Keeping up with the To-do Lists

Be Honest. Not everyone runs on lists. However, if you’re struggling to make sense of your goals, a list could save you time, energy, and the need to come up with excuses for when the thing that needs to happen, well, it doesn’t.

List-making is pretty personal. Some people border on obsessive about them. Others prefer less to-doing and fro-ing. They’d rather wing it, writing important telephone numbers on the backs of their hands or sticking Post-its to their leg, “Memento”-style.

For one thing, the act of writing out a list forces us to set concrete goals (To-do: “Take out the trash.”). This can be way more effective than thinking about vague objectives.

By creating organized to-do lists, you can prioritize the things you need to do, keep track of what still needs to be finished, and feel productive and prepared in all areas of your life.

Creating To-do list

So, here are some tips which I personally find useful.

  • Decide what medium works best for you – If your smartphone is in your hand all day every day, use the Notes application to create your to-do list. If you hate staring at a phone or computer screen, grab a pen or pencil and write your list by hand. A to-do list will not be helpful if you dread making it or using it, so choose whatever medium you prefer most. Although it does not guarantee you’ll be ticking it all off.

  • List all of the tasks that you need to accomplish – Writing absolutely everything down, you will be getting it off your mind and onto paper. It will ensure you don’t forget anything, and hopefully, it will also help your mind feel less crammed. The running list of every single task you have on your radar will be referred to as your primary list.

  • Keep it simple – There’s nothing more intimidating than a mile-long to-do list. The longer a to-do list becomes, the harder it can be to motivate yourself. But it’s human tendency to back-off at the sight of anything that seems too heavy. Simply put, Looks are important. So, chop it up if you need to but keep it sweet and simple. Create an illusion for yourself forcing you to believe it very easy and do able.

  • Meet the MIT’s ( Most important tasks) – Prioritize everything. This is the key rule and also the reason why we make a primary list. Remember, so we don’t forget anything and not jumble up the order we need the tasks to be done. Because we’ve a deadline to follow and we all know what happens when we miss one by accident.

  • Stay specific and don’t stress – We love lofty goals here. We’d love to have all our task done at once, it provides you relief, “I’m done for this week, Freedom here I come “. Nice scenario but seldom does it occur. Every list has a few tasks on it that we’ve been meaning to do for days, weeks, or maybe even years but haven’t yet. For, this we have one of the two reasons, first ” I’ll do it later, I have to do this first.” Or “What is this, I swear I’ll do it someday”. So either it’s not on your priority list or you don’t think it’s important enough to execute.

  • Be flexible to have a new start everyday – Leave your self with some wiggle room. This will provide you with the space to think, to reboot, to remain on track. Make a new list every day so the same old items don’t clog up the agenda. If something lives on the to-do list for too long, it does not get to-done, and that is to-disappointing.
Doing all the things to do

Self-discipline is a good thing: It’s a key part of maintaining balance, success, and health. But so are pleasure, relaxation, relationships, and hobbies. However, punishing yourself will lead exactly nowhere. Make sure that, among all the scheduling and listing, you block out some time for yourself, whether in the form of exercise, mindfulness, or sitting around in your pajamas.

Your to-do list should be contributing to your happiness, not dominating your life. Don’t beat yourself up if you don’t complete all of your tasks. Getting up and trying again tomorrow is the real achievement.

Hope you find this helpful!!

SOURCES

https://greatist.com/happiness/make-a-to-do-list-get-shit-done#The-final-item:-Be-kind-to-yourself

https://www.wikihow.com/Make-a-To-Do-List

Why the disintegration of Soviet Union was surprising?

Pictorial representation of USSR disintegration

Before we start on the topic here is a fun fact the Soviet Union covered the one-sixth portion of the whole world.

The Soviet Union, a group of 15 republican factions, broke up overnight and it was such a big break that even today after 30 years its tremors are being felt.

How the Soviet Union, which influenced the history, economy, ideology and technology of the 20th century, was torn apart in one night. Born of the Communist Revolution of Russia in 1917, people of at least 100 nationalities lived in the Soviet Union and they owned one-sixth of the earth. An empire that defeated Hitler, waged a cold war with America and took part in a nuclear race. Also played a role in the Vietnam and Cuban revolutions.

The empire that sent the first satellite into space and also the first man. His name was Yuri Gagarin. The Soviet Union also remained at the forefront of sports, dance, cinema, literature, art and science. Archie Brown, professor at Oxford University and an expert on Soviet policies, says, ‘The speed with which the Soviet Union broke up in a single night was astonishing to everyone.’

Many other experts, including Brown, consider many reasons responsible for the disintegration of the Soviet Union. That disintegration, which happened on a Christmas night in 1991.

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

1. Dictatorship and Centralized Governance:

The Soviet Union was formed in 1917. When the Bolshevik Revolution took place and the Russian Empire was abolished by ousting Tsar Nicholas II from power. In 1922, under the leadership of Lenin, far-flung states were merged into Russia and the USSR was officially established, headed by Vladimir Lenin. It was obvious that it would not be easy to control such a complex and diverse country.

The Soviet Union tried to become a democracy by breaking away from the Tsar’s dictatorship. But eventually dictatorship was established, with Stalin being the most prominent dictator. Later on, a kind of parliament was formed, which was called Supreme Soviet, but all the decisions were taken by the Communist Party. From choosing the head of the country, every decision was taken by a small committee of the party, which was called the Politburo.

From the time of Stalin, the party’s control over politics, economy and common life went on. Opponents were sent to Gulag. Gulag, where people were tortured. Lakhs of people died in Gulag.

2. ‘Hellish’ Bureaucracy:

Dictatorship and centralized rule also led to an extensive bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, whose control extended to every corner of society. That is, you have to go through the process of paper, stamp and identification for everything. Oxford professor Archie Brown says, this bureaucracy made the Soviet Union a difficult country.

Karl Marx

3. Failing Economy:

The economy of the Soviet Union was inspired by the principles of Karl Marx, who considered the resources of production, distribution and exchange to be the property of society. The economy ran on the basis of five year plans. Most of the population of the Soviet Union was employed in industry and agriculture.

But despite this, the Soviet Union lagged behind America in the economy. And in the 1980s, the GDP of the Soviet Union fell to half that of the United States.

4. Best Education:

Education initiation in the Soviet Union was excellent and millions of people were educated. Gradually, the restrictions on external connections were reduced and people began to know about the world. Gradually it happened that social groups of better educated people started being formed which became influential. He became an advocate of Gorbachoff’s economic reforms, which were announced in the nineties.

Gorbachoff’s Reforms:

According to Brown, although the reasons for the disintegration of the Soviet Union were many, the most important reason was Gorbachev himself. His coming to power was a big deal in itself. He came to power to change the Soviet system, that is, he was about to dig his own grave. When he became the General Secretary of the Communist Party in 1985, he began a reform program because of a poor economy and an inefficient political structure.

He started two policies named perestroika (reducing government control) and glasnost. Gorbachoff felt that this would benefit the private sector. Innovation will increase and later on foreign investment will also be in the Soviet Union. He gave the workers the right to strike so that they could demand better wages and working conditions.

