Top 5 of the Best-Selling Authors of All Time

For this rundown, the topic of what considers a “creator” becomes the overwhelming focus. Both Stephen King and J.K. Rowling have composed under pen names (Bachman and Robert Galbraith, individually) and both were outed. While it appears to be sensible to check books composed under those aliases their particular writer’s aggregates, a few circumstances are not all that straightforward. The eighteenth-century work A General History of the Pyrates (a critical hotspot for data about the Golden Age of robbery), for instance, is credited to one Captain Charles Johnson. Nonetheless, antiquarians have always been unable to discover proof of a Captain Charles Johnson, so in 1932 one researcher concluded that it was composed by Daniel Defoe—and thus the book is currently much of the time recorded as one of his works. In the previous few decades, however, that attribution has been questioned for a writer named Nathaniel Mist. All in all, should this blockbuster’s numbers be credited to Defoe, Mist, or left off the rundown altogether?

Antiquarians are likewise progressively guessing that Shakespeare wasn’t the sole writer of large numbers of his plays—as per The New Oxford Shakespeare, “His last three plays were all co-composed with [John] Fletcher—who, in every one of the three, appears to have composed a greater amount of the enduring content than Shakespeare.” How at that point to manage Shakespeare? Should his works be divvied up? Or on the other hand, should an indicator be set on the record? These inquiries can get into a shockingly profound philosophical area.

With those admonitions far removed—and the further proviso that this rundown does exclude strict works, and is, with a couple of special cases, directing away from writers who showed up on the top-rated books show; it’s likewise not complete, thorough, or a “main ten” list—here are a few contenders for the top of the line writers ever.

DR. SEUSS // SOMEWHERE BETWEEN 100 AND 650 MILLION

In 2001, Publishers Weekly did an overview to decide the smash hit kids’ books. Theodor “Dr. Seuss” Geisel wouldn’t enter the rundown until number 4 with Green Eggs and Ham at 8 million, yet he had six of the best 20. These days, The Washington Post says that Dr. Seuss has sold 650 million duplicates in 95 nations, with Green Eggs Ham actually driving the path at 17.5 million duplicates sold.

CORÍN TELLADO // POSSIBLY AROUND 400 MILLION

As per her tribute in The Guardian, some mistakenly accept that Corín Tellado was a distributing house as opposed to an individual. Similar to Barbara Cartland, Tellado composed heartfelt books, yet much more—gauges put her all outnumber of books at somewhere in the range of 4000 to 5000 over a 63-year vocation; she is supposed to be the smash-hit writer throughout the entire existence of the Spanish language, and comparable to Miguel de Cervantes for readership. To act as an illustration of the number of books she could create, she worked a portion of her vocation during the fascism of Francisco Franco, when specialists would vigorously blue pencil her books and send them back; The Times of London reports, “In certain months upwards of four of her novellas may be dismissed by the system’s edits.”

BARBARA CARTLAND // POSSIBLY OVER 600 MILLION

Romance writer Barbara Cartland delineates the inborn contrast between smash hit writers and top-rated books. Sources vary, yet it’s, for the most part, concurred she composed around 723 books (more than 600 of which were books) with gauges for her all-out deals going from 600 million to a billion books. Doing some division shows that each book may have sold just a touch over 1,000,000 duplicates, however, her sheer yield—she’s said to have, on occasion, composed 20 books per year—makes her a smash hit writer.

AGATHA CHRISTIE // ESTIMATED 2 BILLION BOOKS SOLD

As per Guinness World Records, Agatha Christie has the title of “world’s best-selling fiction writer,” with assessed deals of more than 2 billion. UNESCO additionally records Christie as the most deciphered creator ever.

MAO ZEDONG // UNTOLD BILLIONS

Mao Zedong shows up on our smash hit books list for Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, yet he’d probably still be on the rundown even without Quotations. As indicated by social scientist Zhengyuan Fu, “The size of the creation and utilization of Mao’s symbols and images is extraordinary in mankind’s set of experiences. During the long time from March 1966 to August 1976, there were 1,820 … state-possessed printing industrial facilities that printed 6.5 billion volumes of Quotations from Chairman Mao (the little red book), 840 million arrangements of Selections of Mao Zedong’s Works (3.36 billion volumes), 400 million volumes of Chairman Mao’s Poems, and 2.2 billion sheets of Mao’s standard photograph representations, which came in five standard sizes.” As consistently when managing these sort of numbers, a few sources go more modest, yet the complete is unquestionably colossal.

How to be a Full Stack Developer?

Before getting into the topic, “how to become a full stack Java developer?” or “how to become a full stack Python developer?”, we learn what is Full Stack development. We are living in a virtual world. We are solving every problem in this virtual world with the help of softwares like some solution. This software contains multiple layers. We have Presentation layer, Business layer and Database layer. The presentation layer is something where the user interacts. For example, if we are going to hariyali.in, we are accessing the front page of the website. That is the presentation layer. We can also say app here instead of website. If we are going to WordPress app, the page that comes first is the presentation layer. Then we are writing an article/a blog and then publishing it or saving it as a draft. All these processing part runs in the server which contains the business logic. As our requirements change, the business logic will also change. And then we have a database layer where we will put our data. The data that we put in should be stored somewhere. That’s why we have a database layer. Now a question arises. If we want to build this application, what are the technologies should we learn?

If we talk about industry, for different layers we have different professionals to work with it. We have experts in presentation layer. We have experts in business layer. As well we have experts in database layer. A Java developer basically works with the business layer. Now a question may arise. Why not presentation layer? Presentation layer can be done by people who are creative. Because he/she must provide the users a good looking UI with a good UX and to build a good UI with good UX, he/she needs creativity. He/she must understand the users; and colour mapping as well. A presentation layer expert must know HTML, CSS, JavaScript. Those are the technologies used in front end. One can also use Angular, React. A business layer expert must know PHP, Java, C sharp, Python. Nowadays JavaScript is also used in business layer. For Database layer, we need experts with knowledge in Oracle, MySql and  NoSql.

MongoDB, ExpressJS, AngularJS and nodeJS are the MEAN stack used. With the help of stack we can build the entire software. What is Stack? Stack simply means one over the other. We have the Presentation layer which communicates with the Business layer which communicates with the Database layer. All these can be done using Stack.

We have seen that there are experts working with every layer. But nowadays there are companies that position a full stack developer. From sta rt to end, everything will be done by him.
The advantages of having a full stack developer:

  • There is no communication gap between teams.
  • The full stack developer is the Jack of all technologies.

But there is also a drawback of having a full stack developer. He is the Jack of all technologies but master of none. But that’s fine. Working on more projects and spending more time with technologies make him trained.

