On this date in1999 India took a command on high outpost on 26th of July. The Kargil war was fought against the Pakistani army who took advantage of melting ice and weather and took command of high outposts of India. Pakistani army denied that they are not involve in the war, claiming that it was caused by independent Kashmiri rebel forces and by getting document on the post that showed the involvement of Pakistan army. Pakistani army capture the Indian posts and then the kargil war resulted in loss of life and war was ended when the Indian regained control over the post and ejected Pakistani army out of territory.

Photo by Alok Uniyal on Pexels.com

Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated on 26th of July every year in the honour of kargil war’s heroes.



In the era of the 21st century, digital advancement brought smartphones, laptops, Internet, into regular usage which is now become persistently an integral part of society and lives. People now have virtual friends, it is okay for them to not meet in the public world has become a puppet on social media. Earlier when this internet thing was still new to people, social Media networking apps came into notice, which has overturned the things which were previously functioned. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp are the example of social networking sites. These are started on the internet as an online community to connect people from various states and countries of diversified cultures having the same interests and to share ideas. This will lead to nation-building, which is a basic principle of political concept. More people will make connections and talk more will superiority to the strengthening of a relationship. When the internet was created, feasibly no one used to be convinced by the fact that the internet has some level of potential. But by time gone, it is proved that the internet has changed life in every sense. A social media network can be a boon for a particular community and can be a bane.

Let’s see how social media has made a major difference in our lives in today’s generation. BOON. 1. Social media sites help us keep in touch with the outside world, family, and friends in today’s world. In a pandemic, everyone has celebrated their birthday and many events via an online platform, which turned out to be the strongest humanity of all.
2. The initial purpose of social media is to connect with friends and family which is most likely the actual purpose but another good opportunity is to improve the skills, career, motivational videos/ideas by sharing them with everyone on social media. This is the best platform to evolve, as we get many negative comments and positive too, that’s the reason we understand our flaws and work upon ourselves, and we tend to learn more things about our talent. And this kind of thing is certainly not possible physically.
3. Due to pandemics people are on the job hunt, so this has become seamless via LinkedIn, Internshala to find an internship or a job with all the network and opportunities, and it also allows work from home. This internet has been a good help in the covid lockdown when the whole world was falling.
4. It has been a revolutionary change in the process of learning in the history of teaching. School faculties have made social network virtual classes for discussion and learning. It has now been over a year, and some sites help students to solve their doubts in a fraction of seconds.
Overall social media network is a boon in many such essential reasons and has a positive atmosphere.

BANE. 1.  The life of social media is quite different in reality. It makes us believe that we want to be better than usual, it has made people compare their lives with those projects/shows their life as perfect. This creates so much chaos in our lives, and sometimes it makes us doubt our self-esteem.
2. As of now, all sorts of students, many businessmen, employees have been working from home due to covid which has lead to backaches, headaches, stress, eye site-related issues.
3. As a matter of fact, privacy on social media networks are not thorough, there have been many cases related to hacking, information leaking through an online transaction on purpose. Instagram has been on leed nowadays, many accounts have been hacked, and are some serious issues with it.
4. Socialising is all about communicating online rather than face to face, which has affected communication skills and making a serious move on mental health. Social media has created life so addictive. Sometimes it is known as FOMO ( fear of missing out).
There has been an incident recently on Instagram. There was a group on Instagram called ‘bois locker room’ in that they used to send and comment on all the posts of girls and used to leak their personal information. It was later got investigated and that revealed, girl was the sender and boy was the receiver. Girls used to sent messages through a fake account.

Social media is an important tool that is put into the hands of ordinary people. Social media network is a boon or bane is the decision of a user, depends on it is used by one. It is a double-sided sword. However, the use of social media by children and teenagers should be guided before use so that they do not face any allegations and can not manipulate and has a high tendency to be a part of traps, which lead to cybercrime.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Biography: Early Life, Education, Career, Books, Awards & More

Our Missile Man

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was an Indian scientist and politician who played a leading role in the development of India’s missile and nuclear weapons programs. Come, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study about Abdul Kalam’s early life, career, education, awards, etc.

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s involvement in nuclear energy in India earned him the title “Missile Man of India”. Due to his contribution, the Government of India honored him with the highest civilian award.

Let us tell you that the Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar on 9 February 2020 in New Delhi, Dr. APJ. The first look of Abdul Kalam’s biopic was released. The title of the movie is A.P.J. Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man (APJ Abdul Kalam: The Missile Man).

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931. His birth anniversary is celebrated as World Students Day. He was the President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was honored with several prestigious awards including the “Bharat Ratna”, India’s highest civilian honor in 1997. He was born in Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering.

Name: Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam)
Nationality: Indian
Occupation: Engineer, Scientist, Writer, Professor, Politician
Born: 15-Oct-1931
Place of Birth: Dhanushkodi, Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu, India
Died: 27 July 2015, Shillong, Meghalaya, India
Famous As: Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was the President from 2002 to 2007

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was elected President in the year 2002 against Lakshmi Sehgal. Before becoming the President of India, he worked as an aerospace engineer with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO).

He was nicknamed the ‘Missile Man of India’ for his important role in the country’s space programme, launch vehicle and ballistic missile technology development. In addition, in 1998, he also contributed significantly to India’s Pokhran-II nuclear tests.

Do you know that Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam started his career as a scientist in which Aeronautical Development Establishment of Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO)? He also served as a project director of India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III) at ISRO.

In the 1990s, he served as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the Prime Minister before becoming the President of India in 2002. Come now, through this article, Dr. A.P.J. Let us study in detail about Abdul Kalam.

Family history and early life:

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was born on 15 October 1931 in Rameswaram in a Tamil Muslim family. His father’s name was Jainulabdeen, who was a sailor. His mother’s name was Aseemma and she was a housewife. These were a total of five siblings, three elder brothers and one elder sister.

His eldest sister named Asim Zohra and three elder brothers, namely Qasim Mohammad, Mustafa Kamal, Mohd Muthu Meera Lebai Marikayar. He was close to his family and always helped them, although he remained a bachelor all his life.

Abdul Kalam’s ancestors were wealthy merchants and landowners with many properties and large tracts of land. They traded groceries between the mainland and the island and to and from Sri Lanka, and ferrying pilgrims from the mainland to Pamban Island. So, his family came to be known as “Mara Kalam Iyakkivar” (wooden boatman) and later as “Marakier”.

But by the 1920s, his family’s businesses failed and by the time Abdul Kalam was born, he was struggling with poverty. To help the family, Kalam started selling newspapers at an early age.

During his school days, he was normal in studies, but was always ready and ready to learn new things. He wanted to learn things and used to concentrate on his studies for hours. His main interest was in mathematics.

He completed his matriculation from Schwartz Higher Secondary School, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu and later joined St. Joseph’s College and graduated in Physics in 1954. In 1955 he moved to Madras from where he studied Aerospace at the Institute of Technology. His dream of taking engineering education was to become a fighter pilot, but he secured ninth position in the examination, while the IAF had declared only eight results. So he could not succeed in that.

Education and career:

After completing his graduation in the year 1960, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam joined the Aeronautical Development Establishment of the Defense Research and Development Organization as a scientist.

He also worked with renowned scientist Vikram Sarabhai as part of the committee of INCOSPAR (National Committee of India). He started his career by designing a small hovercraft in DRDO. Early in his career, he designed a small helicopter for the Indian Army. From 1963 to 1964, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam visited Defense Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, Wallops Flight Efficiency on the East Coast of Virginia and NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia.

He started working independently on an expandable rocket project at DRDO in 1965. He was not very satisfied with his work in DRDO and was happy when he got transfer orders to ISRO in 1969. There he served as the Project Director of SLV-III. In July 1980, his team was successful in placing the Rohini satellite near Earth’s orbit. It is India’s first indigenously designed and built satellite launch vehicle.

Abdul Kalam received the approval of the government in 1969 and expanded the program to include more engineers. In the 1970s, he made an effort to develop the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) so that India could launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite into Sun-Synchronous orbit, the PSLV project was successful and on 20 September On 1993, it was launched for the first time.

Dr Kalam’s efforts in the development of projects of SLV-3 and Polar SLV from the year 1970 to 1990 proved to be quite successful. Dr Kalam directed Project Valiant and Project Devil which aimed to develop ballistic missiles using the technology of the SLV programme, which was also successful.

An Indian Defense Ministry managed by DRDO along with other government organizations launched the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) in the early 1980s. Abdul Kalam was asked to lead the project and hence he returned to DRDO as the Chief Executive Officer of IGMDP. Due to his instructions, it was successful to make other missiles like Agni missile, Prithvi.

Under the leadership of Abdul Kalam, the project of IGMDP proved successful by producing missiles like the first Prithvi missile in 1988 and then Agni missile in 1989. Due to his contribution, he is known as the “Missile Man of India”. He served as Secretary, Defense Research and Development Organization from July 1992 to December 1999, and was also the Chief Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister.

Dr. Kalam played an important technical and political role in the Pokhran II nuclear test during this period and the then Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee declared India a full-fledged nuclear state.

Did you know that in 1998, Abdul Kalam ji along with cardiologist Dr. Soma Raju developed a low cost coronary stent? Which was later named as “Kalam-Raju Stent”. Apart from this, both these people also designed tablet PC for health care in rural areas which was named “Kalam-Raju Tablet”.