Under Glasnost, there was an attempt to adopt openness and transparency. The ban on books by authors such as Solzhenitsyn and George Orwell was lifted. Political prisoners were released and newspapers were encouraged to criticize the government’s policies.

Elections were attempted for the first time and the Communist Party was involved in it:

As a result, people queued up to buy more ration. Prices started rising and people started getting upset with Gorbachoff’s rule. Gorbachev resigned on the night of 25 December of the same year, and the next day the document was signed, separating all parts of the Soviet Union.

Archie Brown says, ‘It did not happen that the economic and political crisis led to liberalization and democracy started.’ According to him it was all the opposite. Due to liberalization and democratization, the system reached a period of crisis and the Soviet Union broke up. They say that if Gorbachoff’s economic reforms had not taken place, then perhaps the Soviet Union would still exist today.

IS SUCCESS EVERYTHING?

Is it necessary to success fully to get succeed? Not necessary. It is said that even after getting successful, success is the realization of being happy is more important than success. It is saying that winning or losing doesn’t matter, it is more important that you have attempted and then you lose. What do you mean by success? Everyone has a different definition of success, which is, if you are healthy and wealthy you are successful. The actual meaning of success is something you decide for yourself. Success could be the thing you love to do, it could mean career progression also. Success is to do whatever you wanna do which makes you happy. It is true that the more success we receive, the more we tend to expect and the definition of success rises. Which leads to hard work.
As we are living in the society, the mindset of people works accordingly to the society, what society will think? will they judge? ‘if we earn less’. We are focused on what society thinks so in that fear we tend to work hard so that, we can fulfill the expectations they have created for us.
Success is the only thing that doesn’t get without failure. For a lot of people, success seems to be an easy spot. But without embracing, perseverance and learning from the failure, and taking something positive from many people, those who have experienced. Sometimes people get lucky, but success comes in a very short period but with no struggle is short-lived. If success is so easy to grasp, then till now everyone should be wealthy enough.

Failure can be sometimes embarrassing to your ego, but failure doesn’t mean to be sad and quit things up, to be a successful person, one has to face many failures which teach us air flaws and our mistakes which will make us better people and will also cultivate the courage. While being successful there will be a lot of outcomes, some less to learning. This will change us, that is why this is important than outcomes.
Everyone should truly believe that everyone will be and are successful. Success isn’t just essential but it is vital. It should not be increased or decreased for anyone, do whatever makes you happy.

Indian Education System

Indian Education System

Rukmini Banerjee, the incharge of Pratham which is an organization striving to improve the quality of education in India. Pratham publishes an annual survey for the same known as ‘Annual Status of Education Report’ popularly known as ASER. For their 2018 report ASER surveyed a total of 546,527 children across 596 districts in rural India. For this survey the ASER staff gives children reading and basic calculations as test. And if you aren’t familiar with rural India, the results may seem shocking. About 50.3 per cent children studying in 5th standard were unable to read a paragraph from 2nd standard textbook. Only 4.4 per cent of students aged between 7 to 16 years are recorded not going to school which implies that children are merely going to school and not actually learning.

The problems of the Indian education system maybe classified as

  1. Design of the system
  2. Governance

Design of the system (Low learning)

Economists Karthik Murlidharan and Abhijeet Singh conducted tests with children from government schools in Delhi and came up with results reciprocating those of ASER. For example their survey showed that only two students in 6th standard had the learning level of an average 6th standard student. Other students of the 6th standard had learning levels that of an average 5th, 4th and even that of 1st standard student. According to researchers majority of the students are lagging behind the curriculum.

Any education system shall work to fulfil two major purposes i.e., Skill development and Filtering students for higher studies. Whereas the Indian education system works more like a factory system which has set really high standards to produce students which would further perform well at various Indian competitive examinations. Our education system does not focus much on the skill development of the students. It is basically a ‘one size fits all’ kind of a system where students are supposed to pass out of school or college even when they haven’t learnt properly. This pressure leads to cheating, bribing and other such malpractices observed during the major examinations. This system isn’t limited to schools. The same situation prevails in many universities as well. This is the major reason why many surveys say majority of Indian graduates are unemployable.

Governance

A government school teacher Sangita Kashyap came to lime light in the year 2014 as she set a record of being absent for 23 years from her job. But she isn’t an exception. Survey conducted by Karthik Murlidharan shows that 23.6 per cent of teachers were absent during unannounced visits, and it is estimated to salary cost of about 1.5 billion dollars per year to the Indian government. Due to this absenteeism Delhi government installed CCTV cameras in all classrooms of government schools. But teachers aren’t the only one’s responsible, system actually makes the situation worse.

A analysis conducted by Azim Premji foundation showed that about 18 per cent of teachers were absent from classes but only 2.5 per cent were actually skipping their duty. About 9 per cent were on paid leave whereas 7 per cent were busy with official duties. According to the Right To Education (RTE) Act 220 days of study is mandatory at school but on the contrary, in 2015-16, just 42 days were spent on teaching during the academic year. This means teachers spent about 81 per cent of their time on administrative duties. Many teachers recently lost their lives to election duties in Uttar Pradesh due to the large scale negligence of Covid protocols.

Solutions

There are two major problems i.e., low learning despite going to school and further lessening of the learning potential due to administrative duties performed by teachers.

Several learning programmes in the country are working innovatively to solve the first issue. The Indian government too recognizes the issue to some extent, as a result it recently withdrawed its ‘no fail policy’ till class 8.

For the second issue, efforts should be made to reduce the admin duty time of teachers. This may be done using technology and hiring staff specifically for administrative tasks like poll duty.

Solving all such issues, one at a time, lead us to a education system that the Indian youth deserves.

Pegasus – A malicious software

Pegasus, a malicious software, has been developed in 2010 by the Israel firm, the NSO(Niv Carmi, Omri Lavie, and Shalev Hulio-company’s founders) group. It was initially discovered for iOS devices later it extended to the Android devices.

Birth of Pegasus:

2016 – Hackers send malicious link to the targeted persons(smartphones,laptops) via text messages and email. This process was given a name called “spear fishing”.

2019 – Pegasus got updated where a single missed call on WhatsApp can infiltrate a device and even delete the record of this missed call which makes it difficult for the user to know what had happened to their device.

Also in the same year, WhatsApp Pegasus exploited a bug in its code to infect more than 1,400 iPhones and Android phones. These include journalists, government officials and human rights activists. But soon WhatsApp done away with the bug.

2021 – The Pegasus Project,an international investigative journalism effort, proved that various governments used the software to spy on opposition politicians, government officials, activists, journalists and many other.

Working of Pegasus:

=> Once the Pegasus got installed in a device, the entire control of device is in hacker’s hands. It gives access to hacker to gather data and forwards to the third party without the consent of the user.

=> It can read messages, emails, take screenshots, access contacts and know browser history.

=> Through hijacking, hacker gets access to microphone and camera turning it into a real-time surveillance device through capturing all activities in the phone’s vicinity.

