORST ENEMY.

There can be many ways to stop GLOBAL WARMING by governmental means, but INITIALLY, it starts with with us! Talk to your friends, family, and make sure Representatives are making good decisions.

Role of HRM

The Role of HRM

Keep in mind that many functions of HRM are also tasks other department managers perform, which is what makes this information important, despite the career path taken. Most experts agree on seven main roles that HRM plays in organizations. These are described in the following sections.

Staffing

You need people to perform tasks and get work done in the organization. Even with the most sophisticated machines, humans are still needed. Because of this, one of the major tasks in HRM is staffing. Staffing involves the entire hiring process from posting a job to negotiating a salary package. Within the staffing function, there are four main steps:

  1. Development of a staffing plan. This plan allows HRM to see how many people they should hire based on revenue expectations.
  2. Development of policies to encourage multiculturalism at work. Multiculturalism in the workplace is becoming more and more important, as we have many more people from a variety of backgrounds in the workforce.
  3. Recruitment. This involves finding people to fill the open positions.
  4. Selection. In this stage, people will be interviewed and selected, and a proper compensation package will be negotiated. This step is followed by training, retention, and motivation.

Development of Workplace Policies

Every organization has policies to ensure fairness and continuity within the organization. One of the jobs of HRM is to develop the verbiage surrounding these policies. In the development of policies, HRM, management, and executives are involved in the process. For example, the HRM professional will likely recognize the need for a policy or a change of policy, seek opinions on the policy, write the policy, and then communicate that policy to employees. It is key to note here that HR departments do not and cannot work alone. Everything they do needs to involve all other departments in the organization. Some examples of workplace policies might be the following:

  • Discipline process policy
  • Vacation time policy
  • Dress code
  • Ethics policy
  • Internet usage policy

Business Plan

Business planning seems like it would be something that organizations do well, given the near self-evident importance of the concept. Yet, that is not necessarily the case. “In my experience leading dozens of business planning workshops in countries all over the world, of teams I’ve encountered have an effective business planning process,” according to author and business plan expert Tim Berry in Entrepreneur.

Organizations should develop a better understanding of how to approach business planning. The following sections expand on the topic and the four types of planning.

Why Plan?

“Planning is about managing resources and priorities in an organized way,” Berry says. “Management is related to leadership, and it’s related to productivity.”

If companies improve how they plan, managing and leadership will also improve. The following steps can help businesses plan better.

  • Devise a Plan: Write important details down and focus on strengths, what matters, what people are most important to you and what you can do for them. This will help you communicate your vision to your employees.
  • Define Success: How do you see your business in several years? Define long-term goals and be specific. Establish milestones for certain goals and who will achieve the goals. Look at what drives your business; it may be presentations, conversions, page views or something else. Then establish a review schedule and re-examine your long-term goals as necessary.

Marketing and Research

Market research provides critical information about your market and your business landscape. It can tell you how your company is perceived by the target customers and clients you want to reach. It can help you understand how to connect with them, show how you stack up against the competition, and inform how you plan your next steps. Market research can also play an important role in the process of developing your products and services, bringing them to the marketplace, and marketing them to consumers. Here are a few ways that market research can help inform your business strategies

can give you an accurate view of your business and your marketplace. For example, you can see how you are perceived in comparison to your competitors, and evaluate what your competitors are doing to attract customers

Business Environment

Salient Features of Business Environment

The salient features of the business environment are given hereunder:

  1. Dynamic: The environment in which the business operates changes continuously because there is a wide variety of factors that exist in the environment, causing it to change its shape and character.
  2. Complex: There are many forces, events and conditions that constitute business environment, arising from various sources. So, it is a bit difficult to understand the relative influence of a particular factor, on the operation of the organisation.
  3. Uncertain: Uncertainty is an inherent characteristic of the business environment because no one can predict what is going to happen in future.
  4. Multi-faceted: A single change in the business environment, can be viewed differently by different observers because their perceptions vary.
  5. Far-reaching Impact: The survival, growth and profitability, of a business enterprise, depends largely on the environment in which it exists. A small change in the environment has a far-reaching impact on the organisation in different ways.
  6. Relative: The notion of a business environment is relative since it varies from one location to another.

Audit and internal audit

An audit is the examination of an entity’s accounting records, as well as the physical inspection of its assets. If performed by a certified public accountant (CPA), the CPA can express an opinion on the fairness of the entity’s financial statements. This opinion is then issued along with the financial statements to the investment community. An audit is usually conducted shortly after a firm’s books have been closed for its fiscal year.

The Internal Audit

An internal audit can address a broad array of issues, such as employee compliance with corporate policies. A compliance audit usually addresses an entity’s compliance with the a government agency’s rules and regulations. Larger organizations may employ a full-time internal audit department, since they have more complex processes that require monitoring.

Risk Management

Understanding Risk ManagementRisk management occurs everywhere in the realm of finance. It occurs when an investor buys U.S. Treasury bonds over corporate bonds, when a fund manager hedges his currency exposure with currency derivatives, and when a bank performs a credit check on an individual before issuing a personal line of credit. Stockbrokers use financial instruments like options and futures, and money managers use strategies like portfolio diversification, asset allocation and position sizing to mitigate or effectively manage risk.Inadequate risk management can result in severe consequences for companies, individuals, and the economy. For example, the subprime mortgage meltdown in 2007 that helped trigger the Great Recession stemmed from bad risk-management decisions, such as lenders who extended mortgages to individuals with poor credit; investment firms who bought, packaged, and resold these mortgages; and funds that invested excessively in the repackaged, but still risky, mortgage-backed securities (MBS).How Risk Management WorksWe tend to think of “risk” in predominantly negative terms. However, in the investment world, risk is necessary and inseparable from desirable performance.A common definition of investment risk is a deviation from an expected outcome. We can express this deviation in absolute terms or relative to something else, like a market benchmark.While that deviation may be positive or negative, investment professionals generally accept the idea that such deviation implies some degree of the intended outcome for your investments. Thus to achieve higher returns one expects to accept the greater risk. It is also a generally accepted idea that increased risk comes in the form of increased volatility. While investment professionals constantly seek—and occasionally find—ways to reduce such volatility, there is no clear agreement among them on how it’s best done.How much volatility an investor should accept depends entirely on the individual investor’s tolerance for risk, or in the case of an investment professional, how much tolerance their investment objectives allow. One of the most commonly used absolute risk metrics is standard deviation, a statistical measure of dispersion around a central tendency. You look at the average return of an investment and then find its average standard deviation over the same time period. Normal distributions (the familiar bell-shaped curve) dictate that the expected return of the investment is likely to be one standard deviation from the average 67% of the time and two standard deviations from the average deviation 95% of the time. This helps investors evaluate risk numerically. If they believe that they can tolerate the risk, financially and emotionally, they invest.

Commerce

Commerce leads to the prospering of nations and an increased standard of living, but if left unchecked or unregulated, it can lead to negative externalities.E-commerce is a variant of commerce in which goods are sold electronically via the Internet.Understanding CommerceCommerce has existed from the moment humans started exchanging goods and services with one another. From the early days of bartering to the creation of currencies to the establishment of trade routes, humans have sought ways to exchange goods and services and build a distribution process around the process of doing so.Today, commerce normally refers to the macroeconomic purchases and sales of goods and services by large organizations at scale. The sale or purchase of a single item by a consumer is defined as a transaction, while commerce refers to all transactions related to the purchase and sale of that item in an economy. Most commerce is conducted internationally and represents the buying and selling of goods between nations.It is important to note that commerce does not have the same meaning as “business,” but rather is a subset of business. Commerce does not relate to the manufacturing or production process of business but only the distribution process of goods and services. The distribution aspect encompasses a wide array of areas, such as logistical, political, regulatory, legal, social, and economic.