Term as President of India (2002 to 2007):

  • On 10 June 2002, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government elected Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s name was proposed to the Leader of the Opposition, Congress President Sonia Gandhi.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam served as the President of India from 25 July 2002 to 25 July 2007. He was the first single and scientist to live in Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • Do you know that he got around 922,884 votes in the presidential election and won the election by defeating Laxmi Sehgal of the opposition?
  • KR Narayanan was followed by Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam became the 11th President of India.
  • He was the third President of India to receive the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Prior to this, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was conferred this honor in the year 1954 and Dr. Zakir Hussain in the year 1963.
  • Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was also known as People’s President.
  • According to him, the most difficult decision taken by him as President was to sign the bill of Office of Profit.
  • During his five-year tenure, he remained committed to his vision of transforming India into a developed nation.
  • However, he was also criticized as a President for his inaction to decide the fate of the mercy petitions of 20 out of 21 people, including Afzal Guru, a Kashmiri terrorist who was convicted for the December 2001 Parliament attacks had gone.
  • He decided not to contest the presidential election again in 2007 and stepped down as President on 25 July 2007.

The demise of great personality:

On 27 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was delivering a lecture at IIM Shillong, where he suffered a heart attack and his condition became critical, therefore, he was shifted to Bethany Hospital, where he later died of a cardiac arrest. His last words to Shrijan Pal Singh were “Funny guy! Are you doing well?”

On 30 July 2015, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam’s last rites took place near his ancestral village Rameshwaram. Did you know that around 350,000 people attended Kalam’s funeral rites, including the Prime Minister of India, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chief Ministers of Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh?

Awards and Achievements:

  • In 1981, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was awarded the Padma Bhushan by the Government of India.
    In 1990, was awarded the Padma Vibhushan.
  • In 1997, was awarded the highest civilian award like Bharat Ratna.
  • In 1998, was awarded the Veer Savarkar Award.
    In 2000, Alvaras Research Centre, Chennai presented him with Ramanujan Award.
  • In 2007, Britain was awarded the King Charles II Medal by the Royal Society.
  • In 2008, he was awarded the Doctor of Engineering (Honoris Causa) degree from Nanyang Technical University, Singapore.
  • In 2009, awarded the Hoover Medal by the ASME Foundation of America
  • In 2010, the University of Waterloo honored Dr. Kalam with a Doctor of Engineering.
  • In 2011, he became an honorary member of the IEEE.
  • In 2013, he was awarded the Von Braun Prize by the National Space Society.
  • In 2014, he was awarded the Doctor of Science degree by the University of Edinburgh, UK.
  • Dr. Kalam was the recipient of honorary doctorates from about 40 universities.
  • In 2015, the United Nations recognized Dr. Kalam’s birthday as “World Students’ Day”.

Let’s understand Anger and Frustration during Lockdown in Pandemic

The pandemic situation is very real whether we accept it or not. And it’s not just about the virus, it’s about us as well. When the pandemic began we were all hopeful that it would end and we’d leave everything behind in 2020. Or at least, I thought so. Let me know by commenting if you had some different assumptions.


-Charles Swindoll.
The frustration

It is quite evident, that our reaction and counter-action are no where near enough satisfactory to what it should have been. We can’t deny the effect of situation. It has been quite detrimental for all of us. Some more and some less, but without exception.

The pandemic situation resulted in – “LOCKDOWN”. And one of the by products of lockdown is – ANGER. Anger in turn gives birth to frustration and depression. Often, leading to serious mental issue. This is neither unexpected nor unrealistic.

We had situations where we felt like we have no control over life and death. Not that we ever had but our illusion was broken in a forceful manner, but it’s beyond our imagination where we didn’t even have the chance to say goodbye to out loved ones.

But life is not black and white. You see what you wish to see. So, let’s list some common reasons.


First and foremost, increased frustration and irritability can be a common reaction to stress. With the current pandemic, many aspects of our daily lives are more stressful than usual. For example, grocery lines may be slower, work tasks may require quick adaptation and time may be increasingly devoted to new roles or obligations brought about by social distancing measures, such as child care or homeschooling.

At the same time, many of us likely have decreased access to activities that help us cope with stress in healthy and familiar ways.

You can read more about stress and frustration at https://www.e-counseling.com/articles/stress-vs-frustration/

For example, if activities such as going to the gym, going out to dinner with friends or shopping with family aren’t accessible in their traditional ways, you may feel less able to rely on your typical outlets for stress. This may lead to coping with stress in other ways, such as lashing out at others.

There may be good intentions behind some of our frustration toward our loved ones. Often when we care for others and their well-being, we find ourselves frustrated if they engage in activities we perceive as unsafe. For example, if a loved one is taking social distancing measures less seriously than we’d like, we may feel angry and upset toward them because we care about their well-being.


“We like it when things are in our control,” according to the human behavioral studies. Take a moment to pause, notice how you’re thinking and feeling, and acknowledge that feelings of frustration are a normal reaction to increased stress.

A lot of the sadness comes from what we’re missing. Zoom happy hours don’t compare to last year’s ladies’ weekend. A staycation with your family members is a lot less exciting than the beach vacation you took last summer. But thinking about what you’re missing prevents you from seeing what’s good in your life. So try to you just look at what happened today, it might help us in coping with the situation.

Take control of your situation


The coronavirus has upended a lot of our routines. We’ve had to get used to sanitizing and mask-wearing, working remotely and finding new ways to stay in touch with loved ones. Figuring out all those new habits is exhausting. But try your best and instill them as habits so you won’t feel it mentally taxing.

Try to find positive in the negative. Yes, you might have to look really hard, but focusing on the positive can help you move forward each day. Maybe working from home means you don’t have to deal with traffic. Or you’re spending more time with family. Or you’re simply grateful for your good health.

Pandemic life is hard, and you’ll have good days and bad days. But if you’re feeling really down, it might be a good idea to seek timely help. Lots of people are feeling the same stress, sadness and frustration right now. It can help to reach out to friends to talk about it.

Our feelings during this period are so up and down. Writing about them can help us detach to see the big picture. If hitting the gym or grabbing coffee with a friend were your go-to coping mechanisms, try thinking outside the box to find new ways to cope with stress. The key is to focus on trying new things, instead of dwelling on old coping strategies that are no longer working.






The world has witnessed a series of history’s greatest deceptions in the fields of art , science , fake identities , law , and fake money that has led the world into thinking , is anything REAL? Here are a few of these deceptions that has me in complete shock and disbelief.

ANOTHER SHAKESPEARE? – William Henry Ireland was born in 1775 . His father Samuel , was a dealer in rare books and also a great lover of William Shakespeare. William Henry went to Shakespeare’s birthplace in 1794 and met with a local poet there , who allegedly had a fund of doubtable anecdotes concerning Shakespeare . Back in London , Henry went to work for a solicitor who had parchments and used them to forge a mortgage agreement between William Shakespeare and John Heminge – an actor. He copied Shakespeare’s signatures and fooled the college of heralds into thinking this was authentic. This document was hence authenticated. He also faked wealth documents , and love poems written to Anne Hathaway . Henry’s father mounted an exhibitions of these ” finds” and London society came to see them . But scholars had their fair share of doubt about these, and by December his game was up . Quite a story , huh?

MICHELANGELO AND THE FAKE ANTIQUE- The famous Italian painter, sculptor , architect and poet once carved a life sized sleeping cupid . One of his friend notoriously suggested that if he buried this statue and then send it to Rome as an antique , he could make a lot more money than selling it in Florence. Michelangelo allegedly did exactly what he was told to do , some sources claimed to say that he buried the statue in Rome itself. Nonetheless , the statue was bought by the cardinal of San Giorgio, and he soon discovered that it was not an antique.

BENITO MUSSOLINI’S DIARIES – After Mussolini’s death , an Italian woman named Amalia Panvini and her mother , in 1957 produced around 30 volumes of what the duo claimed to be Benito Mussolini’s diaries . This even fooled Mussolini’s own son as he thought them to be his father’s diaries, along with an expert.


Ratan Tata, full name Ratan Naval Tata,(born December 28, 1937, Bombay[now Mumbai], India) ,Indian businessman who served as chairman of the Tata Group, a Mumbai based conglomerate ( 1991-2012 and 201617).
He was educated at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, where he earned a B.S. (1962) in  architecture before returning to work in India. He was born into a prominent family of Indian industrialists and philanthropists (Tata family).
He gained experience in a number of Tata Group. companies before being named director in charge of one of them, the National Radio and Electronics Co., in 1971
.A decade later, he became chairman of Tata Industries, and in 1991, he succeeded his uncle, J.R.D.Tata, as chairman of the Tata Group. Tata aggressively sought to expand the conglomerate after taking over a CEO, and he increasingly focused on globalising its businesses. In 2000, the group paid $431.3 million for London based Tetley Tea, and in2004, it paid $102 million for Daewoo Motors’ truck manufacturing operations.
 Tata Steel completed the largest corporate takeover by an Indian company in 2007 when it paid $11.3billion for the giant Anglo Dutch steel manufacturer Corus Group. Tata oversaw Tata Motors’ purchase of the prestigious British car brands Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford Motor Company in 2008. The $2.3 billion transaction was the largest ever acquisition by an Indian automaker.
The Tata Nano, a tiny rear engine ,pod shaped vehicle with a starting price of around 100,000 Indian rupees, or about $2,000, was introduced the following year. Despite being only slightly more than 10 feet (3 metres) long and about5 feet(1.5 metres) wide, the much touted “People’s Car” could seat up to five adults and, in Tata’s words, would provide a “safe, affordable, all weather form of transport” to millions of middle- and lower-income consumers both in India and abroad.
Tata stepped down as chairman of the Tata Group in December 2012. Following the ouster of his successor, Cyrus Mistry he briefly served as interim chairman beginning in October 2016.Natarajan Chandrasekhar  was appointed as the chairman of the Tata Company in January 2017, and Tata returned to retirement.
Among many other honours bestowed upon him during his career, Tata received the Padma Bhushan, one of India’s most distinguished civilian awards, in 2000.
“I came close to getting married four times and each time I backed off in fear or for one reason or another,” Ratan Tata said in 2011.Ratan Tata recently revealed that he had a crush on a girl while working in Los Angeles. Because one of his family members was ill, he had to return to India, but the girl’s parents refused to allow her to accompany Tata.
Before you go do you know
Ratan Tata has a pilot’s licence and is a trained pilot. He is the first civilian to fly an F-16 fighter

Child marriage ; A case study

Child marriage is a major sociological problem that has persisted for centuries in India. The early marriage of children, particularly of the girl child, is not an uncommon practice in over many countries. In India the latest assessment is that 44% are married before the age of 18 years because of religious traditions, social practices, economic factors and blind beliefs. It is considered as a violation of child and human rights and it affects the child physically, psychologically and emotionally. Marriage is considered ‘safe’ to protect the girl from unwanted sexual advances. Child marriages also limited girls’ access to education and increased their health risks. Early pregnancy and childbirth would impact on the overall health and development of girls.