=> Pegasus sends back the private data of the user to the hacker including contact list, calendar events, passwords, text messages and live voice calls from popular messaging apps thus accentuating the chances of user being blackmailed.

=> It is a software that can compromise a phone without the user having to click on a single link called “Zero-link-attack“.

=> Business executives, activists politicians, heads of state, many Royal Family members of Arab, journalists were found to be on the targeted list.

How to detect:

Mobile Verification Tool: A tool to check whether your phone has been targeted to attack or not and works with both iOS devices and Android. It has been developed by researchers at Amnesty International.

Measures taken to mitigate cyber crimes:

International Telecommunication Union: It is a specialized agency within the United Nations which plays an significant role in development and standardization of telecommunication and cyber security issues.

Budapest convention: An international convention which seeks to address Internet and computer crime by improving investigative techniques and increasing cooperation among nations. India is not a signatory to this convention.

Conclusion:

The government need to take certain measures to restrict the usage only for authorized agencies and purposes. Unrestricted usage will become power to hackers and a pain to the society. To reap the benefits of this software, proper implementation is necessary.

Tips of Hair Care

Spending too much on expensive shampoos, but not getting the desired results that you see in TV ads? It is mostly possible and very common, because we see overly exaggerated results on TV, since these ads are designed to attract customers. But, reality speaks a different story. Follow these easy and simple beauty tips for hair to give that luster and shine, and flaunt your hair like the models do…

TIPS AND TRICKS

1. Cleanliness is important

The most important reason for hair fall is dandruff and itchy scalp. Therefore, maintain good cleanliness for beautiful and healthy hair.

2. Avoid hot water

Skip hot water showers, because hot water will make your hair dry and brittle as it strips protective oils from your hair. Thus, prefer a temperature which is just a bit warmer than your body temperature.

3. For that shiny soft hair

Prepare a mixture of 1 cup of your daily conditioner and 2-3 tablespoons of honey. Apply this mixture evenly on your wet hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and wash it off thoroughly. This mixture will close down your hair’s cuticle and give your hair that amazing shine.

4. For bouncy hair

Apply a one to one mixture of warm water and apple cider vinegar to your hair. Rinse it thoroughly after 5 minutes to get rid of the apple cider smell.

5. For strong hair

Use almond oil to treat dry and damaged hair. It is a very simple procedure, pour some almond oil in a bowl and heat it for 40 seconds. Then evenly distribute on your hair. Leave it for 30 minutes and then rinse normally with shampoo and conditioner using cold water.

6. Moisturize your hair

Pour a little beer in your wet hair. Distribute evenly and massage your scalp with your fingers for 20 minutes. Then rinse it thoroughly to get rid of the beer smell. Do this procedure once a week for salon smooth hair. It is recommended that people with sinus and cold should avoid using this treatment.

7. Let your hair air-dry

Allow your hair to dry by itself instead of using a blow-dryer or hot rollers. Using this artificial mode of drying technique will make your hair more brittle and dry. If you have no time to let your hair air dry, then use blow-dryer sparingly and make sure you use a warm setting instead of a hot setting.

8. Good diet

Drink lots of water and eat a healthy diet of raw fruits and vegetables. The most effective home treatment for hair care is a healthy diet. You are what you eat, and what you put into your body will be reflected on the outside.

Sources:

https://www.femina.in/beauty/hair/homemade-hair-care-tips-109902.html

https://www.lorealparisusa.com/beauty-magazine/hair-care/all-hair-types/best-hair-care-tips.aspx

Sati Pratha

Hinduism, being the oldest religion, has many rituals in it. Sati, burning a woman alive with her husband’s dead body, is the most influential and controversial ritual. Many other religions had similar ill practices in the past such as witch-hunting (women were hanged to death for being suspicious of witches), and female genital mutilation. It was declared illegal in 1829 but even today we see women committing it, which might be voluntarily or forcefully.

If it was a voluntary act, then it was considered to be the greatest form of devotion of a wife toward her husband. As time passed sati became a forced practice.

Origin Of Sati Pratha

We have read about sati pratha and how it was abolished in our history books but do you know how it was originated in the first place.

As per mythology, Sati was the name of the wife of lord shiva. Sati was the daughter of Daksha who was the son of Brahma. Her father never respected shiva and often despised him. So to protest against the hatred that her father held for her husband she burnt herself. While she was burning she prayed to be reborn as shiva’s wife again. Thus this did happen and her new incarnation was called Parvati.

There is no mention of sati pratha in any ancient Indian scriptures like  The Valmiki Ramayana and Vedas. In Mahabharata, Madhuri the second wife of Pandu, burned herself to death after her husband died. She considered herself responsible for his death as she could not save her husband from the poison. Her sacrifice was not the result of any sati pratha but sheer love toward her husband.

If you look in Ramayana and Mahabharata you can see many women who lost their husbands did not perform sati. In Ramayana, Sita had to undergo fire to prove her chastity. But there is no correlation cause sati happens when the husband dies but Ram or Shiva never dies in those stories.

There is a resemblance between sati and jauhar (another form of sati performed by Rajput women). Jauhar was a mass suicide performed by women to avoid capture by Muslim invaders. Sati on other hand is performed by a widow.

Spread of Sati Pratha

This tradition has been followed since ancient times in India. Sati was considered as a dignified sacrifice, a way to clean the sins of the spouse and his family but some considered it as a private matter of spouses who follow his/her loved one into death, and with time it became public. Initially, the practice of sati was confined to the rural families of Kshetriya cast and only later spread to the lower caste becoming widely practiced among all social classes. The window of royal families prefers dying rather than being captivated by the soldiers who defeated their king in the war.

Abolition of Sati

Many Hindu scholars and poets have condemned the sati tradition. The first ones who tried to put a stop to this inhuman tradition were the Muslim rulers of India, namely the Mughals and Nizams. But the attempt was unsuccessful as they were criticized by many people. However, in the 19th century, during British rule in India, Sati was abolished by the governor of India at that time, William Bentick.

Improve Your Personal Development Skills – Tips to help you!

Nowadays, merely having a qualification isn’t enough in the job market. To land that dream job, it’s vital that you have specific skills, especially soft skills, for example, being able to communicate well or to work in a team.

Generally speaking, you don’t acquire these skills at university, but you do acquire them in daily working life. But how? Let’s take a look at some useful methods, tips, and examples.

What are skills?

Skill – an ability to perform a specific task or activity to a high level of proficiency

It’s possible to acquire and hone skills to perfection (or near‑perfection) through practice and dedication. Learning and mastering a skill involves far more than just a theoretical understanding of facts or concepts.

Personal development skills can be traits or qualities you already have or ones you can gain through education and training. Individuals will value different personal development skills depending on their goals, but here are some examples of skills people commonly practice to facilitate personal growth.

  • Communication
  • Interpersonal
  • Organization
  • Problem-solving
  • Self-confidence
  • Adaptability
  • Integrity
  • Work ethic
  • Leadership

Communication

Communication includes your ability to speak, write and listen. With these skills, you can understand what others are saying and feeling and also convey your own ideas and feelings. Good communicators can speak clearly and confidently, using a tone that is positive and appropriate for the situation.

