What is Self-esteem in humans

In psychology, the term self-esteem is used to describe a person’s overall subjective sense of personal worth or value. In other words, self-esteem may be defined as how much you appreciate and like yourself regardless of the circumstances.

Difference between high and low self esteem

Having healthy self-esteem can influence your motivation, your mental well-being, and your overall quality of life. However, having self-esteem that is either too high or too low can be problematic. Better understanding what your unique level of self-esteem is can help you strike a balance that is just right for you.

Self-esteem is a very abstract form of human belief is oneself, but it is pretty crucial in everyone’s life compared to how rarely we focus on this side of ourselves.

  • WHY IT’S SO IMPORTANT

Self-esteem impacts your decision-making process, your relationships, your emotional health, and your overall well-being. It also influences motivation, as people with a healthy, positive view of themselves understand their potential and may feel inspired to take on new challenges. People with healthy self-esteem:

  • Have a firm understanding of their skills
  • Are able to maintain healthy relationships with others because they have a healthy relationship with themselves
  • Have realistic and appropriate expectations of themselves and their abilities
  • Understand their needs and are able to express them

THEY ARE BROADLY CLASSIFIED IN THREE WAYS

  • CONFIDENT

Beliving in oneself and constantly not questioning one’s ability to do the things. Taking challenges head on, and not letting other’s opinion cloud our own, is the very key factor which proves our confidence/high self-esteem.

Having healthy self-esteem can help motivate you to reach your goals, because you are able to navigate life knowing that you are capable of accomplishing what you set your mind to. Additionally, when you have healthy self-esteem, you are able to set appropriate boundaries in relationships and maintain a healthy relationship with yourself and others.

CONFIDENCE
  • NOT SO CONFIDENT

Low self-esteem may identified in many ways such as,

  • You may believe that others are better than you.
  • You may focus on your weaknesses.
  • You may have a negative outlook on life and feel a lack of control.
  • You may have an intense fear of failure.
  • You may have trouble accepting positive feedback.
  • You may put other people’s needs before your own.
  • You may struggle with confidence.

Low self-esteem has the potential to lead to a variety of mental health disorders, including anxiety disorders and depressive disorders. You may also find it difficult to pursue your goals and maintain healthy relationships. Having low self-esteem can seriously impact your quality of life and increases your risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts.

The worst part is you losing all your freedom and succumb to the fear and living inside a cage that you built for yourself. In simple terms making yourself a slave to your demons.

Signs of low self-esteem
  • OVER-CONFIDENT

“EVERYTHING IS GOOD BUT IN LIMITS, UNLIMITED OF ANYTHING NEVER BENEFITS ANYONE.”

Overly high self-esteem is often mislabeled as narcissism, however there are some distinct traits that differentiate these terms. Individuals with narcissistic traits may appear to have high self-esteem, but their self-esteem may be high or low and is unstable, constantly shifting depending on the given situation.

When self-esteem is too high, it can result in relationship problems, difficulty with social situations, and an inability to accept criticism.

What over confidence can do to you

Though some of the causes of low self-esteem can’t be changed, such as genetic factors, early childhood experiences, and personality traits, there are steps you can take to feel more secure and valued. Remember that no one person is less worthy than the next. Keeping this in mind may help you maintain a healthy sense of self-esteem.

SOURCES

https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-self-esteem-2795868

The Revolt of 1857

New Delhi:
The revolt of 1857 was a major and important event against the British rule. This revolution started from Meerut on May 10, 1857, which gradually spread to places like Kanpur, Bareilly, Jhansi, Delhi, Awadh etc. The revolution started as a military rebellion, but over time its form changed into a mass rebellion against the British power, which was called India’s first war of independence. come on
On this anniversary of the first war of independence, let’s know the special things related to it…

During the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had occupied large parts of India. As the influence of British rule on India increased, discontent against British rule spread among the Indian people. One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, discontent against the oppressive and unjust rule of the British Raj began to flare up in the form of rebellion which shook the foundations of British rule in India. Talking about the freedom struggle of 1857, before that many incidents had happened in different parts of the country. For example, towards the end of the 18th century, there had been the Sanyasi movement in North Bengal and the Chunar movement in Bihar and Bengal. The mid-19th century saw a number of peasant movements, notably the Moplah peasants of Malabar and the Faraizi movement by the Muslim farmers of Bengal.

The first five decades of the 19th century saw several tribal revolts such as the Bhils in Madhya Pradesh, the Santhals in Bihar and the Gonds and Khonds tribes in Odisha. But the sphere of influence of all these movements was very limited i.e. they were local in nature. The first organized rebellion that broke out against the British was in 1857. Initially it flared up as a revolt of the sepoys but later it became a mass revolution.

Causes of Rebellion:

Political Reasons: The main political reason for the revolt of 1857 was the ‘prohibition of adoption’ or ‘grab policy’ of the British government. It was the expansionist policy of the British which was the brainchild of the Governor General of British India, Lord Dalhousie. The Governor Generals of the Company made many rules for the purpose of annexing the Indian states to the British Empire. For example, when a king was childless, his kingdom became a part of the British Empire.

Social and Religious Reasons: There was resentment among a large section of the society about the rapidly spreading western civilization in India. In 1850 the British Government changed the Hindu Succession Law and now only a Hindu who adopted the Christian religion could be entitled to the property of his ancestors. Apart from this, missionaries were given the freedom to convert all over India. People felt that the British government wanted to make the Indian people Christian. Dissatisfaction arose in the minds of the people in the Indian society on abolishing some of the practices which had been going on for centuries, such as the practice of Sati.

Economic Reasons: There was discontent among the peasant and landlord classes due to heavy taxes and strict rules for collection of revenue. Many of these were unable to meet the tax demand of the British government and were unable to repay the loans of the moneylenders, which ultimately led to the loss of their ancestral land. A large number of sepoys were related to these farmers and hence they were also affected by the sufferings of the farmers.

After the Industrial Revolution in England, the Indian market was flooded with products made in Britain. India’s local textile industry was particularly devastated by this. The handicrafts industry of India could not compete with the cheap machine made goods of Britain. India became a supplier of raw materials and a consumer of goods made in Britain. Those who depended on royal patronage for their livelihood, all became unemployed. So there was a lot of anger in them against the British.

Military Reasons: The British army in India had more than 87% Indian soldiers. They were considered inferior in comparison to the British soldiers. Indian soldiers of the same rank were paid less than the European soldiers. Apart from this, Indian soldier could not get promotion above the rank of Subedar. Apart from this, the condition of Indian soldiers was badly affected after the expansion of British rule in India. They had to serve far away from their homes.

The upper community of Awadh was recruited in the Bengal Army. According to their religious beliefs, it was forbidden for them to cross the ocean (Kalapani). They suspected from Lord Canning’s rule that the British government was bent on making them kitchens. The Nawab’s army was disbanded after the annexation of Awadh. His soldiers became unemployed and became the staunch enemy of the British rule.

