Penicillin, which is now an essential element of our antibacterial arsenal had a huge influence on the twentieth century’s second half. Deep-fermentation techniques, which were established largely for the synthesis of Penicillin during WWII, paved the way for the creation of medications and aided the emergence of the young biotechnology sector in the 1970s. In the presence of blood, pus, and bodily fluids, it is effective against some gram-positive bacteria. It is soluble in water, acetone, ethyl alcohol, and ether, but less so in benzene, chloroform, and other organic solvents.
It is a secondary metabolite, like other antimicrobials, and is only generated in the stationary phase. The industrial manufacturing may be divided into two processes: upstream and downstream.
When the development of the fungus is hindered by stress, it produces certain species of Penicillium. Penicillin production is likewise restricted by feedback in the synthesis process.
Because the by-product L-lysine hinders homocitrate synthesis, exogenous lysine should be avoided in its manufacture.
The cells are cultivated using a process known as fed-batch culture, in which the cells are continually exposed to strain, which is necessary for inducing its synthesis. It’s also crucial to consider the carbon sources available: glucose inhibits its synthesis, but lactose does not. The pH of the phases, as well as the amounts of nitrogen, lysine, phosphate, and oxygen, must all be monitored closely.
THE FERMENTATION PROCESS
INOCULUM: The source of inoculum is master stock (spores). They are cultivated working samples are immersed in water and mixed with wheat bran and nutrition solution in a flask. A four-day-old shaking flask culture is inoculated into a seed tank for three days.
THE MEDIUM: In 1958, Jackson created a medium for the manufacture of penicillin. Fermentable carbohydrate (corn steep liquor (3.5%), organic nitrogen source, lactose (3.5%), glucose (1%), potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (0.4%), calcium carbonate (as a buffer) (1%), phenyl acetic acid precursor, edible oil (0.25%), pH near 6.
As temperature is very important aspect during its production it should be around 280 degree Celsius and the supply of oxygen in the bioreactor acts as a limiting factor in its production the aeration speed should be between 3.0-1.5.
Fermentation is the method through which Penicillin is commercially produced. It’s a fed-batch technique performed in aseptic conditions in stainless steel tank reactors with capacities ranging from 30 to 100 thousand gallons. The fermentation process consists of two to three seed development phases, followed by a fermentation production phase that lasts 120 to 200 hours. For this procedure, a variety of carbon sources have been used. During the active Penicillin synthesis phase, sugar is also utilised to regulate the pH value.
During fermentation, mini-harvest techniques are commonly used. They entail removing 20-40 percent of the overall of the fermenter’s contents and replacing it with new sterile medium. This method can be done multiple times during the process without lowering the overall Penicillin yield per fermenter; in fact, it can increase it.
Penicillin is discharged into the fermentation medium and collected at the end. With a 2-5 percent increase in total extraction efficiency, whole broth extraction is best conducted at an acidic pH. Amyl, butyl, or isobutyl acetate is used to extract cooled acidified broth from a solvent.
These fermentations are extremely mechanised and computerised in today’s world. For optimum antibiotic synthesis, all essential precursors, such as ammonia, sugar, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, are carefully monitored, along with temperature and pH. During the active manufacturing phase, the pH should be between 6.4-6.8.
PURSUIT FOR A BETTER YIELD
Penicillin was first produced using the fungus Penicillium notatum toward the conclusion of World War II, yielding one milligramme per cubic decimeter. Today’s yield is 50 grammes per cubic decimeter, thanks to the use of a new species (Penicillium chrysogenum) and better extraction techniques.
These yields can be increased further by improving the medium’s composition, isolating the above- mentioned Penicillium chrysogenum, which grows better in large deep fermentation tanks, and developing a submerged culture technique for mould cultivation in large volumes of liquid medium through which sterile air is forced.
Its manufacturing has remained mostly reliant on traditional strain improvement. The most important occurrences in high-yielding Penicillium chrysogenum strains are the expansion of the Penicillin biosynthetic gene cluster between tandem repeats. There have also been created molecular methods that are not based on increasing biosynthetic gene dosages.
THE EARLY PRODUCTION OF PENICILLIN
The consortium of British and American experts came together to enhance manufacturing processes and their initial objective was to find the strains of Penicillium chrysogenum that generated the most penicillin. They quickly discovered that a Penicillium chrysogenum strain acquired from a mouldy cantaloupe at a Peoria local farmers market produced greater amounts of Penicillin than those recently tested. Scientists utilised x-rays and ultraviolet light to produce even more mutants from the farmer’s market strain.