If you want to be a full stack developer, learn front end(Presentation layer) then get into technologies used in business layer and then into database layer. The thing that differs for a full stack Java developer and a full stack Python developer is the business layer. For a full stack Java developer, the business layer will be of Java. For a full stack Python developer, the business layer will be of Python. Just stick to one technology (language) and upgrade on that. You don’t need to learn every language. All the best.

Voting rights

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote). In some languages, and occasionally in English, the right to vote is called active suffrage, as distinct from passive suffrage, which is the right to stand for election.


Suffrage universel dédié à Ledru-Rollin, Frédéric Sorrieu, 1850
Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to referendums.

In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by referendum may also be available. For example, in Switzerland this is permitted at all levels of government. In the United States, some states such as California, Washington, and Wisconsin have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums; other states and the federal government have not. Referendums in the United Kingdom are rare.

Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government’s decision. Resident non-citizens can vote in some countries, which may be restricted to citizens of closely linked countries (e.g., Commonwealth citizens and European Union citizens) or to certain offices or questions.

Top 10 highest paying Computer science jobs

Is it accurate to say that you are thinking about seeking after a degree in computer engineering? Or on the other hand maybe you’re now enlisted and need to know how fulfilling Computer Science occupations are. You’ve shown up to the right area! We are charmed by this issue also, which is the reason we directed exploration and recognized the most lucrative Computer Science occupations. We’ll likewise go over a couple of section level jobs just as a portion of the significant advantages and downsides of a profession in Computer engineering.

We got our work done and found an awesome information from PayScale that shows the most lucrative Computer Science occupations in the United States. We’ve included both the normal yearly compensation and the mid-vocation pay, which is the amount you’ll make following ten years at work.

Data scientist

The bosses of the Data Science space are Data Scientists. They are generally engaged with extricating esteem from a lot of information. Information researchers gather data from interior sources as well as from an assortment of outer sources (online media, sites, sites, and so forth) They clean, arrange, and measure this information to examine it further and discover covered up designs. This empowers them to grasp how the current information may be utilized to address the association’s present business troubles.

Data Scientists and Data Analysts collaborate together to go deep into the data in order to uncover significant insights that may be used to solve real-world business problems. In initiatives dealing with enormous volumes of sophisticated corporate data, Data Scientists frequently take the lead (much like a Project Manager). Data Scientists are typically well-versed in Data Science, Computer Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Statistics.

Data analytics

Data analysts execute data munging, processing, and visualization tasks using their technical expertise. Another important component of their everyday work is to optimize and ensure the quality and accuracy of the data. They not only build algorithms, but they also alter them in order to extract data from enormous databases without corrupting the data.

Application Developer

The world has expanded at a breakneck speed. People are more likely to use hand-held portable computers, such as laptops, tablets, smartwatches, and smartphones, to do their day-to-day chores than they are to utilize desktop computers. As a result, the demand for computer workers with application development expertise has risen. High pay packages, access to cutting-edge technology, job satisfaction, and a reputable profile are just a few of the benefits of working as an app developer.

Professional in Cybersecurity

The digital age altered our interactions, as well as the types of threats we confront. Hackers with advanced skills access computer systems in order to steal personal information, install viruses, or even breach security measures, making them vulnerable to larger attacks.This threat affects corporations, non-profits, small enterprises, and even entire countries. Hiring information security specialists or cybersecurity consultants is one option for businesses and governments to combat this threat.These computer scientists have been specially trained to deal with the hazards that hackers and Internet spies pose to the world’s information systems.

Game developer

People play games on Facebook, on their tablets and phones, on their gaming consoles, and on their PCs thanks to game developers. People who want to work as game developers in the video game industry should have a strong background in computer science and programming languages. It’s also beneficial for students to learn about the visual components of video game development.If you want to work in the video game industry, you need make a demo or a portfolio to offer to potential employers. Working as a game tester or launching a video game blog are two ways that some video game professionals get their start.

Software Developer

A software developer converts his or her computer science skills into a job as a software engineer. Software developers produce the programs and apps that we use to run our computers and mobile devices. They gain a broad understanding of computer languages, allowing them to write the code that runs websites, video games, software programs, and other applications.

Architect for Computer Networks

Professionals who design, develop, implement, and maintain networking and data transmission systems are known as computer network architects. Local area networks, wide area networks, extranets, and intranets are all examples of this. Additionally, they are in charge of both software (such as network drivers) and hardware upgrades (like adapters and routers). Computer Network Architects typically collaborate with the company’s CTO (Chief Technology Officer) to forecast where new networks are most needed.

Developer (Full Stack)

Programming and coding are the primary responsibilities of Full Stack Developers. They design and build websites according to client specifications and requests while sticking to conventional HTML/CSS techniques. They must also keep track of the necessary software documentation. Full Stack Developers must be skilled in both graphic design and computer programming, as this profession focuses on both user experience and functionality.

Administrator of a database

Database Administrators play an important role in the industry because they are largely responsible for the day-to-day operation of the firm database. They are responsible for maintaining the database, monitoring and tracking database software purchases, managing database access, implementing security measures, and overseeing improvements to existing software products.Database administrators are also in charge of quality control and database performance in order to preserve and maintain the confidentiality and integrity of confidential data.Database administrators must have strong organizational and analytical abilities.

IT project managers

IT project managers are in charge of overseeing every aspect of a project’s development from start to finish. They are in charge of keeping staff on track from the start to finish of an IT project, ensuring that it is finished within budget limitations and on time. When requirements change or project components become overdue, they also update the timeline or deadline.

Conclusion

So, there you have it: the top 10 career options after Computer Engineering! All of these career choices are in high demand in the sector, and as a result, pay ranges from reasonable to very high on a yearly basis.

The Best Songs of 2021 So Far

The best melodies of the year so far have come from rookies and veterans the same. They start from one side of the planet to the other: South Africa, Puerto Rico, Los Angeles. One is intended to be pretty much as short as could be expected; another stretches on for almost eight minutes. From Arooj Aftab’s joyful and wrapping “Mohabbat” to a melody that could fill in as Lana Del Rey’s statement of purpose, here are the tracks we will have on rehash for quite a long time to come.

“Up”, Cardi B

There’s not a lot on “Up” that we haven’t heard from Cardi B previously, and that totally doesn’t make any difference. The no. 1 single—Cardi’s fifth such diagram clincher—plays to every last bit of her qualities: tongue-contorting similar sounding word usage; a brief beat that will wreck your subwoofer; shamelessly lustful symbolism bound to soundtrack innumerable TikTok recordings of smoldering mothers. (The melody has been sent in more than 3 million TikTok recordings as of now—and furthermore brought about quite possibly the most superb image difficulties this year.) “Large pack bussin’ out the Bentley Bentayga/Man, Balenciaga Bardi back and this load of bitches f-cked,” Cardi barks. Simply one more day at the workplace for hip-bounce’s top provocateur. — Andrew R. Chow.