Financial Management

Strategic financial management means not only managing a company’s finances but managing them with the intention to succeed—that is, to attain the company’s goals and objectives and maximize shareholder value over time. However, before a company can manage itself strategically, it first needs to define its objectives precisely, identify and quantify its available and potential resources, and devise a specific plan to use its finances and other capital resources toward achieving its goals.Strategic financial management is about creating profit for the business and ensuring an acceptable return on investment (ROI). Financial management is accomplished through business financial plans, setting up financial controls, and financial decision making.[Important: “Strategic” management focuses on long-term success and “tactical” management relates to short-term positioning.]Understanding Strategic Financial ManagementThe Operative Word: StrategicFinancial management itself involves understanding and properly controlling, allocating, and obtaining a company’s assets and liabilities, including monitoring operational financing items like expenditures, revenues, accounts receivable and payable, cash flow, and profitability.Strategic financial management encompasses all of the above plus continuous evaluating, planning, and adjusting to keep the company focused and on track toward long-term goals. When a company is managing strategically, it deals with short-term issues on an ad hoc basis in ways that do not derail its long-term vision. Strategic financial management includes assessing and managing a company’s capital structure, the mix of debt and equity finance employed, to ensure a company’s long-term solvency.

High-Intensity Interval Training

“Physical fitness is not only one of the most important keys to a healthy body, it is the basis of dynamic and creative intellectual activity.”– John F. Kennedy

Today, when everyone is occupied with managing work and house duties maintaining a consistent exercise routine, can be very challenging for many people. For some people, the issue is not being able to take out enough time for 30 to 60 minutes of exercise regime 3 to 5 times per week from their already overloaded schedule. For others, it is either procrastination or boredom of consistently plodding through moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. 

High-intensity interval training or HIIT can be any type of workout/exercise routine that includes a short burst of intense exercise that precedes a period of rest or low-intensity exercise. A HIIT workout need not be an hour-long but can be as short as 15–20 minutes, and provides a wide range of benefits to the body. It is actually the option of short duration in this type of workout that makes it a very practical and effective choice for people who find it challenging to commit to longer sessions. 

When it comes to stimulating adaptations for improved performance especially for athletes, HIIT has been an essential training strategy for a very long time now. Studies show that the total time spent at higher intensity exercise will be very beneficial for health. Therefore, to spend a longer duration at an elevated intensity than can be accomplished with continuous exercise one can alternate high- with lower intensity intervals allows an individual to. Although, HIIT classes can easily be found at a local gym, but there is absolutely problem if one is unable to find classes or equipment as this type of training can be done at home also.

It has been observed that HIIT may help in improving both heart health and mental health. According to a 2015 study it was found that a 10-week program of HIIT workouts can provide cardiovascular and metabolic benefits that were similar to those produced through moderate-intensity workouts. Other than health, mental health, and weight loss HIIT improve insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and lipid profiles. 

High-intensity interval training is time-efficient. In terms of calorie burning, one can burn more calories after a HIIT workout as compared to a regular steady-state cardio exercise like running, as the heart rate remains relatively stable. This was confirmed by a 2019 study that had a group of athletes do a HIIT workout and a steady-state run at two different times. After nine minutes the exercises were stopped and results suggested that the HIIT group was burning an average of 3 kilocalories per minute, on the other hand, after a steady-state run the athletes burned 2.8 kilocalories per minute.

Conclusively, HIIT workouts require no specific equipment, so people can perform it at home or in a park at a time that suits them best and allows people to gain many health benefits like flexibility and endurance without needing to go to the gym. And while researchers continue to evaluate the safety of HIIT, it seems that with appropriate guidance and supervision HIIT can be safely undertaken by people with health challenges. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/327474#how-to-start

https://journals.lww.com/acsm-healthfitness/fulltext/2013/05000/high_intensity_interval_training__efficient,.3.aspx

Entirprise Information System

Systems?

These information systems help corporations solve widescale problems and are typically large platforms, too complex for individual or small business use.

Enterprise systems handle many operations within a company to facilitate its business and management reporting tasks. They’re built for speed, scale and designed to deploy across a variety of networks like the Internet, an intranet and corporate networks. Corporations that employ enterprise software include:

  • Big box stores
  • Marketing agencies
  • Tech companies

The complexity of enterprise applications, however, pushes most corporations to outsource the development of applications they need to run operations. After development, the applications are brought back in-house for deployment, a job that usually requires a specialized information technology team.

The 3 Types of Enterprise Systems

Given the digital force of today’s markets, there are three types of enterprise systems that are indispensable for corporations across the globe.

1.     Customer Relationship Manages

s a software that helps organizations present a consistent message about customer insights by gathering the latest information about a lead. Collections of data for CRM software usage happen at each step of a presale process, including sales and marketing, call centers, help desks and customer support service.

Remember the pair of jeans? Well, at the heart of the CRM is the database that receives your customer activity from the moment you hand over the product to the cashier. Every time a customer order is entered, an invoice is cut, a shipment is sent, and refunds and exchanges are processed, it is quickly submitted into the database.

What are Examples of CRM?

Two types of CRMs people in any business or tech field should be familiar with are analytical and operational CRMs.

  • Operational CRMs: These systems are focused on the automation of the customer-facing parts of a business, like targeted communications and offers to customers.

Analytical CRMs: These systems are focused on analyzing customer data to enhance customer and company value. These CRM’s include data such as sales history, credit scores, marketing some examples of the most popular CRM’s used by corporations include:

  1. Salesforce CRM – The platform works for mid-size companies as well as businesses that aren’t too familiarized with CRM. Its service model is based on automation by centralizing leads and customer profile data. This type of enterprise system falls under the category of general software.
  2. HubSpot CRM – HubSpot provides services and tools for marketing and sales companies. Services can include content management and web analytics. HubSpot falls under the category of inbound software.
  3. Zoho CRM – Unlike HubSpot, this CRM software is aligned with offering project management tools to companies and employees. Services that this type of social software offers includes word processing, spreadsheets and wikis.
  4. Freshsales CRM – Freshsales is a cloud-based CRM software that offers industries sales management, event and lead tracking services.

2.     Enterprise Resource Planning

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is designed to facilitate a company’s cross-functional processes. This software allows companies to eliminate inconsistencies and duplications of efforts during operations, share data, standard practices across enterprises and access information in a real-time environment.

Brief about .Project Executive

The Executive has ultimate responsibility for the project and ‘owns’ the Business Case throughout the life of the project. He or she has the following specific responsibilities:Oversee the development of the Project Brief and Business CaseAuthorise expenditure levels, set stage tolerances and ensure funding for agreed expenditure is availableAuthorise or reject proposed changes to cost or timescale beyond tolerance levels and all proposed changes to scope, checking for possible effects on the Business CaseEnsure Risks and Issues are being tracked and mitigated/resolvedLiaise with Programme or Corporate Management on progressOrganise and chair meetings of the Project BoardAuthorise the project’s continuance or early closure at stage review meetings of the Project BoardAuthorise formal closure of the projectHold a Post-Project Review to ensure benefits are realised

Post Covid reforms

. Even so, the Covid-19 crisis necessitates a large macroeconomic stimulus. In order not to overstrain government finances it should be targeted, temporary and self-limiting. Financing features can aid this as well as improve financial stability. Large government assets can be monetized to help restructure towards more effective government spending. Specific policy implications are drawn out.

Breif

Why is it that steady high growth continues to elu China’s catch-up growth extended to about 30 years of double digit growth. India’s post-liberalization growth has been volatile and has only rarely reached double digits. A high growth burst in the 2000s was not sustained. There was a slowdown after 2011. Growth was 3% per annum slower than in the previous period. The years 2016, 2018, 2020 saw reversals of weak growth revivals. In 2020 this is due to the Covid-19 shock.

The paper discusses past virtuous growth cycles in India and argues that the post Covid-19 macro-financial package is an opportunity to trigger another such cycle by raising marginal propensities to spend above those to save. This is feasible since the major constraints that aborted such cycles in the past are waning. Among these constraints are commodity price shocks and other supply-side bottlenecks; financial repression and discretionary allocation; and fiscal space. While the first constraint is relieved, and there is adequate progress on the others, fiscal space is still constrained. Even so, the Covid-19 crisis necessitates a large macroeconomic stimulus. In order not to overstrain government finances it should be targeted, temporary and self-limiting. Financing features can aid this as well as improve financial stability. Large government assets can be monetized to help restructure towards more effective government spending. Specific implications for policy are drawn out.