Following those experiments, it was discovered that growing Penicillium in immersed culture media rather than on a plate surface enhanced growing efficiency, and that changing the nutrient base from sucrose to lactose or corn-steep liquor (a nutrient-rich by-product of corn processing) also increased yield.
MODERN PRODUCTION METHODS
Major advances in contemporary manufacturing processes have improved output while lowering costs. Nowadays, commercial generating strains of Penicillium chrysogenum are produced utilising submerged culture in 50,000-gallon stainless steel tanks that are continually agitated and aerated. With a 90 percent recovery rate, these commercial strains can now produce 40-50 gram of Penicillin per litre of culture. This is a huge leap forward over the first Peoria farmer’s market strain, which only produced 0.15 grams per litre and had extremely low recovery rates.
Amplification of the biosynthesis gene cluster, an increasing amount of peroxisomes, and increased levels of transporter proteins that secrete newly production out of the peroxisomes and the cell are among the genetic and cellular modifications that result in increased production in modern Penicillium strains.
Penicillin related antibiotics now generate more than $15 billion in annual sales worldwide. Despite the fact that costs are at an all-time minimum, these sales figures exist. Penicillin currently costs $10 per kilogramme, compared to $300 in 1953. Though Europe is the world’s largest manufacturer of beta-lactam antibiotics, newer production facilities are moving to China and other Asian countries with reduced labour and energy prices.
There is so much more to a glow up than just physical transformations and alterations. While physical changes do play a significant role in bringing about that sublime transformation, a positive change in one’s personality and thought process can play a vital role in adding incredible results and it absolutely shows.
An overall change for overall development is better than just striving to change your body. An overall effort on one’s part can help one become the best possible version of themselves.
Glow up is a process that one should luxuriate in order to feel amazing and be amazing.
As mentioned, a glow up entails so much more than just dressing pretty, it is a kind of recuperation process that helps one improve their wellness and become the absolute best for themselves.
Here are certain things that you should start doing, if you are thinking of an epic glow up!
1. Drink lots of water
This might just be the game changer in your quest for a heathy glow up. Drinking the right amount of water every day is absolutely imperative. Drinking water has so many positive effects on the body, that it is a therapy on its own. Water detoxes the body, helps with sunken eyes and dark circles, gives the skin a fresh, soft and plump finish. Since water helps flush out major toxins from the body, it makes you feel energized and well in general.
You can use other detoxes such as cucumber, lemon , mint with water to reap all those benefits and more.
If you are thinking of a glow up proper intake of water is an absolute must. Period.
2. Eat Healthy
Your body is what you eat. Eating healthy is vitally important to bring about any positive transformation in your life. Healthy eating is a habit that is a must for every person, more so for people looking to go further in terms of their health and wellness. Healthy eating has innumerable benefits; it can help you lose weight, increase productivity, help handle stress better, help you get beautiful and healthy skin, help get better rest and sleep, it enhances the overall fitness.
Inculcating a healthy eating regime in your life doesn’t have to be complicated, you do not go on to fancy or extreme diets, cutting off all the harmful sugar and soda would be the perfect first step towards a dazzling glow up.
3. Work out and Meditate
Exercise and meditation always go in tandem for the body and soul. Exercising leads to great results in terms of health and meditating is an amazing time out for one’s mental health, daily. Exercising has so many health benefits that include; stress and anxiety relief, improved mobility, better sleep and energy levels, good health and higher self-esteem. Meditation helps physically, mentally and even spiritually. It helps feel a sense of tranquillity, peace and balance and sort through thoughts and emotions.
Working out and meditating is a leap towards overall fitness and that imminent glow up.
4. Set up a skin and hair care routine
Skin care and hair care are important aspects of pampering oneself. Skin care modified according to your skin type will help enhance your beauty and reflect upon your self-care and wellness. Our skin needs nourishment which often times we have to provide via external sources, skin care therefore becomes a necessary step in a healthy glow up.
Hair care is important, as hair contributes to your personality greatly. A proper routine will not only ensure proper hair growth and give you luscious and beautiful hair, it may help you get more comfortable and confident and help you strive towards your glow up goal.