“Good 4 U”, Olivia Rodrigo

Olivia Rodrigo began her rising to fame tenderly, with the nostalgic heart-pull of “Drivers License” and the pungent bitterness of “History repeating itself.” But “Great 4 U,” the third delivery off of the existing apart from everything else Disney entertainer’s presentation collection Sour, shows that she’s no saccharine pop princess. Ladylike displeasure has an unpredictable spot in music; frantic ladies aren’t constantly offered space to communicate the expansiveness of their feelings. Fortunately, Rodrigo isn’t stressed over that. With pop-punk power, she sing-talks her direction through a tune that is proudly severe and angry, with a guitar-driven theme that simply requests a soothing singalong. It may not be the tune that pushes her vocation higher than ever—she’s as of now got “Drivers License” for that—however, it may very well be the one to which an age goes to vent some dissatisfaction. — Raisa Bruner.

“Mohabbat”, Arooj Aftab

The Pakistan-conceived, Brooklyn-based author has acquired basic praise for her scrutinizing collection Vulture Prince, which pulls from melodic practices from across the world. The undertaking’s champion is “Mohabbat,” which was adjusted from a nineteenth-century Urdu tune sonnet while additionally flawlessly using vocal jazz methods and a delicate guitar drone suggestive of Led Zeppelin’s “Going to California.” Despite the tune’s 7:42 runtime, nary an expression feels over the top or unnecessary; Aftab’s trembling vocals make and resolve a tightrope strain, offering a euphoric and encompassing break from the year’s tumult. — A.R.C.

“Montero (Call Me By Your Name)”, Lil Nas X

The solitary issue with Lil Nas X’s most recent contribution to the graph divine beings? It’s basically excessively short. “Montero” is determined and unyielding, a far-fetched hand-applaud beat, licks of Spanish guitar, and a repeating murmured tune flicking at both flamenco and Gregorian serenades. That is purposeful; in its contention teasing music video, Lil Nas X uses strict iconography to follow a background marked by LGBTQ abuse. In any case, “Montero,” simply as a melody, is an irresistible festival of want: “Call me when you need, call me when you need, call me out by your name, I’ll be coming.” It’s an incredible, freed message from a youthful star who rose to stratospheric statures with “Old Town Road,” and is currently deciding to demonstrate he has considerably more to say as a craftsman. — R.B.

“Pin Pin”, Myke Towers

Like the megahits “Hips Don’t Lie” and “I Like It” before it, “Pin” vigorously depends on an immaculate example from the salsa containers. This time, it’s Tommy Olivencia y Su Orquesta’s cheerful “Periquito Pin.” Towers give a lot of space for the example to inhale—in any event, yelling out Olivencia in the subsequent section—while deftly adding his luxurious blast bap rap rhythms. The tune—just as the general collection Lyke Myke—offers undeniable confirmation concerning why Towers is one of the quickest rising stars to emerge from Puerto Rico and Latin America on the loose. — A.R.C.

“Not All Who Wander Are Lost” Lana Del Rey

At the point when she made her standard introduction in 2011 with “Computer games,” Lana Del Rey set forward an unmistakable craftsman persona: the lost princess of West Coast Americana, a longshot character following the breeze starting with one low-lease town then onto the next, one dangerous man to another. More than six collections, she has not veered a long way from this course, even as she’s tried different things with pop components and idyllic suggestions. “Not All Who Wander Are Lost,” a mid-collection track of her most recent contribution Chemtrails Over the Country Club, could fill in as a sort of statement of purpose of her unique imaginative undertaking. “I’ve been wearing similar damn garments for three damn days/Lincoln, Nebraska has me in a murkiness/The thing about men like you is you have a ton to say, yet will you stay?” It’s a prosecution and a romanticization of the existence of hunger for new experiences she has encapsulated in her verses throughout the long term; it’s likewise, with the celestial falsetto tune, a request to be left to do what she prefers. — R.B.

“Ke Star Remix” Focalistic, Davido, Vigro Deep

Amapiano, a South African house subgenre that regularly weds seizing basslines with fragile piano or synth lines, has detonated in fame throughout the most recent couple of years. On this tune, two South African stars who have been turbocharging dancefloors across their country—the DJ and maker Virgo Deep and the rapper Focalistic—are joined by Nigerian Afrobeats lord Davido for a ranting intercontinental crush. One YouTube client summarized it very well in the video’s remarks segment: “I’m turning into a cycle self-centered with this tune with rehashed plays, basically to hear the Surrounds frameworks inside my vehicle respond. It is frantic.” — A.R.C.

A Show that one must Watch- F.R.I.E.N.D.S

File:Friends logo.svg is an iconic show/ sitcom which aired on NBC in 1994 to 2004. Despite of the fact the show is a 90s production, it has never replaced its place from people’s heart. People of any age group can watch it and will surely love it andIs Friends Still the Most Popular Show on TV? make it a part of their daily routine. It shows the story of six friends in the 10 years of their lifespan. This is the show, that people should watch at least once, there are a plenty of reasons for it. First of all it is a evergreen mood refreshing show, the comedy, the timings, the way they all speak are at their best and just make your day. As told above, it is a story of six friends – Ross Geller, Rachel Green, Joey Tribbiani, Monica Geller, Chandler Bing and Phoebe Buffay. Unlike other shows, where the main cast is the hero of the show, these people are shown as normal people, like me and you, who are imperfect in their lives, who don’t know what is going on but want to achieve something in the life. The most important thing is, when you heard of friends, you have a image of friends in school or college but here you’ll see these people are in mid 20s who had completed studies, doing job, or some getting divorced. Once you start watching it, you can totally relate to it. Here we can see such little- little thing that we should learn, like the way they solve their problems, the way the handle break- ups, the way they accept their mistakes, the way they are always available for each other, all are just splendid which we must apply in our lives.

Rachel Green, a sheltered but friendly woman, flees her wedding day and wealthy yet unfulfilling life and finds childhood friend Monica Geller, a tightly wound but caring chef. Rachel becomes a waitress at West Village coffee house Central Perk after she moves into Monica’s apartment above Central Perk and joins Monica’s group of single friends in their mid-20s: previous roommate Phoebe Buffay, an eccentric masseuse and musician; neighbor Joey Tribbiani, a dim-witted yet loyal struggling actor and womanizer; Joey’s roommate Chandler Bing, a sarcastic, self-deprecating IT manager; and Monica’s older brother and Chandler’s college roommate Ross Geller, a sweet-natured but insecure paleontologist.