A case study was carried out in 10 villages of Rajasthan about the practice of child marriage. Villages near urban centers showed more progress in terms of economic status of the villagers, literacy levels and in particular the level of awareness regarding illegality of child marriage. Child marriage was also lower in these villages. But the rural villagers are different. Joint family system is a common feature of rural society. The traditional value system upholds traditional norms.

Twelve couples were identified and interviewed for the study. The study found low literacy levels among the respondents. One- third of the respondents at the state level were illiterate and only 8% were graduates, while one-fourth had educational skills up to the primary level. The low level of literacy and high prevalence of child marriage could be seen as a vicious circle. An early marriage limits the opportunities for education and self-development, whereas lack of education results in a stubborn mindset and ignorance of the ill effects of child marriage.

A typical feature of the child marriage practice in Rajasthan is that after the marriage ceremony the bride is not usually sent to her in-law’s house immediately. She will be sent usually when the girl is considered mature enough to handle the household chores, which is generally considered to be after she attains puberty. Also over 50% of the respondents admitted that the practice of child marriage was followed in their families. Moreover, the parent-child relationship is such that a child rarely questions the authority of the parents in taking decisions about his or her life. More than 50% of the respondents in Rajasthan who have undergone child marriage stated that they were forced to marry. A large proportion of respondents who had themselves undergone marriage as children were against the idea of child marriage. But there are some among them who supported the idea.

In Rajasthan, most of the male respondents agreed with the legal age as the right age for a male to marry, but some felt that early marriage was advisable. About one-fourth of the male population who themselves were married early held this view. Interestingly, all female respondents believed that males should marry only after they were 21 years. About three-fourths of the male respondents believed that girls should marry after reaching the legal age. The study also shows that poverty and safety of the girl child are also the causes for the continuation of the practice of child marriage.

The practice of child marriage in the study areas is characterized by the fact that both the bride and the groom are underage, sometimes as young as five or six years old. This aspect of early marriages is unlike that in some other parts of India and the world where a huge age difference exists between the two, with the girl usually being the child. Existing laws and awareness campaigns taken up periodically against the practice of child marriage have failed to diminish the fervor of the communities even in the 21st century.


-Aastha Joshi

Gilgamesh was a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late 2nd millennium BC. He was likely a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who was posthumously deified. His rule probably would have taken place sometime in the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Though he became a major figure in Sumerian legend during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems. The earliest of these is likely “Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld”, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects, a mikku and a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu’s death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld. The poem “Gilgamesh and Agga” describes Gilgamesh’s revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh’s defeat of the giant Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven, while a fifth, poorly preserved poem relates the account of his death and funeral. In later Babylonian times, these stories were woven into a connected narrative. The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh was composed by a scribe named Sin-lēqi-unninni, probably during the Middle Babylonian Period based on much older source material. In the epic, Gilgamesh is a demigod of superhuman strength who befriends the wild man Enkidu. Together, they embark on many journeys, most famously defeating Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, who is sent to attack them by Ishtar after Gilgamesh rejects her offer for him to become her consort. After Enkidu dies of a disease sent as punishment from the gods, Gilgamesh becomes afraid of his own death, and visits the sage Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Great Flood, hoping to find immortality. Gilgamesh repeatedly fails the trials set before him and returns home to Uruk, realizing that immortality is beyond his reach. Most classical historians agree the Epic ofGilgamesh exerted substantial influence on both the Iliad and the Odyssey. two epic poems written in ancient Greek during the 8th century BC. The story of Gilgamesh’s birth is described in an anecdote from On the Nature of Animals by the Greek writer Aelian. Aelian relates that Gilgamesh’s grandfather kept his mother under guard to prevent her from becoming pregnant, because an oracle had told him that his grandson would overthrow him. She became pregnant and the guards threw the child off a tower, but an eagle rescued him mid-fall and delivered him safely to an orchard, where the gardener raised him. The Epic of Gilgamesh was rediscovered in the Library of Ashurbanipal in 1849. After being translated in the early 1870s, it caused widespread controversy due to similarities between portions of it and the Hebrew Bible. Gilgamesh remained mostly obscure until the mid-20th century, but, since the late 20th century, he has become an increasingly prominent figure in modern culture. Stephanie. Dalley, a scholar of the ancient Near East, states that “precise dates cannot be given for the lifetime of Gilgamesh, but they are generally agreed to lie between 2800 and 2500 BC” By the Old Babylonian Period stories of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits had been woven into one or several long epics. The Epic of Gilgamesh, the most complete account of Gilgamesh’s adventures, was composed in Akkadian during the Middle Babylonian Period by a scribe named Sin-leqi-unninni The most complete surviving version of the Epic of Gilgamesh is recorded on a set of twelve clay tablets dating to the seventh century BC, found in the Library of Ashurbanipal in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh. The epic survives only in a fragmentary form, with many pieces of it missing or damaged. Some scholars and translators choose to supplement the missing parts of the epic with material from the earlier Sumerian poems or from other versions of the Epic of Gilgamesh found at other sites throughout the Near East An inscription possibly belonging to a contemporary official under Gilgamesh was discovered in the archaic texts at Ur; his name reads: “Gilgameš is the one whom Utu has selected”. Aside from this the Tummal Inscription, a thirty four-line historiographic text written during the reign of Ishbi-Erra also mentions him. The inscription credits Gilgamesh with building the walls of Uruk. Gilgamesh is also connected to King Enmebaragesi of Kish, a known historical figure who may have lived near Gilgamesh’s lifetime. Furthermore,he is listed as one of the kings of Uruk by the Sumerian King List Fragments of an epic text found in Mê-Turan relate that at the end of his life Gilgamesh was buried under the river bed. The people of Uruk diverted the flow of the Euphrates passing Uruk for the purpose of burying the dead king within the river bed. In the epic, Gilgamesh is introduced as “two thirds divine and one third mortal.” At the beginning of the poem, Gilgamesh is described as a brutal, oppressive ruler. This is usually interpreted to mean either that he compels all his subjects to engage in forced laboror that he sexually oppresses all his subjects. As punishment for Gilgamesh’s cruelty, the god Anu creates the wild man Enkidu. After being tamed by a prostitute named Shamhat, Enkidu travels to Uruk to confront Gilgamesh. In the second tablet, the two men wrestle and, although Gilgamesh wins the match in the end, he is so impressed by his opponent’s strength and tenacity that they become close friends. In the earlier Sumerian tAlthough stories about Gilgamesh were wildly popular throughout ancient Mesopotamia,. authentic representations of him in ancient art are uncommon Popular works often identify depictions of a hero with long hair, containing four or six curls, as representations of Gilgamesh, but this identification is known to be incorrect. A few genuine ancient Mesopotamian representations of Gilgamesh do exist, however. These representations are mostly found on clay plaques and cylinder seals. Generally, it is only possible to identify a figure shown in art as Gilgamesh if the artistic work in question clearly depicts a scene from the Epic of Gilgamesh itself One set of representations of Gilgamesh is found in scenes of two heroes fighting a demonic giant, certainly Humbaba. Another set is found in scenes showing a similar pair of heroes confronting a giant, winged bull, certainly the Bull of Heaven.exts, Enkidu is Gilgamesh’s servant, but, in the Epic of Gilgamesh, they are companions of equal standing. Starting in the late twentieth century, the Epic of Gilgamesh began to be read again in Iraq. Saddam Hussein, the former president of Iraq had a lifelong fascination with Gilgamesh Hussein’s first. novel Zabibah and the King (2000) is an allegory for the Gulf War set in ancient Assyria that blends elements of the Epic of Gilgamesh and the One Thousand and One Nights Like Gilgamesh, the king at the beginning of the novel is a brutal tyrant who misuses his power and oppresses his people,but, through the aid of a commoner woman named Zabibah, he grows into a more just ruler When the United States pressured Hussein to step down in February 2003, Hussein gave a speech to a group of his generals posing the idea in a positive light by comparing himself to the epic hero. In 2000, a modern statue of Gilgamesh by the Assyrian sculptor Lewis Batros was unveiled at the University of Sydney in Australia.