Immediate Causes: One of the immediate causes of the Revolt of 1857 was the rumor that the cartridge shell of the 1853 rifle was coated with the fat of pigs and cows. This rumor was hurting the sentiments of people of both Hindu and Muslim religions. These rifles were part of the 1853 rifle arsenal.

Mangal Pandey and his contribution:

I know you all have been waiting to see this name as many of us from the early classes associate the Revolt of 1857 with the name Mangal Pandey. On March 29, 1857 AD, a soldier named Mangal Pandey revolted against his officers in ‘Barrackpore Cantonment’, but British military officers easily controlled this military rebellion and along with his battalion ’34 N. I.’ disbanded. 3 L.C. on 24th April In Parade Meerut, 85 out of 90 cavalrymen refused to take fresh cartridges. These 85 horsemen were given 5 years imprisonment by court martial for disobeying orders. The ‘open rebellion’ began between 5 and 6 pm on Sunday, May 10. First foot detachment ’20 NI.’ The rebellion started in AD, followed by ‘3 L.C.’ The rebellion also spread in These rebels opened fire on their officers. ‘Hearse’ was shot by Mangal Pandey, while ‘Afsar Bagh’ was murdered. Mangal Pandey was hanged on 8 April. On 9 May, 85 soldiers in Meerut who refused to use the new rifle were sentenced to nine years in prison.

Spread of Rebellion:

After this incident, the fire of rebellion broke out in Meerut Cantonment. The Meerut Rebellion on 9 May marked the beginning of the War of 1857. In Meerut, Indian soldiers killed British officers and ransacked the prison. On 10 May they proceeded for Delhi. Reaching Delhi on 11 May, the revolutionary soldiers of Meerut occupied Delhi on 12 May. These soldiers declared the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II as the emperor of Delhi. Soon the rebellion spread to Lucknow, Allahabad, Kanpur, Bareilly, Banaras, Bihar and Jhansi also. The British first captured Delhi by calling an army from Punjab. On September 21, 1857 AD, the British recaptured Delhi, but ‘John Nicholson’ was killed in the struggle and Lieutenant ‘Hudson’ deceived Bahadur Shah II’s two sons ‘Mirj Mughal’ and ‘Mirz Khwaja Sultan’ and a The grandson ‘Mirza Abu Bakr’ was shot. The rebellion started in Lucknow on June 4, 1857. The British Resident ‘Henry Lawrence’ died after the siege of the British residency by the revolutionary soldiers here. Havelock and Outram tried hard to suppress Lucknow, but they were unsuccessful. Finally, Colin Campwell, with the support of the Gurkha regiment, captured the city in March, 1858 AD. By the way, the effect of the revolution here lasted till September.

Crushing the Rebellion:

The war of 1857 lasted for more than a year. It was crushed in the middle of 1858. On July 8, 1858, fourteen months after the rebellion broke out in Meerut, Canning finally announced that the rebellion had been completely suppressed.

Reasons for the failure of Rebellion:

  1. Limited Movement: However, in a short span of time the movement reached many parts of the country but it did not have any effect on a large part of the country. This was especially true in the Doab region. The provinces of the south took no part in it. Important rulers like Scindia, Holkar, Rana of Jodhpur and others did not support the rebellion.
  2. Lack of Effective leadership: There was lack of effective leadership for the rebellion. There is no doubt about the bravery of Nana Saheb, Tantya Tope and Rani Lakshmi Bai but they could not give effective leadership to the movement. Apart from this, the rebels lacked experience, organization ability and the power to work together. The rebel revolutionaries lacked concrete goals and clear plans. He was also not sure what to do and what not to do in the next moment. They were moving forward only out of emotion and circumstance. Bahadur Shah Zafar and Nana Saheb were a skilled organizer, but they lacked the ability of military leadership, while the English army had skilled generals like Lawrence Brothers, Nicholson, Havelock, Outram and Edward.
  3. Limited resources: The rebels had neither numbers nor money. On the contrary, the British army had a large number of soldiers, money and weapons, on the basis of which they were successful in suppressing the rebellion.
  4. Was not the part of middle class: The ‘educated class’ remained completely indifferent to this revolt of 1857. The merchants and the educated class had also prayed for the success of the British by holding meetings in Calcutta and Bombay. If this class had infused enthusiasm among the people through its writings and speeches, then undoubtedly the result of this rebellion of revolution would have been different.

Consequences of Rebellion:

After the rebellion ended, in 1858 AD, the British Parliament passed a law ending the existence of the East India Company, and now the full right of rule over India came in the hands of Queen Victoria. In England, under the Act of 1858, an ‘Indian Secretary of State’ was arranged, for whose assistance a ‘consultation council’ of 15 members was formed. Of these 15 members, arrangements were made to appoint 8 by the government and 7 by the ‘Court of High Courts’.

The Role of Textbooks in Education

Presentation of a selection of items of knowledge about a specific subject and on a specific theme, taking into account that knowledge acquisition should be progressive and sequenced according to succeeding years of scholarity and curricula must not be overloaded.

The textbook provides information and knowledge, but it does so from an ideological standpoint: the relative value of science and technology, a historical viewpoint, and established linguistic conventions, to name a few.

  1. To assist the student in perceiving and comprehending the world around him, in putting knowledge acquired from sources other than the curriculum together, and in mastering what he has learned.
  2. The textbook proposes a learning path that is arranged into successive blocks of teaching modules. It provides a number of options for learning organization.
  3. A textbook can be viewed as a working instrument for both the teacher and the student. The nature of the textbook as a communication tool will be determined by the language employed, the quantity and level of information, the text, and the relationships between the latter two aspects. In general, textbooks for students are prioritized in the least developed countries. A teacher’s handbook, which differs from school textbooks in nature, is an option for teachers.
  4. Furthermore, the option of collective usage of certain parts in the textbook, such as drawings, maps, and diagrams, for example in a class, can be explored; this lowers production costs.
  5. Learning does not happen in a vacuum. We must steer our students toward specified learning objectives and ensure that these objectives are met. In this way, textbooks assist both teachers and students. They are extremely important in the teaching-learning process. They provide the basic framework within which much of the classroom activity takes place, as well as providing each child with the best available learning opportunity.

Farm Loan Waiver

Before diving to the details about loan waiver let’s all get an idea about what actually is loan waiver.

Farm loan waiver: To assist the farmers who are in distress, the Government came up with the process called Loan waiver. In accordance with this, the government will pay defaulted loans taken by the farmers. There is a timeline vis-a-vis when this process took it’s birth but acknowledging those details are meant to eat your time. But dont worry I will fill you about the details in gist/crisp manner.

2016-18: States too have followed the footsteps of Union Government and adopted loan waiver. Ex. Madhyapradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamilnadu, Telangana, Andhrapradesh etc.

Budget -2008: Agriculture Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme (ADWDRS) promised to pay loans taken by the small&marginal farmers and other farmers offering waiving percentage 100% and 25% respectively.

2017- Considering the problems faced by farmers during demonetization, the Budget (17) announced 60 days of interest waivers to farmers.