Economic growth

Poverty, prosperity, and growth are often measured in monetary terms, most commonly as people’s income. But while monetary measures have some important advantages, they have the big disadvantage that they are abstract. In the worst case monetary measures – like GDP per capita – are so abstract that we forget what they are actually about: people’s access to goods and services.

The point of this text is to show why economic growth is important and how the abstract monetary measures tell us about the reality of people’s material living conditions around the world and throughout history:

  • In the first part I want to explain what economic growth is and why it is so difficult to measure. 
  • In the second part I will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of several measures of growth and you will find the latest data on several of these measures so that we can see what they tell us about how people’s material living conditions have changed.

What are these goods and services that I’m talking about?

Have a look around yourself right now. Many of the things you see are products that were produced by someone so that you can use them: the trousers you are wearing, the device you are reading this on, the electricity that powers it, the furniture around you, the toilet that is nearby, the sewage system it is connected to, the bus or car or bicycle you took to get where you are, the food you had this morning, the medications you will receive when you get sick, every window in your home, every shirt in your wardrobe, and every book on your shelf. 

At some point in the past many of these products were not available. The majority did not have access to the most basic goods and services they needed. A recent study on the history of global poverty estimates that just two centuries ago roughly three-quarters of the world “could not afford a tiny space to live, food that would not induce malnutrition, and some minimum heating capacity.”

Save Electricity

Electricity is an important source of prosperity. It permeates our daily lives. Life without electricity would be impossible to imagine now. We generate electricity using coal or natural gas. However, people do not see the natural resources to act as limited and non-renewable. We need to save electricity so that we can save these resources.

In other words, electricity serves humanity very much. We must stop wasting energy. The earth will lose its light if there is no electricity. In addition, careless human behavior should be examined. We must understand the importance of electricity in order to save ourselves from the darkness.

The need for electricity
Electricity is needed in almost every area of life now. We need it to live a comfortable life full of all the resources and services. The earth will sleep without electricity. For example, all of our health and education facilities are electrified. If there is no electricity, the surgeon will not be able to perform the operation. In addition, students will not be able to access practical information.

Similarly, car mechanics in garages and factory engineers rely on electricity. In addition, passengers at the train station and at the airport can only travel safely through electricity.

In addition, the various modes of transportation depend on electricity only. Trams and metrics carry thousands of people every day. All of this is happening only because of electricity. Electricity enriches our modern life and helps to make it better.

How to Save Electricity
First of all, we must all understand that even a small step will be very helpful in saving electricity. For example, if everyone in each household turns on a fan when not in use, thousands of watts of electricity can be saved.

Similarly, if we use our air conditioners, heaters, ovens, refrigerators and so on properly, we can save a lot of electricity effectively.

In addition, try to use more natural light. Do not store unnecessary lights in the morning and in the afternoon. Do what is done with natural light as it is enough. We have to replace all our old equipment because it consumes a lot of electricity. In other words, we should strive to make our homes work harder.

In addition, always remember to turn off your electrical gadgets when not in use. These devices use at least 10% of electricity even when not in use. Therefore, take them out to save energy.

In addition, try to reduce the amount of time you spend watching TV. Encourage children to read and play outside instead. Similarly, try using laptops instead of desktops. Desktops use more power than a laptop. You should also turn off the fans when using your air conditioner, thus avoiding unnecessary waste.

Most importantly, installing solar panels can be extremely helpful. They are very economical and help save a lot of energy. Solar panels will help to consume less energy and economically. Similarly, industries that use megawatts should install generators. This can help to get cheap electricity by natural means.

Unity is Power

In today’s world where strife is rampant and everyone tries to get his way, very few people see the value of the proverb ‘Unity is power’. Again, this proverb is now complete in encouraging books and uplifting speeches. Therefore, very few people understand the importance and that is why it applies to their lives. But these people are really satisfied with the content in their lives that they actually use. Therefore, unity is an energy essay to understand the growing importance of unity in the lives of the world today.

This proverb also applies when it comes to relationships. People these days are so blinded by success and power that they want to be ahead of their colleagues, their relatives, and their friends.

So, they get into professional conflicts with themselves most of the time and therefore, they don’t realize that they can’t move forward and improve their skills, their knowledge, and help each other. So, when we argue with our colleagues and start competing with them in an office environment, then people from another group will benefit from this position.

Also, one reason here is that people often split up because of mistrust. This is especially true when it comes to the relationship between husband and wife. Also, here we often see couples always doubting. So they start asking small questions and then doubt them about lying or cheating.

Therefore, outsiders use these types of situations. Also, it breeds doubts and thus creates tension between the two in order to achieve their goals. Also, this will have a negative impact not only on the couple but also on the children. Therefore, if a husband and wife remain united and protect each other unless both of them can make a difference in the relationship.

Application of the Proverb – Unity is Power

The proverb has been used in various places since centuries. It derives its origins from the Dutch Republic where it was first used. Currently, the national military uniform in Haiti and Bulgaria has documented this.

Belgium adopted this as its motto after the 1830 Revolution. Other countries that have used this proverb as their motto in the past include Greece, the Netherlands, Canada, Georgia, the South African Republic, Malaysia and the United States.

In Communities and Nations
This proverb is also true when it comes to society and the nation as a whole. Communities and places where people stay united are loved by everyone.

Therefore, the people who live here meet and greet their neighbors with a smile, guard their neighbor’s house, help each other through difficult times, and so on. Also, they celebrate each activity together and run other social gatherings regularly. In today’s world, it is common for people to suffer from loneliness and depression, and this kind of neighbor can be a blessing.

Similarly, nations around the world are engaged in a vicious war to prove that they are the best. Thus, the entire nation is armed with nuclear weapons and many terrorist organizations have been formed. So, if we stop all these kinds of bad habits than the world becomes a better place to live.

MY LAST DUCHESS- POEM ANALYSIS

MY LAST DUCHESS is a poem written by Robert Browning. The poem is set during the Victorian era where women were objectified and were defined as things to be possessed and controlled. There is only one speaker in this poem-The Duke.

That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now; Fra Pandolf’s hands
Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
Will’t please you sit and look at her? I said
“Fra Pandolf” by design, for never read
Strangers like you that pictured countenance,
The depth and passion of its earnest glance,”

The poem begins with the Duke of Ferrara directing the attention of the envoy who has arrived to negotiate the Duke’s marriage. The Duke introduces his last Duchess from a painting on the wall to the emissary who was looking as if she was full of life. The duke calls it a piece of wonder and there can be no such doubt when it a piece of art from Fra Pandolf. The Duke asks the envoy to sit down at look at the picture. The Duke then explains that he deliberately said the name of the painter because all visitors look at the painting with earnest glace.


“But to myself they turned (since none puts by
The curtain I have drawn for you, but I)
And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst,
How such a glance came there; so, not the first
Are you to turn and ask thus. Sir, ’twas not
Her husband’s presence only, called that spot

Of joy into the Duchess’ cheek; perhaps
Fra Pandolf chanced to say, “Her mantle laps
Over my lady’s wrist too much,” or “Paint
Must never hope to reproduce the faint
Half-flush that dies along her throat.” Such stuff”

In these above stanzas he continues about the painting. The Duke tells the envoy that every visitor act as though they would ask, if they dared, how an expression like that came into her face. The duke informs the guest that he isn’t the first person to ask this question. He continues to say that the spot of joy on the cheeks of the Duchess was not perhaps just his presence. He says maybe Pandolf may have complimented her.


“Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough
For calling up that spot of joy. She had
A heart—how shall I say?— too soon made glad,
Too easily impressed; she liked whate’er
She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
Sir, ’twas all one! My favour at her breast,
The dropping of the daylight in the West,
The bough of cherries some officious fool
Broke in the orchard for her, the white mule

She rode with round the terrace—all and each
Would draw from her alike the approving speech,
Or blush, at least. She thanked men—good! but thanked
Somehow—I know not how—as if she ranked
My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name
With anybody’s gift. Who’d stoop to blame
This sort of trifling? Even had you skill”

The Duke tells the messenger that the Duchess was too easily impressed and finds a reason to blush for everything. He says that she liked everything she saw and flirted with every person who crossed her. A brooch from the Duke or the sun setting or a branch of cherries brought by a person or her white mule gave the same level of happiness to her and she blushed the same way for everything. He claimed that she ranked his 900 year old name equally with anyone else’s gift. He says that he cannot stoop down by arguing with her.


