Growing importance of Criminology in the contemporary world.

What is Crime?

Before understanding Criminology, we should know what is crime. We frequently use the word ‘Crime’. Crime is an act that harms individuals or a society and is punishable by law. Our society has never been crime free. Since the ancient days till the present day, society has witnessed various crimes and crime rates have been increasing ever since then. Everyday when we read the newspaper or watch the news and through social media, we come across instances of heinous criminal activities. In such a scenario, the importance of Criminology is greatly felt.

What is Criminology?

The scientific study of crime is Criminology. It not only studies crime but also studies the causes behind crime, laws relating to crime and also studies the measures to stop crimes.

Crimes are generally committed by those people who are not satisfied with what they have. Insecurities, greed, lust, hatred, suspicion, jealousy and the like are the main roots of crime. Here, Criminology plays an important role where the discipline studies all the components of society like family, religion, economy in relation to crime and makes the society understand, control and reduce crime by discovering and analysing its causes. Criminology provides stability to the society.

Importance of Criminology and Criminologists

Because of increasing crime rates, various laws relating to crime has also been introduced because law is an important tool of social control. Laws related to crime is adequately modified with time to deal with criminal activities and changing intentions and mindsets of the criminals.

Criminologists works together with the law enforcing agencies to develop profiles of the criminals and gather statistics on crime rates so that they could rightly prevent crimes and punish the offenders but in a liberalised manner. In the present time, Criminology has been playing more attention to rehabilitation of offenders through intensive after – care programs.

Since we are living in a modern era, we cannot skip the advancement of scientific knowledge and technology. Although technology has made life easy yet complexities of life has increased greatly due to which patterns of crime has changed. Theft of automobiles, shop lifting, forgery, cheating,smuggling,trafficking,financial scams and scandals, terrorist activities, have become so common these days. Also, crimes that are committed online cannot be ignored like online gambling, hacking, cyber bullying etc. The more the world is advancing, the more criminal acts are increasing.

To tackle all these criminal instances, Criminology as a discipline is of great importance to devise new methods and techniques to solve these problems through scientific research.

The Criminologists keeps themselves acquainted with new criminological developments and work out strategies to deal with intricate problems of life.

In a nutshell,

Criminology helps in reducing crime by understanding the causes behind it.

Criminology helps in understanding the mindsets of the criminals which would help in proper allocation of resources to control crime.

Criminology suggest appropriate measures for rehabilitation of criminals.

Criminology as a discipline should be introduced in every educational institutions to create awareness among students regarding crime. In the present times when every corner of the world is occupied with criminal acts, the importance of Criminology is realized.

Dealing With Harassment At The Workplace

Working environment provocation is the point at which a worker or a gathering of representatives feel deprecated or undermined by their partners.

Despite the fact that there might be the presence of some actual proof, we can’t reject that it is excessively entirely expected at work environments today. Hassling behavior may incorporate hostile jokes, casteist slurs, actual attacks, affronts, terrorizing, tormenting and so on Such practices influence and effect the worker’s vocation from multiple points of view and establish a harmful and useless climate in the association.

It requires intensity and fortitude to venture out and oppose the oppressor. On the off chance that at all you are confronting any wrongdoing or testing circumstances, valiantly oppose that. We have recorded down some ways that may help you manage such a circumstance at your working environment.

In case anybody is being outlandish or harassing you at work, the as a matter of first importance move anybody should make is telling the domineering jerk that their conduct is unseemly and unwanted. You ought to fearlessly and unmistakably put down stopping points at the working environment by telling the domineering jerk that their conduct is amateurish and not appreciated and caution them that essential moves would be made against them if such conduct proceeds in future. In the event that the training is more genuine or every one of the endeavors to determine the issue have gone to no end, one should tell the concerned specialists and make essential moves.

Tell your collaborators that you are feeling awkward working with someone in particular or gathering of individuals. You may likewise discover colleagues with experience of wrongdoing by a similar individual and will uphold your case.

It is ideal to allude to the organization’s strategies and laws specifically and badgering laws in the nation overall. Decide whether there is an authority strategy against badgering in the association, what it incorporates, and how you ought to continue with your grievance. Generally medium and huge associations have arrangements to catch wrongdoing possibly.

It is important to report the misconduct and derogatory behaviour before things go out of hand. Tell your supervisor, someone from the Human Resource team or any person in charge of handling such cases in the organizations.

