5 Effective tips to improve Concentration

If you’ve ever struggled to complete a difficult assignment at work, study for a critical exam, or work on a time-consuming project, you may have wished you could improve your concentration.

Concentration is the mental effort you put forth to focus on whatever you’re working on or learning right now. It’s commonly mixed up with attention span, however attention span refers to how long you can focus on something.

To flourish and be productive at work, you must be able to stay focused and pay attention. However, we all have those moments when our minds wander and we find ourselves scrolling endlessly through Twitter rather than working on the things that are due at the end of the day.

Factors for Lack of Concentration

The following are the factors that are interfering with your concentration:

1) Sleep deprivation

2) Cravings

3) Nervousness

4) Excessive anxiety

How to improve Concentration.

Enhance your concentration with these tips on how to improve your concentration.

But, how could one deal with the problem of inability to concentrate that he is experiencing? Here is the solution for you.

Boost your sleep quality

Concentration, as well as other cognitive skills like memory and attention, can be easily disrupted by sleep deprivation.Sleep deprivation on sometimes may not cause you too many difficulties. However, not getting enough sleep on a regular basis might have a negative impact on your mood and work performance.Too much sleep can impede your reflexes and impair your ability to drive or perform other daily chores.

Try some mental exercises

Depending on whatever study you read, problem-solving exercises, brain training approaches, and even video games could all have a positive, negative, or no influence on focus.

Certain types of games can help you improve your concentration. Try:

  1. Sudoku puzzles
  2. crossword problem
  3. Jigsaw problems of chess
  4. Memory games such as word searches.


Meditation is always a viable remedy to a variety of mental health issues. It aids Improving memory, concentration, focus, and attention are just a few of the benefits. Meditation entails more than just sitting quietly with your eyes closed; it also entails yoga and deep breathing.

spider web

When you touch a spider web with a spoon, the spider reacts and begins searching for the source of the contact. However, if you repeat the process multiple times, the spider will realize there is no insect or bug present and will turn away.

Similarly, when you’re at your desk, take five minutes to consider potential sources of distraction and then tell your mind to ignore them. When you are studying, for example, someone may knock on your door or drop anything near you. So, before you begin studying, make the decision that these situations may occur, but that you will not pay attention to them.

Play some songs

While working or studying, listening to music might help you concentrate.According to study, employing natural sounds or white noise to mask background sounds can aid increase focus and other brain processes, even if you don’t like listening to music while you work.

The music you listen to has an impact on your mood. Classical music, particularly baroque classical music, or nature sounds, according to experts, are wonderful choices for increasing focus.If classical music isn’t your thing, consider ambient or electronic music without lyrics. To avoid being distracted, keep the music low or at a background noise.

How to link Cowin certificate with Passport

Covid 19 vaccinations cowin.gov.in: If you have got both the vaccines of covid 19 vaccine, then connect your certificate with passport.

Covid 19 vaccinations cowin.gov.in: By registering on the covin portal, crores of people have got the vaccine so far and with this the second wave of corona is also slowing down. If all goes well, soon international travel can also be relaxed, but before that people going abroad will have to update their passport information with the Covin vaccination.

Aarogya Setu’s official Twitter account has been tweeted about how this information will be updated. In this tweet, we have explained how to update passport related information. But before that, let us tell you that at the beginning of this month, new guidelines were issued regarding Covit 19 vaccination.

In the new guidelines, it was told that those participating in education, employment and Tokyo Olympics will have to link the certificate of Covid 19 vaccination with their passport . Under this decision, the government has asked for updating passport information on the Covin portal. While filling the passport details, take care that there is no mistake of any kind.

How to link cowin certificate with passport

  • To link the passport to the COVIN certificate, first of all, open the browser on your phone or laptop.
  • Go to cowin.gov.in and login even once with your registered number.
  • After this click on Raise an Issue, although this option will appear after getting the vaccine.
  • After that select the option of Passport and fill your details carefully.
  • After this the passport information will have to be filled, be careful while filling the information.
  • This time the information cannot be changed again after submitting the request.
  • After pressing the submit option, after some time the option to download a new certificate will come.

what will life be like in 2035?