Again, you do not need to set in an extremely complicated routine for your hair and skin, cleansing, toning, moisturising would do for the skin and proper conditioning for hair along with hydrating masks for both face and hair would be perfect.
Geography as a university discipline got recognition in the early decades of the 19th century in the German universities and subsequently in the French and British universities.
During the period of evolution, geography, like all other sister social science disciplines, faced many philosophical and methodological problems. Geography did not develop as a well-regulated
It followed a process of varying tensions in which tranquil periods, characterized by steady accretion of knowledge, are followed by crisis which can lead to upheaval within subject discipline and breaks in continuity. In each phase of tranquillity and crisis, geographical literature was and has been written with changing philosophies and methodologies; the philosophy and methodology being largely governed by the individual beliefs of the author, the political system, the social requirements of the people of the region and its economic institutions.
The last twenty-five years can be regarded as a period in which enormous geographical literature has been produced. This literature in the shape of books, research papers and monographs pertains to teaching, research, professional employment and pragmatic plans for the public and private bodies. Geography up to the Second World War, however, was regarded as a discipline providing general information about topography, relief features, weather, climate, mountains, rivers, routes, towns, cities and seaports.
Geography for most of the people was nothing but general knowledge. In the recent past, geographers have, however, adopted a new strategy in the restructuring of their courses and designed the syllabi around the theme of social welfare, making the subject the principal source of awareness of local surroundings, regional milieu, environmental pollution and world environment.
Geographers are venturing into the areas of environmental management and problems of pollution to make the social environment conducive for the proper development of individuals and societies. In order to achieve the welfare target, geographers are attacking social problems and exploring the causes of socio-economic backwardness, environmental pollution, and uneven levels of development in a given physical setting. Now, the main objective of geographical teaching and research is to train students in the analysis of phenomena, so that they can take up subsequently the problems of society as the fields of their research and investigation, thereby helping the local, state and national administration to overcome the regional and intra-regional problems.
The social problems are being tackled with approaches ranging from positive to normative, from radicalism to humanism, and from idealism to realism. In brief, geographers are increasingly concerning themselves with the problems of society, conditions of mankind, economic inequalities, social justice, and environmental pollution.
For the reduction of regional inequalities and for the improvement of the quality of life, the main concern of geographers is with what should be the spatial distribution of phenomena instead of with what it is. It is in this context that the spatial inequality in social amenities and living standards is investigated by geographers to trace the origin of disparity rather than to condemn injustice.
Historically, in the initial phases of its development, the main area of employment of geography students in the developed countries was teaching. In the Third World countries, geographers even today are not much actively involved in the process of planning and development. Regrettably, research had less important place in the geographical profession than in many of the social and physical sciences.
Moreover, the research done by individuals mainly remained confined to the libraries and has hardly been utilized for the purpose of planning. Unfortunately, the policy-makers in developing countries like India do not seem to be aware of the spatial dimensions of their problems of policies. Another reason is widespread ignorance of and even prejudice against geography particularly among the present generation of decision-makers whose opinions have been shaped by the experience of the previous generation school geography—when geography occupied a low place and was, as a subject, considered to be nothing more than general knowledge.
In fact, in most of the social fields, very little contribution had been made by geographers, and in the past they could not significantly suggest alternative strategies for the spatial organization of space. The last three decades have, however, seen some particularly important changes in the subject-matter, philosophy and methodology of geography. The major issues on which the geographers are concentrating include poverty, hunger, pollution, racial discrimination, social inequality or injustice, environmental pollution, and use and misuse of resources.
Some of the leading works which have been useful in the public policy making are: Geography of Crimes, Black-Ghetto, and Geography of Social Well-being. The quantitative revolution of the 1960s in geography gave to it some kind of intellectual vigour so essential for the rigorous analysis required in any public context and in the formulation of proposals for public policy.
It is an encouraging fact that now geographers all over the world are envisaging research on social problems with a welfare theme. They are working with a pragmatic approach to overcome the problems of inequalities. In fact, the objective of welfare geography is the evolution of the social desirability of alternative geographical state.
Scientific revolution entered in geography in the early 1970s. The pragmatists advocated the use of scientific methods (positivism) for finding solutions to human problems. It is with this intention that scholars like David M. Smith has adopted the welfare approach while discussing the problems and prospects of human geography.