English education in India

English education in India has largely depended on the teaching of literature. In recent years, there has been a shift of emphasis from teaching literature to language. The relationship between literature and English language teaching has been rather a difficult marriage throughout all these years. While English language teaching adopted a structural approach in many situations, literature was taught as a separate subject. Nevertheless, current approaches have endeavored to re-examine the value of literature and have begun to uphold its worth again. These approaches assert the value of literature teaching from several aspects, primarily, literature as an agent for language development and improvement. Literature is a verbal art that leads readers to appreciate the beauty of language.

Literature is used in English Language teaching to broaden students’ horizons by giving them a knowledge of the classics of literature, to improve student’s general cultural awareness, to stimulate students’ creative and literary imagination, and to develop their appreciation of literature. Literary texts offer a rich source of linguistic input and can help learners practice the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing – and exemplifying grammatical structures and presenting new vocabulary. The Literary texts provide opportunities for multi-social classroom experiences and can appeal to learners with different learning styles. Literature is beginning to be viewed as an appropriate vehicle for language learning and development since the focus is now on authentic language and authentic situations.


Gilgamesh was a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late 2nd millennium BC. He was likely a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, who was posthumously deified. His rule probably would have taken place sometime in the beginning of the Early Dynastic Period. Though he became a major figure in Sumerian legend during the Third Dynasty of Ur. Tales of Gilgamesh’s legendary exploits are narrated in five surviving Sumerian poems. The earliest of these is likely “Gilgamesh, Enkidu, and the Netherworld”, in which Gilgamesh comes to the aid of the goddess Inanna and drives away the creatures infesting her huluppu tree. She gives him two unknown objects, a mikku and a pikku, which he loses. After Enkidu’s death, his shade tells Gilgamesh about the bleak conditions in the Underworld. The poem “Gilgamesh and Agga” describes Gilgamesh’s revolt against his overlord King Agga. Other Sumerian poems relate Gilgamesh’s defeat of the giant Huwawa and the Bull of Heaven, while a fifth, poorly preserved poem relates the account of his death and funeral. In later Babylonian times, these stories were woven into a connected narrative. The standard Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh was composed by a scribe named Sin-lēqi-unninni, probably during the Middle Babylonian Period based on much older source material. In the epic, Gilgamesh is a demigod of superhuman strength who befriends the wild man Enkidu. Together, they embark on many journeys, most famously defeating Humbaba and the Bull of Heaven, who is sent to attack them by Ishtar after Gilgamesh rejects her offer for him to become her consort. After Enkidu dies of a disease sent as punishment from the gods, Gilgamesh becomes afraid of his own death, and visits the sage Utnapishtim, the survivor of the Great Flood, hoping to find immortality. Gilgamesh repeatedly fails the trials set before him and returns home to Uruk, realizing that immortality is beyond his reach. Most classical historians agree the Epic of

Tips to boost your immune system

In the current pandemic, “How to strengthen the immune system?” “What are immunity-boosting foods?” “How to improve immunity?” “Foods that help you boost your immune system?” are some of the most searched queries. There are many ways to boost your immunity naturally or by supplements. Here are some immunity boosters you should include in your daily diet. 

1. Eating the right food

Eating a healthy and well-balanced diet is one of the most important things to boost your immunity. Try to include whole foods, fruits in your diet, and avoid taking a large amount of salt, sugar, or processed foods.

Nutrients are an essential part of building a healthy immune system. A good healthy diet with plenty of fruits, vegetables and lean protein is a good source of most of these nutrients. Supplements can be included as per the advice of your doctor to fill any nutritional gap.

Vitamin A: It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as a natural defence against illness and infection.

Source: Sweet potatoes, pumpkin, carrots, and squash.

Vitamin C:  It is an antioxidant that fights against free radicals in the body.

Source: Citrus fruits (like orange, lemon), leafy green vegetables, strawberries, carrots, bell peppers and many more fruits and vegetables.

Vitamin D:  Vitamin D protects you from a number of health problems and it keeps your teeth, bones, and muscles healthy. The body creates vitamin D from sunlight on the skin when outdoors, but you may need a supplement to fulfil the requirement.

Source:  Sun

Vitamin E: Antioxidant that fights infections in the body.

Source: Spinach, almonds, peanuts, broccoli, and hazelnuts.

Folate (folic acid): It helps the body form healthy red blood cells. Folic acid deficiency can lead to a weakened immune system. Folate reduces the risk of unusual birth defects such as spina bifida in unborn babies.

Source: Beans, peas, leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and brussels sprouts.

Iron: Iron forms an important part of haemoglobin that absorbs oxygen and carries it in the blood to take it to the rest of the body. 

Source: Beans, nuts, fortified breakfast cereals, soybean flour, and dried fruit. 

Zinc: It helps to control inflammation in the body.

Source: Beans.

2. Exercise

Engaging your body with regular exercise daily or 3-4 days a week can strengthen your immune system. Other than this, it also helps you sleep better and reduces your stress levels.

3. Get Quality Sleep

When you sleep, your body produces proteins called cytokines, which fight against infection and inflammation. So, not getting enough sleep will impact the immune system. If throughout the day your body is feeling fatigued then probably you aren’t getting enough sleep.

4. Manage stress

There is a wide body of research that links stress levels with immune function.

When we’re stressed, the immune system doesn’t function as well. That’s because stress causes the body to release hormones, such as adrenaline, dopamine, norepinephrine, and cortisol, which can decrease the body’s ability to make lymphocytes — the white blood cells that help fight off harmful viruses or bacteria. 

Some activities that help alleviate stress include meditation, yoga, and grounding techniques like mindful breathing.

5. Drink plenty of water

To function properly, your immune system relies heavily on the nutrients in your bloodstream, which mostly consists of water. Without water, the cells and tissues of your immune system don’t receive the nutrients they need. Your immune system also relies on water to flush out germs and waste materials.


You can make several lifestyle and dietary changes today to strengthen your immune system. These include reducing your sugar intake, staying hydrated, working out regularly, getting adequate sleep, and managing your stress levels.




Are you a leader?

Have you ever had the honor and privilege to work with truly inspirational leaders?

A good leader

If you have, you know they all have similar characteristics that always seek to inspire and motivate people to become the best version of themselves. For many people, it’s easy to bark out orders, boss people around, and create an environment of fear to get things done, but these leaders are different; they have a great energy about them that inspires the best in you. They lead by example, show appreciation for their teams, and don’t allow their position of authority to make them feel that they are better than anyone else.


You can become one too

Becoming a great leader requires work; it’s not an overnight thing. You will have some very challenging days, and sometimes, you may even have doubts about your ability to lead. Don’t be too hard on yourself; it’s a natural part of the process. Never lose hope, hold onto your faith and continue your leadership development because every incremental improvement brings you one step closer to becoming truly an inspirational leader. 

An Example real-life leader

Do you know APJ Abdul Kalam never used to watch TV, but when India was playing an important cricket match & India was about to lose, he said “Is the captain still playing? Then don’t worry he can make the match ours to win.” And guess what? MS Dhoni made India win that match.

Boss vs Leader
Boss vs Leader

Eleven characteristics of truly inspiring leaders:

1.They have great positive energy.

2.They truly value everyone on their team

3.They listen.

4.They communicate effectively.

5.They have a clear vision of the future.

6.They are passionate.

7.They are very trustworthy.

8.They practice humility and empathy.

9.They are authentic.

10.They have sense of purpose.

11.They have a great sense of humor.

Child Marriage

Child marriage is a marriage or comparative association, formal or casual, between a kid and a grown-up or another kid under a particular age, normally age eighteen.[1] by far most of kid relationships are between a young lady and a man, and are established in sex imbalance.

Child marriage disregards the privileges of kids and has broad and long haul ramifications for kid ladies and kid grooms. For young ladies, notwithstanding psychological wellness issues and an absence of admittance to schooling and profession opportunities, this incorporates unfavorable well being impacts because of early pregnancy (counting teen pregnancy) and childbirth. There is little examination on young men in kid relationships, however consequences for young men incorporate being poorly ready for specific duties, for example, accommodating the family, early parenthood, and an absence of admittance to training and vocation opportunities. Child marriage is identified with kid pledge, and it incorporates common living together and court-supported early relationships after teen pregnancy.Causes of kid relationships incorporate neediness, lady of the hour value, settlement, social practices, strict and prevalent difficulties, local traditions, dread of the kid staying unmarried into adulthood, ignorance, and saw failure of ladies to work for money. Research demonstrates that far reaching sex instruction can assist with forestalling kid marriage.

Child marriage has enduring outcomes on young ladies, from their well being (mental and physical), training and social advancement perspectives. These results last past adolescence. One of the most well-known reasons for death for young ladies matured 15 to 19 in non-industrial nations was pregnancy and childbirth. In Niger, which is assessed as having the most noteworthy pace of youngster marriage on the planet, around 3 of every 4 young ladies wed before their eighteenth birthday celebration.

Child Labour : a growing concern

There is a big difference in children helping their parents with chores around the house and children working day to night on roads, train stations just to earn food for their family. The latter destroys the child’s childhood, deprives them of their dignity, potential and harms them mentally and physically.

Child labour has always been a major concern for multiple underdeveloped nations and recently because of the pandemic and economic crisis, the number seems to be increasing. According to one of the UNICEF records, rougly 160 million children were subjected to child labour at the beginning of 2020 with 9 million additional children at risk due to impact of COVID-19.

Negative effects of child labour

Children are driven into work due to various reasons and poverty outstands them all. The consequences are hazardous since it risks the child’s health both mentally and physically and extreme harm can even lead to death. And most importantly it cuts ties with educational facilities, health care and fundamental rights, thus harming their future.