Technologically, the 20-year jump from 2015 to 2035 will be huge. During that time some elements of our world will change beyond recognition while others will stay reassuringly (or disappointingly) familiar. Consider the 20 years to 2015. Back in 1995 we were in the early days of the internet, we worked in cubicles and our computers were chunky and powered by Windows 95. There were no touch screen phones or flat screen TVs; people laughed at the idea of reading electronic books, and watching a home movie meant loading a clunky cassette into your VCR.

So, what will our world really be like in 2035? What does the future hold for the food we eat, the technology we use and the homes we live in? It would be tempting to roll out the clichés – food pills, flying cars and bases on the moon – but the reality will probably be less exciting. The world in 2035 will probably be much like it is today, but smarter and more automatic. Some innovations we might not notice, while others will knock us sideways, changing our lives forever.

The future of food

What it won’t be like: The scene in Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (1971) where Violet Beauregarde has a three-course roast dinner in a stick of chewing gum.

What it could be like: In an article for Time[1], Google’s Ray Kurzweil says: ‘The next major food revolution will be vertical agriculture in which we grow food in AI-controlled vertical buildings rather than horizontal land: hydroponic plants for fruits and vegetables and in-vitro cloned meat.’ This change is already happening. Green Spirit Farms grows kale, spinach and other greens under LED lights in an old plastics factory near Chicago.

Vertical farming, genetically modified (GM) crops and synthetic meat will be responses to the growing need for greater food efficiency as populations continue to grow. But there will also be a reluctant realisation that we all need to eat a better diet, one that is more plant-based and less reliant on processed foods. Meatless Mondays are a start. If that doesn’t work, we could be eating insects in 2035. Already popular in parts of Asia, insects are protein-rich, low in fat and a good source of calcium. Hey, don’t knock a roasted grasshopper until you’ve tried one.

The future of love

What it won’t be like: The movie Her (2013), where Joaquin Phoenix falls in love with an artificial intelligence (AI) operating system that has Scarlett Johansson’s voice.

What it could be like: The internet has forever changed the way people meet and fall in love. Online dating and location-based services such as Vine, Snapchat and Grindr have opened up possibilities that allow people to look beyond their immediate friends, friends of friends, and co-workers.

We are becoming more independent and less constrained by the old social norms. This will have an impact on the relationships we form, with fewer people choosing traditional marriage, a rise in official (and unofficial) civil partnerships, and more people remaining single for longer, if not forever.

Dr Helen Fisher, a senior research fellow at The Kinsey Institute for research in sex, gender and reproduction and an adviser to dating website Match.com, shared where she thinks relationships are heading in an article for The Wall Street Journal[2].

‘Singles are ushering into vogue an extended pre-commitment stage of courtship,’ she wrote. ‘With hooking up, friends with benefits, and living together, they are getting to know a partner long before they tie the knot. Where marriage used to be the beginning of a partnership, it’s becoming the finale.

‘Any prediction of the future should take into account the unquenchable, adaptable and primordial human drive to love,’ she added. ‘To bond is human. This drive most likely evolved more than four million years ago, and email and computers won’t stamp it out.’

The future of work

What it won’t be like: The film Metropolis (1927), where battalions of sullen workers tend hulking machines in mind-numbing ten-hour shifts.

What it could be like: Rather than humans working with machines, automation is likely to make some jobs redundant: taxi drivers replaced by self-driving Uber cars; receptionists replaced by robots; doctors outclassed by algorithms that can plug into vast medical databases; and travel agents wiped out by trip-planning, flight-booking web services.

Even writers are threatened by companies such as Narrative Science, which currently uses AI to automate the creation of sports reports and financial updates.

Obviously, there will also be new jobs created: the computer engineer/mechanic who fixes the self-driving Uber taxis; programmers; genome mappers and bioengineers; space tour guides; and vertical farmers. Technology will continue to disrupt businesses and eliminate jobs, creating new professions we can’t yet envisage.

Those of us who work probably won’t do so in a traditional office either. We’re already seeing a shift in the definition of work: it’s now a task you perform, not a place you go to. Productivity is no longer measured by sitting at a desk. There’s no nine to five. No job for life.

In MYOB’s report The Future of Business – Australia 2040[3], chief technology officer Simon Raik-Allen suggests we will see a return to more vibrant local communities as people work within walking distance of their homes.