The welfare geography has been defined differently by different scholars of geography. In the words of Mishan, “theoretical welfare geography is that branch of study which endeavours to formulate positions by which we may rank, on the scale of better or worse, alternative geographical situation open to society”. While Nath expressed ‘welfare geography’ is that part of geography where we study the possible effects of various geographical policies on the welfare of society. In the spatial context, Smith defined welfare geography as the study of “who gets what, where and how”.
The geographical ‘state’ or situation, in the sense used above, may refer to any aspect of the spatial arrangement of human existence. It may relate to the spatial allocation of resources, income, or any other source of human well-being. It may concern with the spatial incidence of poverty or any other social problem. The expression may also be used in desirable industrial location pattern, the distribution and concentration of population, the location of social services facilities
transportation network, patterns of movement of people or goods and any other spatial arrangement which has a bearing on the quality of life as a geographically variable condition. And beneath them all, in the type of society—the economic, social, political structures that generate the pattern.
The welfare approach, nevertheless, has had different meanings in the different periods of human history. The humanist endeavours in various periods of different nations and societies like Jewish, Christians, Muslims, Confucians, Hellenistic, Scientific, Realists, Marxist and Existentialists, and many other forms of humanism appeared on the map of intellectual history.
The geographers who are mainly concerned with the problems of society and trying to formulate pragmatic proposals for public policy clarify the description and explanation of the phenomena. On the basis of such analysis they evaluate their plans and prescribe suitable strategies for balanced development.
Description involves the empirical identification of territorial levels of human well-being—the human condition. This is a major and immediate research area in which surprisingly little work has been done in India and in other developing countries. Explanation covers the how…It involves identifying the cause and effect links among the various activities undertaken in society, as they contribute to determining who gets what and where. This is where the analysis of the kind of economic, demographic and social patterns mentioned above logically fits into the welfare structure.
Evaluation involves making judgement on the desirability of alternative geographical states and the societal structure from which they arise. To say that one spatial pattern of human well-being is preferable to another is to say that a higher level of welfare is attached to it. Such judgements must be made with reference to equity as well as the efficiency criteria with which the geographer is more familiar. Geographical patterns of all kinds can be judged with respect to their profit maximizing and cost minimizing criteria.
Prescription requires the specifications of alternative geographical state, and alternative societal structures designed to produce them. Prescription involves answering the ethical question: who should get what, where? Implementations is the final process replacing as a state deemed undesirable by something superior. It covers the question of how, once it has been decided who should get what, where. Just what role should be adopted by geographer qua geographer in a changing world.
In the contemporary world, there is a growing awareness among geographers that all physical development has a potential income redistributive impact. Any development proposed at any time in space has the capacity to benefit some people in some places more than others. It would be very difficult to construct anything anywhere which would be of equal benefit to every citizen. This is because of this situation that the benefits of government developmental policies in developing societies do not percolate down to the lowest strata of these societies.
Geographical distance and accessibility mean that some people will be better placed to enjoy the advantages or disadvantages, whether the structure is hospital, school, road, railway, community hall, cinema, theatre, park, recreational place or sewage works. Therefore, location decisions and plans for spatial allocation of resources must be made with utmost care, if the benefits and penalties are to be proportional among the population in a predictable and equitable manner. In such public policy decisions, geographers’ role becomes imperative as they have the basic training in the spatial and temporal analysis of phenomena.
Spatial allocation problems are associated with identification of priority areas, planning routes, location of factories or other sources of employment, spatial arrangement of facilities providing medical care, housing complexes, shopping centres and allocation of land for different urban and recreational uses. Each of these decisions can be made in a number of ways, and each decision can have a different impact. Geographers by their training can build up more sophisticated knowledge of the process of development. This involves disentangling complex networks of economic, social and cultural relationships and also the ecological relationships in a balance, so easily disturbed by ill-conceived ‘development’ projects. Geographers by allocation, analysis and synthesis of space can contribute, successfully, meaningfully and effectively to the formation of public policy.
In developing countries like India there is a high degree of internal inequality. In the Third World nations wealth and power are still largely in the hands of a small urban elite or big landlords. The most obvious example is South Africa. In India also, more than 50 per cent of the population is below the poverty line while over 50 per cent of the total national assets are in the hands of only two dozen families. Moreover, in India, most of the economic activity is concentrated in metropolitan cores, though still over 70 per cent of the total population is residing in the rural areas. The urban biased industrial and social infrastructural policy adopted by planners is widening the gap between the rich and the poor on the one hand and rural and urban population on the other.