THE SAGA:MUMBAI

You all must have heard about Mumbai and its dramatic episodes. Yes, Mumbai, the ‘city of dreams, is this place where all come around to make their dreams come true. It is said that this is a city that never sleeps and not allows us to sleep. Life here is so fast and particular, one should be very adaptive. It is India’s most densely populated and popular city. Mumbai is formally called Bombay and is the financial capital of India, here are some famous and expensive real estate, it is an important centre for commerce & trade, and also for textile industry.

Mumbai, it’s just not the city, it’s a vibe of life. At first, Bombay is the dream for every newbie student, business company, or worker but when we are here, we get to know what is so special about this city.Mumbai is the first city to start with a  railway, It carries 2.2 billion population of passengers in a year. Mumbai has the best train networks (local trains) it helps us reach the right location. Trains were installed in late 1925. The climate here is to live for, it is so blissful around here in the rainy season, the food around here is irresistible, Mumbai is a major tourist attraction, and also the way Mumbai brings all the culture and religion together is amazing. everything is soo good about Mumbai, it just feels so right to be in.

There is a list of many incidents that took place in the past few decades.

1. On 12 March 1993, India’s most populated city was attacked by 13 bombs blast across the city. The first bomb took place in the Bombay stock exchange and continued with many cars and the scooter blast went on regular intervals for 2 hours straight. Which lead to the death of 260 people and 700 people were seriously injured. It was the biggest and major terrorist attack in India.

2. In 2002, another bomb attack was planned by the Pakistani terrorist. The bomb was placed under the BEST bus near Ghatkopar station. It blasted there and there and casualties were, 2 people died and over 50 people were injured.  Later the police defused another bomb in other BEST in Andheri.

Many blasts occurred in the year 2003,
1st was when Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the PM and came to visit Mumbai. The bombing took place near Vile parle Station. It killed 1 person the and other 30 were injured.
2nd one took place on 13 March, The bomb was placed under the seat of the ladies compartment of a local train. The bomb blasted near Mulund Railway station.
3rd one took place in July. The location of it was again in Ghatkopar, Lal Bahadur Shastri Nagar. The bomb was placed on the BEST bus. 4 people died and 28 were injured.
4th one took place on 25th August, it was planned as twin bombing,54 were killed. One was near the gateway of India and another one in the jewelry Bazar, near Mumba Devi temple.

3. Another terrorist took place in Bombay in 2006. It was the 11th of July, series of 7 bombs were fit in pressure cookers in a local train on the suburban side. It all blasted in 11 minutes. Casualties were the same as the Bombay blast, above 200 people were killed, and 700 or above were severely injured.

4. You all must know about the 26/11 serious tragedy, in 2008, Mumbai was again got under a major terrorist attack. 10 Pakistanis entered the country through the Arabian sea, in the city of Maharashtra.  They planned the coordinated shoots and bomb blasts in the city of Mumbai, there were 12 places in total including Taj, the main hub- Chatrapati Shivaji terminals, and a hospital.
Many people were ruthlessly killed. Casualties were 206 were killed and 300 and above were injured.

So, this was the major incidents that took place in Mumbai during this period. The ‘city of dreams’ is not the title, it does make your dream come true. But this attacks have created a major impact and fear in our lives. So let’s stay positive and safe.

OUR FUTURE WITH ROBOTICS

Robotics is one of the fast growing industries in modern times. The scope of this field is vast and can assist us in our daily house chores, automobile sectors, education, healthcare, and many more. The Robot Institute of America, 1979 defines a robot as a reprogrammable, multifunctional, manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions to perform a variety of tasks. Robots are seeming to be an important aspect of our life helping us to produce more quality products in lesser times. Robotics has made an immediate and huge impact on the world in recent times. A cafe in Japan is staffed with humanoid robots for waitressing. These robots are controlled by paralyzed people or people with different disabilities. Looking at the present scenario we can expect robotics expansion in the above field in the near future.