‘Rather than the office, or even the remote workspace, localised centres will emerge as the home of business – giant warehouses, which are used by employees from many different companies, spread around the globe… Within each will be rooms filled with giant wall-sized screens allowing us to work in a fully virtual, telepresence model. Banks of 3D printers would be continually churning out products ordered by the local community,’ Raik-Allen predicts.

The future of health

What it won’t be like: Any episode of Star Trek where Bones whips out a tricorder, diagnoses the illness and then cures it with a hypo-spray.

What it could be like: Hospitals are the costliest single element in Australia’s health system, representing up to 40 per cent of our annual health expenditure[4]. No wonder future healthcare strategies will try to keep people out of them.

Prevention is likely to become the focus as we gain greater control of our health information, using self-monitoring biosensors and smart watches to continuously gather fitness data; web apps will crunch the data, syncing to electronic health records. Using these numbers, companies will be able to build a model of your overall health that can predict future problems. Being forewarned, patients will be able to take action early, changing lifestyle habits or taking designer drugs tailored to their individual DNA.

Technology will be key. ‘Telehealth platforms will make in-home patient monitoring the norm for those who need it,’ Dr Sarah Dods, health services research theme leader at CSIRO, wrote for the CSIRO[5]. Doctors will be able to consult over the internet – the perfect solution for people living in remote towns across Australia.

Genome mapping will lead to personalised medicines and 3D-printed replacement organs. Meanwhile, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology will be used in driverless ambulance drones. The New Zealand-based Martin Jetpack company has already developed such a concept.

Of course, greater awareness of what we need to do to stay healthy will be equally important, as will avoiding passing health fads such as juicing, weight loss supplements and weird detoxification rituals like eating clay. And if we can stay away from futuristic cosmetic surgery procedures such as Jewel Eye (implanting platinum jewels into the whites of the eye to give that movie-style sparkle), so much the better.

COVID-19 pandemic for Pediatric Health Care: disadvantages and opportunities

The recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak has forced many countries to adopt specific austere “lockdown politics,” which had reduced the spreading of the infection in China, South Korea, Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and have more recently started to slow down the infection rates in many European countries, severely hit by the epidemic (e.g., Italy and Spain). Considering the lack of vaccination, it is reasonable to think that, especially for children and older people, most of these lockdown measures will be prolonged for the next months, even if it is still too soon to precisely predict for how long.

In this context, many nations are experiencing an unprecedented distortion of social habits and medical assistance for people and patients of all ages, including children. Interruption of school, sport, and other social activities is forcing children to stay home for most of their time, in close contact with (often idle) parents. Moreover, lockdown has a direct effect in the reduction of activities in non-COVID emergency rooms and hospital wards caused by the shift of personnel towards COVID-units and by a diffuse “germaphobia” (fear of germs and infections, and as a consequence of hospitals). In most of the hospitals many “COVID-units” (as well as COVID-pediatric units) have been quickly created, and, at the same time, in the other units, activities have been focused more on patients affected by severe and acute conditions, reducing the care and assistance for patients affected by chronic or rare diseases.

This “motionless revolution” is taking to Health Care personnel and patients many disadvantages, with inestimable consequences, but also some opportunities that will be unique and reproducible with difficulty when the emergency will cease.


Even if COVID-19 does not seem to affect children severely, many pediatrics wards have been focused more on the emergency of COVID-19-related issues. For this reason, attention on many other acute and chronic diseases, especially those rarer, may be lacking. This scarcity of interest may cause, particularly in childhood, severe problems or even death. Politicians and physicians may be distracted by COVID-19-related issues, but also parents or even the same young patients, as these last’s attention may be focused only on news and information related to COVID-19, misunderstanding some symptoms or paying less attention to their (chronic) diseases.

Neuropsychiatric and psychological issues related to lockdown are another significant issue. The house confinement for children can be easily practiced in the first weeks, as they can be particularly fascinated by unexpected and new habits, but a prolonged lack of routine school programs and housework, as well as sport and leisure activities, could increase the occurrence of psychological consequences and distress.  More than other primates, Homo sapiens is a highly social species, and children develop in the first years of their life specific social abilities exclusively out of their houses. It is reasonable to think that we will face an underestimation of children needing school assistance for (missed) learning difficulties if schools will be closed until September 2020. Adolescents and older children are at high risk of cell phone, computer, and other internet devices overuse, which has been linked to obesity and its related issues. Moreover, spending more time in non-filtered social networks, they could be also invested by fake news and anti-scientific theories related to COVID-19, increasing their fears and phobias.