Arguments in favor:

=>Few people opine that the situation of farmers since a decade(2008-18) have became worse with post-subpime crisis (2008), global financial crisis (2008) ,droughts (2017, 18), and demonetization (2016). These have raised issues like dropping down prices and demand for the products example being textile industry in international market and are forced to sell them in domestic market at cheaper rates

=>In addition to this, the government have came up with the plans of restructuring for loans by corporate borrowers which reinforced support-farmer people to demand for same as debt waiver.

=>Violent agrarian agitations in Maharashtra, Uttarpradesh and Madhyapradesh also made it visible the pathetic plight of the farmers.

=>Farmers are being more prone to Debt Overhang (where all the income earned so far was used to repay accumulated debts) and are forced to use savings/income in buying farm inputs(seeds, fertilizers, pesticides)

Challenges associated with loan waiver:

” Loan waivers undermine credit culture. NPA problem will get aggravated ” __ ex-RBI Governor Urjit Patel

“Farm loan waiver should not form part of election poll promises”__ Former RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan

These are only individual opinions but serious measures are yet to be taken and implemented.

=>Impact on behavior: Loan waiver reduces the hard working capacity and chances for developing negligent behavior/lack of discipline in farmers are more likely.

=>Partial Coverage: Out of 100% loans borrowed by farmers only 60% are from formal sector(banks,NBFCs) and rest of the borrowings are from informal sector (Marwadi, Shroff). So even though government announced loan waiver significant percentage of farmers deprived of benefit.

=>Feedback: Comptroller and Audit General (CAG) commented on ADWDRS which implemented in 2008 ,as it is prone to serious exclusion and inclusive errors. Also Economic Survey-2017 pointed out that loan waivers haven’t contributed neither in accentuating GDP contribution nor in development of farmers.

=>Multiplier Effect: WHO recommended 5% of GDP to health sector whereas the actual allocation was less than 2%.The amount allotted for waiving tantamount to 1.5% of GDP. So it would be justifiable for the government to invest money in the schemes which promotes welfare for majority of populace than in the schemes which have serious implications on other developmental expenditure.

=>Fiscal Deficit: It would be burdensome on state governments implementing the waiver process and there are also chances that a particular state would end up in inflation too. Ex: Report in 2017 by RBI quoted that ₹88000 crores used as loan waiver by 7 States ( Uttarpradesh. Maharashtra etc) notified as a states with inflation.

=>No recognition: Loan waiver focussed mainly on cultivators and the truth that agricultural workers are also being impacted was neglected.

Farmers distress is a real and pressing problem.But the government intervention has hurt more than it has helped.Loan waiver is not a magic wand that could solve the long-standing problems, it could only be used as a temporary relief (like a bandage to serious wound).There are certain issues to be considered in this regard to get ushered in right direction. Like proper identification of vulnerable farmers, enhancing non-farm works, improving technology , expansion of irrigation cover ,focussing on long-term solutions etc.

Hope you have enjoyed the article. Happy reading!

Why do girls hate boys?

Find out the secret reason!

Not all girls are the same

Okay, Not all girls are the same also not everyone is the same. Only some girls find boys annoying. Generally, Girls growing in a male dominant family hate every boy. This is because they can’t do anything they wish and they were supposed to obey every order of their male dominant in their family.

Girls hate for boys start from their home
Girls hate for boys start from their home

Why?

Generally, girls love to share their emotions with their family but they are prohibited to show their feelings. This is because of some rude male in their family. They lose love for their family because their family failed to show they believe their girl. 

There’s also a chance because of their toxic relationship or the worst experience they had with their believable male friends. Maybe the wrong guidance of understanding the male community. All this is because an important male in their life failed to believe, show love, give freedom and teach about the good male community.

What happens next?

This leads girls to hate all men in the world. They stop believing that one day a man can change their life. They believe all men are born to submissive women in their life. They hate speaking with men. They believe there’s no good man on this planet. 

No, these girls are not feminists. They just want freedom from the male-dominant male dominant in their life.

Why girls hate boys?
Why girls hate boys?

A Man’s duty 

When it comes to understanding only men can educate clearly about their community. It comes like a dad to daughter, brother to sister, husband to wife, duty to teach them. They have to explain clearly the difference between good boys and bad boys, good relationships and toxic relationships.

 This can only be done by a man raised by a good mother. So, it’s not only a man’s duty also a women’s.

Conclusion

Remember when a girl hates boys, she needs the right education about the world, men’s community, and true love. She needs to socialize with everyone to overcome her hate.

Hey Guys, I tried my best to help you. If you ever come across a girl like this, Try to help them out.

FORBIDDEN ISLAND : THE NORTH SENTINEL ISLAND

Deep in the Indian Ocean, you’ll come across North Sentinel Island, supposedly the most dangerous and hardest place to visit on the planet. The place is so dangerous in fact that the Indian government has banned its peoples from going anywhere near it
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Protection of Aboriginal Tribes Act of 1956[9] prohibits travel to the island and any approach closer than five nautical miles (9.26 km) in order to prevent the resident tribes people ( The Sentinelese) from contracting diseases to which they have no immunity

Who Are The Sentinelese?

The Sentinelese are the most isolated tribe in the world, and have captured the imagination of millions. They live on their own small forested island called North Sentinel, which is approximately the size of Manhattan. They continue to resist all contact with outsiders, attacking anyone who comes near.
they are incredibly hostile to outsiders and are extremely unwilling to communicate with people who aren’t their own. They are so adverse to any outside contact that they actually attacked and murdered two fishermen who washed up on shore back in 2006.
Exactly how many people live on the island is unknown, but estimates range from anywhere between 50 and 400 dwellers.

Contact with Sentinelese

In the late 1800s, India was considered one of Britain’s major colonial outposts. British officers regulated different communities in the region — often violently.

A British naval officer, Maurice Vidal Portman, oversaw the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and documented the Andamanese tribes in the late 1800s.

Portman and his team — which included trackers from other Andamanese tribes he’d already made contact with — ventured to North Sentinel in 1880. They came upon an elderly couple and four children, who they took back to Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The elderly couple “sickened rapidly” and died, possibly from lack of immunity to diseases the British carried, and the children were sent back to the island with gifts, according to Portman’s account of his trip.

Since the 1800s, there have been a number of recorded contacts with the tribe, and anthropologists have made regular visits since the 1960s.

After several expeditions trying to establish contact, their first real breakthrough came in 1991 when the tribe came out to peacefully approach them in the ocean
The first peaceful contact with the Sentinelese was made by Triloknath Pandit, a director of the Anthropological Survey of India, and his colleagues on 4 January 1991.

However thereafter had been lot of contacts with the Sentinelese which were not so friendly and rather violent.

That’s why the island is forbidden and The Sentinelese are kept isolated.

How to get Healthy and Glowing Skin

Tips

Glowing skin means different things to people. Many people use the term to refer to skin that looks healthy and “awake” rather than dry, dull, or unevenly textured. For some, healthy skin results in a natural glow.