  1. Public security: AI technology can help us predict and detect crime in the future. With this technology, the safety rate for the common public will increase and it can also be a great help for law enforcement officials to take actions against crimes faster and in an efficient way. There are camera based security systems available in the market that can automatically recognize suspicious activities.
  1. Education: It is not possible for a single teacher to meet the needs of personalized learnings of every student present in the classroom. E-learning is helping us to overcome this problem by letting the students learn in their own space. Robots can act as an alternative for teachers. A humanoid robot NAO has already started forming bonds with students around the world. This humanoid machine also has important senses of natural interactions that include moving, listening, speaking, and connecting.
  1. House chores: Cloud connected robots have already become a part of our lives. We can set up the vacuum cleaners for cleaning. There are multifunctional robotic cookers that can automatically steam, bake, slow cook, and perform many other actions without manual intervention. 
  1. Employees: Robots can be seen as our coworkers in the future due to the speed and quality of work produced by them. Due to their multifunctional abilities and accuracy, they might become a replacement for human employees. 
  1. Automobile: At present, there exist automatic cars that can perform activities automatically without manual efforts. But still, they need human intervention to some extent. But in the future, there can definitely be fully automatic cars that won’t need any kind of manual work at all.
  1. Health: Pharmabotics is a term coined for robots in the healthcare sector. Instead of talking to a stranger regarding our medical issues robots will act as an ATM for medicines. 
  1. Entertainment: Virtual reality will surely enter our homes in the near future. It is even possible to interact with our home automation systems with the help of conversations that will respond to our attempts.

We can see that the scope of robotics is now growing with a speed. People use robotics in a lot of sectors or we can even say in almost of sectors. Some countries’ people have started using robots in their daily life as well. Robotics will surely help the technological development of a country and it will ease a lot of human efforts as well. 

Shrawan – The Divine Month

Shrawan Month is the Hindu Calendar’s fifth month. Nepal is known for being the world’s just Hindu realm with unmatched strict resilience. Hindus all through the world honor this promising month. “Shrawan” is additionally thought to imply “to hear pleasant things.” In request to celebrate Lord Shiva, lovers pay attention to talks, reverential supplications, singing, and moving during the Shravan months. The other exacting significance of “Shravan” is “Saawan,” which signifies “month of downpour, blooming blossoms, and swinging.”

Lord Shiva, who is regarded as the most powerful, destroyer, and defender, is honored during the month of Shrawan. This month is thought to be the time of the great Samudra Manthan. During this Manthan, the Poison and Amrit (elixir of life) emerged from the depths of the ocean. The poison Halahaal was so potent that it could wipe out all of the Gods as well as the Earth. Lord Shiva drank the poison and kept it in his neck in order to rescue the world and the Gods. Since then, Lord Shiva has been known as “Neelkanth,” which means “blue throat.” However, after ingesting the poison, Lord Chandra (Moon) stayed in Lord Shiva’s brain to protect him from the poison’s effects.

There are a slew of such beliefs surrounding the month of Shrawan. During this month, believers fast (vrat or brata) on any day, but particularly on Monday. The fast might be of any length; it can be full or partial. Fasting is commonly done by women of all ages to honor Lord Shiva. Unmarried women follow the fast to pray for an ideal husband like Lord Shiva, while married women pray for their husband’s long life, good health, and prosperity. They pay a visit to the temples, make offerings like as milk, bel patra, flowers, and perform Bhajan-kirtans (devotional prayers and songs). It is also said that worshiping Lord Shiva during this month is 108 times more potent and effective than worshipping him during other months.

This auspicious month of Shrawan is particularly auspicious for women. They will only wear green, red, and yellow bangles, potes (beads), sarees, and kurthas, among other things. Green is the primary hue of Nature and represents calm. During this month, the ladies create Mehendi or Heena using their hands. Green, red, and yellow bangles of various designs can be found in abundance in Nepalese shops and markets. The use of Mehendi or Heena on the hands, as well as wearing sarees, kurtas, or outfits in green, red, or yellow, as well as bangles and ear-rings in similar colors, has become fashionable among Hindu women.

During the month of Shravan, it is customary to break the fast or consume only vegetarian foods. Apart from religious reasons, there is a scientific rationale for fasting throughout the month of Shrawan to improve one’s health. This is the rainy season. When the rains begin to fall, sunlight becomes scarce. As a result, digestion slows down. People normally eat light foods, mostly vegetarian diets, throughout this month. Fasting also aids in digestive system detoxification. During this monsoon season, it provides a natural defense against water-borne infections. The blessings of Lord Shiva provide happiness, good health, and wealth to everyone during the Shravan month.

CHILD LABOUR: STILL PREVALENT IN INDIA?

“CHILD IS THE FATHER OF MAN”, thus said WORDSWORTH years ago. Moreover, it is the child who is a citizen of tomorrow. It is in the condition of a child that there lies the future of any society or nation. Children are the real mirrors of the society. The quality of life of a child reflects how progressive a society is. And with the dawn of the 21st century, one of the challenges that has appeared globally is the problem of CHILD LABOUR.