Lastly, the economic breakdown, expected in most of the countries, will probably involve the national health systems, especially pediatric departments and units not involved in emergency and infectious diseases, limiting the experience, progresses, and even the simple management of many genetic, congenital, and chronic disorders, with severe social effects, especially for children.


From the first reports from Eastern countries, we know that, in children, COVID-19 manifests with a milder course and a more favorable outcome, with only a minority of patients presenting with complications. Mortality under 18 years of age is exceptionally low, differently from other well-known “historical pandemics” (e.g., influenza, measles, polio, smallpox). Such favorable outcome in children is matter of debate, and many “causes” have been proposed, including the role of active immunization schedules for other viruses performed in the first years of life, the simultaneous presence of other viruses in the mucosa of lungs and airways, common in young children, which could limit the growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov2) by direct virus-to-virus interactions and competition; important factors seem to be the under-expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor necessary for SARS-Cov2 binding and infection, and a milder inflammatory cascade, as children usually do not manifest, in respiratory infections, the final hyperinflammatory phase that leads to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, impaired cardiac function, and death. Studying pediatric patients will give the chance to investigate all these factors directly: key results could come evaluating the immune response of asymptomatic children compared to symptomatic, or comparing children and adults within the same families or ethnic groups.

Another opportunity will come—paradoxically—from the lockdown politics. In no other period of the recent history, children have been forcedly restricted to their houses, with closure of schools, and strong limitations of social and sport activities. A significant decrease of many (other than-COVID-19) infectious diseases has been observed in March in Italian children. In this setting, a reconsideration of many (common) problems of pediatric practice, from chronic cough to unexplained fever will be possible, withdrawing the bias of common infections (typically spreading in schools): many pediatricians could have the possibility to re-diagnose chronic cough as caused by gastro-esophageal reflux, in-house allergens, respiratory tract malformations, and other non-infective causes; others could have a higher chance of investigating recurrent febrile episodes as caused by genetic, autoimmune, or oncologic disorders.


The KTM 125 DUKE may be the entry-level bike of the range, but it isn’t here to play games. It’s built with the same attitude as the bigger bikes – and it shows. It’s no holds barred with this urban warrior. This 4-stroke single cylinder has fuel-injection and a 6-speed transmission to deliver class-leading performance with low fuel consumption to keep you riding longer.

The KTM 125 Duke is powered by 124.71cc BS6 engine which develops a power of 14.3 bhp and a torque of 12 Nm. With both front and rear disc brakes, KTM 125 Duke comes up with anti-locking braking system. This 125 Duke bike weighs 159 kg and has a fuel tank capacity of 13.5 liters.

The 125 Duke is the baby of the Duke lineup. It exists because of the licensing laws in markets like the European Union, which allow 125cc motorcycles to be ridden with a car driver’s licence.

It shares everything with its bigger siblings, which means great cycle parts. They include a trellis frame, upside-down front forks, a radially mounted front brake calliper with four opposed pistons, a six-speed gearbox, and an all-digital instrument cluster that shows a lot of information. The 125 Duke also gets a single-channel ABS system, which makes the first product in the country under 125cc to offer an ABS system instead of a linked braking system.

Mechanical specifications include a BS6-compliant, 199cc, single-cylinder engine that produces 14.3bhp and 12Nm of torque; same as the BS4 model. Apart from this, the motorcycle gets the same styling as the current-gen 200 Duke.

KTM is offering the 125 Duke in a choice of two dual-tone colors – white and black along with orange and white. In terms of competition, the KTM 125 Duke competes against the MT-15 in the country.

While the bike does feel light and easy, a lower weight figure would have helped performance. KTM has equipped the 125 with single-channel ABS on the same 300mm and 230mm discs as the 200 Duke. While the brake bite and lever pressure is good, it lacks the force we would have liked under hard braking.


Kali Linux Features

What is Kali Linux, and what is a Penetration Testing Distribution?

What is a penetration testing distribution? As legend tells it, years ago there was a penetration test in an isolated environment where the assessment team was not able to bring in any computers or have network access in or out of the target environment. In order to do the work, the first penetration testing distribution was born. It was a bootable Live CD configured with various tools needed to do the work, and after the assessment was completed the Live CD was shared online and became very popular.