“In speech—which I have not—to make your will
Quite clear to such an one, and say, “Just this
Or that in you disgusts me; here you miss,
Or there exceed the mark”—and if she let
Herself be lessoned so, nor plainly set
Her wits to yours, forsooth, and made excuse—
E’en then would be some stooping; and I choose

Never to stoop. Oh, sir, she smiled, no doubt,
Whene’er I passed her; but who passed without
Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;
Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands
As if alive. Will’t please you rise? We’ll meet”

The Duke of Ferrara imagines a situation where he would confront her and express about and her disgusting character. And if she had let herself be degraded by changing, instead of being stubborn and making excuses, then even the act of confronting her would be beneath him, and he refuses to ever belittle himself like that. He continues saying that she smiled at everybody at the same way and hence he gave orders to stop her smile forever indicating he killed her. He asks the envoy to follow him downstairs.


“The company below, then. I repeat,
The Count your master’s known munificence
Is ample warrant that no just pretense
Of mine for dowry will be disallowed;
Though his fair daughter’s self, as I avowed
At starting, is my object. Nay, we’ll go
Together down, sir. Notice Neptune, though,
Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity,
Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!

This is the last part of the poem. Here, the Duke’s prospective bride’s father, a Count was known for his generosity in money and dowry. However, the Duke tells that his primitive objective is the Count’s beautiful daughter and not his dowry. As they walk together, the Duke directed the attention of the emissary towards the statue of God Neptune taming a seahorse, a rare piece of art that Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze specifically for him.

Speaking about the Duchess by the Duke speaks volume about his character and the men of his times. Husbands believed they owned their wives and considered that they had the right to dictate her feelings.

Relevant links:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Browning

https://www.gradesaver.com/robert-browning-poems/study-guide/summary-my-last-duchess#:~:text=Analysis%20%22My%20Last%20Duchess%2C%22%20published%20in%201842%2C%20is,poem%20is%20probably%20the%20speaker%20himself%2C%20the%20duke.

Is Drug Abuse A Victimless Crime

A far reaching misconception about chronic drug use is that it simply influences the user’s life. Numerous individuals who misuse drugs, then again, utilize the pardon that they aren’t harming anybody aside from themselves to defend their fixation. Illicit drug use is definitely not a one-individual issue; it’s anything but a falling impact on other people who are around them. It’s a social issue that standardizes drug use and contrarily affects people and their families.

Drug Abuse a Social Problem

What comes to mind when you think of drug abuse? For many of us, the image that comes to mind is of a single drug user — most likely a friend, family member, or coworker. It can even be ourselves at times.

Compulsion is normally considered as an individual disorder that influences the client and their close family. Compulsion has extensive ramifications for society, influencing everything from medical care to work to penitentiaries and correctional facilities.

Victimless crime

Drug addict may wish to accept that they are not hurting others, yet this is simply not the situation. Medication victimizers cause the most damage to their relatives and those nearest to them, however there is a course impact. Substance abuse causes an assortment of physical and psychological wellness issues, including gloom, tension, heart issues, liver ailment, renal brokenness, and liver cirrhosis. Seizures, heart arrhythmia, and ridiculousness tremens are for the most part side effects of withdrawal that can be destructive to your wellbeing. In serious cases, the detox cycle can be dangerous. Addicts frequently endure monetarily because of their powerlessness to perform at work or hold down a decent profession.

Social and ethical issues of drug abuse

Drug misuse has occupied a large role in the public consciousness since the 1960s. Campaigns and initiatives aimed at teaching the public about the hazards of drug usage and how people and societies can overcome drug-related problems have affected this increased awareness of drugs and their consequences.

The use and abuse of drugs raises a slew of social and ethical difficulties. These challenges are further further by the competing values that exist in modern society regarding drug usage. Multiple factors, such as societal, religious, and personal beliefs, can influence values. Within a single society, values and attitudes can range dramatically, leading to conflicts over a variety of drug-related issues.

Regardless of cultural shifts, the prevailing social order has strong views regarding any non-sanctioned drug usage that goes against its established value system. Is it possible for society to prosper if individuals are permitted to indulge in uncontrolled self-indulgence? Is it appropriate to linger on and exalt one’s inner experience at the expense of the necessary daily activities?

The fact that adults frequently take drugs to cope with stress and other life problems appears to provide enormous comfort to young people. Many countries today have drug-oriented societies, yet the consequences of drug use are not always the same for adults and adolescents.

Crime related to drug abuse

There is a reasonable relationship among’s culpability and illicit drug use, which is for the most part because of the way that numerous ordinarily burned-through opiates are precluded. Conveying a considerable lot of these opiates isn’t just unlawful, yet a person’s brought down hindrances while impaired can move them to perpetrate different violations. The sorts of wrongdoings that an individual can do while on drugs are various and dependent on a scope of conditions, however drug clients are bound to carry out wrongdoing than nonusers. Another technique that medications rouse individuals to carry out wrongdoings is through unimportant robbery to buy tranquilizes and fulfill their longings when they are frantic.

Effects of Drug Abuse

From the start look, it might create the impression that a chronic drug use principally influences the person who is utilizing it. Habit, then again, is a destructive condition that can contrarily affect the local area, family, and individual, hence it’s phenomenal that others aren’t influenced. Disregarding commitments because of medications can inconveniently affect an individual’s calling, kids’ schooling, and family’s monetary security. Their impact can reach out past the close family. Companions or neighbors who depend on their quality or organization may endure because of their absence.

Drug addict has various other unfortunate results:

  1. Physical and additionally psychological mistreatment and disregard might be essential for a family’s contention.
  2. Loss of pay and work Relatives are bound to experience the ill effects of enthusiastic and mental issues (like nervousness and bitterness).
  3. Partitions and separations in families, just as the expulsion of youngsters from their homes, are generally normal events.

Treatment

Chronic drug use is a social issue that should be tended to by society overall as opposed to being disregarded. Quite possibly the best systems to adapt to chronic drug use is for the fiend to look for help and for their family to help them all through the recuperation interaction. Addicts in the United Kingdom have an assortment of detox and recovery decisions. There are NHS-arrived behind schedule just as private treatment decisions accessible.

Perhaps the best techniques to treat chronic drug use is to go to a private recuperation community. Private recovery is powerful in light of the fact that it eliminates you from the harmful climate and individuals who empower your dependence, permitting you to focus solely on your recuperation without interruptions or allurements. This gives you the most obvious opportunity with regards to recovering control of your life and settling on steady choices about your future.

Drug use

What are drugs?
Drugs are chemical substances that can change how your body and mind work. They include prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs.

What is drug use?
Drug use, or misuse, includes

Using illegal substances, such as
Anabolic steroids
Club drugs
Cocaine
Heroin
Inhalants
Marijuana
Methamphetamines
Misusing prescription medicines, including opioids. This means taking the medicines in a different way than the health care provider prescribed. This includes
Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else
Taking a larger dose than you are supposed to
Using the medicine in a different way than you are supposed to. For example, instead of swallowing your tablets, you might crush and then snort or inject them.
Using the medicine for another purpose, such as getting high
Misusing over-the-counter medicines, including using them for another purpose and using them in a different way than you are supposed to
Drug use is dangerous. It can harm your brain and body, sometimes permanently. It can hurt the people around you, including friends, families, kids, and unborn babies. Drug use can also lead to addiction.

What is drug addiction?
Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease. It causes a person to take drugs repeatedly, despite the harm they cause. Repeated drug use can change the brain and lead to addiction.

The brain changes from addiction can be lasting, so drug addiction is considered a “relapsing” disease. This means that people in recovery are at risk for taking drugs again, even after years of not taking them.

Does everyone who takes drugs become addicted?
Not everyone who uses drugs becomes addicted. Everyone’s bodies and brains are different, so their reactions to drugs can also be different. Some people may become addicted quickly, or it may happen over time. Other people never become addicted. Whether or not someone becomes addicted depends on many factors. They include genetic, environmental, and developmental factors.

