The pandemic pushed many governments to officially put curfews on their citizens for a specified amount of time. And this grew concerns about economy, trade, tourism and what not. But many of us live with curfews almost all the time. Especially young women are faced with taunts from warden, tons of calls from parents and a collective tension of almost the whole society when they are out late.
The fear of nighttime and the predators that lurk in the darkness is a widespread cultural preoccupation. In many societies, women were made to stay home at night, not only to protect themselves but also to ensure that they didn’t engage in morally suspect behavior. Many communities, including in India, adopted this notion that ‘respectable‘ women don’t go out at night.
This mindset isn’t a thing of the past though. Even today if a crime is committed against a women then many questions are raised against the character or the intent of the women herself. Sensationalized reporting of sexual violence against single, middle class women fuels the paranoia and thus becomes a justification for the authority figures to impose restrictions for the ‘good‘ girls.
Instead of taking up steps to make the society a safer place, families and educational institutions impose curfews and other restrictions on women under the guise of protecting them. These end up restricting women’s access to extracurricular activities, libraries and even canteens. Studies conducted across India’s top universities found that most parents would not send their daughters to study in other cities if girls’ hostels didn’t have curfews. But its not just educational institutions, even professional environments reflect this fear of letting women out at night. Although women do work night shifts in sectors like BPO and hospitality, in one study 53 per cent of them reported feeling unsafe working those shifts while 86 per cent of them complained about lack of adequate transport provided by their employers. In many cases, parents try to prevent their daughters from taking up jobs which require them to be out after sunset.
But the fact is that women aren’t unsafe only at night. Women are unsafe round the clock, at home or at school, office, markets, everywhere. If we’re concerned about their safety we need to work and tackle the conditions that make it unsafe for women. Indian movements like ‘Pinjra Tod‘ and ‘Why Loiter‘ have been fighting against the sexist curfews. They are also questioning the respectability that a woman must embody to be out after dark, such as ‘dressing modestly‘ or being escorted by a male relative or having a ‘good reason’ to be out at night.
We need to start taking women’s safety seriously in a way that doesn’t limit our individual freedom, but enables our mobility. Let’s try to make nighttime, public spaces and various modes of transport safe for everyone when we move out of our respective lockdowns.
My article for this issue elaborates, the topic of reincarnation is one that has fascinated me for many years, ever since a childhood tragedy led to me to reflect upon and question deeply what I had been taught on the topic of the afterlife by the religious tradition in which I was raised. That I am not alone in having a fascination with this topic is evidenced by the sheer volume of popular books and articles on the idea of rebirth produced and consumed every year. While it is a mainstream idea in those parts of the world where the Dharma traditions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism) predominate, recent opinion surveys have shown that as many as one in five Americans also profess a belief in some form of reincarnation. Scholars are not exempt from this widespread interest. Indeed, there would seem to be an upswing in scholarly interest in this topic, as the articles in this special issue indicate. This interest ranges from the historical, to the literary, to the theological and philosophical. The articles gathered here raise varying questions from equally varying perspectives on the topic of reincarnation. What do particular traditions and texts teach about reincarnation? How is reincarnation conceptualized differently in different religious and cultural contexts? These are questions of a more historical and descriptive variety. What evidence can be presented either for or against reincarnation as a really occurring phenomenon, and not merely a subject of personal belief? What philosophical or theological arguments can be marshalled either for or against the idea of reincarnation? These are questions about the veracity of claims regarding reincarnation, about whether or not there really is such a thing, and what it might mean to answer this question either affirmatively or negatively. The articles collected here take up these questions, and more, providing a broad (though I would not say comprehensive) overview of this topic. The primary focus of the articles in this collection has been upon reincarnation as approached from either Hindu or Christian perspectives. These are two traditions whose adherents have engaged with one another on this topic with some frequency. For many Hindus, some version of the doctrine of reincarnation is axiomatic, and foundational to spiritual practice. For Christians, reincarnation has been a vexed issue, with many Christians being attracted to the idea from the earliest days of the church to the present, but with the mainstream of the tradition rejecting the idea as incompatible with foundational Christian teachings. It has thus been a natural topic of Hindu-Christian polemics. Some of these polemics have been described in articles found in this collection (e.g., the articles by Nalini Bhushan, Gérard Colas, and Usha Colas-Chauhan), while other articles in this collection are themselves contributions to this polemical literature (e.g., the article by Bradley Malkovsky, which argues from a Christian perspective, and my own, which argues from a Hindu perspective). Some of the articles collected here describe, in depth, articulations of rebirth that arise from particular Hindu texts and traditions (e.g., the articles of Gerald Larson, Jonathan.
Eric Arthur Blair, one of the best novelist of all time according to me and for many other novel readers. I think, I should have used the correct name to introduce him GEORGE ORWELL one of the best of all time and now no one will disagree, right?
When I first heard the name of the book Animal Farm I refused to read it just because of its title, I thought it is going to be the story of animals basically for kids, but my friend kept pushing me to read it, I was only convinced to read it because it had only 90 pages and I do not have to worry about my time or energy either.
After reading about 30 pages I got confused a bit, I was hoping it to be a kid book with a bed time story but it was something else George Orwell was talking about animals and its struggle but somehow in my mind I have created an image with animals as normal people and humans as government and slowly I was soaked into the story.
Story starts with Mr Jones of manor Farm who came home drunken and forgot to feed his livestock. The ensuring rebellion under the leadership of pigs Napoleon and Snowbell leads to the animals taking over the farm. Vowing to eliminate the terrible inequities of the farmyard, the renamed Animal Farm is organized to benefit all those who walk on four legs. But as time passes, the ideals of the rebellion are corrupted, then forgotten. And something new and unexpected emerges.