The show was created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, with an ensemble cast starring Jennifer Aniston, Courteney Cox, Lisa Kudrow, Matt LeBlanc, Matthew Perry and David Schwimmer. The series was produced by Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions, in association with Warner Bros. Television. The original executive producers were Kevin S. Bright, Kauffman, and Crane. Kauffman and Crane began developing Friends under the working title Insomnia Cafe between November and December 1993. They presented the idea to Bright, and together they pitched a seven-page treatment of the show to NBC. After several script rewrites and changes, including title changes to Six of One and Friends Like Us, the series was finally named Friends.

Filming took place at Warner Bros. Studios in Burbank, California. All ten seasons of Friends ranked within the top ten of the final television season ratings; it ultimately reached the number-one spot in its eighth season. The series finale aired on May 6, 2004, and was watched by around 52.5 million American viewers, making it the fifth most-watched series finale in television history, and the most-watched television episode of the 2000s. Friends received acclaim throughout its run, becoming one of the most popular television shows of all time.

Music & Brain

I bet we all love listening music.  But do we know how music affects our brain physiologically.

We all know our brain is divided into left and right hemispheres. Our left brain deals with logics and facts in contrast, our right brain deals with creativity and art.

Various researches showed that our right brain is responsible to process music. Also, if the right side of the brain gets damaged it directly leads to the impairment of rhythm and pitch and thus, the ability to comprehend music is destroyed.

Also, another interesting study showed that when we think about a song or when we are recalling the rhythm and lyrics of a song without humming or singing it at that particular time our right brain was more activated than the left brain.

So, does it mean that left side of our brain does not play any role in understanding music or else?

The answer is no.

Actually, for processing music both hemispheres of brain and hippocampus plays a vital role.

 Scientists have proved that how

Minor chords when played makes a person sad and when Major chords are played that makes the person happy.

And, musicians use this concept to make music accordingly.

Also, even hospitals appoint music therapists to treat patients.

And it is clinically proven that music therapy helps Parkinson’s patients, children with autism, improve sleeping patterns and reduces the effects of dementia in older people.

Researchers have also found how listening to music releases dopamine which is a happy hormone.

So, everybody keep listening to music and be happy.

JOB : A COMPUTER SCIENCE DEGREE?

Computer technologies are integral to modern life, so you’re likely to find your computer science skills in high demand across many different industries. These include financial organizations, management consultancy firms, software houses, communications companies, data warehouses, multinational companies, governmental agencies, universities and hospitals. 

As always, it’s extremely beneficial to have completed relevant work experience. You should also consider compiling a portfolio of your own independent projects outside of your degree, which could be in the form of programming, moderating online or even building an app. This will demonstrate to employers your interest in the subject and your problem-solving skills, creativity and initiative.

IT consultant

Working in partnership with clients, an IT consultant advises clients on the planning, design, installation and usage of information technology systems to meet their business objectives, overcome problems or improve the structure and efficiency of their IT systems. As you represent a broad role in IT, your job will be similar to that of systems analysts, systems designers and applications programmers, whose roles are more specialized but nonetheless work on a consultancy basis.

Cybersecurity consultant 

Depending on what computer science specializations you studied during your degree, you may wish to specialize as a cybersecurity consultant or an information security specialist. Maintaining cyber security has become increasingly important, so in this role you will focus on understanding the risks to the security of information or data.

You’ll analyze where security breaches may occur or have occurred, and restore or reinforce systems against such breaches, to ensure that confidential data is protected. This role could include ‘ethical hacking’, meaning deliberately attempting to hack into your employer’s network to expose any weaknesses. Alternatively, you could work as a computer forensics analyst or investigator to combat the increasing phenomenon of cyber-crime.

Information systems manager 

A similar role to an IT consultant, an information systems manager is usually a full-time member of staff, responsible for the secure and effective operation of computer systems within their company. You’ll be responsible (perhaps with the help of a team of IT staff) for the entire upkeep of the ICT infrastructure within your organization, with typical tasks involving the overseeing of system installation; ensuring systems are backed-up and that the back-up systems are operating effectively; purchasing hardware and software; setting up secure access for all users; ensuring security of data from internal and external attack; and providing IT support and advice for users. 

You’ll need to make sure the ICT facilities meet the needs of your company and are current, while remaining within a set budget, and within all relevant software licensing laws. You may also need an understanding of business and management principles in order to contribute to organizational policy regarding quality standards and strategic planning in relation to IT.

Database administrator 

database administrator (DBA) is responsible for accurately and securely using, developing and maintaining the performance, integrity and security of a computerized database. The specific role is always determined by the organization in question but is likely to mean being involved purely in database maintenance or specialized in database development. 

The role is also dependent on the type of database and processes and capabilities of the database management systems (DBMS) in use in your particular organization.

Typically, this role includes ensuring data remains consistent, is clearly defined, easily accessible, is secure and can be recovered in an emergency. You’ll also be required to troubleshoot should any problems arise; liaise with programmers, operational staff, IT project managers and technical staff; provide user training, support and feedback; and write reports, documentation and operating manuals.

MOBILE GAME: BRAWLHALLA

brawlhalla is a free-to-play 2D Platformer fighting game developed by Blue Mammoth Games and Ubisoft for Nintendo Switch, Xbox Series X|S, Xbox One, PS5, PS4, Steam, iOS, and Android, with full cross-play across all platforms. The game was shown at PAX East in April 2014, and went into alpha later that month. An open beta became available in November 2015, followed by the game’s release in October 2017. As of May 2021, the game features 53 playable characters called “Legends”, each with their own unique stats, loadout, and available cosmetic skins.

On March 5, 2018, Brawlhalla developer-publisher Blue Mammoth Games was acquired by video game publisher Ubisoft. As a result of this, Rayman, alongside two other characters from the franchise, were added into the game on November 6, 2018. Brawlhalla was released for Nintendo Switch and Xbox One on the same day.

On July 6, 2018, Ars Technica released an article detailing precise player counts for Steam games obtained through a leak as a result of a “hole” in its API. This leak showed Brawlhalla to be ranked 24th in player count on Steam with a total of 8,646,824 players, out of all games featuring the Steam Achievements system. Ubisoft reported more than 20 million players by February 2019. As of March 2021, Brawlhalla boasts more than 50 million players.

In most of Brawlhalla’s game modes, the goal is to knock one’s opponent off the stage, (cross the game’s borders which are the four dimensions of the screen) comparable to Super Smash Bros. This can be done by damaging them repeatedly. Damage can be seen on the color display around the opponent’s character icon, which goes from white to red to black as the player continues to get hit. The closer the color is to red, the farther the player will be knocked back, until they eventually get knocked out. Getting knocked off the stage will result in the player losing a life. Either the last player standing (the one who still has at least one life) or the player with the most points wins the match.