Interpersonal

Also called people skills or social skills, interpersonal skills are the verbal and nonverbal behaviors and reactions to interactions with other people. They affect your ability to build relationships and make impressions on others in social situations.

Organization

Organization skills include the tidiness of your physical and digital spaces as well as your ability to plan, schedule and prioritize. Good organization can help save time, prevent miscommunications and improve efficiency.

Problem-solving

Problem-solving is your ability to handle challenging or surprising situations. Good problem-solvers can stay calm when they encounter obstacles and assess all their options to find the best solution.

Self-confidence

Self-confidence is the belief in your abilities, actions and decisions. If you have confidence in yourself, you might be more likely to pursue ambitious goals, try new things and believe you can succeed.

Adaptability

Adaptability is your ability to adjust quickly and easily to new things. People who handle change well often get along with a variety of personalities and thrive in any environment. They can also remain calm in surprising situations.

Integrity

People tend to trust those who are honest and stand by their values. Integrity means doing what is right and telling the truth, even if doing so presents challenges. Having integrity can lead to a good reputation and opportunities for advancement.

Work ethic

Work ethic includes not only hard work but also reliability, responsibility, quality, determination and discipline. People with good work ethic tend to be productive and have a positive attitude.

Leadership

Leadership is the ability to guide people. Good leaders can motivate others and help them reach a shared goal. They build confidence and improve morale.

Between stimulus and response there is a space. In that space is our power to choose our response. In our response lies our growth and our freedom.

Viktor Frankl

THE ART OF LOVING THYSELF .

In this fast pacing world with ever increasing competition , the struggle to be at the top , and everybody’s desire to become ‘successful’ , we are slowly becoming so very self critical and judgemental towards ourselves . We are so desperate to be the very best that we are blindly running in this rat race and not realising that we all have our own paths that we need to follow . We are slowing loathing ourselves for everything that we are not , instead of loving ourselves for all that we are . This constant comparison that we do with others is just not the healthy way of becoming a better version of ourselves . Here are a few points to remember before you start comparing and critiquing yourself:-

Photo by Mike Chai on Pexels.com

EACH ONE OF US IS UNIQUE- We all have different sets of talents and things that we are good at , be it dancing , singing , writing , photography , or being academically gifted. We just need to find out what we are good at and what we like instead of comparing ourselves . You might have the qualities of becoming a great teacher and you might be unaware of it , or have an inclination towards cars or computers . Your likes and dislikes makes you more unique and more YOU , so embrace it and find your uniqueness. This will help you find your own path in life and automatically halt the comparisons .

DIVINE TIMING – We often want instant results and are impatient . Seeing our friends getting their dream jobs or succeeding makes us feel bad about ourself because we seem to be exactly where we were, despite the hardwork and dedication . This can be frustrating , but you will succeed when its your time to.This statement seems pretty phoney, but its not ,there is room for everyone to succeed , we just need. to be patient and continue to persevere. Our time will come .

WE ALL ARE ON DIFFERENT BOATS- Its true , we are all on different boats , with different sets of obstacles and challenges , so its not practical to compare each other . Every human is dealing with problems that differ from ours. We must understand this and realise that just like there is no comparing between the sun and moon , we humans can’t be compared either.

ITS IMPORTANT TO FAIL SOMETIMES – After failing a test or a job interview we tend to feel a deep sense of disappointment and tend to levitate towards self doubt and fall in the labyrinth of comparing ourselves . But it’s imperative to know that its okay to fail sometimes and its actually good . Failure is a good teacher and helps us understand the areas we need to work on . So next time you fail at something , try to learn from it instead of hating yourself.

ISIS -THE EGYPTIAN GODDESS

Egyptian goddess


-Aastha Joshi


Isis is an Egyptian goddess who lacked her own dedicated temples but grew as one of the most important deities of ancient Egypt. Her cult subsequently spread throughout the Roman Empire, and Isis was worshipped from England to Afghanistan. She is still revered by pagans today. she was most often represented as a beautiful woman wearing a sheath dress and either the hieroglyphic sign of the throne or a solar disk and cow’s horns on her head. she was a principal deity in rites connected with the dead; as magical healer, she cured the sick and brought the deceased to life; and as mother, she was a role model for all women. Occasionally she was represented as a scorpion, a bird, a sow, or a cow. she is mentioned many times in the Pyramid Text, in which she offers assistance to the dead king. The priests of Heliopolis, followers of the son god re, developed the myth of Isis. This told that Isis was the daughter of the earth god Geb and the sky goddess Nut and the sister of the deities Osiris, Seth, and Nephthys. Married to Osiris, king of Egypt, Isis was a good queen who supported her husband and taught the women of Egypt how to weave, bake, and brew beer. But Seth was jealous, and he hatched a plot to kill his brother. Seth trapped Osiris in a decorated wooden chest, which he coated in lead and threw into the Nile. With his brother vanished, Seth became king of Egypt. But Isis could not forget her husband, and she searched everywhere for him until she eventually discovered Osiris, still trapped in his chest. She brought his body back to Egypt, where Seth discovered the chest and hacked his brother into pieces, which he scattered far and wide. Transforming into a bird, and helped by her sister, Nephthys, Isis was able to discover and reunite the parts of her dead husband’s body-only his penis was missing. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son, Horus. Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Using her magical powers, she was able to make Osiris whole; bandaged, neither living nor dead, Osiris had become a mummy. Nine months later Isis bore him a son,Horus, Osiris was then forced to retreat to the underworld, where he became king of the dead. Isis hid with Horus in the marshes of the Nile delta until her son was fully grown and could avenge his father and claim his throne. She defended the child against attacks from snakes and scorpions. But because Isis was also Seth’s sister, she wavered during the eventual battle between Horus and Seth. In one episode Isis took pity on Seth and was in consequence beheaded by Horus. Eventually she and Horus were reconciled, and Horus was able to take the throne of Egypt. Isis was the perfect traditional Egyptian wife and mother-content to stay in the background while things went well, but able to use her wits to guard her husband and son should the need arise. The shelter she afforded her child gave her the character of a goddess of protection. Several narratives tell of her magical process, far stronger than the powers of Osiris and Re. Isis became associated with various other goddesses, including Bastet, Nut, and Hathor, and thus her nature and her powers became increasingly diverse. Isis became known, like other fierce goddesses in the Egyptian pantheon, as the “Eye of Re” and was equated with the Dog Star, Sothis. The first major temple dedicated to Isis was built by the Late Period king Nectanebo II at Behbeit el-Hagar, in the central Nile delta. Other important temples, including the island temple of Philae, were built during Greco-Roman times when Isis was dominant among Egyptian goddesses. Several temples were dedicated to her in Alexandria, where she became the patroness of seafarers. From Alexandria her cult spread to Greece and Rome. Images of Isis nursing the baby Horus may have influenced the early Christian artists who depicted the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. In many spells in the Pyramid Texts, Isis and Nephthys help the deceased king reach the afterlife. In the Coffin Texts from the Middle Kingdom, Isis appears still more frequently, though in these texts Osiris is credited with reviving the dead more often than she is. New Kingdom sources such as the Book of the Dead describe Isis as protecting deceased souls as they face the dangers in the Duat. They also describe Isis as a member of the divine councils that judge souls’ moral righteousness before admitting them into the afterlife, and she appears in vignettes standing beside Osiris as he presides over this tribunal. Late funerary texts prominently featured her mourning for Osiris, and one such text, one of the Books of Breathing, was said to have been written by her for Osiris’s benefit. [117] In Nubian funerary religion, Isis was regarded as more significant than her husband, because she was the active partner while he only passivelyreceived the offerings she made to sustain him in the afterlife. Isis continues to appear in modern esoteric and pagan belief systems. The concept of a single goddess incarnating all feminine divine powers, partly inspired by Apuleius, became a widespread theme in literature of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Influential groups and figures in esotericism, such as the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn in the late nineteenth century and Dion Fortune in the 1930s, adopted this all-encompassing goddess into their belief systems and called her Isis. This conception of Isis influenced the Great Goddess found in many forms of contemporary witchcraft. Today, reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion, such as Kemetic Orthodoxy or the Church of the Eternal Source, include Isis among the deities they revere.