He emphasize on learning, reading and writing and how can the government manipulate if you don’t know how to read, and how can anyone play with you emotionally, writer has touched very tiny things during democracy and aristocracy. And if people are not aware their democracy can be converted into aristocracy. These words seems bigger but the writer has explained it beautifully and simply. He talked about some people who trust government blindly, and also those who knows many things but never speaks, and taking all these character together will give you best 3 hours of reading the book.
Book starts with “All animals are equal” and ends with “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others” . Let me add a twist in this what if I change the word animals with human beings. “All human beings are equal, all human beings are equal, but some human beings are more equal than others”. After reading those changed sentences the multiple things strikes to me, many of today’s problems in many countries around the globe including racial and ethnic religious tensions.
Writer wants to show the mirror to the world and he does it in his style for some it’s a book of animals, a kid book, but for many it’s the experience, an interesting book with a political satire. Many says it’s the book that depicts the Russian revolution but for me it’s for the revolution of the whole world. Animal Farm by George Orwell is a brilliant political satire and a powerful, affecting story of revolutions and idealism, power and corruption.
When it comes to Bollywood, romance is the topmost genre over the past few decades.
The basic plotline of every Bollywood rom-com is, ‘A guy falls in love and he makes her fall in love with him, the couple faces some objections and refusal from family so they either do court marriage or run away for to get a perfect ending. Sounds familiar right? Back in the 2000s. many love stories were being produced, if you were a kid or the 19s kids you must have watched many Bollywood movies back then. Those were the most iconic and supreme level of movies were produced which has marked their legacy, unlike others. What do you mean by love? let me tell you, it’s a feeling of deep affection, falling in love all over again with the same person and with one’s emotion is love. These same feelings filmmakers have woven into a script that is being shown in cinema as iconic ones. From the Legendary one Mughal-le-Aazam to Dilwale Dulhaniya le Jayenge, Bollywood rom-com has told us about many fascinated love tales. Excluding some of the films, Bollywood has given a moderate amount of storyline about lovers fighting to break the barriers. It is now that Bollywood is making the remakes of the same old scenes of mustard fields, the father being strict, etc. that have been played in front of us many times. Now Bollywood needs new stories with more realistic perspectives. Some of the exceptional movies which are evergreen movies from the past few decades are:-
1) Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge.
It’s is known by name of DDLJ which a 1995 Hindi rom-com film. Starring Shah Rukh Khan a ‘King of Bollywood’ and Kajol. This film is the leading light in the history of Bollywood cinema. Raj and Simran met during a trip to Europe and fell in love. This movie was shot from beautiful mountains to dense greenery in Punjab. The performance and chemistry of them were stellar and outstanding.
2) Jab We Met.
Jab We Met is a 2007s film, is the iconic movie of Imtiaz Ali, which showcased the love journey of Shahid Kapoor and Kareena Kapoor Khan in a very conservative way. It showed how two people from opposite backgrounds and cultures came together to evolve feelings for each other. It is cute and innocent love chemistry that was an advantage for the movie. Kareena’s Punjabi character and the way of delivering in the Punjabi accent was the best part of the movie.
3) Yeh Jawani Hai Diwani
In 2013 Deepika Padukone and Ranbir Kapoor starred in the film called Yeh Jawani Hai Diwani, also known as YJHD. This movie has explained the importance of love and friendship. This is the most loved film by the youngsters. This film also features Aditya Roy Kapoor, Kalki Koechlin, and Kunal Roy as supporting actors which made a good collection at the box office. Ayan Mukerji the director of the film has managed to show the interconnection between friendship and love which gets intensified later on.
4) 2 States
Arjun Kapoor and Alia Bhatt started in 2 States in the year 2014. This movie is about how a guy and a girl from different religions, cultures fell in love, while the boy is from north India a Punjabi Munda, and a girl is from South India. Abhishek Varman is the director of the film and has maintained the pitch which is bases on the novel of very famous writer Chetan Bhagat. This movie not only shows the love between two people and family but also how the whole family in a marriage is an essential thing.
5) Ae Dil Hai Mushkil
This movie was starred, Ranbir Kapoor and Anushka Sharma. This movie written by Karan Johar showcased the one-sided love, where Ranbir Kapoor loves Anushka Sharma who thinks of him as his very good friend. The film has also starred Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, Shah Rukh Khan, a Pakistani actor Fawad Khan and Lisa Haydon. This film is a famous movie as it showed the painful side of love and friendship.
This movie at starred Ranbir Kapoor, Priyanka Chopra, Ileana D’cruz, and was their hit film of 2012. It was written and directed by Anurag Basu. This film showed the love angle between deaf and mute. The girl was deaf and the boy was mute. It was a very wholesome and sweet movie. The acting of them was outstanding, it’s just not the audience who loved it but the critics also loved it and also praised them for their outstanding performance.
7) Love Aaj Kal
This movie was released in 2009. A young take between Deepika Padukone(Meera Pandit) and Saif Ali Khan(Veer Singh). Basically, this movie has explained the contemporary love of them. The title ‘Love Aaj Kal’ is well explained in the movie, no matter what are the circumstances, ups , and downs, melodrama, love prevails. It’s a movie that it would make every lover skip a beat.
These were the movies which showed the love is beautiful. Obviously there are some more of it which couldn’t make it to the list. Which are the best Bollywood movie according to you?