The game supports both local and online play. Competitive players can compete 1-on-1 to climb through the rankings. They can also find a partner to play against other duos to increase their collaborative rank in either the standard stock gamemode queue or a rotating queue that features a different gamemode each season. Brawlhalla also has several casual modes: Free-For-All, 1v1 Strikeout, Experimental 1v1, and a different featured mode every week. Free-For-All is a chaotic mode where 4 players knock each other out to gain points. In 1v1 Strikeout, players pick 3 characters which they play for 1 stock each. Experimental 1v1 allows players to test out upcoming features against each other. Custom games can be hosted online and locally, and they support up to 8 players per match, experimental maps, and region changing. You may join groups of your friends to create a clan, with multiple ranks within the clans. Clans are only available on PC. Clans gain experience from all members.

Brawlhalla features simple controls and one-button special moves. This allows new players to pick up the game quickly. Controls include movement keys and buttons for attacking, performing special moves, picking up or throwing weapons, and dodging. Keys can be rebound for keyboard and a large variety of controllers.

Players can move by running left and right and jumping. Players can perform quick dashes sideways while on the ground, and dodges while in the air or on the ground, either sideways or vertically. It is also possible to dodge right after an attack to keep pressure on the opponent. Once in the air, the player has the option to perform any combination of: three jumps, a directional air-dodge, a grounded move in the air by using a “gravity-cancel”, and “fast-falling”. It is also possible to hold on to the sides of stages, similar to the style in Mega Man X.

During a match, gadgets (which can be switched off in the ranked gamemodes) and weapon drops fall from the sky semi-randomly and can be picked up by the players. Although the weapon drop sprite has the appearance of a sword it turns into a corresponding weapon for the legend that picks it up. All of Brawlhalla’s characters can use 2 weapons out of 13 to fight each other. Weapons include blasters, katars, rocket lances, swords, spears, cannons, axes, gauntlets, grapple hammers, bows, scythes, magic orbs, and greatswords. Blasters, lances, bows, and spears perform well at a distance from the opponent, while katars and gauntlets are more effective up close. Rocket lance allows for quick traversal of the stage. Axes, cannons, greatswords, and hammers all do large amounts of damage. Swords, orbs, and scythes are fast and low damaging. All characters have unarmed attacks, should they be disarmed. Gadgets like bombs, mines, and spike balls are also used. Weapons can also be thrown to interrupt the enemy’s moves or to make it difficult for them to get back to the stage. Each character has 3 special or “signature” moves per weapon, for a total of 6 per character.

Four stats are assigned to each character: Strength, Dexterity, Defense and Speed. The combination of these stats determines the strengths and weaknesses of a character and affects how they’re played, and can be slightly modified using stances- which move a point from one stat to another.

ONE PUNCH MAN

One-Punch Man (Japanese: ワンパンマン, Hepburn: Wanpanman) is a Japanese superhero franchise created by the artist ONE. It tells the story of Saitama, a superhero who can defeat any opponent with a single punch but seeks to find a worthy opponent after growing bored by a lack of challenge due to his overwhelming strength. ONE wrote the original webcomic version in early 2009.

A digital manga remake began publication on Shueisha’s Tonari no Young Jump website in June 2012. The manga is illustrated by Yusuke Murata, and its chapters are periodically compiled and published into individual tankōbon volumes. As of January 2021, 23 volumes have been released. In North America, Viz Media has licensed the remake manga for English language release and was serialized in its Weekly Shonen Jump digital magazine.

An anime adaptation of the manga, produced by Madhouse, was broadcast in Japan from October to December 2015. A second season, produced by J.C.Staff, was broadcast from April to July 2019. The anime series is licensed in North America by Viz Media, and premiered in the United States on Adult Swim’s Toonami programming block in July 2016. The second season premiered in October 2019.

As of June 2012, the original webcomic surpassed 7.9 million hits. As of April 2020, the manga remake had sold over 30 million copies.

On a supercontinent Earth, powerful monsters and villains have been wreaking havoc in the cities. In response, the millionaire Agoni creates the Hero Association, which employs superheroes to fight evil. Saitama, an unassociated hero, hails from City Z and performs heroic deeds as a hobby. He has trained himself to the point of being able to defeat any enemy with a single punch, but his unmatched strength has left him with an overwhelming sense of boredom. Saitama eventually becomes a reluctant mentor to Genos, a cyborg seeking revenge against another cyborg who killed his family and destroyed his hometown. Saitama and Genos join the Hero Association, but due to scoring low on the written entry exam, Saitama is placed at a low-entry rank, and his feats remain unnoticed and unappreciated by the public.

The Hero Association calls all the top heroes to a meeting, informing them that the seer Shibabawa had a vision that the world is in danger before dying. Immediately after, an alien named Boros invades the planet. The heroes fight the invaders outside Boros’s ship, while Saitama boards the ship and fights Boros, who notoriously survives more than one punch from Saitama before being defeated. Saitama meets other heroes, such as the martial artist Bang, the esper Blizzard, and King, a hero considered the strongest man on Earth. Monsters also begin to appear at a rising rate. Another growing threat is the rogue martial artist Garo, Bang’s former apprentice and self-dubbed “Hero Hunter” Garo, who fights and defeats heroes to grow stronger and become a “monster”.

The monster influx is revealed to be the doing of the Monster Association, an organization composed of monsters intent on destroying the Hero Association. They attack various cities, kidnap a Hero Association executive’s child, and recruit fighters by offering them “monster cells”, which cause humans to mutate into monsters with extraordinary abilities. Throughout all this, Garo bonds with a child who idolizes heroes, seeks out heroes to battle, and greatly improves his fighting abilities. The Monster Association attempts to recruit him, and kidnaps the child when Garo refuses. Garo enters the Monster Association headquarters in City Z to rescue the child, but is captured. The Hero Association also breaches the headquarters to rescue the executives’ child and a chaotic battle ensues, in which City Z is destroyed. The majority of the Monster Association’s leaders are slain, but many of the heroes, overconfident in their abilities, are defeated. Garo, having achieved tremendous power, defeats the remaining heroes, before Saitama in turn arrives and defeats him. Despite the objections of the other heroes, Saitama spares Garo’s life and lets him flee.

In the aftermath of the battle, the Hero Association’s poor performance leads to public opinion of them plummeting. Several heroes and officials decide to retire or defect to the Neo Heroes, a burgeoning rival group that appears to be more effective in handling the growing monster threats with its larger membership and the leadership of the hero Blue, who claims to be the son of the long-missing Blast.