Kali Linux has a direct lineage from this original distribution, running on through Backtrack Linux, and now is Kali Linux.

What are the makings of a great penetration testing distribution? What a penetration testing distribution is judged on has changed over the years. Originally it was just how many tools did it hold. Then it was did it have package management, and how often were they updated? As we have matured, so has the features that we need to provide. The true indication of a great Penetration Testing distribution is the selection of useful and relevant features that it offers security professionals. What kind of features are we talking about? We’re happy you asked! We’ve made a short list of some of these Kali Linux features, and linked them to their respective sources.

Special Kali Linux Features of Note

  • Full customisation of Kali ISOs. With the use of meta packages optimized for specific need sets of a security professional and a highly accessible ISO customization process a optimized version of Kali for your specific needs is always easy to generate. Kali Linux is heavily integrated with live-build, allowing endless flexibility in customizing and tailoring every aspect of your Kali Linux ISO images. This can be shown with our basic example build recipes, to our Kali ISO of doom recipe, which shows the types and complexity of customizations possible – build a self installing, reverse VPN auto-connecting, network bridging Kali image – for the perfect hardware backdoor.
  • Live USB Boot. This allows you to place Kali onto a USB device, and boot without touching the host operating system (perfect also for any forensics work!). With optional persistence volume(s) you can have opt to pick what file system to use when Kali starts up allowing for files to be saved in between sessions, creating multiple profiles. Each persistence volume can be encrypted essential feature needed in our industry. If that is not enough, we also have LUKS nuke option, allowing you to quickly control the destruction of data.
  • Kali Undercover. Using Kali in an environment you don’t want to draw attention to yourself? Kali Undercover is perfect to not stand out in a crowd by blending to a familiar operating system that most people recognize to stop shoulder surfers.
  • Win-Kex. Using Kali on WSL? This provides a Kali Desktop Experience for Windows Subsystem for Linux, with seamless windows, clipboard sharing, audio support and more.
  • Kali NetHunter. Kali on your (Android) phone. This covers multiple items, such as a ROM overlay for multiple devices, NetHunter App, as well as NetHunter App Store. On top of this, you also boot into a “full desktop” using chroot & containers, as well as “Kali NetHunter Desktop Experience (Kex)”.
  • Kali Everywhere. A version of Kali is always close to you no matter where you need it. Let it be; ARM, Bare Metal, Cloud (AWS, Azure), Containers (Docker, LXD), Virtual Machines (VirtualBox, VMware), WSL, and so on – is all available.
  • Kali ARM. Supporting over a dozen different ARM devices and common hardware such as Raspberry Pi, Odroid, Beaglebone, and more. We offer pre-generated images, ready to be used as well as build-scripts to produce more. We’re very active in the ARM arena and constantly add new interesting hardware to our repertoire.
  • The industry standard. Kali Linux is the undisputed industry standard Open-source penetration testing platform.
  • For more features of Kali Linux, please see the following page: What is Kali Linux?.

Want to learn more about the Kali Linux Operating System?

  • Download Kali Linux. the most advanced penetration testing platform ever made. Available in 32-bit, 64-bit, and ARM flavors, as well as a number of specialized builds for many popular hardware platforms. Kali can always be updated to the newest version without the need for a new download.
  • Kali Documentation. Whether you are a seasoned veteran or a novice – our Kali Linux documentation site will have something you need to know about Kali Linux.
  • Kali Community. Kali Linux, with its Backtrack lineage, has a vibrant and active community. With active Kali forums, IRC Channel, Kali Tools listings, an open bug tracker system and community provided tool suggestions – there are many ways for you to get involved in Kali Linux today. Joining the community is easy – don’t hesitate; jump right in!


Jiang Jun is a girl who is allergic to tears and has a double degree in economics and psychology. She is unrestrained and idealistic due to her family’s superior background. After graduation, she worked in a philanthropy organization where she pursues her dreams. However, her father’s sudden accident leaves her in a dilemma. Eventually, she decides to work in a top investment company to fulfill her father’s dying wish. In MH, Jiang Jun meets her childhood playmate, Yuan Shuai. However, the current Yuan Shuai is no longer her gentle protector, but her rival. In MH, where the “culture of wolf instinct” is rampant, someone is plotting against Jiang Jun while someone sees her as an eyesore. However with her kind nature and attention to details, along with her high EQ and sense of judgment, Jiang Jun eventually attains success in both her career and love life.