Banking is defined as the business activity of accepting and safeguarding money owned by other individuals and entities, and then lending out this money in order to conduct economic activities such as making profit or simply covering operating expenses. There are several different types of Banking, all serving different types of needs of the customers, given following:
Branch banking is engaging in banking activities such as accepting deposits or extending loans at facilities or locations away from a bank’s home office or headquarter.
Branch banking allows a financial institution to expand its services to an area outside of the home location, functioning as an extension of the home location. It can be a more cost-effective approach because not all the locations are required to offer the same levels of services as the home location, allowing smaller offices to provide key services while larger locations provide additional services.
The advantage of branch banking is that it helps in better management, more inclusion and risk diversification.
The disadvantage of branch banking is that it might encourage outside local influences.
In unit banking, all the operations are performed from a single branch.
It is a limited way of banking where banks operate only from a single branch or a few branches in the same area taking care of the local population of that area.
The size of the unit banks is small as compared to branch banking.
Due to the small size of the Unit Banks, decision making is very fast as the management enjoys more autonomy and discretionary powers at their disposal.
Due to the single unit of the Bank, the risks are not diversified.
A customer having an account in a specified branch must undergo all banking activities through that branch
Mixed Banking is the system in which banks undertake activities of commercial and investment banking together.
It can also be described as the dual functioning of investment banking and commercial banking.
These banks give short-term and long-term loans to industrial concerns. Industries don’t have to run to different places for differential financial needs. Mixed Banking thus promote rapid industrialization.
Mixed Banking may however pose a grave threat to liquidity of a bank and lead to bad debts.
Wholesale banking involves banking services for high net-worth clients like corporate, commercial banks, mid-size companies etc.
It is provided by banks to organisations like Corporate Clients, Institutional Customers (such as pension funds & government agencies), International Trade Finance Businesses, Medium Scale Companies, Mortgage Brokers, Real Estate Developers and Investors and services offered to other banks or financial institutions.
Retail banking means where banking transactions are held directly with customers. The Bank provides all kinds of personal banking services like savings accounts, current accounts, transactional accounts, mortgages, personal loans, debit and credit cards etc. to the customers directly.
Retail banking is the type of banking that is visible to general public.
The concept of Universal Banking was conceptualized by R.H. Khan in India.
Universal banking is a system of banking under which big banks undertake a variety of banking services like commercial banking, insurance, investment banking, merchant banking, mutual funds etc.
It involves providing all the above services to the customers under one roof by financial experts who can handle multiple financial products.
This makes the banking operations economical and boosts investorconfidence. However, if these kinds of banks fail, it costs huge losses as well as causes a huge dip in consumer confidence.
Virtual Banking refers to a banking system wherein the Banking operations are performed online.
One of the biggest advantages of Virtual Banking is that Banking operations become very cost effective as banks don’t need to have physical offices.
Low Banking operations costs are passed on to the customers by the Banks in the form of waiver of fee or offering higher rate of interests on accounts.
The Indian markets still have fears instilled in them with respect to virtual banking and they consider branch banking more suitable as they can visit the branch and be assured of their transactions.
Chain banking system refers to the type of banking wherein a group of persons come together to own and control three or more independently chartered banks.
Despite of common control and ownership, each of the banks can maintain their individual existence and operations.
The banks in the chain are assigned different functions so that there is no overlapping of interests and no loss in profits of the respective banks.
Correspondent Banking is considered the most profitable way of doing business as the Banks do not have any physical presence or any limited permissions in respect to Banking operations.
Correspondent banks thus act as banking agent for a home bank and provides various banking services to customers where otherwise the home bank does not operate.
It helps Banks’ customers perform banking operations and transactions at any place with ease without the physical presence of their Bank branches there.
Necessity is always the main reason behind commission of a crime. But it is not so in every case.
What is White Collar Crime?
When a person of high status and respectability commits crime to fulfill his personal or economic gains is known as White Collar Crime. Such crimes takes place not because of need but greed.
Nature of White Collar Crimes and Criminals
As compared to other crimes for financial gains like robberies, theft, burglaries etc., white collar crimes causes great amount of financial loss. Such crimes can can destroy a company, families by taking away their life savings or cost investors a thick sum of money. White Collar Crimes have been taking place in a large scale for the last few years and are often seen to be committed in famous organizations.
White Collar Crimes are difficult to detect in the initial times because the criminals belonging to the reputable groups of the society does the evil activities quite tactfully with proper planning and execution. Although such crimes does not apply violence or physical force yet it deceives people and shatter their life long hardwork in one go.
A very famous example of White Collar Crime that could be cited is that of the fraud case of Nirav Modi. The Nirav Modi scam created a wave of chaos in the country when the Punjab National Bank (PNB), one of the largest public sector lenders found itself amidst Rs 11,400 crore transaction fraud in Feb 2018. Having received complaints against Nirav Modi by PNB, the CBI started investigating the case. Meanwhile, Modi left the country avoiding arrest.
White Collar Crimes in certain professions
Medical professional : A great amount of white collar crimes can be seen in the medical professional which includes issuance of fake medical certificates, selling of unlicenced drugs, intended prolonged treatments to increase bills, sex determination of unborn child in the womb and such other similar activities.
Engineering profession : In the Engineering profession as well, maintenance of false records of work – charged labours, construction of roads, bridges etc with below standard materials, unethical dealings with contractor and suppliers can be seen.
Legal profession : In the legal profession, violating the expected standards of the legal profession to earn monetary gains, framing false evidences to punish the innocent etc is very common.
Educational institutions : Submission of fake details about an institution to enjoy financial aids from the government, asking for huge sum of money as donation comes under the category of white collar crimes.