WEBSERIES: THE FLASH

  • After being struck by lightning, Barry Allen wakes up from his coma to discover he’s been given the power of super speed, becoming the next Flash, fighting crime in Central City.
  • Barry Allen is a Central City police forensic scientist with a reasonably happy life, despite the childhood trauma of a mysterious red and yellow lightning killing his mother and framing his father. All that changes when a massive particle accelerator accident leads to Barry being struck by lightning in his lab. Coming out of coma nine months later, Barry and his new friends at S.T.A.R labs find that he now has the ability to move at superhuman speed. Furthermore, Barry learns that he is but one of many affected by that event, most of whom are using their powers for evil. Determined to make a difference, Barry dedicates his life to fighting such threats, as The Flash. While he gains allies he never expected, there are also secret forces determined to aid and manipulate him for their own agenda.—Kenneth Chisholm (kchishol@rogers.com)
  • Nine months after “The Particle Accelerator” explosion, Barry Allen wakes up from his coma and discovers that the explosion gave him the power of super speed. Others were affected and gained new abilities as well. However, not all of them use it for good. With Barry’s new powers and team of scientists, he becomes “The Flash” and helps fight crime and protects Central City.
  • Barry Allen was struck by lightning and got in a coma for 9 months. After he awoke from his coma 9 months later, Barry met Cisco Ramon, Harrison Wells and Caitlin Snow. He later on realized that he has powers and how it had been caused by the explosion of the particle accelerator.
  • Barry Allen is a forensic scientist and crime scene investigator at The Central City Police Department with a reasonable happy life, despite the childhood trauma of a man in a red and yellow bizarre killing his mother and framing his father for it. All that changes when a massive particle accelerator created by visionary physicist Dr. Harrison Wells and his team at S.T.A.R Labs causes a malfunction creating a freak storm, killing many people and Barry being struck by lightning in his lab. He wakes up after a coma nine months later. He and his new friends at S.T.A.R Labs discover that he has superhuman speed and can run on both land and water. He can move, think and react at light speeds. He can also vibrate so fast that he can pass through walls, travel through time and lend or borrow speed. He heals more quickly than an average human. Later, he learns that he is but one of the many affected by the incident, most of them who are using their powers for evil. Determined to make a difference, Barry dedicates his life to fighting such threats as The Flash.—Ron Shaju
  • After being struck by lightning and being affected by particle excelerator explosion, Barry Allen wakes up with incredible speed. He calls himself the flash. Now he is desperate to find the person that killed his mother when he was a child. Barry travels back in time on multiple occasions and screws everything up several times and ruins his friends lives but he’s a funny guy. He is also a superhero and has saved hundreds of people’s lives so he’s a good guy. The flash continually gets help from other superheroes like the arrow and Supergirl
  • After being struck by lightning, Barry Allen (Grant Gustin) is reborn. Now having super speed, he has a new name. The Flash. With the help of his friends, he fights crime and find other metahumans like him. And he will do anything to stop them. He is the Flash.
  • After a particle accelerator causes a freak storm, CSI Investigator Barry Allen is struck by lightning and falls into a coma. Months later he awakens with the power of super speed, granting him the ability to move through Central City like an unseen guardian angel. Though initially excited by his newfound powers, Barry is shocked to discover he is not the only “meta-human” who was created in the wake of the accelerator explosion — and not everyone is using their new powers for good. Barry partners with S.T.A.R. Labs and dedicates his life to protect the innocent. For now, only a few close friends and associates know that Barry is literally the fastest man alive, but it won’t be long before the world learns what Barry Allen has become…The Flash.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN INIDA

Public administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil employees for working in the public service. As a “field of inquiry with a diverse scope” whose fundamental goal is to “advance management and policies so that government can function.” Some of the various definitions which have been offered for the term are: “the management of public programs”; the “translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day”; and “the study of government decision making, the analysis of the policies themselves, the various inputs that have produced them, and the inputs necessary to produce alternative policies.” The word public administration is the combination of two words—public and administration. In every sphere of social, economic and political life there is administration which means that for the proper functioning of the organization or institution it must be properly ruled or managed and from this concept emerges the idea of administration.

Public administration is “centrally concerned with the organization of government policies and programs as well as the behavior of officials (usually non-elected) formally responsible for their conduct”. Many non-elected public employees can be considered to be public administrators, including heads of city, county, regional, state and federal departments such as municipal budget directors, human resources (HR) administrators, city managers, census managers, state mental health directors, and cabinet secretaries. Public administrators are public employees working in public departments and agencies, at all levels of government.

In the United States, civil employees and academics such as Woodrow Wilson promoted civil service reform in the 1880s, moving public administration into academia. However, “until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the German sociologist Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy” there was not “much interest in a theory of public administration”. The field is multidisciplinary in character; one of the various proposals for public administration’s sub-fields sets out six pillars, including human resources, organizational theory, policy analysis, statistics, budgeting, and ethics.

In 1947 Paul H. Appleby defined public administration as “public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action”. In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. One year later, Gordon Clapp, then Chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority defined public administration “as a public instrument whereby democratic society may be more completely realized.” This implies that it must “relate itself to concepts of justice, liberty, and fuller economic opportunity for human beings” and is thus “concerned with “people, with ideas, and with things”. According to James D. Carroll & Alfred M. Zuck, the publication by “Woodrow Wilson of his essay, “The Study of Administration” in 1887 is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study”.

Drawing on the democracy theme and discarding the link to the executive branch, Patricia M. Shields asserts that public administration “deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy”. The key term “product” refers to “those items that are constructed or produced” such as prisons, roads, laws, schools, and security. “As implementers, public managers engage these products.” They participate in the doing and making of the “living” democracy. A living democracy is “an environment that is changing, organic”, imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. “Stewardship is emphasized because public administration is concerned “with accountability and effective use of scarce resources and ultimately making the connection between the doing, the making and democratic values”.

History

India in the 600 BCE

Such neat and prosperous civilizations as Harappa and Mohenjo-daaro must have had a disciplined, benevolent and uncorrupt cadre of public servants. In support of this, there are many references to Brihaspati’s works on laws and governance. An interesting extract from Aaine-Akbari [vol.III, tr. by H. S. Barrett, pp217–218] written by Abul Fazl, the famous historian of Akbar’s court, mentions a symposium of philosophers of all faiths held in 1578 at Akbar’s instance. This sounds credible in the context of Akbar’s restless desire to find truth, reflected in his launching a new religion called Din-e-elaahi. The account under advisement is given by the well-known historian Vincent Smith, in his article titled “The Jain Teachers of Akbar”. Some Charvaka thinkers are said to have participated in the symposium. Under the heading “Naastika” Abul Fazl has referred to the good work, judicious administration and welfare schemes that were emphasized by the Charvaka law-makers. Somadeva has also mentioned the Charvaka method of defeating the enemies of the nation. He has referred to thirteen enemies who remain disguised in the kingdom for their selfish interests. They may contain a few relatives of the king and subsidiary rulers, but they should not be spared. They should be rigorously punished like any other such opponent. Kautilya, as already mentioned, has given a detailed scheme to remove the enemies in the garb of friends. The Charvaka stalwart, Brihaspati, is so much more ancient than Kautilya and Somadeva. He appears to be contemporaneous with the Harappa and Mohenjo-daaro culture.