Child labour is a kind of crime where children are violated to work at a very young age and do the duties just like grown-ups by practicing in business activities. As per the International Labour Organization (ILO), a rule has been established according to which children up to the age limit of fifteen should not be involved in any job forcibly. The use of the children for financial work makes children denied of childhood, proper literacy, mental, physical, and social well being. In some countries, this practice is completely forbidden; however, it has become an international matter in most of the states as it is ruining the future of children extensively. Child employment is a severe matter in most of the developing nations. Small children under the age of 14 are being involved in economic work activity by the people of high-class society. They are ignoring the reality that children are the future and hope of the nation. Millions of children are lacking in primary education and depriving their childhood in our country, which is a terrible warning. These children do not get the opportunity to live a healthy life since they are not delighted physically, intellectually and culturally strong.

CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR:. Child Labour happens due to a number of reasons. While some of the reasons may be common in some countries, there are some reasons which are specific in particular areas and regions. When we look at what is causing child labour, we will be able to fight it better.Firstly, it happens in countries that have a lot of poverty and unemployment. When the families won’t have enough earning, they put the children of the family to work so they can have enough money to survive. Similarly, if the adults of the family are unemployed, the younger ones have to work in their place. Moreover, when people do not have access to the education they will ultimately put their children to work. The uneducated only care about a short term result which is why they put children to work so they can survive their present.Furthermore, the money-saving attitude of various industries is a major cause of child labour. They hire children because they pay them lesser for the same work as an adult. As children work more than adults and also at fewer wages, they prefer children. They can easily influence and manipulate them. They only see their profit and this is why they engage children in factories. Hence, We should stop this!! This is not right. But, the question is HOW CAN WE ERADICATE IT?

ERADICATION OF CHILD LABOUR. If we wish to eradicate child labour, we need to formulate some very effective solutions which will save our children. It will also enhance the future of any country dealing with these social issues. To begin with, one can create a number of unions that solely work to prevent child labour. It should help the children indulging in this work and punishing those who make them do it.Furthermore, we need to keep the parents in the loop so as to teach them the importance of education. If we make education free and the people aware, we will be able to educate more and more children who won’t have to do child labour. Moreover, making people aware of the harmful consequences of child labour is a must.In addition, family control measures must also be taken. This will reduce the family’s burden so when you have lesser mouths to feed, the parents will be enough to work for them, instead of the children. In fact, every family must be promised a minimum income by the government to survive.In short, the government and people must come together. Employment opportunities must be given to people in abundance so they can earn their livelihood instead of putting their kids to work. The children are the future of our country; we cannot expect them to maintain the economic conditions of their families instead of having a normal childhood.

SUPERSTITION AND INDIA

Superstition refers to any belief or practice that is caused by supernatural causality, and which contradicts modern science. Superstition beliefs and practices often vary from one person to another or from one culture to another, ranging from harmless practices such as lemon-and-chili totems in order to ward off the evil eye to harmful acts like witch-burning. Superstitions have two main causes: cultural tradition and individual experiences. If you grew up steeped in the superstitions of a particular culture or religion, you may carry these beliefs forward, even subconsciously.

Psychologists who have investigated what role superstitions play have found that they derive from the assumption that a connection exists between co-occurring non-related events. For instance, the notion that charms promote good luck, or protect you from bad luck. Superstitions are usually attributed to lack of education. However, this has not always been the case in India, as there are many educated people with beliefs considered superstitions by the public. Being part of religion and tradition practices have been passed down from one generation to another for centuries. The Indian Government has tried to put new laws prohibiting such practices into effect. Due to the rich history of superstitions, these laws often face a lot of opposition from the general public.

Past supersitions

  • Sati system – Sati is the act or custom of a Hindu widow burning herself or being burned to death on the funeral pyre of her husband. After watching Sati of his own sister-in-law, Ram Mohan Roy began campaigning for abolition of the practice in 1811. The practice of Sati was abolished by Governor General Lord William Bentinck in British India. On October 1 1987, the legislative assembly of Rajasthan passed an ordinance against Sati which was later turned into an Act. On 3 January 1988, the Indian parliament passed a new law ( Commission Prevention of Sati Act 1987 )based on Rajasthan’s legislation of 1987.
  • Human sacrifice – Although human sacrifice are not prevalent in India, rare isolated incidents do happen, especially in rural areas. In some cases, human have bee replaced by animals and birds. This has caused backlash from animal rights groups, so in some places they have again been replaced by human affigies. The motives behind these sacrifices include inducing rainfall and helping childless women conceive. It is alleged that cases often go unreported or are covered up. Between 1999 and 2006, about 200 cases of child sacrifices were reported from Uttar Pradesh.