Healthy skin is something that most people can work towards. Typically, healthy skin will appear:

  • smooth, with few breaks or blemishes
  • adequately hydrated, being neither too dry nor too oily
  • fairly even in color, rather than red or inflamed

It is important to note that healthy skin does not mean perfect skin. Perfect skin is not attainable. Skin can be healthy and glowing, while also having normal characteristics, such as:

  • visible pores
  • fine lines and wrinkles
  • birth marks
  • occasional blemishes

Skin Care:

Cleansing

Cleansing products help remove dirt, makeup, and excess oil from the skin. When choosing a cleanser, it is important to look for one that is gentle, pH-balanced, and does not include harsh chemicals or soap.

Cleanse the skin upon waking up, before going to sleep, and after sweating. Use warm water rather than cold or hot, and pat the skin dry with a clean towel.

Moisturizing

Moisturizers add water to the skin. For best results,  recommends applying moisturizer immediately after cleansing in order to to trap moisture in the skin.

People with oily skin may prefer an oil-free moisturizer, while those with dry skin may prefer something heavier that contains oils or butters.

Sun protection

Sunlight contains UV light, which can cause burning, sun damage, and visible signs of aging. Applying an SPF product before going outside is an easy way to reduce the risk.

Apply sunscreen to all areas of exposed skin, including around the eyes and neck. When the sun is at its strongest, stay in the shade or wear lightweight clothing and a hat to cover the scalp.

Diet For Glowing Skin

A) Best Fruits For Glowing Skin

  • Papaya
  • Oranges
  • Banana
  • Guava
  • Mangoes
  • Kiwi

B) Best Vegetables For Glowing Skin

  • Carrots
  • Spinach and other green leafy vegetables
  • Broccoli
  • Tomatoes
  • Bell peppers

C) Dry Fruits

  • Almonds
  • Walnuts

D) Green Juice For Glowing Skin

This green juice contains a plethora of essential vitamins and minerals that will maintain the health of your skin from the inside and make it glowing and soft.

E) Drink More Water

If you’re exercising regularly, it’s essential to replace the fluids that your body loses through sweat. Drinking the recommended daily amount of water (approximately 8 glasses or 2 litres) keeps your skin hydrated and can help prevent it from feeling dry, tight and losing its natural, healthy-looking glow.

Conclusion:

Naturally glowing skin is typically skin that is healthy and hydrated. People can work towards this by gradually implementing a skin care routine, as well as by making changes to their diet or lifestyle where necessary.

Sources:

https://www.thebodyshop.in/how-to-get-glowing-skin

https://www.stylecraze.com/articles/simple-home-remedies-for-glowing-skin/

The Kargil War

Here’s what happened between India and Pakistan!

The Genesis:

Twenty-two years ago, on JULY 26, the Indian Army with armed forces recaptured all posts in Kargil, Jammu and Kashmir which were captured by Pakistan’s Army. Since then it is a day to commemorate the victory of the Indian Army over Pakistan’s Army. This is called the ‘Kargil war’ or ‘Kargil conflict’. The Kargil war became the first ‘live’ war in South Asia and it was given such detailed media coverage all over the world.

India
India

The War

It was an armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir(now Ladakh). In India, they referred to it as “Operation Vijay”. The war took place between 3 May -26 July 1999 which was exactly two months, three weeks, and two days.

Cause of War

It began with the infiltration of both regular Pakistani troops and terrorists into Indian territory. The intruders positioned themselves in key locations that gave them a strategic advantage during the start of the conflict. They disguised themselves as Kashmiri militants on the Indian side of LOC.

The Indian Army 

The Indian Army was lead by Gen.Ved Prakash Malik of Indian ground troop and ACM Anil Yashwant Tipnis of Indian Air Force. In India, the operation was given the codename “Operation Safed Sagar”.

The Indian Army, supported by The Indian Air Force recaptured the majority of the positions in the Indian side of the LOC. The Indian Army had a strength of about 30,000 which was strong enough to win Pakistan Troops.

The Cost of War

The victory came at a high price. The official death toll on the Indian side was 527 and 1623 wounded, while that on the Pakistani side was between 357-453 and 1000+ wounded. But also for India, it created a good impact on the stock hike by 30% from the end of the Kargil war to February 2000.

The Indian Army after victory at Kargil
The Indian Army after victory at Kargil

Kargil Vijay Diwas

The Indian Army declared the mission successful on July 26, 1999. Since then the day has been celebrated annually as Kargil Vijay Diwas.

Yoga

The word yoga first appeared in the oldest sacred texts, the Rig Veda( one of the oldest Veda) and is derived from the Sanskrit word ‘yug’ which means ‘to unite or integrate’. Yoga is all about uniting body, mind and spirit.

There are many paths to divine and so there are many types of yoga.

Four main paths of yoga

1. Karma Yoga – Path of Action

It is a service that you do selflessly and enjoy while doing it without worrying about the consequences. We learn kindness and forgiveness in this process of serving people knowing the fact of gaining nothing but filling your heart with love and letting go of our ego.

Karma yoga is the spiritual practice of “selfless action performed for the benefit of others”.  It is the path to reach moksh through work.

– Lord Krishna in Bhagavad Gita

Some of the great people who have chosen this path are Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa and Swami Vivekananda.

2. Bhakti Yoga – Path of Devotion

The term Bhakti originates from the Sanskrit word “Bhag” which means love, faith, devotion and attachment.

It focuses on devoting yourself to worship of the divine through singing, dancing , chanting, and celebrating. It is selfless love that you feel when you are devoted to god , to your parent or nation. It is always something higher. It takes our mind, emotion and heart to get back to the soul and unite as one. It’s the universal love that is making us feel the sense of gratitude of what we have received from the moment of birth to death.

Four types of men begin to render devotional service unto me (God) — the distressed, the inquisitive, the seeker of material wealth, and the one who has already realized knowledge of the Absolute

– Bhagwat Gita

3. Jnana Yoga – Path of Knowledge and Wisdom

The term Jnana means knowledge in Sanskrit. It’s a path which encourages people to study observation and personal spiritual experience, intuition, self realization , service to God, and ancient scriptures such as The Upanishad.

Steps that will help to know when the knowledge you have acquired is transferred into your experience –

  • Sharvana – To read and study the Upanishads and achieve a deep understanding of the concepts of Atman and Brahman.
  • Madana – Thinking and apply it in your life.
  • Ninidhyasana – Through focus and repeating Sharvana and Madana you can achieve wisdom.

Jnana Yoga, or the science of the Self, is not a subject that can be understood and realized through mere intellectual study, reasoning, discussion or arguments. It is the most difficult of all sciences.


– Swami Sivananda

4. Raja Yoga –

In Sanskrit, raja means ‘king” or ‘royal,” referring to the status of Raja yoga as a “royal path”’ or principal form of yoga.

Raja yoga involves an individuals physical, mental and spiritual state and enables practitioners to achieve balance and harmony on all of these levels.