  • Drama: Love is Sweet
  • Country: China
  • Episodes: 36
  • Aired: Sep 27, 2020 – Oct 27, 2020
  • Aired On: Monday, Tuesday, Sunday
  • Original Network: iQiyi
  • Duration: 45 min.
  • Content Rating: 15+ – Teens 15 or older
  • Score: 8.5 (scored by 7,666 users)
  • Ranked: #220
  • Popularity: #334
  • Watchers: 17,905


TeamViewer is remote access and remote control computer software, allowing maintenance of computers and other devices. It was first released in 2005,  and its functionality has expanded step by step. TeamViewer is proprietary software, but does not require registration and is free of charge for non-commercial use. It has been installed on more than two billion devices. TeamViewer is the core product of developer TeamViewer AG.

Rossmanith GmbH released the first version of TeamViewer software in 2005, at that time still based on the VNC project. The IT service provider wanted to avoid unnecessary trips to customers and perform tasks such as installing software remotely. The development was very successful and gave rise to TeamViewer GmbH, which today operates as TeamViewer Germany GmbH and is part of TeamViewer AG.

TeamViewer is available for all desktop computers with common operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and Windows Server, as well as Apple’s macOS. There are also packages for several Linux distributions and derivatives, for example, Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat, and Fedora Linux. Besides, there is Raspberry Pi OS, a Debian variant for the Raspberry Pi.

TeamViewer is also available for smartphones and tablets running Android or Apple’s iOS/iPad OS operating system. Support for Windows Phone and Windows Mobile has been phased out after Microsoft discontinued support for the two operating systems.

The functionality of TeamViewer differs depending on the device and variant or version of the software. The core of TeamViewer is remote access to computers and other endpoints as well as their control and maintenance. After the connection is established, the remote screen is visible to the user at the other endpoint. Both endpoints can send and receive files as well as access a shared clipboard, for example. Besides, some functions facilitate team collaboration, such as audio and video transmissions via IP telephony.

In recent years, the functionality of the software has been optimized in particular for use in large companies. For this purpose, the enterprise variant TeamViewer Tensor was developed. With TeamViewer Pilot, TeamViewer sells software for remote support with augmented reality elements. TeamViewer offers interfaces to other applications and services, for example from Microsoft(Teams), Salesforce, and ServiceNow. The solution is available in nearly all countries and supports over 30 languages.

Incoming and outgoing connections are equally possible via the Internet or local networks. If desired, TeamViewer can run as a Windows system service, which allows unattended access via TeamViewer. There is also a portable version of the software that runs completely without installation, for example via a USB data carrier.

The connection is established using automatically generated unique IDs and passwords. Before each connection, the TeamViewer network servers check the validity of the IDs of both endpoints. Security is enhanced by the fingerprint, which allows users to provide additional proof of the remote device’s identity. Passwords are protected against brute force attacks, especially by increasing the waiting time between connection attempts exponentially. TeamViewer provides additional security features, such as two-factor authentication, block and allow lists.

Ashoka- The Great Emperor

Ashoka, also known as, Ashoka the Great (r. 268-232 BCE) was the third king of the Mauryan Empire (322-185 BCE) best known for his renunciation of war, development of the concept of dhamma (pious social conduct), and promotion of Buddhism as well as his effective reign of a nearly pan-Indian political entity. At its height, under Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire stretched from modern-day Iran through almost the entirety of the Indian subcontinent. Ashoka was able to rule this vast empire initially through the precepts of the political treatise known as the Arthashastra, attributed to the Prime Minister Chanakya (also known as Kautilya and Vishnugupta, l. c. 350-275 BCE) who served under Ashoka’s grandfather Chandragupta (r. c. 321-c.297 BCE) who founded the empire.

Ashoka means “without sorrow” which was most likely his given name. He is referred to in his edicts, carved in stone, as Devanampiya Piyadassi which, according to scholar John Keay (and agreed upon by scholarly consensus) means “Beloved of the Gods” and “gracious of mien” (89). He is said to have been particularly ruthless early in his reign until he launched a campaign against the Kingdom of Kalinga in c. 260 BCE which resulted in such carnage, destruction, and death that Ashoka renounced war and, in time, converted to Buddhism, devoting himself to peace as exemplified in his concept of dhamma. Most of what is known of him, outside of his edicts, comes from Buddhist texts which treat him as a model of conversion and virtuous behavior.