Computer literacy is an essential.. find out why?

Computer literacy is the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently.
Computer literacy can also refer to the comfort level someone has with using computer programs
and other applications that are associated with computers. The precise definition of “computer
literacy” can vary from group to group. However, “computer literate” often connotes little more
that the ability to use several specific applications (such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft
Internet Explorer) for certain very well-defined simple tasks.

The great thing about computer knowledge, though, is that learning begets learning. Once you
figure out how one part works, it gets easier to dive into other parts and figure out how things
work.
And the benefits of having some basic computer knowledge under your belt extend way beyond
just the tech industry, especially in the 21st century. And here’s why:

They Make You a Better Problem-Solver

Problem-solving skills are universal and can be applied to virtually every part of your life, and
work, regardless of industry. From identifying an issue and breaking it down into parts to problems.

They Future-Proof Your Career

Virtually every career and industry is becoming more tech-reliant. From agriculture to education,
all are integrating tech into their day-to-day operations. It’s clear – those who have tech skills and
are comfortable working with technology will have a much easier time adapting to changing
expectations.

They Make You a Better Collaborator

Connecting with others from diverse backgrounds increases the ability to understand multiple
perspectives. Learning from and with others all over the world is possible with digital tools like
Twitter and Skype, to name a few. Students can work beyond their classroom walls to find
answers to real problems. By engaging in this type of collaboration, individuals are even more
prepared to participate successfully in our global economy.

They Make You a Well-Rounded Individual

Having a well-rounded set of skills and knowledge will serve you well, both professionally and
personally. Being able to list basic tech skills on your resume will make you more attractive to
virtually every employer out there, regardless of industry. And as more and more people become
involved in the tech industry, having at least a passing knowledge of what it’s all about can come
in handy when networking personally or professionally.

They Make You a Better Leader

Companies are now reliant on technology and as a manager or CEO, it’s important to be able to work effectively with either a department that handles web development or with an outside
agency that handles the same. And if you don’t know the first thing about the jobs those
departments or agencies do, it makes it a lot harder to work with them in a way that’s both
efficient and productive.

The greatest enemy of knowledge is not ignorance, it is the illusion of knowledge.

Stephen Hawking

Mathematics- Ancient Mathematics History

Mathematics, the science of structure, order, and relation that has evolved from elemental practices of counting, measuring and describing the shapes of objects. It deals with logical reasoning and quantitative calculations, and its development has involved an increasing degree of idealization and abstraction of its subject matter. Since the 17th century, mathematics ha been an indispensable adjunct to the physical sciences and technology, and in more recent times it has assumed a similar role in the quantitative aspects of the life sciences.

In many cultures under the stimulus of the needs of practical pursuits, such as commerce and agriculture mathematics has developed far beyond basic counting. This growth has been greatest in societies complex enough to sustain these activities and to provide leisure for compensation and the opportunity to build on the achievements of earlier mathematics.

All mathematics systems (for example, Euclidean geometry) are combinations of sets of axioms and of theorems that can be logically deduced from the axioms. Inquiries into the logical and philosophical basis of mathematics reduce to questions of whether the axioms of a given system ensure its completeness and its consistency.

As a consequence of the exponential growth of science, most mathematics has developed since the 15th century, and it is a historical fact that, from the 15th century to the late 20th century, new developments in mathematics were largely concentrated in Europe and North America. For these reasons, the bulk of this article is devoted to European development since 1500. This does not mean, however, that development, that development elsewhere have been un-important. Indeed, to understand the history of mathematics in Europe, it is necessary to know its history at least in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, in ancient Greece, and in Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 15th century. The way in which these civilizations influenced one another and the important direct contributions Greece and Islam made to later developments.

India’s contributions to the development of contemporary mathematics were made through the considerable influence of Indian achievements on Islamic mathematics during its formative years. A separate article, South Asian Mathematics, focuses on the early history of mathematics in the Indian subcontinent and the development there of the modern decimal place-value numeral system. The article East Asian mathematics covers the mostly independent development of mathematics in China, Japan, Korea ad Vietnam. The substantive branches of mathematics are treated in several articles.

Ancient mathematical sources

It is important to be aware of the character of the sources for the study of the history of mathematics. The history of Mesopotamian and Egyptian mathematics is based on the extant original documents written by scribes. Although in the case of Egypt these documents are few, they are all of a type and leave little doubt that Egyptian mathematics was, on the whole, elementary and profoundly practical in its orientation. For Mesopotamian mathematics, on the other hand, there are a large number of clay tablets, which reveal mathematical achievements of a much higher order than those of the Egyptians. The tablets indicate that the Mesopotamian had a great deal of remarkable mathematical knowledge , although they offer no evidence that this knowledge was organized into a deductive system. Future research may reveal more about the early development of mathematics in Mesopotamian or about its influence on Greek mathematics.

In modern times the invention of printing has largely solved the problem of obtaining secure texts and has allowed historians of mathematics to concentrate their editorial efforts on the correspondence or the un-published works of mathematicians. However, the exponential growth of mathematics means that, for the period from 19th century on, historians are able to treat only the major figures in any detail. Mathematics like any other human activity has its own fashions, will look like a wave of the future.For this reason, the present article males no attempt to assess the most recent developments in the subjects.

FEMINISM AND WHY DO WE NEED IT

Along with worldwide appreciation feminists have also faced criticism not only from men but also women. There are some who believe themselves to be Feminism but are still not au Courant with the actual meaning of Feminism and practice pseudofeminism

Let’s begin by understanding what actually Feminism is, according to wikipedia “Feminism is a range of social movements, political movements, and ideologies that aim to define and establish the political, economic, personal, and social equality of the sexes.