The intensity or effect of white collar crimes are not felt immediately or maybe directly to an extent, yet it greatly hamper the economy of the country in the long run.
How to combat White Collar Crimes?
Controlling White Collar Crime is no less than a challenge for the authorities because the criminals belong to the most powerful groups of the society.
Public awareness should be created on a large scale about these crimes through media platforms and other audio-visual aids.
Strict regulatory rules, improvement of criminal law, unbiased and impartial prosecution of the accused should be done along with drastic punishment for such criminals should be made compulsory.
If White Collar Crimes keeps on taking place in the society, very soon the society would faces its worst consequences. We, as responsible citizens of the country should always be alert and raise our voice if we come across any cases of such crimes in our surroundings.
Biofuel is a renewable fuel, which can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels. They are produced from biomass- plant or algae material or animal waste. These sources of biofuel are also known as feedstock. A few examples of feedstock used to produce biofuels are: Vegetable/ Edible Oils (like Canola oil, Safflower oil), Non-Edible Oils (like Almond oil, Salmon oil), Animal fat (Lard, Tallow) and other sources such as Algae, Fungi and Bacteria.
There are four categories in which Biofuels are classified. They are: First Generation, Second Generation, Third Generation and Fourth Generation.
First Generation Biofuels: They are made from starch, sugar or animal fats using conventional methods such as fermentation, distillation and transesterification. Hence, they are also called conventional biofuels.
Second Generation Biofuels: They are made from woody biomasses as well as agricultural residues and wastes like corn stalk and bagasse.
Third Generation Biofuels: They are made from oil extracted from algae.
Fourth Generation Biofuels: They are made from electro fuels and solar fuels. Electro fuels are obtained by storing electricity produced from renewable sources in the chemical bonds of liquid or gaseous fuels. Solar fuels are obtained from common materials (example: Carbon dioxide) by the action of solar energy.
There are four common types of Biofuel. They are Bioethanol, Biodiesel, Biogas and Biobutanol
It is a type of biofuel used as an alternative automobile fuel source. It is produced from feedstocks like sugarcane, algae, corn or various other biomass. The feedstocks are treated with enzymes and undergo the process of fermentation. Bioethanol, along with carbon dioxide, is a by-product released during the whole process. It is majorly used as an alternative fuel to gasoline in internal combustion vehicles.
Advantages of Bioethanol:
Ethanol undergoes complete combustion and hence bioethanol burns more clearly in air than petroleum fuels
It is a renewable energy resource
Any fuel spills are more easily biodegradable
Disadvantages of Bioethanol:
Typical automobile engines may need to be modified to use biofuel
The production process is slightly expensive
Some amount of carbon dioxide gets released along with bioethanol in the production process
Biodiesel is obtained from natural sources such as triglyceride containing vegetable oils and animal fats. It is produced by transesterification. It is used in vehicles, aircrafts, railways, as a heating oil and for cleaning oil spills. The structure of biodiesel is similar to that of petroleum diesel fuel. Apart from that, in engines, it operates similarly to petroleum diesel fuel. Thus, it can be used easily in engines requiring little modifications to the engines.
Advantages of Biodiesel:
It helps to lubricate the engine which in turn decreases engine wear
It does not have sulfur content hence it doesn’t contribute to acid rain
Disadvantages of Biodiesel:
Biodiesel can release nitrogen oxide which can lead to the formation of smog
Its cost varies according to feedstock used and market conditions
Biogas is a renewable energy source; a natural fuel. It is produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. It is produced by the aerobic digestion of organic matter. Biogas comprises of primarily methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture and siloxanes.
Advantages of Biogas:
The slurry produced after the production of biogas can be used as manure
There is less emission of greenhouse gases
It is a renewable energy source as it is produced from waste which gets generated everyday in enormous quantities
It is a healthier alternative to the use of firewood for cooking in rural areas
Disadvantages of Biogas:
The production process is temperature dependent, as the bacteria need a temperature of around 37°C for digestion. As a result, in areas with a cold climate, there is an extra requirement of heat supply
Biogas contains methane, a highly flammable material. If proper care is not taken while handling, it may come into contact with oxygen and violently produce carbon dioxide
Despite purification, biogas still contains impurities which may lead to metal corrosion
It is unable to be used on a large scale as there is no efficient production system
Biobutanol is an alcoholic biofuel gaining traction. It is produced by the fermentation of sugar in biomass through the action of microbes. Clostridium acetobutylicum is a commonly used microorganism species. The sugars then get broken down into various alcohols, including butanol. Since it is obtained from biomass it is called Biobutanol. Its major use is as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It also shows potential as an industrial solvent.
Advantages of Biobutanol:
Biobutanol has a low vapor pressure, which means that it has a low volatility and a lower risk of evaporation
It has fewer emissions than other petroleum fuels. Compared to gasoline, it reduces carbon emissions by 85%
Disadvantages of Biobutanol:
The yield obtained and the speed of production are partially dependent on the microorganism used
The separation of butanol from the fermentation broth is slightly costly
In the age of global warming, it is necessary for governments and scientists to carry out more research into different biofuels and ways to harness them efficiently. This will not only reduce global warming to an extent, but also helps conserve fossil fuel and build towards a healthy and green future for our planet.
Friendship has a different meaning for everybody around the world. Over the time of your life, you made friends and they are your chosen family, you cannot just walk past them. Even if you are an Introvert (like me) you always have that one friend you run to for your problems no matter how idiotic their advice is, and if you are an extrovert you have many friends but there is one friend for you people too who you run to for your idiotic advice.