The worst kind of child labour encompasses forced labour, trafficking, debt bondage, forced prostitution, pornography, compulsory recruitment in armed conflicts and other illicit activities. Hazardous activities like working in mines or construction sites can increase risks of lung cancer, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, silicosis and several autoimmune diseases.

The difficulty of tasks and bad working conditions lead to premature aging, depression, malnutrition, drug addiction etc. These children from poor and disadvantageous backgrounds and many who are abducted from their families or trafficked because of war have no one to protect them.

Overview of child labour around the world

  • In South East Asia and Pacific, girls are sold to provide prostitution or work as domestic labourers and many are sold to work in textile factories to cover up their family debt.
  • In Africa, parents sell their children mostly for livestock. These children are either left to work in mines and construction sites or sold to become domestic workers.
  • In North America and Latin America, the majority of children are forced in prostitution or are exploited by drug traffickers.

{ credits: https://www.humanium.org/en/child-labour/ }



Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (A.P.J. Abdul Kalam), an Indian aerospace scientist who also served as the 11th President of India, came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He was a great source of learning and the most humble person of that stature.

His life teaches many lessons as to what an individual should possess and practice in order to lead a successful and happy life. Following are the life lessons we can learn from him:

  • Being Optimistic

Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, in his journey from being son of a boat owner to becoming the President of India faced lots of challenges posed by life, yet by staying positive and working hard with dedication and sincerity, he achieved great heights. He believes that an individual should have a positive outlook towards life. No doubt that life brings challenges, troubles and hardships, but by being positive during difficulties one can overcome it and enjoy the fruits of their labour.

  • Never Give Up

“We should not give up and we should not allow the problem to defeat us” – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

When one encounters failures in life, Kalam advises not to give up, but to work even harder to transform this failure into a success. He believes that failure and success go hand in hand. And without facing failures, one cannot gain success. He was of the view that if we learn to treat our failures in the same way we treat success then we will never lose hope after a defeat, but moving forward to overcome the defeat.

  • Being Visionary

You have to dream before your dreams can come true”- A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Kalam strongly believed that one should have a clear vision or idea in order to prosper and flourish in life. One with clear vision in mind will eventually adopt the right strategy to accomplish it. But for a person without a vision any strategy will fail to work. Kalam inspired millions of young hearts to dream and to believe in their dreams. He wanted people to dream and to convert their dreams into thoughts that can result into actions. He said, after defining a dream it should be nurtured, worked upon and then patiently wait to reap its fruits.

  • Being Courageous

“…have courage to think differently, to invent, and to travel the unexplored path, to discover the impossible and to conquer the problems and succeed”. – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Kalam encouraged individuals to think creatively and identify techniques that may be different from the rest. He motivated all to be daring enough to choose a path which is unknown to many and to solve problems with innovative ideas. He believed that one should be courageous enough to take risks and achieve the impossible. Thus, anyone with courage and confidence can attain great height and complete any difficult task.

  • Being Devoted towards Goals

“To succeed in your mission, you must have single-minded devotion to your goal”. – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Kalam advocated the mantra of single-minded devotion towards the goal in order to be successful in every mission. He believed that complete dedication towards the targets helps to complete the task effectively as it gathers all the energy onto one single point. Hence, devotion is necessary in every field of work in order to make it a success.

  • Being Hardworking

“If you want to shine like a sun, first burn like a sun”. – A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

Kalam advocated the idea that, ‘God helps those who help themselves’, laying emphasis on hard work and dedication in every tasks. He advised to overcome laziness and work towards achieving goals. He proposed that if one wants to be prosperous in life, they must give their hundred percent by working with complete dedication and sacrificing their other worldly desires in order to achieve the desired goal and gain success.

  • Being Humble

Abdul Kalam was noted for his integrity and simple lifestyle. Even after gaining power and position he never glorified his superiority, rather, he stayed humble at every point of time. He always made sure that the people he met do not feel inferior, but equally important. Kalam always emphasized that we should never lose our humble self even if we are at the peak of success. It is essential to remain grounded and maintain humility at all times.

  • Sharing with Transparency

Kalam was an intellectual leader who did not keep the knowledge to himself alone, but shared it with transparency and sincerity to each and every one through his writings, speeches, and lectures and through dialogues with all those he encountered throughout his life. Similarly, we should also practice this idea of sharing with transparency by being self-less, hence contributing towards the development of other individuals, and at a long run, towards the development of the nation.


Dr. Kalam did not only preach these principles, but also practiced them in his day to day life. He always made statements based on his life experiences because a person with experience can teach many significant things about life and one can really rely on his teachings. Anyone who understand these lessons and put it into practice, will see and discover good and great things throughout the journey of life. Also, as Dr. Kalam, they will be able to share their knowledge and experiences to others, leading towards building a powerful nation.

I would like to end this article by quoting Dr. Kalam, “learning gives creativity, creativity leads to thinking. Thinking provides knowledge and knowledge makes you great”.





Procrastination is the act of delaying or putting off tasks until the last minute, or past their deadline. Some researches define procrastination as a “form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. No matter how well-organized and committed your are, chances are that you have found yourself frittering away hours on trivial pursuits (watching television, updating your Facebook status, shopping online) when you should have been spending that time on work or school-related projects. Whether you’re putting off finishing a project for work, avoiding homework assignments, or ignoring household chores, procrastination can have a major impact on your job, your grades and your life.

In most cases, procrastination is not a sign of a serious problem. It’s a common tendency that most people give in to at some point or another.


Remember that time that you thought you had a week left to finish a project that was really due the next day? How about the time you decided not to clean up your apartment because you “didn’t feel like doing it right now?’

We often assume that projects won’t take as long to finish as they really will, which can lead to a false sense of security when we believe that we have plenty of time to complete these tasks. One of the biggest factors contributing to procrastinating is the notion that we have to feel inspired or motivated to work on a tasks at a particular moment. The reality is that if you wait until you’re in the right frame of mind to do certain tasks (especially undesirable ones), you will probably find that the right time simply never comes along and the tasks never gets completed.

The following are the few factors that cause procrastination


Researchers suggest that procrastination can be particularly pronounced among students. A 2001 meta analysis published in the Psychological Bulletin found that a whopping 80% to 95% of college students procrastinated on the regular basis, particular when it came to completing assignments and course-work.

  • Overestimate how much time they have left to perform tasks
  • Overestimate how motivated they will be in the future
  • Underestimate how long certain activities will take to complete
  • Mistakenly assume that they need to be in the right frame of mind to work on a project


Procrastination can also be result of depression. Feelings of hopelessness, helplessness, ad a lack of energy can make it difficult to start the simple tasks. Depression can also lead to self-doubt. When you can’t figure out how to tackle a project or feel insecure about your abilities, you might find it easier to put it off and working on other tasks.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

Procrastination is also pretty common in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder. One reason is that OCD is often linked with mal-adaptive, unhealthy perfectionism, which causes fears about making new mistakes, doubts about whether you are doing something correctly, and worry over other’s expectation ofyou.

People with OCD also often have a propensity toward in-decision, causing them to procrastinate rather than make a decision.


Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) struggle with procrastination. When you’re so distracted by outside stimuli, as well as internal thoughts, it can be hard to get started on a task, especially if that task is difficult or not interesting in you.

Negative impact on procrastination

It is only in cases where procrastination becomes chronic and begins to have a serious impact on a person’s daily life that it becomes a more serious issue. In such instances, it’s not just a matter of having poor time management skills, it’s a major part of their lifestyle. Perhaps they pay their bills late, don’t start work on big projects until the night before the deadline, delay gift shopping until the day before a birthday, and even file their income tax returns late. Unfortunately, this procrastination can have a serious impact on a number of life areas, including a person’s mental health and social, professional and financial well-being.

  • Higher level of stress and illness
  • Increased burden placed on social relationships
  • Resentment from friends, family, co-workers and fellow student
  • Consequences of delinquent bills and income tax returns

Tips for procrastination

Fortunately, there are a number of different things you can do the fight procrastination and start getting things done on time.

  • Make a to-do list: To help to keep you on track, ,consider placing a due date next to each item.
  • Take baby steps: Break down the items on your list into small, manageable steps so that your tasks don’t seem so overwhelming.
  • Recognize the warming signs: Pay attention to any thoughts of procrastination and do your best to resist the urge. If you begin to think about procrastinating, force yourself to spend a few minutes working on your tasks.
  • Eliminate distraction: Ask yourself what pulls your attention away the most-whether Instagram, Facebook updates, or the local news-and turn off those sources of distraction.
  • Pat yourself on the back: When you finish an item on your to-do list on time, congratulate yourself and reward yourself by indulging in something you find fun.


The feeling that we are not being tuned in to is quite possibly the most baffling emotions possible. A great many people don’t tune in to understand but just to answer, but they fail to realise that they can reply well only if they clearly understand what is being discussed. A good listener never fails to enthrall others. Active listening involves giving full attention to the person you are communicating to.

And it is well said by Bernard Baruch that “Most of the successful people I’ve known are the ones who do more listening than talking.”

We can describe active listening as undivided attention alludes to the speaker that keeps you drew in with your discussion accomplice in a positive way. It is the way toward listening mindfully while another person talks, summarizing and reflecting back the thing is said, and retaining judgment and exhortation. Being an active listener helps in perceiving other’s viewpoints and sentiments and causes us appreciate them. This not only aides in preventing clashes as well as encourages a culture of regard.