Raja Yoga is the yoga of mind and body and focuses on cultivating self discipline. It is also known as Ashtanga Yoga (Eight steps of yoga)

The eight limbs of Raja yoga are :

  • Yama – Self-control
  • Asana – Yoga postures.
  • Niyamas – Discipline
  • Pranayama – Breathing techniques as a means of controlling prana.
  • Pratyahara – Withdrawal of the senses.
  • Dharana – Concentration.
  • Dhyana – Meditation.
  • Samadhi – Enlightenment or bliss.

LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY



-Aastha Joshi

The last 50 years have seen rapid growth in population, urbanization and human Consumption resulting in usage of most of the earth’s resources to an extreme level. A recent report by WWF states that the population size of mammals, reptiles, fishes, birds and amphibians have decreased by 68 percent on a average from 1970 to 2016, which makes us astonished about the biodiversity we have lost. The report pinpoint’s this biodiversity loss to a variety of factors, but mainly land-use change,particularly the conversion of habitats, like forests, grasslands and mangroves, into agricultural systems. Animals like sharks and seahorses are significantly affected by the illegal wildlife trade, and pangolins are critically endangered because of it. It has been found that the sixth mass extinction of wildlife on Earth is accelerating. More than 500 species of land animals are on the brink of extinction and are likely to be lost within 20 years. The species that are endangered will go extinct whereas the species that are readily available will fall into endangered category. Without such harsh actions of humans on the environment this loss of biodiversity would have taken thousands of years. The living planet report 2020 shows that population sizes in Latin America and the Caribbean have experienced the highest decline, at 94%, while globally, freshwater species have been disproportionately impacted, declining 84% of average. Humans have been openly criticised for using up the earths resources and not giving them time to replenish. Since the industrial revolution, human activities have increasingly destroyed and degraded forests, grasslands, wetlands and other important ecosystems. local varieties and breeds of domesticated plants and animals are disappearing. The best example to it is crows and pigeons, early generations have seen the being on their rooftops but now days we can hardly find some around us. Several wildlife conservation techniques have now been adapted by the mankind to tackle this loss of biodiversity and maintain an ecological balance. Many wildlife centuries and biosphere reserves have been made to provide a natural habitat to these endangered species as the loss of natural habitat has been reported one of the major reasons for the loss of these species. The alarming ratios of decrease in the species has made the people around globe a little more concerned. Several projects have been initiated by the counties and also at the global level to converse these species and stop them from getting extinct. Harsh treatment to animals have strongly been prohibited, also hunting has now came in the negative light and strict actions are taken upon people practicing it without the permission of government. All on the world Biosphere reserves have been created to promote the well being of these animals and providing them a secured environment as well as a habitat that is originally meant for them. Humans have created a ruckus all over the earth disturbing the balance around and lifestyle of the species. If optimal measures are not taken at the right time these acts of humans can have a disastrous impact on them itself.

A.J.P Abdul Kalam-The Missile Man of India

Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 to a Tamil Muslim family in the pilgrimage center of Rameswaram on Pamban Island, then in the Madras Presidency and now in the state of Tamil Nadu. His father Jainulabdeen Marakayar was a boat owner and Imam of a local mosque. His mother Ashiamma was a home-maker. Kalam was the youngest of four brothers and one sister in his family. In school years, Kalam had average grades but was described a s bright and hardworking student who had a strong desire to learn. He spent hours on his studies, especially mathematics. After completing his education at the Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Kalam went on to attend Saint Joseph’s College Thiruchirapalli, then affiliated with the University of Madras, from he graduated in physics in 1954. He moved to Madras in 1955 to study aerospace engineering in Madras Institute of Technology. While Kalam working on a senior class project, the Dean was dissatisfied with his lack of progress and threatened to revoke his scholarship unless the project was finished within next three days, Kalam met the deadline, impressing the Dean, who later said to him “I was putting you under stress and asking you to meet a difficult deadline”. He narrowly missed achieving his dream of becoming a fighter pilot, as he placed ninth in qualifiers, and only eight positions were available in the IAF (Indian Air Force).\

Career

After graduating from the Madras Institue of Technology in 1960. Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, as a scientist after becoming a member of the Defense Research and Development Service. He started his career by designing a small hovercraft, but remained unconvinced by his choice of a job at DRDO. In 1969, Kalam was transferred to the Indian Space Research Organisation where he was the project director of India’s first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III), which successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in near-earth orbit in July 1980. Kalam project independently at DRDO in 1965. In 1969, Kalam received the government’s approval and expanded the programme to include more engineers. Kalam played a major part in developing many missile under the mission and Prithvi, the tactical surface-to-surface missile, although the projects have been criticized for mismanagement and cost and time overruns. Kalam served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister and Secretary of the Defence Research and Development Organisation from July 1992 to December 1999. The Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period in which he played and intensive political and technological role. Kalam served as the Cheif Project Coordinator, along with Rajagopala Chidambaram, during the testing phase. Media coverage of Kalam during this period made him the country’s best known nuclear scientist. However, the director of the site test K.Santhanam, said that the thermonuclear bomb had been a fizzle and criticized Kalam for issuing an incorrect report. Both Kalam and Chidambaram dismissed the cliams.

This is my first stage in which I learnt leadership from three great teachers-Dr.Vikram Sarabhai, Prof Sathish Dhawan and Dr.Brahm Prakash. This was the time of learning and acquisition of knowledge for me.-A.P.J Abdul Kalam

Presidency

Kalam served as the 11th President of India, succeeding K.R. Narayan. He won the 2002 presidential election with an electoral vote, surpassing the votes won by Lakshmi Sahgal. His team lasted from July 25 2002 to July 25 2007. During his term as president, he was affectionately known as the People’s President saying that signing the Office of Profit Bill was the toughest decision he had taken during his tenure.

Awards

  • 1981-Padma Bhushan-Government of India
  • 1990-Padma Vibhushan-Government of India
  • 1997-Bharat Ratna-Government of India
  • 1997-Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration-Government of India
  • 1998-Veer Savarkar Award-Government of India
  • 2000-SASTRA Ramanujan Prize-Shanmugha Arts, Science, Technology and Research Academy, India
  • 2013-Von Braun Award-National Space Society.

Death

On 27 July 2915, Kalam travelled to Shilliong to deliver a lecture on Creating a Livable Planet Earth at the Indian Institute of Management Shilliong. While climbling a flight of stairs, he experienced some discomfort, but was able to enter the auditorium after a brief rest. At around 6.35 p.m, only five minutes into his lectures, he collapsed. He was rushed to the nearly Bethany Hospital in a critical condition, upon arrival, he lacked a pulse or any other signs of life. Despite being placed in the intensive care unit, Kalam was confirmed dead of a sudden cardiac arrest at 7.45 p.m IST. His last words, to his aide Srijan Pal Singh, were reportedly ‘Funny guy” are you doing well.

Inspirational words

Don’t take rest after your victory because if you fail in second, more lips are waiting to say that your first victory was just luck.

Never give up your dreams no matter how old you are no matter where you are today. Do not give up dreaming for a better tomorrow.