Every friendship goes through their ups and downs, and somewhere or the other I think its important that friendship goes through that. Sometimes, after a fight you realise that how much important that particular friend is to you and how you don’t want to lose them.
Friends fight; it’s inevitable. You will even find yourself arguing with your best friend more than anyone else. That doesn’t necessarily mean they’re not your truest BFF. Sometimes, it’s the little arguments that are over before you even know it that end up bringing you all the more close
But why fight in the first place, might you ask? If they’re your BFF, shouldn’t you always be on cloud nine having the time of your life? Sure, but a true friendship needs to learn and grow on both ends. A great friendship requires some tough love and growing pains. Like any other relationship you care about, it goes through its rough patches in order to improve.
Here are seven reasons why you fight with your bestie more than anyone else.
1. You Can Be Brutally Honest With Each Other
The truth can hurt, but sometimes you really need to hear it. Your best friend feels comfortable enough confronting you on issues that most people would just bottle up and let them fester. Your BFF can be brutally honest, but they wouldn’t tell you something just to outwardly hurt you. They know in their heart that telling you is more important than any backlash they’ll receive from dishing out the truth. It’s just like a Band-Aid; you have to quickly rip it off, and you want your bestie to do that for you.
2. You Don’t Walk Away From Each Other
You can walk away from anyone else you argue with, but you stay with your BFF and fix it. You can’t let an argument go unresolved, or it will ruin your entire day. You may take a breather to calm down, but you never leave each other angry.
3. You Only Want What’s Best For Each Other
You will do everything in your power to help your best friend get what they want, but sometimes, you know what your friend wants isn’t actually what’s best for them. For example, maybe it’s a boyfriend who is actually horrible or a job that’s totally toxic. You will be there for them when they need you, but you can’t fake the support if you don’t think it’s what’s best for them.
4. You’re So Much Alike
You and your best friend are so much alike that at times it can be scary. It’s great that you have a lot of the same interests and personality traits, but that can be hard, too. You’re so much alike, your personalities may clash at times. If you’re both headstrong, it can make fights last a little longer because no one is willing to back down. But in the end, you always end up finding a compromise.
5. You Go To Them When You’re In A Bad Mood
You go to your bestie when you’re in a bad mood and want to vent. They’re perfect for you to let out all of your tension from a hard work day or frustrating rush hour traffic. They’re your sound board, but sometimes you’re just too far into your bad mood that you can even take it out on the people just there to listen. It happens to the best of us.
6. You Spend So Much Time Together, It’s Bound To Happen
I’m not a statistics genius, but I will say it makes sense that since your BFF is the person you spend the most time with, you’re bound to get into more fights with them. Your time spent with them, over the probability of a fight to happen, translates to these chances being higher than anyone else’s. Even though you may loathe it, you can’t argue with math.
7. Your Jealousy May Get The Best Of You At Times
Jealousy is like the evil queen in any friendship fairytale. It tries separate you two, but you won’t let it win. You may get jealous because your BFF is spending time with another friend, or she is using all her spare time with a new boyfriend. The jealousy will make you fight, but you’re only fighting because you want your BFF’s time all to yourself. In the end, you’ll defeat the jealousy and live happily ever after.
It is not a theory not a concept which you can learn but a story with many emotions , unfortunately without words . A life of middle class family is just like this it seems that they have everything but the truth is everyone is suffering . The faces of the members seem to be happy but inside it there dreams are suffocating like a bird without wings . In this era where everyone is suffering to make there name to be written in golden words there are some of them who are killing there dream because of money and peer pressure , since no one is there to understand there dream and support them . The middle class family always suffer as they are neither poor hence no reservation in any colleges nor rich to pay the college fees . The middle class family always live in dilemma .There family is not enough educated which can understand the dream of their child or by chance if they can understand then no financial help can be provided . And the education nowdays are becoming so costly that if anyone dream to get higher education then they have to think hundred times to do or not . ”I have to live for others not for myself that’s the middle class morality”
Higher education is becoming difficult as the time passes ,it’s difficult for everyone poor people suffers from money whereas some rich people suffers from lack of interest but both of them might suffers from peer pressure , society pressure and status pressure . Our country is developing and it has maximum youngsters which lead to competition among citizens for jobs .More talent more degrees more will be the chances to be on the front row of competition . Our country has very talented youngsters but some didn’t get platform or some didn’t get support . This issue should be solved by our government our country is young and cheerful if they get proper harvesting then it is good for our country . For ex , every year almost 15 lakh students give the entrance exam neet for mbbs but only 1 lakh got selected , India needs doctor and there are plenty of student interested in it but due to lack of colleges they even didn’t got a chance . So our government should give a thought about this . As dream is for everyone and everyone has right to achieve it .
With regards to film and TV, there are a few things you in all likelihood believe are simply commonly utilized time and again. It very well may be the acceptable young lady adores the terrible kid, or how the scoundrel appears to consistently hold a type of European articulation. In any case, the one figure of speech which appears to be way abused? The possibility that a narrative can be downright old exhausting.
Fortunately, in advanced Hollywood, that thought can without much of a stretch be crushed, on account of some great subjects. Regardless of whether you’re observing how a significant FBI examination went down or the inward activities of the beginnings of a pandemic (yupp, you read that right), instructive media isn’t only for the affected film understudy, or the parent who’s remaining up observing late-night TV. Indeed, they may highlight a VIP (or three) whose biography you didn’t know…until now.
look at some great documentaries that you can watch:
‘Framing Britney Spears’– Since the time she came up in the last part of the 1990s, Britney Spears has changed the manner in which we pay attention to popular music. In any case, one thing hinders her: a conservatorship put on her in 2008. In this narrative, follow the vocalist’s ascent to notoriety, all while understanding the legitimate misfortunes she’s gone through to get to where she is today.