So, how does being an active listener affect your carrier? Active listening has a great role to play in your success. With regards to your accomplishment in schooling and the work environment, it will require undivided attention. This is on the grounds that it takes regard for both the large view and little subtleties to learn. At the point when you effectively tune in, your manager can see the distinction in your reactions and work that follows. Maybe the primary spot in your vocation where undivided attention assumes a huge part is in the meeting cycle. By giving close consideration and visually connecting with the questioner, you can exhibit that you are keen on the position, can help issue settle, and can function admirably in a group.

Let`s take an example at the point when you acquaint yourself with a renewed individual, you presumably have encountered asking them their name. At that point, while they are disclosing to you their name, you’re contemplating saying your name straightaway. You haven’t actually tuned in to their name, and now, you’re humiliated to ask once more. This is the issue such countless individuals face in correspondence. Our brains can undoubtedly meander into our own heads and envision what’s returning straightaway or fall into the past. That is the reason undivided attention is so significant. It’s the best way to remain genuinely present in correspondence. To remain genuinely present in our present circumstance, a great many people need to rehearse this as both an update and an expertise. The vast majority get trapped in aloof tuning in rather than undivided attention. This implies they aren’t actually tuning in. While they may not interfere with, they are not giving criticism or posing inquiries to truly comprehend the speaker. With regards to building a fruitful vocation, it doesn’t occur in segregation. This implies that you’ll need to dominate the specialty of active listening.

Apart from active listening there are others soft skills you need to incorporate in yourself in order to be successful. Success is just a mindset and can have different meanings for everyone. But here are some tips that can help.

1)Set an aim for yourself – to achieve anything in life first you need to be clear about what exactly you want. Set aims for yourself and then focus on accomplishing them. It includes the advancement of an activity plan intended to rouse and direct an individual or gathering toward an objective. First of all focus on your short term goals which eventually lead you to your long term goal. Once you are done with one aim start working on others. Just remember only sky is the limit nothing else.

2)Think positively – Positive thinking, or a hopeful mentality, is the act of zeroing in on the positive qualities in some random circumstance. It can immensely affect your physical and psychological well-being. It just methods you approach the great and the terrible in existence with the assumption that things will work out positively. when you think of achieving something you instruct your mind to work on it. If you think about it in a negative way , you are making way for your own failure.

3)Work hard but don’t forget to work smart – Achievement involves trying sincerely as well as working keenly to accomplish your ideal objectives quicker. You should be able to spot the difference between when you should be working hard and when you need to put in some smart work. Working smart incorporates outfitting yourself with information and data in regards to your ideal region of progress. It incorporates finding out about how others have succeeded instead of attempting to rehash an already solved problem. Discover which alternate ways, tips and deceives exist in finishing an errand acceptably.

4) Start observing – Being observant involves being cautious, mindful, sharp looked at and alarm to watch and screen patterns, being cutting-edge on issues and recognizing openings. Start paying attention to minute details. Focus on what is happening in your regions of interest. Observing assists with improving your relationship building abilities and communicate well with others. Being attentive likewise incorporates peering inside yourself or deep down to know and comprehend minutes when you get glimmers of motivation.

5) Don’t procrastinate – procrastination is a really common practice. It basically refers to a situation when you start wasting your time in some futile task rather than the one you are supposed to be doing. It eventually leads to a lot of stress because then you have to complete a bulk of tasks at the last moment. In such a situation you are not able to function to your full abilities. So don’t leave work pending for the last moment and try to finish it as soon as possible.

6)Seek feedback – often you fail to realize your own mistakes and where do you lack. Feedbacks from others can be of great aid in such situations. It helps you realize where do you need to focus more and what new strategies you need to form to achieve your goals. learn about your mistakes and work on them . Take frequent feedbacks from people who you think can help you improve.

7) Patience– patience is something you must have in order to aim for something. Immediate success is rare . Numerous individuals are dependent on needing accomplishment at this very moment, not even tomorrow. When we plant a seed it first need to develop strong roots underground in order to support a large tree. Similar is the case when we work on achieving our aims . be patient and let your base be strong. There are no alternate ways to progress, it requires some investment, energy, penance, energetic longing to succeed and a solid will to win.

8) Don’t give up and believe in yourself – most provocative people in the world are the ones who won’t settle for average and have triumphed through adversity. We are most inspired by people who have experienced difficulty and never, ever give up. Following your fantasies can be both unnerving and energizing. Always have faith in yourself ,if you can think of it you can surely achieve it .

4 Pillars of Object-Oriented Programming

What is OOPS ?

It is a programming paradigm based on a concept of objects and classes. It allows the programmer to work with real life entities like inheritance, polymorphism, hiding, etc. Some popular object-oriented programming languages are Java, C++, Python, PHP, etc.

Before diving into the concept of OOPS, you should be familiar with object and classes.

Object – These are the real world entities having a specific identity, specific characteristics and behavior you find in your everyday life.

Classes – It is the blueprint that represents a set of objects that share common characteristics and behavior.

Object’ is an instance of ‘class’. For example, ‘bird’ is a class but ‘eagle’ is an object.

The four pillars of object-oriented programming are – 

  • Abstraction
  • Encapsulation
  • Inheritance
  • Polymorphism

Let’s take a look at these concepts – 


It is the method of hiding the implementation details and showing only the functionality to the user.

For example, when we are driving a car to the grocery store ignoring the details of how the engine, braking systems works. We think car as an object with its own unique behavior. We are only interested in how to propel the car forward and reach the destination. The user need not be concerned about how a particular feature is implemented. From the outside, the car is a single entity. But from inside, you see that the car consists of several systems – brakes, sound system, steering wheel, and so on. 


It is an object-oriented programming concept that binds together the data and functions that manipulate the data and keeps both safe from outside interference. In other words, encapsulation is a programming technique that binds the class members (variables and methods) together and prevents them from being accessed by other classes. Therefore, it is also called data mining.

For example, a capsule encapsulates several ingredients of the medicine. The mixture of medicines are variables and methods then the capsule will act as a class and the whole process is called encapsulation as shown in the figure given below.


Inheritance is the process by which one object acquires the properties of another object. It is important because it supports the concept of hierarchical classification.

For example, the Cat extends the Mammal class, which extends the Animal class. So cat would directly inherit all the functions from Animal and Mammal class. 

It represents an IS-A type of relationship. From the above example, we can say that cat is a mammal, which is a mammal. So anything that applied to animals also applies to a cat. This will make more sense when you will be writing complicated code and using inheritance for the reusability of code.


Polymorphism (from Greek, meaning “many forms”) is a feature that allows one interface to be used for a general class of action. A specific action is determined by the exact nature of the situation. In simple words, it means one function behaves in different forms.

For example, a dog’s sense of smell is polymorphic. If a dog smells cat, it will bark and run after it, if the dog smells its food, it salivates and run to its bowl.

Reference Link : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object-oriented_programming

7 Bollywood Comedians We Grew Up Watching And Miss In The Age Of Stand-Up

Comedy in Bollywood movies in the ‘80s, ‘90s, and the mid-2000s was gold. And so were the comedians who delivered some great light-hearted comedy. In the digital era, where stand-up comedians are ruling the roost, we take a look back at the long-forgotten comedy actors in Bollywood. From Johnny Walker to Rajpal Yadav, here’s a list of comedians we miss watching. 

1. Johnny Lever

Johnny was not only our favourite but Bollywood’s most popular comedian for decades. In his 40-year-long career, he’s featured in more than 200 films. Little did we know that Johnny was the OG stand-up comedian who started his journey by performing comedy acts in musical shows. He was later discovered by Sunil Dutt, who got him his first movie Dard Ka Rishta in 1982. The actor was last seen in Cooli No.1 starring Varun Dhawan.

2. Laxmikant Berde

Salman Khan and Laxmikant Berde’s Jodi was an absolute hit in the ‘90s. But did you know that the comedian who was a constant in every Sooraj Barjatya film, was actually a superstar in Marathi cinema? He was popularly known as the ‘Comedy King’ of Marathi cinema. He made his Bollywood debut with Maine Pyar Kiya in 1989 and featured in a couple of other popular Hindi films including Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!, Mere Sapno Ki Rani, Aarzoo, Saajan, Beta, 100 Days and Anari. His sudden demise in 2004 came as a shock to everyone.

3. Raju Srivastav

Our very dear Gajodhar bhaiya needs no introduction. Much like Laxmikant, Raju also started his Bollywood journey with Maine Pyar Kiya. However, he never got much recognition in Bollywood and rose to fame with The Great Indian Laughter Challenge, an Indian reality stand-up comedy series. Raju is popular for doing some great mimicry.

4. Rajpal Yadav 

The last we saw Rajpal in Coolie No.1 starring Varun Dhawan. There was a time when he delivered some of the most iconic comical roles in the mid-2000s like Lal Hanuman in Bhool Bhulaiyaa, Bandya in Chup Chup Ke, and Chota Don in Bhagam Bhag. His other notable films include Hungama, Mujhse Shaadi Karogi, Partner, and Dhol. How we wish we get to see him more.

5. Johnny Walker

Anand, Hrishikesh Mukherjee

Remember Isa bhai from Anand? Johnny is another iconic comedian from the bygone era who never failed to crack us up with his distinct voice. Oh, did we mention his signature pencil-thin moustache? Johnny was last seen playing the character of Joseph in Chachi 420. He passed away in 2003, we hope someone with a similar style emerged on the scene.

6. Keshto Mukherjee

Remember the drunk comedian in almost every ‘70s and ‘80s film? The man with a bottle of alcohol who made funny faces just to make us laugh? Keshto made his look legendary and one-of-a-kind, and was perhaps one of the best comedians Indian cinema has ever seen.