The highly advanced countries like U.S.A., Canada and Australia also have spatial variations in levels of human well-being. In the United States, the general material standard of living is higher than anywhere else in the world. Yet, millions of Americans, especially Negroes, live in poverty and social deprivation in ghettos—city slums. In parts of the rural south of U.S.A. (Texas, Georgia, etc.) people can be found living in conditions as bad as anywhere in South Africa. In these urban slums, the rate of crimes and drug addiction is fairly high.
The persistence of widespread poverty in American slums—the most affluent society in the world—is a contradiction which underlines the failure of economic growth under a capitalist system to uplift the lives of all people to current standard of decency. In 1976, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 12 per cent (26 million) Americans have income below the officially recognized poverty line.
One of the arguments put forward by the capitalist for the existing regional and intra-regional inequalities is that peoples are not born equal and they cannot be equal in their societies owing to the unequal distribution of the means of production. In fact, the chance of birth into a particular family or group in a particular locality, immediately constrains a child’s opportunity.
This situation gets further aggravated if the socio-political and economic organization is planned with an urban-biased or rich people-oriented policy. The planners in consultation with geographers can construct general social amenities which can benefit all sections of the society. Geographers, however, cannot be a panacea to all the ills, inequalities and socio-economic imbalances.
They know it much better than any other experts that they cannot make all deserts fertile, eliminate drought and create mineral resources where none exist in nature. There are physical limitations in the development of societies living in harsh environment. Such people, however, can have better chances of development if their resource base and needs of society will help to highlight fundamental issues of choice, efficiency and equity. Moreover, it would be useful in the provision of public services and other aspects of local life quality.
Geographers have the ability to analyze the spatial dimension of environmental problems and more particularly, to handle, analyze and interpret spatially distributed data. This awareness of and facility of handling the spatial dimension, which is a major ingredient of all problems of environmental and resource management, is something not generally provided by those in other disciplines and tends to be overlooked if a geographer does not provide it.
A welfare society needs better allocation of commodities, better distribution of commodities and better allocation of means of production among individuals (groups or classes) and among places. All these things are more easily achievable if geographers who deal with the man-environment interaction and examine the spatial distribution of phenomena are actively involved in the process of planning and formulation of public policies at the local, regional, national and international levels.
In countries like Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Israel, Denmark, U.S.S.R., France, New Zealand and Australia where geographers in collaboration with other scientists design public policies the use and beneficial effects of resources are reaching all sections of the societies. Geographers in India can provide pragmatic proposals for solving the various socio-economic and employment problems facing the rapidly increasing population.
By their efforts geographers can consider the causal relationships between inequity, the spatial organization of society and social structure. Public policies about reorganization and redistribution can be designed through planning by the experts who have expertise in man-environment interaction and spatial analysis of phenomena. For this purpose, geographers have to assert themselves through their applied and utilitarian researches.
The first step to start saving money is to figure out how much you spend. Keep track of all your expenses—that means every coffee, household item and cash tip.Once you have your data, organize the numbers by categories, such as gas, groceries and mortgage, and total each amount. Use your credit card and bank statements to make sure you’re accurate—and don’t forget any.
The first step to start saving money is to figure out how much you spend.
Once you have an idea of what you spend in a month, you can begin to organize your recorded expenses into a workable budget. Your budget should outline how your expenses measure up to your income—so you can plan your spending and limit overspending. Be sure to factor in expenses that occur regularly but not every month, such as car maintenance.
Budget for savings.
as much as you’d like, it might be time to cut back. Identify non essentials that you can spend less on, such as entertainment and dining out. Look for ways to save on your fixed monthly expenses like television and your cell phone, too.Here are some ideas for trimming everyday expenses:Use resources such as community event listings to find free or low-cost events to reduce entertainment spending.Cancel subscriptions and memberships you don’t use—especially if they renew automatically.
Find ways you can cut your spending.
Commit to eating out only once a month and trying places that fall into the “cheap eats” category.Give yourself a “cooling off period”: When tempted by a nonessential purchase, wait a few days. You may be glad you passed—or ready to save up for it.