Success Story of Zomato

To start the journey on the highway to success, an entrepreneur needs an idea, one which will set them apart. An idea can be hit by anyone but what comes after this idea is what creates or breaks the business. Desire for something is the first and primary essential. It is tracked by determination and a robust work ethic. Open-mindedness and the skill to recoil back from failure are other vital attributes. Patience is key. An entrepreneur cannot predict results to show in the blink of an eye.

Food is a major force for many. It does come under one of the most essential conveniences for a human being. But waiting for food is something everyone abhors especially when they are hungry. When it comes to a country as active and hardworking as India in its peak lunch hours, getting look at the menu card before ordering food is also a really big problem. Deepinder Goyal and Pankaj Chaddah came up with the absolute solution to the problem of waiting in long queue lines for food. Let’s have a look at how Zomato was started?

How was Zomato founded?

The story of Zomato begun in the organisation of Bain & Company in Delhi. Deepinder and Pankaj worked at this company when they thought of this concept. They saw people standing in a line at mealtime and give the order for their meal when their turn came. From there they got an idea of “Foodiebay” which became a opening to Zomato.

At first, they began scanning all the menu objects of the restaurant and registered them on their intranet website Foodiebay.com. Later on, after seeing a vast flow in their traffic, they decided to introduce their website open to the public.

Funds raised by Zomato

This idea of Deepinder’s and Pankaj’s fascinated Sanjeev Bikhchandani, the creator of Naukri.com. In December of 2010, Sanjeev Bikhchandani offered Zomato funding of 1 million USD through his corporation Info Edge India and from here on, there was no looking back.

In the next round of funding that they got was once again from Info Edge India and this time it was 3.5 million USD and again in the year 2013, Zomato received an astounding 10 million USD from Info Edge India which made Info Edge India an owner of almost 50% of the shares in the start-up. Other stockholders for Zomato include Sequoia Capital, VY Capital, and Temasek. The funds just kept arriving in after this. By the end of 2018, it is estimated that Zomato would’ve received a funding of more than 300 million USD. 

Zomato at a glance

Presently, there are over 100 million Zomato consumers globally and people use the application to get in contact with other foodies around the world so that they can get the finest of food in whatever place possible. This being an additional advantage, big restaurants from around the globe send their advertisements to the Zomato app and this is basically how Zomato makes its money.

As of 2018, Zomato regulates 3 million orders on a monthly basis with 1.4 million restaurants registered on its platform. It is available in 10,000 cities and 23 countries worldwide.

Ecotourism 

“Responsible travel is not only better for our world; it is also more interesting and memorable. Responsible tourism is the future of travel.” – Simon Reeve

Most people love to travel. For some, it is just a hobby and for some people, it’s a way to relax their soul. Travel expands the mind and our hearts. It helps us explore new places, people, values, and food and it makes us realize that we need to love and respect everyone around us and make the world a better place for each other and the animals around us. But what happens is that every time we pack our bags and leave for a new adventure, we leave a mark behind. This mark is made up of the resources which we use to help us have an enjoyable time.

Now, how do we solve this issue linked with traveling? The major problem with mass tourism, care for the environment is nowhere on the agenda let alone on being on top. Ecotourism is a more sustainable form of mass tourism by which the world can be explored while we take care of the environment

What is Ecotourism?

The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) defines it as “responsible travel to natural areas that conserve the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people and involves interpretation and education”. 

According to the Australian National Ecotourism, ecotourism is defined as “ecologically sustainable tourism with a primary focus on experiencing natural areas that foster environmental and cultural understanding, appreciation and conservation.” In simple words, the concept of ecotourism is about promoting the idea of respecting and protecting the environment while one travels. It involves responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas.

What happens in such areas is that these natural areas usually have planned programs to conserve the environment or sustain the wellbeing of the local people. 

What does ecotourism aim for?

Ecotourism aims at promoting awareness of what’s happening to natural areas both environmentally and socially. The goal is to educate the tourists about the conditions of a certain travel destination. Conditions like poverty, declining wildlife, or deteriorating traditional buildings which is often hidden from tourists. 

One of the major goals ecotourism can achieve is providing positive experiences to both visitors and hosts. It provides direct financial benefits for conservation. Many conservation programs help in raising money for future projects by hosting volunteers. The money that is spent on an all-inclusive resort in a largely commercialized holiday destination can be used to fund a volunteering trip instead, and the money of the traveller will be used to pay for the work that needs to be done to improve the environment. This even helps the local people and private industry.

Conclusion 

Today ecotourism is an essential need for the planet because it is solely based on improving the environment, as well as the people and animals that live in it. People must be educated about the eco-travel adventures and also about the guidelines they are required to stick to. Principles of ecotourism can help to shift the perspectives and transition people from the indulgent, unenlightened experiences commonly found with mass tourism. The bottom line is principles of ecotourism are beneficial for the world as a whole, and not just a single region or a country.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

https://youmatter.world/en/definition/ecotourism/

https://www.oysterworldwide.com/news/what-is-ecotourism/

One Health Concept: Why is it in news now?

One Health concept is being recognized as an effective way to fight health issues at the human-animal environment interface, including zoonotic diseases.

‘One Health’ was proposed as a concept to foster such interdisciplinary collaboration. It is adopted by the international agencies charged with control of zoonoses (diseases that can spread between animals and humans, such as flu, rabies etc).

This concept is used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). In India, it is a component under the National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well Being.

What is One Health Concept?

One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for people,animal and the environment

One Health approach identifies that zoonotic diseases, environmental pressures, food security, anti-microbial resistance, and health threats of animals and humans are all inter related.

It recognizes that a stand-alone approach will not work and that the health of people is closely connected to the health of animals and our shared environment.

Pandemics like Covid19 and One Health Approach

The need for greater interdisciplinary collaboration was identified with the emergence of zoonotic viruses with pandemic disease-causing potential in the early years of the 21st century.

Changes in land-use patterns, climate changes, etc. disrupt habitats and cause new diseases to pass to animals. Rapidly growing human population result in more people living in close contact with wild and domestic animals, which provide more opportunities for diseases to pass between animals and people.

Due to the explosion of international travel and trade, such diseases can spread quickly across borders and around the globe. Thus, existing or emerging zoonotic diseases can transform into a pandemic.

Potential Outcomes from the One Health Approach

. More interdisciplinary programs in education, training, research, and policy development.

• More information sharing related to disease detection, diagnosis, education, and research.

• More prevention of diseases, both infectious and chronic.

●Development of new therapies and approaches to treatments.

National Mission on Biodiversity and Human Well-being

Launched recently by the Government of India, the mission aims to explore the neglected links between biodiversity and human well-being.

It spans across the sectors of health, economic development, agricultural production, and livelihood generation.

It addresses health and livelihood concerns along with efforts to mitigate climate change and related disasters.

One of the components of the mission explicitly links biodiversity to human health through the One Health framework.

As part of the programme, institutions are encouraged to set up surveillance systems at potential emerging infectious disease hotspots across India.