The empire he and his family built did not last even 50 years after his death. Although he was the greatest of the kings of one of the largest and most powerful empires in antiquity, his name was lost to history until he was identified by the British scholar and orientalist James Prinsep (l. 1799-1840 CE) in 1837 CE. Since then, Ashoka has come to be recognized as one of the most fascinating ancient monarchs for his decision to renounce war, his insistence on religious tolerance, and his peaceful efforts in establishing Buddhism as a major world religion.

Although Ashoka’s name appears in the Puranas (encyclopedic literature of India dealing with kings, heroes, legends, and gods), no information on his life is given there. The details of his youth, rise to power, and renunciation of violence following the Kalinga campaign come from Buddhist sources which are considered, in many respects, more legendary than historical.

The Great Work by Ashoka

The Lion Capital of Ashoka is a sculpture of four Asiatic lions standing back to back, on an elaborate base that includes other animals. A graphic representation of it was adopted as the official Emblem of India in 1950. It was originally placed on the top of the Ashoka pillar at the important Buddhist site of Sarnath by the Emperor Ashoka, in about 250 BCE during his rule over the Maurya Empire. The pillar, sometimes called the Aśoka Column, is still in its original location, but the Lion Capital is now in the Sarnath Museum, in the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Standing 2.15 metres (7 feet) high including the base, it is more elaborate than the other very similar surviving capitals of the pillars of Ashoka bearing the Edicts of Ashoka that were placed throughout India several of which feature single animals at the top; one other damaged group of four lions survives, at Sanchi.

The Ashoka Chakra is a depiction of the Dharma Chakra; a wheel represented with 24 spokes in Buddhism. It is so called because it appears on a number of edicts of Ashoka, most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Ashoka. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the Flag of India (adopted on 24 July 1947), where it is rendered in a navy blue colour on a white background, replacing the symbol of charkha (spinning wheel) of the pre-independence versions of the flag.

The Ashoka Pillars are among the earliest known stone sculptural remains from India. Only another pillar fragment, the Pataliputra capital, is possibly from a slightly earlier date. It is thought that before the 3rd century BCE, wood rather than stone was used as the main material for Indian architectural constructions, and that stone may have been adopted following interaction with the Persians and the Greeks. A graphic representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka from the column there was adopted as the official Emblem of India in 1950. All the Ashoka Pillars were built at Buddhist monasteries, many important sites from the life of the Buddha and places of pilgrimage. Some of the columns carry inscriptions addressed to the monks and nuns. Some were erected to commemorate visits by Ashoka. Major pillars are present in the Indian States of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Haryana.

Why having an organized desk is the best?

I know everyone has a different work style. Some people like their desks clean whereas, some others like their desks messy. But what if I tell you that having an organized desk makes you more efficient, productive, motivated and consistent. 

Mark Zuckerberg, Steve Jobs, E.B White, Craig Newmark and much more eminent personalities had organized desks. And some way or the other their organized desks help them to achieve whatever they achieved in life.

Having an organized desk has its advantages-

  1. Those who have an organized desk tend to be more focused than the ones who have a cluttered desk.
  2. People having cluttered desks are more prone to get sick because of the lack of cleaning of the desk.
  3. A study showed having a clean desk decreases the urge to leave the desk and take a break.
  4. Consistency and Productivity are seen to increase in people who changed their cluttered desks to organized desks.
  5. Also, people having organized desks make you sleep faster at night.

Adding on you will not misplace your things frequently if you have an organised desk.

How to make your desk organised?

  1. Place a Junk box, this will help you segregate unwanted things from the important stuff.
  2. Place boxes or storage units to store your stationery, notebooks and other essential things in a designated box.
  3. Place a pen stand to keep your pens, sketch pens, highlighters in one place.
  4. Place a table clock on the desk it will help you to keep track of the time.
  5. Also do not keep everything on your desk, your desk is not a storage unit keep only the necessary things on the worktop.
  6. Clean your desk daily.

A clean workspace will surely help you to be more productive, consistent, focused and disciplined.