The central point of traditional religious ritual is to earn ready money for its perpetrators. All unproductive, barren rites designed for various moments in human life starting from several months prior to birth and extending over several years beyond death in the form of the annual sraddha, many of which are current even today, are but channels to feed the priests. They are unreal, imagined and wasteful. While they are unreal, imagined and wasteful; the feeding is real.

This cunning paradox was realized by the Charvaka for its real worth. They wanted financial causes to produce financial results. Imagined causes only produced imagined results not real ones.

JOURNALISM IN INDIA

Media interview

Gathering, creating, preparation and distribution of reports of current events based on facts and information is journalism. The term journalism is used for the profession whereas a journalist is a person who is responsible for collecting and presenting the news. 

Journalism is mainly classified into two sections – Print Journalism and Electronic (Audio/Visual) Journalism. Print Journalism involves newspapers, magazines and journals. Different work profiles in Print Journalism includes reporters, editors, correspondents, columnists and many more. Meanwhile, Electronic Journalism is dissemination of news or information through electronic media like radio, television and web. Prominent work profiles in electronic media include anchor, reporter, editor, correspondent etc.

Journalism Courses:

Here is a list of mainstream journalism courses:

  • Bachelor of Mass Media and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • Bachelor of Communication and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • B.Sc. in Journalism and Mass Communication (UG, 3 years)
  • BA in Media and Communication (UG, 3 years)
  • BA in Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • BBA in Mass Communication and Journalism (UG, 3 years)
  • MA in Journalism and Mass Communication (PG, 2 years)
  • M.Sc. in Mass Communication (PG, 2 years)

The Scope in Journalism

In the recent years, the communication channels have widened from radio, television to digital and social mediums. India has one of the biggest media industries in the world providing ample number of job opportunities to the suitable candidates. Currently, Journalism has become one of the most prestigious careers in India. Candidates can avail job as a journalist in English, Hindi and many other vernacular languages. Candidates can also avail jobs in different types in different types of journalism mentioned below:

Types of Journalism
Broadcast JournalismCommunications
Fashion JournalismForeign Correspondent
Freelance WritingInvestigative Journalism
Newspaper ReporterPhotojournalism
Social MediaSports Journalism

Print Media

Below are some important job profiles and their roles in print media.

  • Reporter:  The role of a reporter is to gather news and report with accuracy. News sense, objectivity and timeliness are few important qualities, which a reporter should possess.
  • Correspondent: Correspondents are also known as special reporters who are assigned for a particular purpose. Correspondents can be of any beat like politics, sports, crime etc.
  • Feature Writer: The responsibility of a feature writer is to write soft stories with deep research and observations on particular subject.
  • Proof Reader: The role of a proof reader is to assess the edited copy. A proof reader must have good grammatical and punctuation skills.
  • Leader Writer: The role of a leader writer is to write their views on the current topics through editorials.
  • Editor: Editor’s responsibility is to maintain a journal’s reputation. He also ensures that article corresponds with the media in-house style guides.
  • Columnist: The role of a columnist is to write for a specific column in detail in the newspaper or magazine. The column can be related to any topic highlighting his viewpoint on any subject like politics, fashion or films.

Photo Journalists, Cartoonists are some other profiles.

Electronic Media

Here are various job profiles included in electronic media.

  • Researchers: The role of researchers involves deep research on a particular topic. Significant qualities required for this job profile are creativity and excellent research skills.
  • Electronic Media Reporters: An electronic media or broadcast reporter should have good verbal and presentation skills. He should have a news sense.
  • Presenters/Anchors: A presenter should be confident. He must have excellent communication skills, ability to remain balanced in stressful conditions.
  • Freelancers: Apart from the above-mentioned job profiles, freelancers are informal employees who are assigned particular task and are paid according to it.

Areas of work for a journalist

Below are few areas where a journalist can work at different profiles.

Journalists and Their Work Areas
News AgenciesPress Information Bureau
Legal Affairs DepartmentTelevision Industry
NewspapersCirculation and Public Relations
All India RadioJournals
BlogsWebsites

Pay Scale in Journalism:

Most of the aspirants chose journalism due to interest and passion. Check out how well journalists are paid in India.

According to a report in Glassdoor, the annual salary of a journalist at The Times of India ranges from Rs 2.33-9.58 lakh. Meanwhile, the annual salary of a reporter at The Hindu is Rs7.30 lakh.

The pay-scale of a journalist in print, television and radio with similar experiences differ. For example, a senior journalist in electronic media is paid more than a journalist in radio and newspaper with similar experiences. The major difference is because of the higher advertising revenue in television.

Pros and Cons of Journalism:

Journalism is a profession for curious people and like every other profession; journalism too has both pros and cons.

Pros:

  • New opportunities and challenges
  • Opportunity to work with informed people
  • You learn for a living
  • Opportunity to meet people
  • Opportunity to travel
  • A strong sense of achievement
  • You get paid for writing
  • Benefits of a press card

Cons:

  • Not very lucrative
  • Challenging and demanding
  • Long workdays
  • Work pressure
  • Stressful
  • Risk to life

SCHOOL SYSTEM IN INDIA

The Indian education system has made significant progress in recent years to ensure that educational opportunities are available to all segments of society. According to the 2009 Right to Education Act, schooling is free and compulsory for all children from the ages of 6 to 14. However, improvements are slow being implemented and disadvantaged groups may still not have adequate access to education. A high value is placed on education, as it ensures a stable future. All parents want their children to attend the best private English schools, but places are limited. The admission process is therefore highly competitive. Most Indian schools have a strong focus on academic subjects, with little scope for creativity and few or no extra-curricular activities. Traditional schooling methods tend to emphasize rote learning and memorization, rather than encouraging independent or creative thinking. There is a strong focus on examinations from an early age. This makes the atmosphere at Indian schools competitive. Many expats prefer to send their children to international schools. Others choose a more progressive Indian school that is less traditional in its teaching style.