Sustainable brands of 2021

The Skin-Care Ingredients You Shouldn't Mix

Are you finding it hard to contribute to the environment in times of the pandemic? If yes, then this article is just for you. Sustainability is the key to a better future. But it is not possible to achieve it unless the brands stop using non-biodegradable material in their packagings. It is no lie that brands tend to invest a lot of money in their advertisement and spend very little money on their packaging. In this situation, we must research brands that are eco-friendly and care about the environment. The call of nature is to create innovations to our expenditure patterns and embrace a more sustainable lifestyle. The first and the most significant, deliberate measure that we can do is shift to ethnic fashion brands and eco-friendly brands that will help us contribute. Here are some brands that you can invest in-
Fashion brands-
1) Maati by Neha Kabra- is a modern womenswear start-up from Udaipur, supported by PETA. A portion of its material is up-cycled, and they use naturally sourced dyes; they use plastic-free packaging. Their mere and casual profiles are timeless.
2) InSom- is a natural and up-cycled attire label that ensures 100% zero-waste creation. It is incredibly fashionable and comfortable; the brand converts leftovers, imperfect and extra stuff from large-scale natural fabric production industries and converts them into wearable.
3) Mix Mitti by Ms. Shivangi Bajpai- is a business accessory label giving a variety of products from bags to journals. In addition, a part of its earnings gets donated to protect wildlife and fundamental habitats.
4) Nicobar- is an up-to-date lifestyle label that offers clothing, home decor, and trip accessories. Encouraged by the Indian Ocean and a comfortable island aesthetic, their outlook of integrity in timeless goods designed to last and influenced by natural design and materials gets echoed in their beautiful stores.
5) Doodlage- is a sustainable clothing mark that makes circular fashion mainstream. They produce garments, accessories, plus home products made out of fabric scraps sourced from large manufacturing units in India. These fabrics otherwise add to landfills or go into incineration.
Skincare brands:-
1) Bathing Culture- They make a range of zero waste skincare refill stocks. The ingredients give this vegan zero waste skincare product a cocktail of antioxidants, amino and essential fatty acids.
2) The Earth Rhythm- one of the very few businesses that are 99% plastic-free. From dispatching to packaging, the brand is committed to its choice. Their employees consist of women from weaker sections of society and individuals with autism/down-syndrome. Their zero-waste practice is very excellent and stands testament to their brand value.
3) Ren- Between its sustainably sourced ingredients, reclaimed ocean-plastic packaging, and refill scheme, the brand appears well on course to accomplishing its zero waste aim by the end of 2021.
4) Davines- Before environmental awareness was even on the radar of the wider beauty industry, there was Davines. The brand has been carbon-neutral since 2018 and is now focusing on obtaining net-zero emissions by 2030.
Make your skin dewy and closet aesthetic, and contribute towards sustainable goals at the same time.
(This article is unsponsored)

Quantum Physics

Quantum physics is typically just intimidating from the start. It’s kind of strange and can seem unreasonable, even for the physicists who deal with it every day. But it’s not impenetrable. If you’re learning something about quantum physics, there are really six main concepts about it that you should keep in mind. Do that, and you’ll find quantum physics a lot simpler to understand.

Everything Is Made of Waves; Also, Particles

There’s various of places to begin this sort of discussion, and this is as good as any: everything in the universe has both particle and wave nature, at the same time. There’s a line in Greg Bear’s imaginary duology where a character stating the fundamentals of magic says “All is waves, with nothing waving, over no distance at all.” It is a sort of poetic description of quantum physics– deep down, everything in the universe has wave nature.

Quantum Physics Is Distinct

It’s right in its name– the word “quantum” comes from the Latin for “how much” and reflects the fact that quantum models every time include something coming in distinct amounts. The energy comprised in a quantum field comes in integer multiples of some fundamental energy. For light, this is related with the frequency and wavelength of the light– high-frequency, short-wavelength light has a large characteristic energy, whereas low-frequency, long-wavelength light has a small characteristic energy.

Quantum Physics Is Probabilistic

One of the most astonishing and debateable features of quantum physics is that it’s impossible to expect with certainty the consequence of a particular experiment on a quantum system. When physicists predict the consequence of some experiment, the prediction always takes the form of a probability for finding each of the particular likely outcomes, and comparisons between theory and experiment always involve concluding probability distributions from many frequent experiments.

Quantum Physics Is Confined

The final huge contribution Einstein made to physics was not broadly known as such, mostly because he was wrong. In a 1935 paper with his younger colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (the “EPR paper”), Einstein offered a clear mathematical declaration of something that had been bothering him for some time, an idea that we now call “entanglement.”

Quantum Physics Is (Mostly) Very Small

Quantum physics has a status of being weird because its predictions are severely different from our everyday experience. This occurs because the results involved get smaller as objects get larger– if we want to see unmistakably quantum behaviour, you mostly want to see particles acting like waves, and the wavelength reduces as the momentum increases. The wavelength of a macroscopic object like a dog walking across the room is so ridiculously tiny that if you enlarged everything so that a single atom in the room were the size of the entire Solar System, the dog’s wavelength would be about the size of a single atom within that solar system.

Quantum Physics Is Not Magic

The earlier point leads very naturally into this one: as weird as it may seem, quantum physics is most definitely not magic. The things it expects are surprising by the values of everyday physics, but they are thoroughly forced by well-understood mathematical rules

Human behaviour

If it wasn’t for humans nothing would remain in the world- no business, no government, nothing! So, humans are a requisite factor for anything in this world. Yet, when it comes to human behavior it is something different. There have been many researchers on human behavior. These researches focus on understanding the way how humans make decisions, react, and plan. In fact, the contemporary technology has equipped these researches to get their hands on the human minds and behavior on a deeper level.

Yet, the major challenge faced in understanding human behaviors is on how human brains support the changing nature. Generally, humans are agents who focus on providing what the body needs including the mental needs by adjusting to the changing environment. The brain performances eventually support the cognitive process for the outcome of human behaviors. Keep reading to understand better.

An action relates to anything that you can witness through sensors or with your nude eyes. Thus, an action is based on the transition from one form to another. For example, the teacher says to close the books, then the students obey it, so it is an action based on sensors. The students heard the teacher which is why they performed the activity. Basically, behavioral actions vary, it can be food consumption, sweating, or even sleeping.

Well, emotions, cognitions, and actions will not connect together without one another. These factors need to be connected together to give life to human behaviors. These factors help you to listen to your mind, surrounding, and people around you. However, it is pretty tough to say what caused a human to behave in a certain way – whether it is emotion, action, or cognition. Finally, it is clear that human behaviors are a topic that unfolds further and further.

GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming is a phenomenon where the earth’s average temperature rises due to increased amounts of greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and ozone trap the incoming radiation from the sun. This effect creates a natural “blanket” which prevents the heat from escaping back into the atmosphere. This effect is called a greenhouse effect.

Contrary to popular belief, greenhouse gases are not inherently bad. In fact, the greenhouse effect is quite important for life on earth. Without this effect, the sun’s radiation would be reflected back into the atmosphere, freezing the surface and making life impossible. However, when greenhouse gasses in excess amounts get trapped, serious repercussions begin to appear. The polar ice caps begin to melt, leading to the rise in sea levels. Furthermore, the greenhouse effect is accelerated when polar ice caps and sea ice melts. This is due to the fact the ice reflects 50% to 70% of the sun’s rays back into space; but without ice, the solar radiation gets absorbed. Seawater reflects only 6% of the sun’s radiation back into space. What’s more frightening is the fact that the poles contain large amounts of carbon dioxide trapped within the ice. If this ice melts, it will significantly contribute to global warming.

A related scenario when this phenomenon goes out of control is the runaway-greenhouse effect. This scenario is essentially similar to an apocalypse, but it is all too real. Though this has never happened in the earth’s entire history, it is speculated to have occurred on Venus. Millions of years ago, Venus was thought to have an atmosphere similar to the Earth’s. But due to the runaway greenhouse effect, surface temperatures around the planet began rising.

If this occurs on earth, the runaway greenhouse effect will lead to many unpleasant scenarios – temperatures will rise hot enough for oceans to evaporate. Once the oceans evaporate, the rocks will start to sublimate under the heat. To prevent such a scenario, proper measures have to be taken to stop climate change.

WINTERS

Winter is one of the most important seasons in India. It is a part of the four seasons that occur in India. Winters are the coolest season that starts from December and last till March. The peak time when winter is experienced the most in December and January. In India, winters hold great importance. In addition, the essence it has is admired by many people. Winters give you the time to indulge in various activities like snowball fighting, building snowmen, ice hockey and more. It is a great time for kids to enjoy their vacations and get cozy in their blankets.

During winters, schools usually take a break and close down. The days are shorter and the nights get longer. The chilly mornings give you a different sense altogether. Hot drinks like coffee, tea, and hot chocolate are enjoyed more during winters. The sun rises quite late and sometimes it does not.

Even when it does, it doesn’t get a bit hot. People long for a little sunshine as the cold weather sends chills down the spine. You see people on the roads burning woods and paper to get a little warmth. However, not many people prefer going out in winters. They like sitting by the fireplace or heater all day.

In the hilly areas, people experience snow during winters. They have to shovel it out of the way to make way for walking. The essence of winters is enhanced by Christmas as well. It sets the holiday mood for people and is admired all over the world.

But, there is also a downside of this season. The farmers, homeless people, and animals are most affected by this season. There is hardly any business in this season for farmers. Hundreds of homeless people die due to the harsh winters.