5 Reasons Why Freshers Should Do Internships

The work market today is extremely cutthroat and in the present changing world perfect measure of involvement. Cleaned abilities and gifts can help you land up the perfect work.

An Internship is the way to get acquainted with the vocation way the understudies need to seek after.

 REASONS WHY INTERNSHIPS ARE NECESSARY

Helps students work on their career goals

An Internship assists the understudies with working and completely acquire information in the ideal field and settle on up the choice assuming they need to assemble their vocations in it.

It goes about as a preliminary for understudies, as it assists them with choosing the ideal vocation choice out of numerous accessible to them.

Likewise, it furnishes them with a chance to draw a stage nearer to their vocation objectives, as they will apply the hypothetical information on the study hall into this present reality.

Give them the ideal Industry Exposure

For a fresher to support in the business. They work before they land into everyday positions should make some genuine memories experience of working in the business in a genuine climate and on genuine ventures.

Entry level positions help understudies acquire important openness to how business capacities continuously settings. It likewise empowers understudies to work under tutors, who screen their presentation, guide them on the deficiencies and help them work on their abilities.

Make an Impressive CV

To find up with the perfect work, you need to land up in a meeting with the HR group of the association and to land up with a meeting one requirements to have an extremely amazing CV, with extraordinary work insight.

In the present time, even section level positions require some industry experience. Internships are the most ideal way for working to upgrade their CV with applicable encounters.

Develop a professional network

Internships are significant on the grounds that it empowers fresher to build up associations with industry experts and driving figures. It fabricates a stage for the understudies to assemble between close to home associations, take in and acquire information from individuals working and dominating in their professions.

Manage their finances

Entry level positions can be paid just as neglected. Paid temporary positions furnish understudies with a chance to bring in a decent measure of cash to support themselves on their while acquiring abilities that may be imperative for their future professions.

Quarantine Boredom

It’s been almost two years surviving in lockdown and still there is no escape from the boredom which comes along every now and then. Its either scrolling through Instagram, snapping on snapchat, binge watching on Netflix or napping. At this point no one tries to find a way that isn’t entertainment related.

Today we’ll discuss things to do instead of social media.

Staying away from social media will be hard at first, but it may cause you to try new things and have brand new experiences. You may find yourself trying things you never expected, and many things you’ve always wanted to do more of.

What to do instead of scrolling?

Firstly if you want to scroll then let’s try it with a different way.

  • Try scrolling with a productive aim along with a time schedule. Aimlessly scrolling for hours is just going to damage you physically and will just fuel your boredom. Target an hour in the afternoon and scroll through the posts you’d actually want to look at like recipes, restaurants, celebrity’s account, etc. This will actually serve the satisfaction of looking at the posts of your own interest.
  • Listen to a podcast. There are variety of podcasts from educational to comedies. Go with one that interests you.
  • Learn a new language. There are countless of apps that provide you with studying material along with being able to talk to natives of that language. This can help you even in future.
  • Write in a journal. Many of the people think how childish it is to write in a diary about your life but it actually benefits you. Jotting down your thoughts can be good for you mind.

When you cut out or lower the amount of time that you spend on social media, you may find time for things in life that you wouldn’t normally have time to do.

  • Organize your room or closet.
  • Clear out the useless subscriptions from your mail.
  • Clear out the trash your phone to increase your storage.
  • Donate the items that aren’t of your use but could benefit others like books you don’t read anymore, clothes, notebooks, stationary etc.

If you’re looking for things to do instead of social media, making money, improving your financial situation can help you now and well into the future.

  • Answer surveys. There are many sites that pay you for answering and testing products for free.
  • Edit content. Many websites or companies are always looking for aspiring editors and if you have the talent then you should go for it.
  • Find internships. Many many companies are open for work from home internships and you can find the ones that interest you the most.

Now the point here isn’t deleting or removing social media from your life completely but rather decreasing the amount of time you spend on it.

HEPATITIS- be aware

The lethargic lifestyles we live are the root cause of the various health issues we face. The current pandemic situation has made us realise how important it is to look after ourselves. The current population has to encounter many diseases and few of them prove to be fatal.

One of such is hepatitis. As per national centre for disease Control India has “intermediate to high endemicity” for Hepatitis B surface antigen and an estimated 40 million chronic HBV infected people, constituting approximately 11% of the estimated global burden. Population prevalence of chronic HBV infection in India is around 3-4 %.

So let us discuss about it in detail.

What is hepatitis?

Hepatitis alludes to an incendiary state of the liver. It’s regularly brought about by a viral disease, yet there are other potential reasons for hepatitis. These incorporate immune system hepatitis and hepatitis that happens as an optional consequence of meds, medications, poisons, and liquor.

Hepatitis can be acute (present moment) contamination or a chronic (long haul) disease. A few sorts of hepatitis cause just intense infection. Different sorts can cause both intense and persistent diseases

Next question that arises is, how do we know whether we are infected with hepatitis Or not ?

Some people with hepatitis do not show any symptoms and might not even be aware of that they are infected. But, here are some symptoms that are observed in hepatitis patients

•Fever

•Fatigue

•Loss of appetite

•Nausea and/or vomiting

•Abdominal pain

•Dark urine

•Clay-colored bowel movements

•Joint pain

•Jaundice, yellowing of your skin and eyes

Patients with acute infections , their symptoms can commence anywhere between 2 weeks to 6 months after being infected. And those with chronic illness may not even show any symptoms upto some years.

Since now we are aware of what actually is this disease and what symptoms the patient might show we need to discuss about how can one come in grip with this infection.

Hepatitis can either be caused by viral infections or non Infectious causes

The non infectious causes includes :-

1) Immune system hepatitis is an illness that happens when your body makes antibodies against your liver tissue.

2) Excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage and lead to inflammation. This is sometimes also termed as alcoholic hepatitis

3) Other poisonous reasons for hepatitis incorporate abuse or excess of meds and openness to harms.

Now if we talk about the Viral infections of the liver that are classified as hepatitis include hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E.

Hepatitis A is always an acute disease while hepatitis B, C, and D are most likely to result into chronic infection. Hepatitis E is usually acute but can be particularly dangerous in pregnant women.

1) Hepatitis A is most commonly transmitted by consuming food or water contaminated by feces from a person previously infected with hepatitis A

.2) Hepatitis B is spread through contact with infectious body fluids, such as blood, vaginal secretions, or semen, containing the hepatitis B virus.

3) Hepatitis C is transmitted through direct contact with infected body fluids, typically through injection drug use and sexual contact with previously infected person.

4) Hepatitis Doing is transmitted through direct contact with infected blood.

5) Hepatitis E is a water borne disease is mainly found in areas with poor sanitation and typically results from ingesting fecal matter that contaminates the water supply.

As, it’s well said prevention is better than cure so here are some points you must keep in mind to avoid being infected with this disease.

•Practicing good hygiene is one key way to avoid contracting hepatitis A and E.

•avoid having unsafe sex

•get your child vaccinated on time for hepatitis

And at last stay safe.