‘Demi Lovato: Dancing With the Devil’– Demi Lovato is no more abnormal to being at the center of attention. However, after their 2018 excess, the pop star chose to archive their life as they chipped away at recuperation. With private meetings from loved ones, it’s an enlightening investigate what injury means forever.
‘Operation Varsity Blues: The College Admissions Scandal’– Netflix brings watchers into one of the most abnormal FBI outrages in the 21st century. From finding out about the man behind it, to the sentences of renowned entertainers like Lori Loughlin, prepare to bring a profound plunge into the existences of the exceptionally special individuals who misled the framework.
‘Pelé’– As quite possibly the most well known soccer stars to play the game, fans could never know about the troublesome in the background minutes Pelé went through to accomplish his three World Cup titles. While it finishes the Brazilian competitor his ascent to notoriety, it’s the political struggle bound through it that makes this narrative convincing. Gracious, and relax in case you’re not a soccer fan—it’s as yet an extraordinary film to watch.
‘Kid 90’– During the 1990s there was a gathering of well known youngster stars all attempting to make it in Hollywood while at the same time needing to be teens. Entertainer Soleil Moon Frye caught everything on home tapes, and presently, we will see a close gander at probably the greatest stars today. What’s more, yes—Mark Wahlberg and Leonardo DiCaprio are among those included.
Due to the devastating pandemic education has changed dramatically, whereby teaching is undertaken remotely and on digital platforms. Globally, over 1.2 billion children are affected in school closures or are out of the classroom. Even before COVID-19, there was already high growth and adoption in education technology, with global tech investments reaching US$18.88 billion in 2019 and the overall market for online education projected to reach $350 Billion by 2025. Whether it is language apps, virtual tutoring, video conferencing tools, or online learning software, there has been a significant usage since COVID_19.
ADVANTAGES of ONLINE EDUCATION
Online class are convenient – The biggest advantage of online class is that everything is available to you. You can get announcements, access notes, review assignments, take practice quizzes, discuss questions, chat with fellow students. Other than certain due dates, you make your own schedule for completing the requirements of the class.
Online class offer flexibility – Online class gives flexibility to spend time with work, family, friends or any other activity you like.
Online class bring education right to your home – Children may take interest in online environment. Parents may look over the shoulder of an online student while they are surfing across the web. In shorts, everyone in the household gets involved in learning. Having the support of your family and friends makes you more likely to succeed.
Online class offer more individual attention – Many students aren’t comfortable asking questions in class for fear of feeling stupid. Many times you think of a question after class or while you are studying. Rather than trying to remember to ask it or forgetting it, you can send an e-mail to the instructor, your opportunity to learn is enhanced.
Online class have financial benefits – Although you may think that buying computer and paying for internet access is pretty expensive, consider what if would cost you in gas and parking each month if you were driving to campus. Consider the costs of eating out versus eating at home. Consider the costs of pet-care or any other care that you need to provide while you are away from home. These are very tangible benefits of having access to education at home.
DISADVANTAGES OF ONLINE EDUCATION
Online class require more time than on-campus classes – You will spend more time studying and completing assignments in the online environment than you will in an on-campus classes. The online environment is text based. To communicate with your instructor and other students, you must type messages, post responses and otherwise communicate with your fingers. Typing is slower than speaking. Each word you type it and compare the difference if you had spoken the same.
Online class require good time-management skills – An internet based class demands that you develop personal time-management skills. Online class require the self-discipline to set aside chunks of time to complete your studies. It means you have to make online studies priority and not let other activities interfere.
Online class give you more freedom, perhaps, more than you can handle – This freedom can be dangerous if you don’t learn how to handle it.
Online class requires you to be responsible for your own learning – Only you are responsible for your learning. You might not take responsibility for your studies and your goals.
To be honest, I believe the book is a must read. The book narrates an amazing story of courage, determination, and on the top mother’s love. This book is an autobiography of Betty Mahmoody and her struggles to escape from the traps of her husband. The writer of the book was BettyMahmoody herself. This book also had a sequel “Lost without my daughter” written by her husband Dr. Sayyed Bozorg Mahmoody. You might wonder what was the logic behind naming this book as “Not Without My Daughter”. But as you will go on reading the book you will understand the title in a better way.
So basically, this story is an autobiography of the writer itself. The writer and an American woman, Betty married an Iranian man named Dr. Sayyed Bozorg Mahmoody in 1977. Both of them lived in America and these two also gave birth to a baby girl and named her Mahtob. Everything was perfect and they were having a happy family until the year 1984. This year was just the beginning of a dark period in Betty’s life. In 1984, Betty along with her husband and 8 year old daughter Mahtob went on a two week vacation to Iran. Or should I say a vacation which was supposed to be for two weeks? A vacation that was supposed to be a happy holiday? Alas, it was not the scenario here.
What is exactly there in the book that makes the vacation terrible?
During these days, it was wartime going on between America and Iran. Iran was highly unsafe to live in because nobody knew when will a bomb hit their houses or the roads they are walking on. When Betty and her family arrived at the Iran Airport, the very first thing that happened to her was that she and her daughter’s passports were taken by Moody’s (Betty’s husband) family. So the two weeks passed happily and finally time to depart from Iran arrived. Sooner Betty realized that instead of a guest she was a hostage in Iran. And then, from here the real story begins.