It has been well quoted that Feminism is not about making women strong, women are already strong it’s about changing the way the world perceives that strength.

Feminism is about tackling the misogynistic mindset, the advocacy of women’s rights on the basis of the equality of the sexes . To make the world realise that no gender is superior and we should get over the deep rooted patriarchy. It’s about shutting down sexism. It is not about hating men but about keeping women equal to men. To accept the fact that a female is as capable as a male. And it is also about ditching tha fact that certain tasks are for a specific gender and the opposite gender is not worth performing them. Feminism is about accepting that women are free to make their own choices.

But why do Feminism face worldwide criticism?

• we have seen many Feminism moments worldwide aimed at equal opportunities for women. Feminism has associated with empowered, forceful and angry women, and the society finds it hard to accept words of forceful women.

• some fear that with Upliftment of women there will be imposed a great danger upon their culture and traditions. But it is wrong to change traditions which satisfy only a part and leaves the other in grief ?

• others who hate Feminism are those who presume feminism about considering women superior to men. A good lot of people who firmly believe in equal rights for both male and female but still don’t align with the word Feminism solely because they don’t accurately understand what feminism is.

It was stated by emma watson that “The more I have realized that fighting for women’s rights has too often become synonymous with man-hating. If there is one thing I know for certain, it is that this has to stop. For the record, feminism, by definition, is the belief that men and women should have equal rights and opportunities. It is the theory of the political, economic, and social equality of the sexes.”

So why exactly do we need feminism?

First of all we need feminism because a lot of men hate the idea of women getting equal opportunities as them in all fields. It is considered necessary for a man to be earning and be financially independent but the same is not necessary for women. The household chores are considered sole responsibility of the female of the house even though men also live in the same house. A male doing household chores is considered helping the female whereas for females it considered their duty.

Secondly ,We are all well aware that 1 in 3 women are sexually assaulted in India. Gang-rape, sexual assault, sexual harassment, child sexual abuse – these terms can be found daily in headlines. And even in these circumstances the patriarchal mindset becomes the bread winner by putting blame of the female for the assult faced by her. We are more concerned about our daughters getting sexuality harasses that thinking about can our son harass someone.

Next is because sexist jokes are the ones we find most funny without realising how deep patriarchal meaning they carry. A successful indipendent female is considered to be great deal, but why not same for men? Women are told what to wear what not to but why not men? Who gave men the authority to impose upon women what to wear what not to? Why do women that accept the oppressive misogyny appreciated and those who stand against it shamed?

Once there is full equality in political, economic and social life, there will be no need for the word ‘feminism’. It will simply become obsolete. As we are nowhere near this Utopia, this is why we sill need feminism.

10 Bollywood movies that redefined friendship

The feeling of having a best friend who totally gets you is irreplaceable. Everyone needs a partner in crime to talk and actually do stupid things with, one who cheers you up when you’re feeling low or one who you just have a total blast with when you hang out. We all have those special friends whom we are ready to do literally anything for.There are many ways in which friendship is portrayed in Bollywood. When it comes to movies, everyone is pretty familiar with the main genres. You’ve got your comedies, your dramas, your action films, horror movies, etc. These can then be broken down even further based on their themes. There are period dramas and romantic comedies, sci-fi action films… but one genre that is never mentioned is movies about friendship. While they are not as talked about as other genres but there are plenty of movies which have celebrated this special bond. So what does it take to classify a movie as being about friendship? Basically just a non-romantic relationship needs to be at the center of the film. Bollywood has shown friendship in many different ways till date. Few movies show the great sacrifices a person makes for his friendship while few depict the everyday scenarios that we find ourselves in with our friends. 

Best movies that have changed the definition of friendship in Bollywood:

1. 3 Idiots

3 Idiots

3 Idiots is a comedy – drama unlike any which you have seen so far. Whatever the problem in life is… just say to yourself ‘Aal Izz Well’.. This won’t solve your problems but it will give the courage to face it..” “Chase Excellence and success will follow”.. ” Life is not about getting marks, grades but chasing your dreams”.. These are the golden rules which 3 IDIOTS teaches you in a very light and entertaining way. This film showed us what a crucial influence does friendship have on a person’s life. In the movie Farhan Qureshi (R Madhavan) and Raju Rastogi (Sharman Joshi) play engineering students forced in the rat race of reaching to the top while dealing with their own personal problems. And one man named Ranchoddas “Rancho” Chanchad (Aamir Khan) completely changed their view on life. He helped Farhan gather courage to confront his father and explain the desire to pursue his career as a wildlife photographer instead of an engineer. A career he actually was interested in. He also helped Raju Rastogi defy his fears and gave him enough confident to face them head on. 

2. Sholay

Sholay

“Yeh dosti hum nahin todenge…. todenge dam magar tera saath na chhodenge…..”. These lines itself prove that this movie is all about friendship. Sholay is regarded as an all time classic and one of the most watched movies over the past century. The characters Jai (Amitabh Bachchan) and Veeru (Dharmendra Deol) are still given as examples of great friendship. The movie was a story about these two friends who are appointed by Thakur Baldev Singh (Sanjeev Kumar) the duty to protect a village which is frequently attacked by dacoits. The dacoits are however able to capture Veeru and Basanti (Hema Malini), his love interest. Jai being a true friend that he is scarifies himself just to rescue them. Nothing is bigger than sacrificing your own life for your friendship but that is exactly the kind of friend Jai was.

3. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

Kuch Kuch Hota Hai

The movie which made friendships day and the friendship band popular again… Kuch Kuch Hota Hai will always have a place in our hearts. On paper it was just a coming of the age romantic drama but for everyone who has seen it, the movie means so much more than that. Kuch Kuch Hota Hai was also the directorial debut for the maestro Karan Johar. The movie spoke about friendship in a very beautiful manner. 
“Pyar dosti hai … agar woh meri sab se achchi dost nahin ban sakti, to main usse kabhi pyar kar hi nahi sakta … kyun ki dosti bina toh pyar hota hi nahin … simple, pyar dosti hai.” This line from Kuch Kuch Hota Hai gets it absolutely spot on. Friendship is indeed the root cause for any romantic relation. In this movie, we got to witness the amazing and fun filled friendship between Rahul Khanna (Shah Rukh Khan) and Anjali Sharma (Kajol) which eventually blossoms into true love.

4. Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S

Munnabhai M.B.B.S is one of the most unorthodox version of a friendship that we have witnessed in Bollywood movies until now. Never the friendship between a goon and his loyal mate was shown in such a light.  Given that his father had wished him to be a medical doctor, he creates the faux Sri Hari Prasad Sharma Charitable Hospital (named after his father) and pretends to live in accordance with this wish whenever his father (Sunil Dutt) and mother (Rohini Hattangadi) visit him in Mumbai. Directed by Rajkumar Hirani, Munna (Sanjay Dutt) is a goon who is determined to get a doctor’s agree after his dad finds out that he isn’t a doctor, a lie that he was living since years. Well for a goon this obviously is not something easy but to help him get through it all was his best buddy Circuit (Arshad Warsi), a guy who is always ready to fulfil any desire that Munna may have. Be it getting an admission in college or even show up with an actual body just because his friend said he wanted one. The term “Jadoo Ki Jhappi” also became very popular after the movie as according to the film a simple hug has magical powers to solve any problem that a person might be facing. This movie was a great example of how friends stick with each other no matter what.