Things You Should Definitely Look When Choosing A Career

Picking a profession may be quite possibly the most troublesome choices you at any point take and one which will affect your life the most, therefore you want to make sure that you will be happy with your decision, while also making a good living.

Probably the greatest misstep that youngsters do is follow others’ fantasies while picking a career.

Be it guardians, companions, icons, and so on, they follow a way that may not really fit their arrangement of abilities or character.

Top 5 Things To Consider

  • Your Happiness

It might sound banality, yet the main thing that you ought to think about while picking a vocation is your joy. Don’t be pressured into becoming an accountant if you hate numbers because you think it’s the right thing to do. Instead, pursue something you’re interested in! There are many paths that could make you happy so try exploring what does.

  • Marketability

Obviously, while bliss ought to be focused on, you likewise need to zero in on sensible and reasonable profession choices. By seeking after an expertise that is attractive, and that you’re acceptable at, you’ll have a chance to work later on.

  • Your Work Style

Every individual has their own one of a kind work style. Some appreciate cutoff times and construction, while others flourish with little direction or the board. Ensure the profession way that you pick is helpful for the climate wherein you work best. In the realm of excellence, you can cause your work to line up with your particular style. Regardless of whether you need to work for somebody or go into business, it’s not difficult to make it pleasant!

  • Skills

While passion is one of the most important factors when choosing a career, skills come second, as skills can be taught. Someone, who is passionate about something but doesn’t have the skills, can become so much better than someone who does have the skills, however, lacks passion. It is important though, to be realistic. Let’s continue with the cooking example. If you are passionate about cooking, however, you can’t create any edible dish you can take a cooking course and try again. Maybe you don’t have the basic knowledge of cooking time for different ingredients or no knowledge about how to mix them. Again, if you are really passionate about this, you can learn the skills.

  • Your Priorities

As you consider your future profession you should make a rundown of your main concerns. How might you accomplish a balance between serious and fun activities? What’s generally imperative to you? It is safe to say that you are driven by vocation achievement and industry? Prior to seeking after a lifelong way, sort out what your needs are – it could save you a ton of time and cash later on!

Dear Readers, I hope you will enjoy reading and applying the things that I am teaching through my articles.

Why Indian women experience the pressure to get married

You’ve probably rejected your mother’s pleas a million times when it comes to ‘looking for rishtas’ aka marriage. Countless WhatsApp photos of guys, or a sudden, surprised meeting of the guy and his family, coordinated with your parents are not really common. Feeling pressurised to marry is one of the most common feelings that Indian women have to endure. 

Of course, it’s not the law but the society’s will.

It is believed that it doesn’t matter if you are successful or not, getting married should be one of your main priorities. Countless women in India feel pressurised to marry and relate it to their self-worth. Society has proclaimed that women have to get married and carry on a family’s legacy because it’s all part of the culture. Generations of women have followed this principle of getting married early and have avoided their preferences and likes in many ways possible. However, if any women dared to follow their heart and decided to marry later, the overtowering personality of the society looked down on these women, enough to make their confidence crumble.

Society’s deep-rooted issues with women’s superiority have been there for centuries. Even if women were successful, they had to get married before it got difficult to produce babies. “Get married quickly, your biological clock is ticking,” is what all women hear when they reach their late 20s. As a result, after some time, dedicate themselves to finding a suitable groom to escape society’s judgemental clutches. They not only feel pressurised but also unknowingly develop wishes to get married. They feel that their self-worth is not measured by themselves or their success but by their marriage. 

What is the right time to get married?

For Indian women, as per societal judgements and scriptures, the right time to get married is after you turn 25. Even if you fight off saying you have your life to live a little more, your parents are determined to get you married at least by 29. If you reach 30, there are constant worries how others will react! 

If you chose your career over your marriage, chances are that you’ll be forever labelled as a rebel. To escape from this, women restrain themselves and their wishes.

But, no matter what, it’s really important to realise that the only right time to get married is when you want to. No pressure, no judgements, but only your decision. Marriage is a lifetime commitment and you should have a say in when or who you marry. There are countless duties and responsibilities that can seem suffocating and tiresome. Relentless pressure and crying from parents shouldn’t nudge you to get married as soon as you turn 25 or near your 30s. Parents and relatives fear that with time, men wouldn’t want to marry a woman who isn’t young.

“You’ll be past your prime years.” 

You family may pursue you with the intention of living a lavish and materialistic life, but if you don’t agree, you’ll be termed as a spoiled brat for not wanting lavishness in a marriage. You want someone with the same taste, comforting, familiar or someone who likes pineapple pizza as much as you like.

The goal is to get married when you feel like it. With many social media stories and campaigns promoting women’s choices to be as equal to others, it’s still not too late to defy society and seek your heart out.

Natural survival instincts in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi and Ernest Hemingway’s Old man and the Sea.

This essay is an attempt to shed light upon the natural survival instincts in Yann Martel’s Life of Pi and Ernest Hemingway’s Old man and the Sea. Sea is the major setting in both the novels and most of the actions take place from the sea. One of the aspects of the sea is that readers could connect it’s characteristics with human emotions and the realms of unconscious. Martel and Hemingway have used this method in their novels throughout, to show physical and psychological features of the characters.


In Old Man and The Sea, Santiago’s mental suffering is more emotional and private. Related to his age, his physical struggles are more. In the case of Marlin, he suffers physically until his death. In Life of Pi, Pi suffers mentally because of two reasons. One is, he was not sure about the existence of his parents who loved and nurtured him and the other one is, he couldn’t say a proper goodbye to Richard Parker, the tiger. He was physically tormented- like he suffered from dehydration, his taste in the mouth was unbearable, and he feels like his blood is thickening of lack of water. The tiger also suffers from lack of food and water along with Pi.


Santiago’s words ” everything kills everything else in some way ” is applicable in Life of Pi. Pi was a vegetarian and for the sake of living, he kills and eats fish. Similarly Hyena kills Zebra and Monkey, and the Tiger kills Hyena.
The Isolated stage in Old man’s life defines who he really is and also shows the uniqueness of his character. He constantly wishes Manolin’s presence there, so that he will be able to show his capabilities infront of the other folks by the greatest catch of his life. Readers can understand how he is viewing himself with reference to nature. In the case of Pi, his journey on the boat and isolation from the world taught him that having faith is not that easy. In chapter 37, he says “Something in me did not want to give up on life, was unwilling to let go, wanted to fight to the very end”.
Both the protagonist’s aim is to have a better life. They are stuck in the sea, that is, they are trapped in between normal and better lives. Nature is always treated with feminine traits.

One of the oldest binaries that we can find in literature is nature versus culture, nature is feminine and culture is masculine. So the image of two men who couldn’t reach their aim because of the sea, which has female notion is unveiling the layers of eco feminization’s. Also, Hemingway holds a very traditional perspective of manhood and masculinity in The Old Man and the Sea. A man is expected to be strong, fearless and tough, and to continue working in the presence of defeat, which Santiago does despite his age and the pain he struggles with. He also avoided female characters. The thoughts and dialogues of the characters indirectly states that nature and women are always the victims of exploitation or the domination of men.