Betty didn’t want to spend the rest of her life in Iran. She started finding ways to escape. It was the dark period of her life. She lived in Iran for over a year where she didn’t even have the freedom to leave the house without Moody’s permission. She got a lot of opportunities to escape Iran but they didn’t let her take her daughter along with her. And hence, she always denied saying one thing i.e. “not without my daughter”. She took help from a lot of people who were actually kind to her and wanted to help her. And finally, she met the angel of her life who could get her out of the jail.
The final escape
While Mahtob (Betty’s daughter) was busy playing in the park, Betty encountered Judy. Judy was another American woman married to an Iranian man living in Iran. Judy promised Betty to help and invited her to a party where she can arrange a meeting with Rasheed. Rasheed knew a few smugglers who could help Betty’s escape and asked Betty to call after 2 weeks. After 2 weeks, Rasheed on a call with Betty and said that the smugglers are unwilling to smuggle a kid. After some time Betty got into contact with an unnamed individual who instructed her to meet Amahl. Amahl was trying to find ways to help Betty and one day he planned an escape plan.
The smugglers took Mahtob and Betty to a small village beyond Tabriz. Finally, they crossed the mountainous range of the Turkey border and finally reached Ankara. From there, they met the American embassy, got their passports, and finally, found their way back to America.
Sayyed Mahmoody said that a lot of incidents in the book were false claims and irrelevant. He also wrote a book ‘Lost without my daughter’ wherein he said that he was not a terrible father as shown in the book. But undoubtedly the determination of Betty and the courage she took are absolutely appraisable. She took some real-life risks but somehow her will and courage didn’t stop her from achieving success. I recommend everyone to read this book because everyone should appreciate the struggle of an independent woman and a mother.
8085 is pronounced as “eighty-eighty-five” microprocessor. It is an 8-bit microprocessor designed by Intel in 1977 using NMOS technology.
It has the following configuration −
8-bit data bus
16-bit address bus, which can address up to 64KB
A 16-bit program counter
A 16-bit stack pointer
Six 8-bit registers arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL
Requires +5V supply to operate at 3.2 MHZ single phase clock
It is used in washing machines, microwave ovens, mobile phones, etc.
Architecture of 8085 microprocessor
8085 is an 8-bit, general purpose microprocessor. It consists of following functional units:-
Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): It is used to perform mathematical operations like: addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, decrement, increment, etc.
Flag Register: It is an 8-bit register that stores either 0 or 1 depending upon which value is stored in the accumulator.
Accumulator: Accumulator is used to perform I/O, arithmetic and logical operations. It is connected to ALU and internal data bus.
General Purpose Registers: There are 6 general purpose registers. These registers can hold 8-bit values. These 8-bit registers are B, C, D, E, H, L. These registers work as 16-bit registers when they work in pair like: B-C, D-E, H-L.
Program Counter: Program Counter holds the address value of the memory to the next instruction that is to be executed. It is a 16-bit register.
Stack Pointer: It works like stack. In stack, the content of register is stored that is later used in the program. It is a 16-bit special register.
Temporary Register: It is a 8-bit register that holds data values during arithmetic and logical operations.
Instruction registers and decoder: It is a 8-bit register that holds the instruction code that is being decoded. The instruction is fetched from the memory.
Timing and control unit: The timing and control unit comes under the CPU section, and it controls the flow of data from CPU to other devices. It is also used to control the operations performed by the microprocessor and the devices connected to it. There are certain timing and control signals like: Control signals, DMA Signals, RESET signals, Status Signal.
Interrupt control: Whenever a microprocessor is executing a main program and if suddenly an interrupt occurs, the microprocessor shifts the control from the main program to process the incoming request. After the request is completed, the control goes back to the main program. There are 5 interrupt signals in 8085 microprocessors: INTR, TRAP, RST 7.5, RST 6.5, RST 5.5
Address bus and data bus: Data bus is bidirectional and carries the data which is to be stored. Address bus is unidirectional and carries location where data is to be stored.
Serial Input/output control: It controls the serial data communication by using Serial input data and Serial output data.
Working of 8085 Microprocessor
Now after having an idea about the functional units of the 8085 microprocessor, let us proceed further to understand the operation of the 8085 microprocessor.
We already know that the function of a microprocessor is to execute instructions. Also, to execute an instruction, it first needs to be fetched then decoded and then executed. And to fetch an instruction, firstly the address of the instruction must be known.
The address of the instruction is present in the program counter. This address is then placed on the 16-bit address bus and is then forwarded towards the memory. From the memory, the instruction present at that memory location is fetched through the 8-bit data bus.
Here, in the above figure, we can clearly see that we have combinedly used data bus and address bus so as to reduce the number of lines. As we know that at a particular time the processor will access either the data bus or the address bus.
Further when the instruction is fetched from the memory, then through internal buses the instruction is provided to the instruction register. At this particular point of time fetching the instruction from the memory is over.
Now, it’s time for the processor to decode the instruction. So, it is then fed to the instruction decoder.
We already have the idea that both data and instruction in the memory is stored in the form of an opcode. So, the fetched opcode is analyzed by the instruction decoder present inside the processor in order to execute the instruction.
But, a noteworthy point over here is that, after an instruction is fetched from the memory, then PC increments itself thereby providing the address location of the next instruction. As PC does not play any role in decoding and executing.
However, after execution of first instruction, the next is fetched form the memory.
Now, this is all about fetching and decoding, now what about the execution of the instruction.