5. Rock On!!

Rock On!!

Released a decade ago, Rock on was the first Rock Musical film that was made in India. This also marked the acting and singing debut of Farhan Akhtar. Rock On!! begins in Mumbai, with the rock band Magik, in 1998. Joseph (Joe) Mascarhenas (Arjun Rampal) is the lead guitarist who feels the necessity to prove his worth as a musician. Aditya Shroff (Farhan Akhtar) is the lead singer who rebelled against his well-to-do family to play music. Rob Nancy (Luke Kenny) who plays keyboards and Kedar Zaveri a.k.a. KD/”Killer Drummer” (Purab Kohli) comprise the remainder of the band. They manage to win a competition in which the winner gets to release their very own music album and the opportunity create a music video. However in the process of singing the contract, ego amongst those friends takes over and they have a fall out. 10 years later they decide to reunite the band for another show. Joe’s wife however holds a grudge against the band and forces him to take up a guitar playing job on cruise ship. In the end, when Joe discovers that Rob has a brain tumour and his last wish is to perform with magic once again, without any hesitation Joe comes through for his friend to fulfil his one last wish.

6. Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti

Rang De Basanti is a drama film which was written and directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra. The literal tittle of the film translates to “Paint me with the colours of spring.” It features an ensemble cast comprising Aamir Khan, Siddharth Narayan, Soha Ali Khan, Kunal Kapoor, R. Madhavan, Sharman Joshi, Atul Kulkarni and British actress Alice Patten in the lead roles. Although the film’s primary theme was based on patriotism, it gave an excellent example as to how deep of a bond do friends have and the extent they are willing to go to for their friends. The story is about a British documentary filmmaker who is determined to make a film on Indian freedom fighters based on diary entries by her grandfather, a former officer of the Indian Imperial Police. Upon arriving in India, she asks a group of five young men to act in her film although they weren’t interested in the idea for acting on a documentary on the country. They gradually begin to realize that their own lives are quite similar to the characters they portray in the documentary and that the state of affairs that once plagued the revolutionaries continues to torment their generation. So just like the documentary, these group of friends unite in a revolt against the leaders with the aim to get the truth out in the open which saw their friends sacrifice his life for the country due to the inefficiency of the government.

7. Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani

Yeh Jawaani Hai Deewani is probably remembered for the sizzling chemistry between Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone but the film also showed how important friendships are in one’s life. Along with Ranbir Kapoor and Deepika Padukone which were seen for the second time together after Bachna Ae Haseeno, this film also starred Aditya Roy Kapur and Kalki Koechlin who were seen as Ranbir Kapoor’s close buddies. The three friends were shown as extremely close and were together since the days of their college. Even after when Kabir Thappar (Ranbir Kapoor) meets them again after a long gap at Aditi Mehra’s (Kalki Koelchin) wedding they are still close as ever. The movie gave a very beautiful message of valuing your friends. It went on to prove that despite having everything you need in life, if you don’t have friends your happiness is incomplete. We must learn to value our friends before it gets to late.

8. Dil Chahta Hai

Dil Chahta Hai

Look around and we bet your group definitely has one Akash, Sameer or Sidharth. Because these were not just characters but real people like us. Dil Chahta Hai is a movie that went on to change Bollywood friendships forever. Who would have thought that the story of three close friends and their messed up lives would connect so well with the generation and remain in everbody’s heart even 16 years later. Dil Chahta Hai can truly be regarded as the game changer for mainstream Hindi cinema. It proved that you don’t need a typical Hero and Heroine pairing for making a commercially successful Bollywood movie. The reason why Dil Chahta Hai has such a special place in all our hearts is because it is so relatable in every aspect. The chemistry between Aamir Khan, Saif Ali Khan and Akshaye Khanna in the movie gave us an accurate reflection of how we talk and behave when with friends. The amazing direction of the movie made it hard to believe that it was Farhan Akhtar’s first film. The trademark scene in which Aamir, Saif and Akshaye gaze at the sun as they are contemplating life and then moments later look at each other and burst out laughing pretty much sums up the film.


9. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara

Zoya Akhtar’s Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara is a perfect salute to friendship. It is a journey of three friends who go on a road trip and face the highs and lows of life together. Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara saw Hrithik Roshan (a successful investment banker), Abhay Deol (a wealthy businessman) and Farhan Akhtar (a writer from a modest background) as friends who are not bothered about each other’s family backgrounds. In fact, not only do they have different backgrounds but also contrasting personalities. While Farhan is an extrovert and fun loving, Hrithik is serious and introvert. Despite these differences, they are best of friends who want to be with each other through their ups and downs. They fought with each other, played pranks on others, had their emotional moments, confided in each other, had immense faith in each other and the sport they chose, went on a road trip, stayed awake all night and had hell lot of fun. Hrithik, Farhan and Kabir were perfect as the characters. In the movie, the three friends during their road trip were shown underwater diving, sky diving and running from bulls at the the San Fermin festival which not only showed the love these three friends had for adventure, but also justified how they conquered their fear and learnt to live in the present.

10.Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho

Kal Ho Naa Ho was a movie that taught us to live life to the fullest. The story was about Naina Catherine Kapur (Preity Zinta), a pessimistic and uptight MBA student who lives in New York City with her widowed mother. With the burden of so many responsibilities and the duty to fulfil them, Naina somewhere forgets to enjoy her own life. And during this phase in her life she comes across a special friend in the form of Aman Mehra (Shah Rukh Khan), a person who wins her heart as with the help of his attitude he begins to solve the problems in Naina’s life and also teaches her to enjoy life again. As Aman learns about his cancer and the limited time that he has left, he tries to make two close friends Rohit Patel (Saif Ali Khan) and Naina fall in love as he does not want Naina to face the burden of his death. He sacrificed his love for her because he valued her too much.

LIVE A LIFE WITH LOVE

 KEY TO LIVE A LIFE HAPPILY 

Whether we are at home or outside , working or studying we always want someone besides us who is waiting for us . We crave for the presence of someone around us , we want a person in our life to whom we can share anything .Yes we have parents , siblings , friends and many more . But we want someone that we can claim , yes he/she is mine . 

We all want love in our life to whom we can share our day to day life , our sadness, happiness and everything .Parents are always there for us , they support us . But sometimes we can’t share something very private to them because they are not of our age. They will not understand us  . But they try there best . Same goes with our friends . They are always with us for supporting us and help us in difficult situations . 

But again what we crave for is presence of someone that we can rely on completely . Everyone needs love in there life . A partner for life . Many people find there love earlier than others and some people never find them . Some people stay heart broken forever 

CHOOSE THE RIGHT ONE 

Don’t always go for handsome ,good figure , rich person to be your love . Find the one who understands you better than anyone . Because that’s the reason you wanted someone in your life . Sometimes we loose ourselves in finding and adjusting for our perfect one . But than they are not meant for us . If we have to change ourselves for someone to accept is than they are not the right one. 