As the animals do not have proper shelter, they too lose their lives. In addition, many flights are also canceled during this season. Nonetheless, this does not make winter any less important. It is quite essential to maintain balance in the weather of our country.

NATURAL CALAMITIES

Natural calamities are the calamities which are inflicted by God, or Nature, or man and his world. At these calamities, the unseen hand wreaks havoc in the part of the world it chooses to act upon. On these natural activities of nature no scientific or technological developments can wield any control.

They can occur as and when and where ordains it. Natural calamities can be of many different kinds, but the similarly in all, is their massive destruction in the area of their occurrence. The natural disasters are of many kinds, they are drought and famine, flood, earthquake, hailstrom and a cyclone.

In the wake of all these, in one sweep there is complete devastation and destruction, due to which normal life comes to a standstill. Loss of life is well nigh complete, and belongings of people get lost, blown away or swept away. The scene is one of the awe, of some unknown power that appears to wreak some revenge on the people of the area.

One feels that, there will never again be life in the area, there will never again come up any construction in the area. But, nature plays its part in this also, and even after the most ghastly disaster, life has come up blooming as ever as before in areas of such devastation.

TIME IS MONEY

Even though the importance of time differs for everyone, it is nonetheless important. Once we grow up, our childhood never comes back. Similarly, a student always tries their best all through the year for getting good grades.

Similarly, people make use of their precious time for different purposes to do their best to fulfil their wishes. It is because we are aware that time will not wait for anyone. We all get to live our life once.

Thus, it is up to us as to how we will use it. We can spend it by gaining a lot of achievement or we can spoil it by wasting the precious time given to us. Intelligent people strive to make the most of their time but living each moment to the fullest. Thus, we must all strive for the same thing.

It is clear by now that time is more valuable than money. Millions of people believe in this and it remains a fact. It is because once you lose time, you will never get it back, not even a second of it.

Time can be used to make money but money cannot be used to make more time. Thus, all the money in the world does not matter if you do not have enough time. Do you know the difference between successful people and failures?

We all get 24 hours in a day, no matter where we come from or how much money we have. It is not using all 24 hours that matters; it is how we use those hours. A successful person will always use their time efficiently to make progress in life.

Time is something we get and we have all the right to use it just like money. But, what’s different is that when we lose money, we can always get it back in one way or another. However, when we lose time, we can never get it back with any amount of money.

A patient in need of medical attention understands the value of time and that it is valuable than money. Similarly, an entrepreneur will take the fastest mode of travel to travel for a business deal to save time and seal and the deal. Thus, we see that time is indeed more important than money in life.

Love

Love is difficult to define, difficult to measure, and difficult to understand. Love is what great writers write about, great singers sing about, and great philosophers ponder. Love is a powerful emotion, for which there is no wrong definition, for it suits each and every person differently. Whether love is between family, friends, or lovers, it is an overwhelming emotion that can be experienced in many different ways.
People experience love for the first time by being part of a family. Family love is demonstrated through lessons of sacrifice, concern and compassion, from the cradle to the grave.There are many different levels and conditions of family love. It is the love we cherish between our intermediate family and our
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A close-knit loving bond between two people can begin with a friendship. Whether it is a friendship between two males, two females, or one male and one female, these friendships.will develop into love. In no way is it a romantic love, but this type of love connects and bonds friends. Friends may move away or friendships may wane, but the love between the two people burns on forever.

AIR POLLUTION

Air pollution is a serious issue and a cause for major concern in today’s world. A report published in 2014  by the World Health Organisation states that 4.21 million individuals died prematurely in 2012 as a result of air pollution. Air pollution existed much before humans, in the form of volcanic eruptions and forest fires. However, it became much more prevalent after the Industrial Revolution.

Rapid industrial growth, unregulated emissions and a host of other issues significantly contributed to the rise in air pollution. In some cases, the severity of air pollution reached an extent where government intervention was necessary. The Great Smog of London, 1952, was an extreme case of air pollution where visibility was severely hampered. It also caused a host of illnesses and the consequent deaths of countless civilians. In November 2017, the levels of air pollution in Delhi were ten times above the safe limits. For reference, the healthy air quality index is between 0 to 50, but during that particular time period, the air quality index hit 500+. This event is now called the Great Smog of Delhi.

An air quality index of 500 and above indicates that the air is heavily polluted and will cause irreversible lung damage and a host of other illnesses to everyone who is exposed to it. Therefore, to avoid such situations in the future, relevant actions must be implemented.

WATER HARVESTING

Water harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of ground water by capturing and storing rainwater locally in sub­surface water reservoirs to meet the household needs. There are various reasons for water harvesting such as:

To meet the ever-increasing demand for water, reducing the run-off which chokes drains, avoid the flooding of roads. Apart from these augmenting of the ground water storage, raising water table, reducing groundwater pollution and soil erosion and supplementing domestic water requirement during summer and drought etc. are important reasons for water harvesting.

However, the water harvesting can be very beneficial where ground water levels are declining on regular basis and the availability of ground water is inadequate in lean months. This can be helpful in urban areas where due to rapid urbanization, infiltration of rain water into subsoil has decreased drastically and recharging of ground water has diminished.

There are several low cost techniques are available to recharge the ground water aquifers. Among them the water harvesting, refilling of dug wells recharging of hand pumps, construction of percolation pits, bunds and stop dams on small rivulets.

In urban areas, rainwater available from roof tops of buildings, paved and unproved areas goes waste. This water can be recharged to aquifers and can be utilized gainfully at the time of need. The rain water harvesting systems needs to be designed in a way that is does not occupy large space for collection and recharge system. The roof top rain water harvesting can be a very effective tool to fight the problem of water shortage particularly in urban areas.

Pollution

Pollution is a term which even kids are aware of these days. It has become so common that almost everyone acknowledges the fact that pollution is rising continuously. The term ‘pollution’ means the manifestation of any unsolicited foreign substance in something. When we talk about pollution on earth, we refer to the contamination that is happening of the natural resources by various pollutants. All this is mainly caused by human activities which harm the environment in ways more than one. Therefore, an urgent need has arisen to tackle this issue straightaway. That is to say, pollution is damaging our earth severely and we need to realize its effects and prevent this damage. In this essay on pollution, we will see what are the effects of pollution and how to reduce it.

EMERGENCE OF QUEER THEORY

The acceptance of queer identity is not so easy in society. A hetero normative society wishes to build the society in a ‘normal’ manner. A strong consciousness of morality is manufactured and working in our society. As per heterosexual norms, sexual minorities are not human beings. They are portrayed to be unnatural and aberrant. The major reason behind the negative approach against them is that their life leads the ‘normal’ society into a feeling of insecurity. If a situation arrives where we have to admit their sexual identity, it would be the end of all established social laws on sexuality. It would be terrible for us to suffer if a homosexual makes any change to the existence of our ‘natural’ society. The social construction of Indian males and females doesn’t accept the individuality of homosexuals; in other words the elimination of power structure. In a hetero normative society, homo and heterosexuals are influenced by the power structure; the difference is this power structure is not that much visible to the ‘normalized categories’. Issues regarding the purpose of reproduction also make homosexuals ‘abnormal’. A hetero normative society provides two options to the homosexual community. This focuses specifically on sexuality as a primary component of human identity, social organization, and textual representation. There are certain theories related to homosexuality.

Gay/Lesbian theory:
It emerged prominently as a distinct field only by the 1990s. It emerged as a part of feminist studies. Both are similar in many ways, though the lesbian/gay movement has not yet gained the momentum of feminist movements. The lesbian/gay criticism field is strongly multi-disciplinary, with perhaps a predominance of cultural studies over literary material. But lesbian/gay criticism is not of exclusive interest to gays and lesbians. It may help define the nature of this field and make an initial comparison with feminist criticism. Books by gay/lesbian writers or critics are not necessarily part of gay/lesbian studies and the purpose of this criticism is that lesbian/gay studies do for sex and sexuality approximately what women’s studies do for gender.