7. Mehmood

And we saved the best for the last. Mehmood aka Master Pillai from Padosan is Indian cinema’s best comedian ever. He’s not only featured in more than 300 films but also won several Filmfare Awards for Best Comedian. 

Five Things To See In Albania

Officially known as the Republic of Albania, Albania is a Balkan country located in southeastern Europe. Albania has a very diverse landscape. On one side, the country has the snowy peaks of the Albanian Alps while on the other, the country has the numerous tropical and sunny beaches of the Mediterranean Sea. This variance in the topography has not only lead to a variance in climate, but given rise to a lot of tourists spots.

Compared to its neighbors, Albania is relatively cheaper to visit, while offering similar views and experiences. Albania’s currency is the Albanian Lek and the conversion rate between them is 1 Indian Rupee equaling to 1.39 Albanian Lek. The months from March to June are the best time to visit Albania. Albania has a very rich history owing to it being inhabited by various civilizations over the centuries. This, along with its diverse landscape makes Albania a good tourist location. Whether for its history, natural beauty, or leisure, Albania offers them all.

Here are five places you must check out in Albania!



BUNK’ART is a series of museums of renovated former bunkers located in and about Tirana, the capital city of Albania. They were built by the former dictator of Albania, Enver Hoxha. It currently serves as a five floor art and history museum and displays the lifestyle in Albania during the 45 years it was under communism.

Mount Dajti

Mount Dajti

Located on the edge of Tirana, Mount Dajti, a designated national park is a paradise for nature lovers. It is filled with forests of different trees like pine and oak. Apart from that, other geographical features seen here are waterfalls, caves, lakes, canyons and an ancient castle too! It is a dream for hikers. For the less adventurous, there is a beautiful cable car line with scenic view of the slopes of Mount Dajti and Tirana city.



Berat is a designated UNESCO World Heritage Site. The architecture of the buildings is rich due to various civilizations making the city their home and leaving their mark on it through the architecture. This has given the city the nickname of the ‘City With a Thousand Windows’. The Berat castle is the city’s main attraction.



Gjirokaster is another UNESCO World Heritage Site. The older part of the town has homes with roofs of flat stones. This has given it the nickname of the ‘City of Stone’. The town is overlooked by the Gjirokaster Fortress. The Gjirokaster National Folklore Festival is held here every five years. The latest edition of the festival (the eleventh season), originally scheduled for 2020 was rescheduled to 1st May-8th May, 2021 due to the ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic.


From Rozafa Castle

Schkoder is considered to be the cultural capital of Albania. It has various structures of historical importance like Rozafa Castle, the Shirgj Church, the Mesi Bridge, the Lead Mosque and the nearby ruins of Shurdhah island. The Lake of Schkoder, which happens to be the largest lake in South Europe, is also a tourist attraction for both visitors as well as locals; especially during the summer.



Dogs are the best companion when you are feeling low or when you are feeling tired . They make you happy with there silly habits and beautiful face . Dogs are loved by most . Every person in there life ones have thought of petting a dog . They are fluffy , chubby, hairy and small . But they also come in different size and shapes . 

They don’t see your money they just wanted love they just give love . Even if you just show love to a street dog it will follow you even if you don’t give him food . They are not selfish , they are selfless . They don’t care about your looks . They just want love and care .


You might have seen many dogs roaming in your area or around your area . They eat whatever you give them. But sometimes some people have evil thinking’s towards them . They beat them or throw stones on them . Some people even give them poison . 

There are several cases of rape towards dogs also . Human is the only creature in the planet earth who can communicate and talk . But what is the benefit of such gift when you are ruining a life of a small creature , by your power. We should care and love animals not destroy there life with our malfunctioning brain . 


• Communicative language teaching (CLT), or the communicative approach, is an approach to language teaching that emphasizes interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of study.
• It emphasizes the ability to communicate the meaning of the message, instead of concentrating on grammatical perfection.
• Language learners learn practice the target language through the interaction with one another and the instructor, the study of “authentic texts” and through the use of the language both in class and outside of class.
• Learners converse about personal experiences with partners, and instructors teach topics outside of the realm of traditional grammar, in order to promote language skills in all types of situations. This method also claims to encourage learners to incorporate their personal experiences into their language learning environment, and to focus on the learning experience in addition to the learning of the target language.
• The goal of language education is the ability to communicate in the target language. This is in contrast to previous views in which grammatical competence was commonly given top priority
• It also focuses on the teacher being a facilitator, rather than an instructor.
• The approach is a non-methodical system that does not use a textbook series to teach the target language, but rather works on developing sound oral/verbal skills prior to reading and writing.
• The class activities under this method includes grammar drills, reading and writing activities, role-play, opinion sharing, group work and information gap.
• Errors are tolerated and treated as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills.
• Proper situations should be created by the teacher so as to promote communication in the classroom.
• The social contexts of the communicative situations are essential for giving meaning to the utterances.
• The target language is a vehicle for classroom communication, not just the object of study. Hence, attention is given to teaching language for communication.
• Accuracy and Fluency activities play very important role in Communicative Competence.
• In CLT, languages are learned not only as skills but also as social behavior, by using tasks that learners would also do in the real world.
• Learning a language is interactive, co-operative, learner-centered and content-based, but the approach does not mean that learning a second language involves just ‘conversation‘.
• The ‘3 Ps’ teaching model are Presentation, Practice and Production.

How is feminine writing different from women’s writing?

History shows that many writings of women were centered around man. She wrote what society expected from her, not her experiences or true emotions. Writers like Jane Austen and Emily Bronte gave prior importance to the standards of society and reflected their own style of elitist patriarchal feminism in their works. Especially Austen reflected the idea that women is complete only when she is married. Many so called feminist writers exposed women’s lacks and they secured a place in women’s writing.

L’Ecriture Féminine is a French feminist theorist movement that literally translated means Feminist or feminine writing. This term was originally coined by Hélène Cixous, who wished to create a sort of language or new type of writing that allowed women to express themselves. Cixous and other practitioners of écriture féminine states that the very structures of Western language exclude women and can function only through the silencing of women and the repression of feminine sexual drives. Feminist writing is women writing about women by creating a female based language versus a male based language, which is what most people write in. Writing has been such a patriarchal field for so long and because of this, it is hard to write as a woman about woman issues in a world of men. Cixous predominantly links female oppression, specifically the denial of female sexual pleasure, with the lack of female writing. Her wish is to freely express female sexuality and to “overturn masculine discourse”, which are the features of Ecriture Féminine theory.

There are three main writers in the Ecriture Feminine world and they are Hélène Cixous, Monique Wittig and Luce Irigaray. They all have differing opinions about what Ecriture Feminine should be defined as, but they all mostly agree that, feminist or feminine writing is a writing done from a female point of view. Cixous and Irigaray both argue that if women can express their sexuality for themselves then they can create a new viewpoint. This new type of writing would focus entirely on women and have a completely new viewpoint of a woman or a woman only.

Cixous and Feminine writing

The history clearly shows that men are capable of writing the feminine and they can create woman’s writing by erasing or rejecting the boundaries of phallocentric ideas and the practiced confining which is assigned for women within the patriarchal structures. Many works produced by men are disjointed and disturbing in terms of narration and figurative language and has mirrored one man’s ideologies and experiences. They are all connected to the coded restrictions and limitations prescribed by centuries of patriarchy. By linking writing with having a penis, these authors insist that writing, or creativity in general, is a biological act, one that is rooted in the body, and specifically in the male body.
Cixous stated that women should surrender to their own bodies and to write with their bodies in order to produce real, strange, cyclical, non-linear texts of fiction and literature by introducing a concept called ecriture feminine. Ecriture feminine can never be codified. Critics opined that it is in a constant state of flux, ever-changing, ever-moving, bringing forth delights, disorganization and strangeness in ever changing ways. Cixous writes that “Nearly the entire history of writing is confounded with the history of reason […] it has been one with the phallocentric tradition” Woman has been ashamed due to repression by patriarchal ideology. Woman must “Write! Writing is for you, you are for you; your body is yours, take it”
Cixous believes women can most accurately tell their story by writing through their bodies. All through history women have been defined by and contained within their own bodies as a result of repressive male activity. Cixous suggests that women who have been defined by the male gaze has two options. The first option is that they can remain trapped inside themselves thereby perpetuating the passive role determined for them by the male. The second alternative women have, and the option Cixous supports, is that they can use their bodies as a tool. By using their bodies as a medium of communication, women are able to speak with the very thing that they have been confined within.
Cixous speaks positively and optimistically about women’s ability to reclaim their right to speak and write in a feminine style. She explains that the style must take on an unconventional form.
In her writing Cixous deviates from the accepted masculine style but she deliberately calls attention to the fact that she can not express her true thoughts as she feel them, by exposing the inadequacy of the current language. Since the immediate creation of a new language is not a feasible option, women are left with the option of only revealing the flaws that exist. Exposing these flaws is the only way women will be able to overcome the obstacles that are constructed by a patriarchal society. Sahe says “Language is the repressor of woman as it is governed by the governing masculine order”.
In The Laugh of the Medusa Cixous cries for a dismantlement of this structured alien discourse by saying woman must be together as woman and not allow the phallogocentric, male dominated world to prevent us, as woman, from being heard and recognized. Therefore she inscribes a form of writing for woman, with her own language, syntax and structure.