Choose the one who chooses you above all . Love yourself and let love give you power to uplift your life . Don’t waste your life on an immature person , to destroy your life completely.  

Mirabai Chanu: India’s Newest Olympic Medalist

On the 24th of July, 2021, history was made at the Tokyo International Forum. Saikhom Mirabai Chanu just won India her first medal in the ongoing 2020 Tokyo Olympics in the category of Weightlifting in Women’s 49 kg by claiming the silver medal and earning India it’s highest and second medal in weightlifting after Karnam Malleswari’s bronze medal in the 2000 Sydney Olympics.

Saikhom Mirabai Chanu was born on the 8th of August, 1994 at Nongpok Kakching. It is a village around 30 kms to the east of Imphal, the capital city of Manipur. She belongs to the Meitei, an ethnic group of people who are native of Manipur. Her family consists of her parents and five other siblings; three sisters and two brothers. Her father is a government employee contracted with the publics work department, while her mother sells samosas. Out of all their children, Mirabai was the only child who decided to pursue sports as a profession. Her athletic prowess came to light in her early childhood. According to her mother, a young Mirabai, then in class 6 had told her that she would one day play in the Khuman Lampak Stadium While Mirabai initially wanted to pursue archery, she was unable to do so due to her lack of height (Mirabai Chanu is 4”11). Her weightlifting prowess was known since her early childhood, as a twelve-year-old Mirabai had no difficulty in lifting and carrying weights which even her elder brother had difficulty in trying to pick up. This weightlifting prowess of her inspired her to take up the sport of weightlifting.

Mirabai Chanu with her family
Mirabai Chanu with her family

Mirabai’s first major win in her career as a weightlifter came in the 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth Games. She competed in the Women’s 48 kg category and won the silver medal. While Mirabai qualified for and competed in the 2016 Rio Olympics, she was unsuccessful in her endeavor. However, she made a stunning comeback from that defeat the next year in the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships in the Women’s 48 kg category. She won two medals: Gold and Silver. Mirabai won Gold by lifting 109 kg in Clean and Jerk and Silver by lifting 85 kg in Snatch. Her total lifting of lifting 194 kg in total created a record.

Mirabai winning Gold at the  2017 World Weightlifting Championships
Mirabai winning Gold at the 2017 World Weightlifting Championships

In the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games, Mirabai won the first medal with a Gold medal by lifting a total of 196 kg; 110 kg in Clean and Jerk and 85 kg in Snatch. This set a new record for the Commonwealth Games in her weight category. In the 2019 World Weightlifting Championship, Mirabai set a new national record in Women’s 49 kg by lifting a total of 201 kg (87 kg Snatch and 114 kg Clean and Jerk). On the 17th of April 2021, at the 2020 Asian Weightlifting Championship, she set a new world record for Clean and Jerk by lifting 119 kg. She won a bronze medal here. By June 2021, she was second in the rankings for Women’s 49 kg and was the only Indian weightlifter who qualified for the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.

Mirabai's Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games
Mirabai’s Gold medal at the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games

On the 24th of July 2021, Mirabai won the Silver medal in the Women’s 49 kg category by lifting 202 kg and created history. She succeeded Karnam Malleswari as the second Indian woman weightlifter to win an Olympic medal. Mirabai holds the honor of winning the highest medal in the weightlifting category in the Olympics that India has ever won. She also set a new Olympic record in the Clean and Jerk category by lifting 115 kg.

Mirabai's historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics
Mirabai’s historical Silver medal at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics

Mirabai has stated that her triumph at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics is a ‘dream come true’ for her.

The Yellow Wallpaper

‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’ by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, begins with the narrator describing the yellow wallpaper as the worst paper she had ever seen. The narrator of “The Yellow Wallpaper” begins to write when she looks to be suffering from postpartum depression. The narrator appears to have discovered some advantages to writing about her despair. She frequently refers to writing as a form of expression “a sigh of release’ for her She’s referring to some sort of mental relaxation. She is attempting to dispute her husband’s insistence on a “rest cure:” “This necessitates her staying at home and resting all day. She fights her own feelings to some extent, but she recognizes their existence, at least at the start of the novel. She acknowledges the need of valuing her own views and feelings, as well as the need to express herself, up to a degree. In the beginning of the story, she maintains her imagination and, at least in her writing, provides some resistance to her husband’s beliefs. She begins to suppress her imaginative thoughts and beliefs in order to outwardly accept her husband’s scientific ideals. Her husband/doctor, on the other hand, bans her from expressing herself, indicating a lack of communication between them.

The mental health of the narrator is deteriorating. Her husband and doctor discourage her from writing because they believe it will exacerbate her mental instability, but she continues to secretly record her thoughts. Meanwhile, her thoughts and ideas continue to flood in unchecked, but she no longer has a healthy means of dealing with them. The narrator has reached a point where only a complete change in treatment will save her from mental collapse. Even in John’s absence, the narrator becomes progressively dejected and thus less willing to write as a result of John’s continual discouragement of writing and other forms of self-expression. Nonetheless, she feels driven to continue authoring this account when she can, and finds it liberating to express herself. Unfortunately, journaling serves as her only source of solace, as she is unable to express her thoughts—even about her own treatment—otherwise, and this case demonstrates that it is insufficient to maintain mental health.

“Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” – P. P. Raveendran

P. P. Raveendran’s article “Nationalism, Colonialism and Indian English Literature” attempts to study how a nation is constructed by the writer through their works. The essayist describes nationalism as an ‘awakening of a nation to self-consciousness’. It differs from the colonial forms of domination and he states that English literature appeared as a subject in the curriculum of the colonies before it was institutionalized in its home country. The emergence of Indian English Literature was an Indian response to both nationalism and national movement. Some writers used English for writing because of the universal acceptance of this language; so that their works would reach more hands. Others wanted to prove their proficiency in English through their works. They indirectly state that they can stand before everyone even though once they are considered uncivilized.


P. P. Raveendran talks about the evolution of Indian English Literature by tracing its history. The first book written by an Indian in English was “Travels of Dean Mahomet”, a travel narrative by Sake Dean Mahomet published in English in 1793. He tries to compare the writings of early Indian writers with modern writings. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote “Rajmohan’s Wife” and published it within the year 1864. It is the primary Indian novel written in English. Rajaram, an Indian philosopher, and writer authored “Kanthapura” and “The Serpent and The Rope”, which are Indian in terms of their storytelling qualities. Kisari Mohan Ganguli translated “The Mahabharata” into English. Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and translated his own works into English. He gives the examples and writing styles of some of the Indian English writers like R.K. Narayan, Mulk Raj Anand, Raja Rao, Kiran Desai, V.S. Naipaul, etc. He also compares Sarojini Naidu’s poem with Kamala Das’s poem and says that Naidu’s is highly ‘orientalized’.