Violation of nature’s law is evident in these two novels. According to the rule of nature, humans are considered as terrestrial beings. Both Santiago and Pi indirectly violates this rule, which results an instability in their life environment. The mega – risky events of the life of the protagonists, happened from the ocean and they could overcome the death crisis- implies that they are the fittest ones as survivors, even from an unfamiliar surrounding.
The presence of the ocean makes the men’s life unstable. In both the novels, struggle with animals is occurring in this uncertain condition. Santiago was a failure in this struggle ; but later he was able to built a brotherly affection with the fish. With the help of nature philosophies, he tried to console himself for his act of killing Marlin. In Pi’s case, during the first part, he struggled with Richard Parker for his existence. He was afraid that whether the tiger would kill him for it’s own survival. But, within days, he befriended the tiger, which gives readers, a picture of a domesticated wild animal. The idea of domesticating is not relevant in nature.
When Pi reached back on the land, the tiger abandoned him and entered into a forest- which is wild in nature. Here, Pi again struggles of their emotional bonding. He tried to overcome this crisis in order to survive completely. ‘ The Others’ were not ready to grasp Santiago’s and Pi’s experiences. They consider it as mere stories or some elements of fantacy and they treated their struggles as dreams rather than reality- like a process of dream revising.

We can consider Richard Parker and Marlin as the alter egos of Pi and Santiago respectively. Ocean is treated as the unconscious realm, which is known as id. My partner has mentioned, how ocean is connected with human mind. We can trace their pre-conscious through their activities from the ocean.
Both of the characters were alone in the sea or they were stranded. The struggles they faced over the course of the novels, develop their characters and they also teach them important life lessons. The similarities in the names of the fish and the boy, Marlin and Manolin, itself shows the connection between nature and humans. Manolin was the old man’s shadow-like friend from the land, and the man feels a brotherly affection towards the fish when he was suffering from the sea. There exists a fundamental interconnection between human and natural life forms. Moreover their thoughts and actions are indulged in eco critic dimensions. Anthropocentrism comes when they are removed from the sea to the land. That is, they got alienated from the natural resources

Audio-visual aids in language teaching

Audio-visual aids in language teaching help the teachers to bring a positive change in the class environment . Verbal and visual communication will help the learners to pay more attention in the class. The main purpose of the use of audio-visual aids is to enable the teacher to make lessons effective and interesting. There are some abstract things in language which cannot be explained verbally. So the teacher can use audios and visual images as a way to support their verbal teaching. Use of such aids enhance discussions and interactions, which is important in language classes and forms an active group of learners. These devices give a clear image of the ideas by increasing understanding and retention of the learners. LSRW skills of the students can also be developed by this Instructional method.


Even teachers can improve their language skills by providing a variety of experiences to the students. This method is useful for a group of people who doesn’t know a particular language; Audio-Visual Aids make learning easier. They are also time saving because they explain the idea easily and precisely. As a result, the use of audio-visual aids seems to be benefited for both the teachers and the learners.


Audio visual aids are those devices which are used in classrooms to encourage teaching – learning process and make it easier and interesting. Students are always benefited by this method. They can learn the concepts clearly through a better environment. It provides a direct experience for the students and it removes monotonous aspects. It improves the vocabulary and knowledge of the students by providing a concrete base for conceptual thinking. Audio and visual aids like radio, television, ppt etc will give more information about a specific topic and they can connect with their teachers easily. Also students can store the study materials for so long. It helps students to improve their reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Different audio visual materials are available for providing the learners with native language exposure also. By gaining an interest in learning, students can enhance energetic interactions also. This method is a provider of positive transfer of learning.

Butterfingers!!

The popular Butterfingers series, published by Puffin, began with the novel, Howzzat Butterfingers! , In 2010.This humorous cricket-based book was followed in 2012 by Goal, Butterfingers!, a football-based adventure novel which also includes a socially relevant environmental theme. A prize-winning author of children’s fiction, Khairunnisa A, created the popular comic character Butterfingers for the children’s magazine, Tinkle. Her Butterfingers stories are a regular feature of that magazine. Her stories appear regularly in Tinkle, Dimdima and other children’s magazines and she freelances for other publications too. A book of short stories, Lost in Ooty and Other Adventure Stories, was published by Unisun Publications in 2010. Some of her other stories have been published in various anthologies by Puffin, Children’s Book Trust and Unisun Publications.

Goal, Butterfingers! is the second book in the butterfingers series. It is basically football based. The main character Amar Kishen is a thirteen year old boy, who is clumsy and accident prone but very well intentioned. He is studying in Green Park Higher Secondary School and the name of the town or the city where it is located is not mentioned by the author. He is the one who got the name butterfingers. Amar’s short and stocky friend Kiran always says that ‘ he is designed to catch whatever Amar drops’. Kishore, his other friend loves English and likes to correct everybody’s English. Arjun, another boy got only music in his head. He has long hair and one earing but absent minded and often in his own world. These boys are studying in 8-A. The most important thing in butterfingers is the boys are not growing. The author is not ready to change their age.

Amar wants to have a football tournament in school. These boys are involved in other activities also. When there is an issue, they really wanted to help. There is a news that a pesticide factory is going to come up in their place. Their peon Shekhar stands to lose his house, because of that there are going to be lot of problems. So the boys’ mission becomes how to erase the pesticide factory from their place. The story moves through their actions.

The author says that her book is meant for ten plus but grown ups are also interested in her stories. It is funny through out and some series are in comic strip form also. Sense of fun, mischief, adventure and love for sports are the main elements in Khyrunnisa’s Butterfingers.

The relevance of Wordsworth in the contemporary world.

Poet William Wordsworth was born on April 7, 1770, in Cockermouth, Cumberland, England. In 1795, Wordsworth received an inheritance that allowed him to live with his younger sister, Dorothy. That same year, Wordsworth met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They became friends, and together worked on Lyrical Ballads (1798). The volume contained poems such as Coleridge’s “Rime of the Ancient Mariner” and Wordsworth’s “Tintern Abbey”. Their writing helped Romanticism take hold in English poetry. Wordsworth began writing ‘The Prelude’ 1798 itself. He produced other poetry, “Lucy” and wrote a preface for the second edition of “Lyrical Ballads”. Indirectly the work describes the principles of Romanticism.

Before Wordsworth started writing, poetry had a different strata of theme and language. The genre was believed to belong to the aristocratic class, the themes were didactic and the language used was ornate and elevating. French Revolution gave voice to commoners and the work Lyrical Ballads brought a radical change in English Poetry, by making the world of common man ,the subject or theme of the poem and using common English as its medium.

This work, Lyrical Ballads was the beginning of Romantic Age in England. This age was marked by spontaneity of emotions, free verse, freedom of expression, beauty in the minutest things, significance of Nature as the creator of the world, imagination etc. It won’t be wrong to say that Wordsworth was the pioneer who was influenced by French Revolution and brought Romance into English Literature and his contributions has relevance in today’s context also.