The Education System

The Indian education system is structured as follows:

  • Pre-school: Education at this level is not compulsory. The Montessori system is especially popular at the pre-school level
  • Private playschools: Catering for children between the ages of 18 months and three
  • Kindergarten: This is divided into lower kindergarten (for three- to four-year-olds) and upper kindergarten (for four- to five-year-olds)
  • Primary school: First to fifth standard/class/grade (for six- to ten-year-olds)
  • Middle school: Fifth to eighth standard/class/grade (for 11- to 14-year-olds)
  • Secondary school: Ninth and tenth standard/class/grade (for 14- to 16-year-olds)
  • Higher secondary or pre-university: 11th and 12th standard/class/grade (for 16- to 17-year-olds). This is when students choose an academic area on which to focus
  • Undergraduate: A BA is a three-year degree. Specialised courses such as medicine and engineering can be longer
  • Postgraduate: A one-year course

Types of Schools

  • Public/government schools: Most schools in India are funded and run by the government. However, the public education system faces serious challenges including a lack of adequate infrastructure, insufficient funding, a shortage of staff and scarce facilities
  • Private schools: Since many government schools do not provide adequate education, Indian parents aspire to send their children to a private school. Some expats choose to send their children to private Indian schools
  • International schools: There are international schools in all major cities. They are attended by expat and Indian children
  • National open schools: Provide education up to the higher secondary level for children whose schooling has been interrupted and have been unable to complete formal education
  • Special-needs schools: Provide non-formal education and vocational training to children with disabilities

Curricula Systems

There are different systems depending on which level of government or academic organization sets the curriculum and standards for examinations. Schools are affiliated to one of these “boards”.

  • State government boards: Each state government has a board that sets the syllabus and key examinations
  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE): This is the most common curriculum in secondary schools. Standards are set by the national government for the syllabus and examinations for classes 9 to 12. There is a strong emphasis on math’s and science under this system
  • Council of Indian School Certificate Examination (CISCE): This is more commonly known as the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE). The syllabus and exams are set by the CISCE, which is a private body. The subjects are more diverse and equal importance is given to arts, languages and sciences.
  • International Baccalaureate (IB): The curriculum is set by this non-profit educational foundation, which is recognized all over the world. It features a more innovative syllabus that focuses on all-round development rather than just academic subjects. Many international schools follow this curriculum. To find  schools offering the International Baccalaureate curriculum.
  • Cambridge IGCSE: Many international schools also offer the international Cambridge curriculum for 14- to 16-year-olds. The focus is on developing students’ skills in creative thinking and problem solving. For a list of schools in India following the Cambridge curriculum

For more background information, The British Council have published a detailed overview of the Indian School Education System

Fees and Enrolling at a School

As competition for places in good schools is high, parents must start the admission process at least six months prior to the start of the school year in June. An admission interview and/or exam is often required, even at the pre-school level. In addition, some schools admit students based on a list of preferential criteria such as place of residence, a sibling who is already enrolled at the school or a parent who is an alumnus. The documents required for admission include:

  • Application form and fee
  • The child’s birth certificate
  • Proof of residence (utility bill)
  • Report cards of previous school years (if applicable)

Annual fees can vary from Rs25,000 to Rs200,000 at the elite private schools. In addition to fees, a donation to the school is also usually expected, which can range from Rs50,000 to Rs100,000.

Economic Development of Bangladesh

Economic Development of Bangladesh

Bangladesh on World map

The poverty rate of Bangladesh fell from 38.8 per cent to 14.3 per cent over a span of forty years. And Bangladesh has been performing better than India and Pakistan recently in various social indicators like fertility rate and infant mortality rate. This has been possible with consistent efforts towards development.

Since the year 1975 Bangladesh has been classified as a ‘Least Developed’ country by the United Nations and it will likely graduate from this classification by the year 2024. But it was least expected at the time of Bangladesh’s independence. U. Alexis Johnson, Under Secretary of State of United Nations said Bangladesh was an “international basket case” while New York Times reported the country as a ‘Failure’. On the contrary Bangladesh outperformed many expectations.

Bangladesh gained independence in the year 1971 with the help of Mukti Bahini and support from India. Since the country was established in prevailing conditions of violence, even the basic needs of the citizens could be barely met by the government of Bangladesh. In addition, the country the country faced a severe drought in 1975 which killed approximately 1500000 people. Political instability also contributed to make situations worse. Around 10000000 Bangladeshis immigrated to India because of the violent situations there. Due to several such reasons the country depended majorly on foreign aids.

But the situations improved due to these reasons:

  1. Manufacturing(textile industry): Bangladesh is world’s second largest exporter of textiles. According to garment associations of Bangladesh, the textile industry constitutes almost 10 per cent of the their national GDP. Textile industries of the country employ around 4 million people directly and 10 million indirectly.
  2. Women empowerment: Around 80 per cent of employees of the textile industries of Bangladesh are women. This hasn’t just helped women of the typical conservative society to get financial independence and better lives but has actually changed the future of the nation. An economic research paper showed that in the families where women were employed at garment factories witnessed a decline in fertility rate, the age of marriage increased and there was a rapid increase in girls’ educational attainment. The possible reason behind the improvements may be to take advantage of jobs and due to increased family income. The garment industry helped improve the lives of all women of the nation as World Bank showed a decrease in female-male wage gap due to increased employment of women in garment factories.
  3. NGO’s: Many NGO’s like ‘brac’ played a significant role in national development. These NGO’s fulfilled people’s financial and medical requirements, constructed schools and also conducted several public health campaigns. Arvind Subramanian, India’s ex-Chief Economic advisor says the development of Bangladesh in collaboration with NGO’s is no less than a miracle. As in democratic countries the governments tend to avoid much dependence on non-governmental organizations for public works as this leads to defamation of the governments and the chances of corruption are also lowered. But Bangladesh overcame this to which he explains reasons like the low tax to GDP ratio of the country and the poverty and violence at the time of establishment of democracy. Due to all such reasons NGO’s voluntarily took the responsibilities and have done well.
  4. Foreign relations: Pre-independence of Bangladesh, the geopolitical conditions were complex but still in the challenging situations Bangladesh has managed to have a good foreign policy. For example USA provided Bangladesh a good amount as foreign aid even though it was against Bangladesh’s independence. The second major factor is remittances. These remittances, or the earnings sent home by those working abroad constitute around 6 per cent of the national GDP. And the foreign policies of Bangladesh helped them export garments easily to several developed countries through which they avoided ‘aid curse’, or a situation where a country’s individual economic development is crippled due to excessive dependence on foreign aids.

Challenges ahead:

  1. End of duty free access: As Bangladesh is classified as ‘Least developed country’ by the UN, it enjoys duty free access to exports in several developed countries but as it will graduate from the classification in the coming years export duties would be imposed and specifically garments exports would get badly affected.
  2. Automation: The country’s GDP is largely depended on the textile industry but automation in the textile industry in the years ahead may replace a chunk of the employees leaving a worse impact on the economy as a whole. Thus the industries must be diversified making the economy less depended on the garment industry.
  3. Lack of political freedom: There have been several cases of threatening and even murders of journalists, political activists and media workers. This kind of governmental control and censorship might allow short term development but the long term impacts and overall developments get endangered.
  4. Climate change: This is probably the biggest challenge in the face of Bangladesh. It was the seventh on the list of countries under long term climate change risks. Floods and cyclones are common in the country now and the poor rural people are amongst the worst affected.

But besides everything Bangladesh’s development is worth learning while it outperformed all the expectations.