Queer Theory:
The lesbian theory was not fully distinct from feminist studies. It was just a subfield called lesbian feminism. The second kind of lesbian thinking, designated libertarian lesbianism by Paulina Palmer, breaks away from feminism and makes new allegiances with gay men rather than with another woman. And this kind of lesbian theory sees itself as part of the field of ‘Queer theory’ or ‘Queer studies’, terms increasingly used by gays, despite the homophobic origins of the word ‘Queer’ as an abusive one in this context. The queer theory includes both queer readings of texts and theorizes the ‘queerness’ itself. The queer theory builds both upon feminist challenges to the idea that gender is part of the essential self and upon gay/lesbian studies to close examination of the socially constructed nature of sexual acts and identities.

Key Figures

Judith Pamela Butler is an American philosopher and gender theorist whose work has influenced political philosophy, ethics, and the fields of third-wave feminist, queer, and literary theory. She stated that no one can’t lay a specific claim to sexuality, but one can perform an identity: repeat clothing, gestures, attitudes, etc can be imitated as we as parodied. In one of the essays, she says “Since I was sixteen, being a lesbian is what I’ve been”. It indicates one has to constantly or repeatedly perform identity to maintain that.

Michel Foucault is a key poststructuralist influence on the development of queer theory. By his sociological research, he was able to identify four specific types of humans- that society has tried to control throughout history.
• Hysterical woman- commonly referred to as nymphomaniac.
• The masturbating child.
• The Malthus ( political economist Thomas Malthusian) couple: control reproduction, the rise of birth control, ethics of population control, etc.
• The perverse adult: Foucault termed this category as homosexuals. He says that homos and heteros are binaries but they are mutually dependent upon each other.

Key Principles

• Sexuality has always a connection with our social existence.
( Our attitudes towards sex, emotion, and erotic activity reveal much about the social classification and society’s economic and political priorities.
• Negative social attitudes about expressions of social desire have had a profound impact on many individual’s public and private lives.
• Social attitudes about sexuality have changed over time.
• Men’s same-sex desires have been treated differently from women’s over time.
• Social attitudes about sexuality have changed significantly across cultures, religions, classes, and ethnic groups.
• Social attitudes about sexuality resonate through literary texts that may challenge or maintain the status quo.

Menstruation – Still a Taboo?

The roots of period shaming

Many old cultures and texts considered menstruation impure. These views date back thousands of years and have formed generations of cultural disgrace. Discrimination counter to menstruating women is prevalent in India, where periods have long been a taboo and considered unclean. They are often eliminated from societal and spiritual events, deprived of entering into religious places and even kept out of kitchens.

The absence of discussion about menses, according to one study, 71% of pubertal girls in India are ignorant of menstruation until they get it themselves. Campaigners say it shows that parents hardly prepare their daughters for something they know is very certain to occur. And this unpreparedness leads to so much unavoidable fear and anxiety. The trouble in accessing sanitary pads is another main issue. India cancelled a 12% tax on sanitary products in 2018 after months of campaigning by activists. Campaigners had debated over the matter of “menstrual hygiene products are not a luxury and periods are not a choice that a woman could simply opt out of. However, tax exception is only a minor step towards a much longer journey of making menstrual health and hygiene an approachable reality for every woman in the country.

What is the menstruation taboo?

The menstruation taboo ranges to various parts of a woman’s body structure and sexuality, but it principally includes the shame and disgrace around discussing and caring for menstrual needs. This taboo often results into the prohibiting of women from community and family activities. The taboo also makes people feel like the topic of menses is awkward and embarrassing to discuss in some societies. This often results in women using code words or slang to mention periods.

In the last two centuries, intellectuals, writers, and psychologists have made an effort to state what exactly has contributed to taboos around periods. Sigmund Freud supposed that the fear of blood was one reason behind the taboos, another being that it was related with a woman’s fear of losing her virginity. Twentieth-century author Allan Coult said that rude man had an unconscious wish to avoid the hostile effects menstruation had on “organic materials.” According to Coult, taboos grew as a way to manage with periods. Whatever the reason behind these stigmas, menstruation taboos have actual and serious effects on the health, education, safety, and happiness of women.

Menstruation in India

Menstruation in India is broadly considered unclean and impure. An absence of sanitary products makes periods more of a load in India. In fact, 88 percent of women in India still rely on cloths, rags, hay, ash, and even leaves to manage their periods. Isn’t that shameful? When their menstruation instigates for the first time, over 23 percent of girls in India drop out of school. Those who continue miss an average of five days of school per month because of their menses. Women’s education can have a huge impact on economic growth, which means menstruation taboo can affect the prosperity of a country.

race discrimination

Race means being part of a group of people who are identified by their race, colour, nationality, citizenship, or ethnic or national origins. If you experience discrimination, this counts as race discrimination. Even if you’re not part of one of these groups, it still counts as discriminates against you because they think you are. This is known as perceived race discrimination. Rce discrimination is when you are treated unfairly because of your race, or because of the race of someone you are connected with, such as your partner. If race discrimination takes place in any of the following situations it is illegal and you may be able to take action about it:

  • employment and training
  • education
  • when providing goods and services, for example, banking, entertainment and transport
  • housing
  • any of the activities carried out by public authorities, such as the NHS, government departments, local authorities, the police and prisons

Race discrimination can be direct or indirect. It may also take the form of harassment or victimisation. Race discrimination does not need to be delibrated. Someone may be discriminating against you without realising it or meaning to, but this might still count as discrimination.

DIRECT RACIAL DISCRIMINATION- It is direct race discrimination to treat someone less favourably than someone else would be treated in the same circumstances, because of race. To prove direct race discrimination, it will help if you can give an example of someone from a different racial group who, in similar circumstances, has been, or would have been, treated more favourably than you. Racist abuse and harassment are forms of direct discrimination. One example of direct race discrimination is where you are from a particular racial group and an employer refuses to appoint you because, the employer says, you ‘wouldn’t fit in’ or ‘the customers would object’. It’s also direct discrimination if an employer turns you down for a job because of your connection with someone else of a particular racial group.

INDIRECT RACIAL DISCRIMINATION- It is indirect race discrimination to have a rule, policy or practice which people of a particular racial, ethnic or national group are less likely to be able to meet than other people, and this places them at a disadvantages. Examples of indirect discrimination might include an employer insisting that candidates for a job should have foreign qualification, the banning of wearing headscarves or insisting wearing skirts, an employer insisting that someone has English as a first language,etc. If you think that indirect race discrimination might have occurred, you may be able to make a complaint about it. However, if the person or organisation you are complaining about can show that there are genuine reasons for the rule, policy or practice and that it has nothing to do with race, this won’t count as discrimination. For example, an employer may be able to show why an employee needs to have gained their qualification in the foreign in order to work in a particular role. If they can do this, there won’t have been any discrimination.

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING

It is illegal for an employer to discriminate against you because of race. This includes all employers, no matter how few people they employ. Most workers, including employees, agency workers, trainees and those who are self employed have protection from race discrimination at work. This includes recruitment, selection, promotion, training, pay and benefits, redundancy and dismissal, terms and conditions of work, etc. Trade unions have a duty not to discriminate against their members or those wanting to because members. There are some situations where employers are allowed to treat you less favourably because of your race and this won’t count as discrimination.

RACE DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION

It is illegal for any school or college to discriminate against someone because of race. This applies to both state and private schools and colleges. A school or college must not discriminate in any of its policies and practices. This include admission policies, treatment of pupils, exclusions and decisions about pupil’s special educational needs or disabilities. Schools and colleges also have a duty to protect pupils against racial abuse and violence from other pupils, both on school premises or on the way to or from school.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT RACIAL DISCRIMINATION?

If you think you’ve suffered race discrimination there are a number of things you may be able to do. These include:

  • talking to the person or organisation that discriminated against you
  • using grievance procedure or making a claim to an employment tribunal if it is an employment problem
  • publicising your case through the courts
  • taking legal action through the courts
  • giving details of the problem to an advice agency who may able to refer it to the Equality and Human Rights Commission, if you believe the problem is widespread

When deciding what action to take about race discrimination, you will need to think about what you are trying to achieve. For example, do you want financial compensation, justice or publicity? You will also need to think about how quickly you need to get a result. If someone has been violent or hostile towards you because of your race, you can report this to the police as a hate incident or hate crime.