Common Superstitions

  • Itchy palm: Good luck – There are many variations on this superstition. But the idea of having an itchy palm generally refers to someone who is greedy or has an insatiable desire for money. Some believe that if the right palm itches you will meet someone new, while an itchy left palm means that money is coming. Others tell that an itchy right palm means money coming in and a left handed itch foretells money going out.
  • Breaking a mirror – Many superstitions people say that breaking a mirror sets you up for 7 years of bad luck. That may be because 7 years is the time it takes to replace all the cells in your physical body. In a more superstitions time, mirrors were thought to be reflections of the soul. So breaking a mirror was believed to be harmful to the soul.
  • Black cats: Bad luck – This superstitions is a tough one for cats lovers to swallow, but in the middle ages it was thought that witched kept black cats as companions.

Conclusion

A superstition is an irrational fear of what is unknown or mysterious, especially in connection with religion. Being too superstitious is opposite of being materialistic and realistic. It is the belief that certain events bring good or bad luck which cannot be explained by reason or science. In short, superstitions means blind belief.

The portrayal of Indians in US films shows has evolved over the years

Her presence at the Grammy Awards in an ivory kimono dress earlier this year may have turned heads for all the wrong reasons but there was way more to Priyanka Chopra Jonas attending one of the four biggest annual entertainment awards in the US.

Priyanka Chopra Jonas in a still from ‘Quantico’. She is the first south Asian to headline an American network drama series.

Priyanka Chopra Jonas, the first South Asian to headline an American network drama series when she starred in ABC thriller Quantico in 2015, is reflective of the slow evolution in the representation of Indians in US cinema and television. The change, though not entirely remarkable, is evident both in the token presence of Bollywood stars such as Amitabh Bachchan, Anil Kapoor, Aishwarya Rai Bachchan, and Deepika Padukone in Hollywood films and Indian-born foreigners such as Mindy Kaling, Dev Patel, and Hasan Minhaj making waves.

The well-known trope to include an Asian character, often unnecessarily, as part of the broader narrative of American films and series, goes back to the fairness doctrine introduced by the United States Federal Communications Commission in 1949, that required the holders of broadcast licences to present controversial issues of public importance in an honest, equitable, and balanced manner, thus requiring the mandatory presence of ethnic minorities.

“I have always felt that in addition to a mandatory black face and then a Hispanic one, they (Hollywood films) have a mandatory Asian too, in their bid to look inclusive,” film critic Bharathi Pradhan said. The earliest depictions of Asians were as greedy, illiterate foreigners though they did evolve into doctors, professionals, and more educated immigrants by the 1980s.

However, the inherent Orientalism refuses to die. The first American company to recruit Indian faces for its projects was Merchant Ivory Productions where actor Shashi Kapoor was a regular with films such as The Householder and Shakespeare Wallah in the 1960s. Over the years, several Bollywood actors have crossed over to Hollywood, such as Amitabh Bachchan (The Great Gatsby), Anil Kapoor (Mission: Impossible- Ghost Protocol), Aishwarya Rai Bachchan (The Last LegionThe Pink Panther 2), and Deepika Padukone (xXx: Return of Xander Cage).

“They are all quite unidimensional characters and a classic example of tokenism as far as social representation goes,” said Uma Vangal, filmmaker and professor at the L.V. Prasad Film and TV Academy. It is disappointing to see such talented actors being reduced to caricatures in a narrative to which their presence or absence would not make a difference, said Vangal.

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  • I came across this amazing newsletter about travel, culture and inspiration from my best friend who was working as a campus ambassador for this brand.
  • It served exactly what I was interested into and that made me become a regular reader of the newsletter. And they had an impressive Instagram page as well (https://www.instagram.com/thejurnimedia/) which got me into the brand’s responsive community.
  • Soon I went ahead to become a campus ambassador myself and promoted the brand using my social media handles.
  • Now that I think I realize that it’s one of the best kind of brand promotion to reach out to people who are interested into the content of your brand, offer them a role in the community and then make them promote the brand by themselves using their personal social media handles. The Campus Ambassador program of The Jurni is an excellent way of creating community leaders and expanding the community to wider stretches.
  • I believe that the community could be even better if the acknowledge the efforts of all campus ambassadors and other employees of the company on a larger scale maybe by featuring the best few over the brand’s social media handles. That would surely pump up everyone to give their best.