In the above figure, we can see the timing and control circuit. This circuit basically sends the control signals to the various units of the microprocessor to execute the instruction.
Suppose, the instruction is ADD A and B. This simply tells the ALU to add the data present in B register with the data present in accumulator i.e., A register. But, in 8085 the decoded instruction is simply ADD B. So, automatically, the ALU adds the value present in the accumulator with the data in register B.
Also, in 8085 the outcome of the operation is stored register A which is nothing but an accumulator.
Further when an instruction ADD C is decoded by the 8085, then data at C register is added to the data present in register A and is stored at register A. Due to such cumulative action, register A is termed as an accumulator.
Basically, the timing and control circuit timely sends the signals to the accumulator to release its value for proceeding execution. Also, this timing and control circuit sends signals to the register select that tells it to choose the particular register.
Once the data is fetched from a particular register then it is stored in the temporary register and it is used by the ALU. It is to be kept in mind that a programmer can only access the general purpose register as the temporary register is used by the processor to hold the 2nd operand of the operation.
Now, once the operation is executed, then the result is fed to the accumulator through the data bus. But a flag register is also present that holds the status of the result present at the accumulator.
As we have also discussed in the functional unit that a flag register holds a sign, carry etc. related information of the generated result.
After every instruction execution performed by the ALU, the status of the flag register gets changed. So, ALU produces the result and its status simultaneously after each operation.
As we have already discussed that W and Z are the temporary registers but these are not accessed by the programmer as both are used by the processor to hold the temporary value stored by it.
So, this is all about the block diagram and working of 8085 microprocessor.
Applications of 8085microprocessor
8085 finds its major applications in programmable calculators as well as in numerical control and environment monitoring systems. These are also used in switching, banking and financial systems.
Cloud computing has recently gotten a lot of press, and it’s being hailed as the way of the future for enterprise applications and database administration. We rely on remote servers for database storage when using cloud-based database services, so we don’t have to worry about maintaining any on-premises infrastructure.
Thanks to the cloud’s initiatives to promote mobile access to data and applications, people can now access data and applications on the go. Cloud computing today makes it possible to keep everyone in the loop, no matter where they are or when they are doing so. It makes no difference where our employees and workforce are because of the cloud. It is still possible for everyone to remain connected.
In 2021, cloud computing, which supported the global economy, global supply chains, and distant workforces throughout the coronavirus pandemic, will remain a critical target for businesses seeking enhanced scalability, business continuity, and cost effectiveness.“The ramifications of COVID-19 will persist far into 2021, as businesses seek to establish the groundwork for more agility,” said Dustin Milberg, field chief technology officer for cloud services at InterVision, a Santa Clara, Calif.-based IT service provider and AWS Premier Consulting Partner. “Because of the benefits of greater accessibility, scalability, and flexibility, cloud will be a primary focus in this goal.”
Future of Cloud
No one can forecast the future, but we can make educated guesses based on present trends and usage. Here are some cloud computing predictions:
Data is being generated in large quantities today, making secure storage problematic. The majority of businesses demand a secure storage location for their data.
The internet’s quality can be improved with the help of the Internet of Things. We can save data in the cloud with the use of IoT and Cloud Computing for further analysis and improved performance.
The internet of things is also a prominent technology since it combines real-time data analytics and cloud computing. Machine-to-machine communication, data, and processes are all commonplace. With the use of cloud computing, we can do it quickly.
Although the data saved in the cloud is secure, it is not completely secure. Small businesses that supply cloud services may or may not provide adequate data protection.As a result, we can better protect ourselves against cyber-attacks in the future. Cloud providers offer stronger security measures, allowing for a more balanced approach to preventing cyber-attacks.
Role of cloud computing in enterprise application
Apps that are ready for the cloud can be simply migrated to cloud platforms with little effort. However, when it comes to deployment and maintenance, these types of apps can be costly. Even while idle, cloud-ready applications demand more resources than standard applications. So, while optimizing these may be difficult at first, if we achieve our aim, we will see a higher return on investment. Cloud-optimized applications, on the other hand, are far more adaptable and cost-effective. Instead of focusing on platform-as-a-service, or PaaS, this collection of applications may take a different approach. In comparison to cloud-only apps, cloud-optimized apps are more scalable and easier to administer. As a result, many businesses are now concentrating on designing customized cloud-optimized applications.
To stay ahead of the cloud marketing pack, your corporate solutions must be compliant in order to handle the increased data volumes. There’s also hybrid cloud infrastructure, which combines public and private cloud services. This is a preferable option for individuals who do not want to entirely migrate to the cloud but still want their resources managed by the business. Virtual machines can be imported from VMWare and Microsoft Hyper-V, among other systems, to cloud platforms.
Cloud storage providers have increased their market share in both the private and public sectors in recent years. It makes perfect sense for different providers to offer a variety of options for businesses of varied sizes to pick from. As a third-party service, the providers are likely to have a variety of new cloud-based management alternatives for their clients. Other options include establishing a private cloud on existing infrastructure or using open-source technologies.
When we use cloud computing, we expect to strengthen collaboration and see improvements across the board.Team members can use a cloud-based platform to access, share, and update information, increasing efficiency. This one data point ensures that everyone is on the same page, reducing human error and ultimately boosting company quality.Cloud infrastructure enables IT and other workers to give a better customer experience, increased compliance, and, of course, improved data security.
In the end, cloud technology will be the primary platform for securing modern-day company data. Cloud-based services will also become the norm in the future for individuals to communicate more effectively. When we consider the future of cloud computing, we may expect more collaboration and progress in all areas of company thanks to cloud services.