M.G. Vassanji as a Diasporic Writer

M.G. Vassanji is a diasporic Canadian writer who depicts the double migration of his South Asian Characters. Vassanji comes in the second category of diaspora who inhabit a liminal position that defines their experience of migrancy. The larger themes he deals with are community values, individual identity, history, effect of colonialism and multiculturalism. Vassanji’s novels are the most authentic and detailed elaboration on African life which was not dealt with in earlier novels. His novels are a vehicle of self-discovery which define African identity and make the Indians re-discover their cultural roots. Vassanji seems to suggest that when one exists in between several cultures, it is necessary for him to have a distinguishing identity, in this case an in-between sense of being.Vassanji highlights in his novels a new type of culture which forms when different communities interact. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong. Vassanji’s works represent the convergence of cultures that characterizes both East Africa and Asia. The particular history of immigrant communities once or twice removed from Asia inspires his portrayal of conflicting relationships between individuals and the communities to which they belong.

Success is equally proportionate to Pain

Let’s begin by asking ourselves “what is success? Money? Power? Position? Maybe not necessarily. But, technically “Success is the state or condition of meeting a defined range of expectations.” It may be viewed as the opposite of failure. This is quite abstract to put into simplified emotions.

The criteria for success depend on context, and may be relative to a particular observer or belief system. What is considered as success from one person’s perspective can be considered as failure from a different point of view. In the end, it’s all about the parameters and the priorities which can be as distinct as it is possible.

No matter what the goal is big or small, classic or adventurous there is one thing in common “PAIN”.


No pain no gain

There is an irrefutable relationship between pain and success . Often, when we talk about motivation we leave out the concept of pain , why? because we feel the pain without any effort. Or, why would we need motivation for?

Still there are certain things we can remember or keep reminding ourselves of-


No matter where you choose to go, alone or with company , “pain will never fail to accompany you”. It will guide you, motivate you, break you, and more often than not crush you . Well, it’s not all that bad if you can handle it , you’ll come out as a polished rock!! Sounds nice right.

Nothing about success comes easy, but every painful story has the potential to have a successful ending. You may as well accept suffering as a traveling companion, rather than resist it and create more struggle. Uncertainty and stress are inevitable. Both prompt you to make adjustments to mitigate their effects, mentoring you toward further success. A little stress can push you in a positive direction. You never know until you try.

Somethings are inevitable

As you wonder through your more directionless times, you will experience intense moments of feeling lost and hopeless. It is during these times you must hold tight to your vision and take back control of your thoughts. The quickest way to derail your dreams is to quit when things look bleak. Quitting, when you are on the front lines of these critical moments, keeps you living amongst the average. The successful persevere and rise.

Discipline the most crucial tool you can use to naviage through any difficulty that arises in your journey. It helps you to do things when you refuse to.


There is a popular thought that you should keep your dreams close to your chest because if you share them you may pillage them to dream-stealers and naysayers. The human mind is programmed to believe the negative. Negative thoughts are extremely contagious and when you set out on the “Road Less Traveled”, you will have an audience full of small-minded people trying to scare you and discourage you from chasing your dreams. These are the people who want to instill so much fear in you that you shrink. You have to make yourself immune to these influences when you set out on your quest for success.

“Work quietly and let your success do the talking.”

Fight for your dreams

Reality is, people don’t tend to like other successful people. There is a jealousy that comes along with being different, standing out and humbly chasing your dreams. Small people hate those who have or do everything they lack. Dealing with jealousy can be difficult, especially if you want to maintain your relationships. Learn to let your haters make you greater.


Nine times out of ten, when you start a new venture you will go in and out of feeling utterly paralyzed. It’s because you doubt yourself. Sometimes you may doubt your knowledge, decisions you have already made and you may doubt your instincts. All of this doubt creates an internal conflict over what you need to do to move forward.

You doubt because you don’t want to make the wrong decisions and end up in an unrecoverable mistake. Keep in mind there are no unrecoverable mistakes, there are only new directions. You must push through your self-doubt and not allow it to partner up with delay. Doubt and delay, when paired, derail success.

On your journey, trust there is no such thing as wrong. The only wrong choice is not making one. You will likely always feel some level of self-doubt, but you can choose not to doubt your choice to stretch yourself and grow. Doubts are an inevitable part of succeeding. The important thing is that you act in spite of them.

Keep going

Don’t let go – because it’s worth the fight

With the right idea, attitude, and thoughts a struggle really is nothing but another essential component of your success. It all starts with you.

The vision is the prize, not the money or the end results. That is what you are really here for, isn’t it? To have an impact, to make a difference? You can only know your significance through the impact you have upon others. When you see that your success improves and positively influences the lives of others, it will all be worth it.




V. T. Bhattathiripad

V. T. Bhattathiripad was an Indian social reformer, dramatist and an Indian independence activist. He was best known for his contributions in the reformation of the casteism and conservatism that existed in the Namboothiri community. He wrote a number of books which include a play, Adukkalayail Ninnu Arangathekku. Indian independence movement was gaining popularity and Bhattathiripad participated in the Allahabad session of the Indian National Congress due to which he was expelled from his community. This prompted him to fight against casteism and he started campaigning for Brahmin widow remarriage, which was a taboo during those times.Bhattathiripad utilised his writing skills as a tool for social reforms and his writings contrasted the social changes that followed the Indian independence movement against the dormant state of Namboothiri community. The staging of his play, Adukkalayilninnu Arangathekku (From the Kitchen to the Stage), in 1929 was an important event in the social reform calendar of Kerala; the play highlighted the discriminatory rituals and practices prevalent in the Namboothiri community, especially the plight of Namboothiti women. The drama also marked a deviation in Malayalam theatre from historical plays to social dramas.We do not find any literary work having introduced such a basic change in the minds of people capable of bringing about a revolutionary impact.

Despite marriage reform being the central theme of the work, with swajathivivaham ( marriage within cast) and love marriage as the focal points, the drama subjected other important concerns of the time such as the re-alignment of inter-caste relationships, the approach towards the nationalist movement, the need of English education, the emancipation of Antarjanams etc. It clearly aimed at a refashioning of the community along with
modern ideals and a realignment of community relationships in the light of changing social equilibrium and ongoing criticism against the Nambiitiris on account of their orthodoxy. It is no wonder that VT, who considered social reform as his mission, upheld these issues in a situation when the Namboothiris, who ought to have led the society and the country, suppressed other communities by arresting their progress. The drama says that young men of namboodiri community, who dared to question the futility of Vedic education is presenting a live picture of the beast-like life to the women in their house. The drama in fact tore the hearts of the orthodox.

Contemporary reviews applauded the drama for the revolutionary changes. It brought about within the community and compared it with a bombshell. The reviews treat it as an ‘absolute farce’ dealing with worldly matters alone. The drama got appreciated for its character formation, stage arrangement, sarcasm and the skill in portraying the harem of an illam. This farce is capable of transforming the very foundations of the Nambootiri community.

It is generally treated as the first ‘social farce’ and as the pioneering venture in the progressive theatre movement in Kerala. It also came to be accepted as the first propagandist drama. In relation to both the theme and presentation, it utilized the methods of realism and was in fact an attempt at an in-depth analysis of the community through self-criticism. VT himself wrote that it aimed at burning down what was created by, and what had been imposed on,
the Nambootiris in the process of the formation of a communitarian divide in the society.

It also suffered many drawbacks if looked at from a literary point of view. It failed to stand the test of time because it was highly propaganda-oriented and hence came to have a low level of artistic value. As it focused on the contemporary and strictly communitarian issues, it could not last as a literary piece in the post-reform age. But all these defects do not detract the value of this play. The strength of the play lies in its revolutionary side and the changes that it was able to introduce in the community. Today, however, it has only historical value than as a piece of literature.

VT dedicated the work to the Antarjanams with a note “In the tender hands of the virgins”. It has been observed that the drama was created with the purpose of conversing with women. The main narrative revolves around the love affair of Madhavan and Thethi. Madhavan departs to Madras for studies and in the meanwhile Thethi’s marriage is fixed with an aged Nambootiri. Though Thethi’s father had great regard for Madhavan, the fear of committing the sin of Parivedanam discouraged him from giving his daughter in marriage to him. Madhavan completed his course of study and with the help of his friends decided to foil the marriage through a court injunction. Finally Thethi was married to Madhavan and in a meeting of the Nambzitiri Yuvajana Sangham, which is arranged to congratulate the couples, Madhavan tore out her ghosa to liberate her from seclusion.

The Color Purple

Alice Walker’s ‘The Color Purple’ is a feminist as well as a post colonial text. The oppression faced by the women characters- based on their gender and race clearly states the toxicity and victimization of that period. Walker highlights the theme of inequality between the sexes by detailing about the physical abuse, psychological trauma and the colonial objectification of the oppressed.
Novelist gives voice to many voiceless by picturing Celie’s life. She is forced to an unhappy marriage life by her father, who treated her as a sex toy. She faces more trouble from her husband and his ‘the other’ approach towards her indicates, the white norm under the system of patriarchy. The position of coloured women in this novel also has significance. They are dominant by race and inferior by gender, but tortures darker skins.
‘The Color Purple’ also portrays how the idea of societal gender construction affects the women characters and how the traps set by colonial and traditional ideologies provokes her to fit into the layer of double oppression. A post colonial feminist reading of the text questions the aspects of gender relation, gender oppression, identity crisis and colonial subordination from the perspective of a woman or the ‘doubly’ colonized. The letters can be considered as a form of response from the side of a marginalized group. Walker tries to transform a submissive homemaker- who lacks identity, to a person who can speak for herself. She creates a character named Shug Avery for helping Celie to find and to love her own self. This creates a feminine voice in her to see what is right and what is wrong.
Colonialism treated women as half human beings and as a result, the ages of suppression has been increased. This text is also a study of the representation of the victimized using post colonial feministic ideas.