Decide on your priorities.
One of the best ways to save money is to set a goal. Start by thinking of what you might want to save for—perhaps you’re getting married, planning a vacation or saving for retirement. Then figure out how much money you’ll need and how long it might take you to save it.
Pick the right tools.
After your expenses and income, your goals are likely to have the biggest impact on how you allocate your savings. Be sure to remember long-term goals—it’s important that planning for retirement doesn’t take a back seat to shorter-term needs.
Politics in any country involves the ruling party and the opposition. Usually and ideally, political parties are formed based on the same line of thinking and ideology. The left and the right are the two terms usually used by media and political commentators to define the group of people with the same ideological bend of mind. The lefts are usually considered liberal, secular and pro-government ideologies while the right is considered majoritarian, pro-poor and rebellious in nature.
These definitions are not defined anywhere in the constitutions. of any governmental organisations, but are the terms coined by journalists, authors and commentators. For example, in the USA, the democrats are known to be left-leaning while the republicans are known to be right-leaning, in UK Labour party is seen to be right-leaning ideology and the conservative party having a left-leaning ideology. The case is similar in India as well, with Congress having left-leaning ideologies while BJP having right-leaning ideologies.
And for a perfect democracy to work, both the ideologies are necessary. A mature democracy is one where there is a fine demarcation between the two ideologies, but in countries like India, these demarcations are blurry and the left and right ideologies superimpose on each other often number of times.
The political system is built in such a way that, irrespective of what ideologies, policies, processes, institutions, strategy, behaviours, classes or diplomacy that a political party follows, the core vision and objective lie in the development of the country.
But, like always, not everything that glitters is gold, is it not?
Politics is called a dirty game and rightly so, especially in a country like India. Greed, corruption, injustice, bigotry and hatred are some of the very few terms that are usually associated with Indian politics. In this essay on Indian politics, we will not be able to talk about it all, but we will try to touch upon each of the issues.
Politicians usually choose their parties, not because they believe in the ideologies of the party, but because of the winnability quotient in the elections. Elections, unfortunately, is all about money power and muscle power. The ideologies and promises are just the sugar coating that politician do to get votes from people. But even if they follow the ideology of a party, the ideologies itself is flawed and broken from its core. Divide and rule policy followed by the British to rule India is followed by today’s politicians to get votes. Political parties, across the spectrum, try to divide people of India on the basis of religions and class. This is usually called by the term communal polarisation. The gullible voters play into the hands of these political parties and belive the fancy promises they show in the name of development. In a good democratic system, a common man should also be well aware of their rights and responsibilities as a law-abiding citizen.
A good politics consists of the government and its opposition, with both of them working for the development of the country, in their capacities. The opposition parties questions criticise and demands accountability from the ruling party so that the ruling regime is kept in check. The system works fine in its idealistic form. But political parties, with their greed for power, forget their true responsibilities and indulge in dirty games to grab power at any cost. That cost is borne by the common man of the country.
According to our Constitution, India is a “sovereign secular socialist democratic republic.” It has 28 states and seven Union Territories. With a population of approximately 112 crore, India happens to be the largest democracy in the world. Indian polity is a multi-party democracy, based on the adult franchise system of voting. That is any Indian citizen of 18 and above, who is not debarred by law, can vote in the Indian elections, at national, state and local levels.
India is a parliamentary democracy and a federal parliamentary representative democratic republic, where the Prime Minister is the head of government. He or she should be chosen by the MPs (Member of Parliaments) of the ruling party or the coalition that comes to power. The Vice President has to temporarily assume the role of President in the event of the death, resignation, or removal of the President, until a new President is chosen by the electoral college. The Vice President of India may also act temporarily as President, during the absence or illness of the President. The Vice President of India is also the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Mohammad Hamid Ansari is the present Vice President of India.
Executive, Legislature and Judiciary
With the Union Government and State Governments wrest the executive power, while the legislative power is vested on the Union Government and the two houses of Indian Parliament- the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha- and also the State Government and two state legislatures-Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad. However, here it deserves a mention that only five of India’s 28 states have Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council, which is also known as the upper house of state legislatures, along with the Vidhan Sabha. The rest of the states don’t have bicameral legislatures, and only have Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly. Each state also has a Governor, who is formally appointed by the President of India. The role of the Governor is somewhat similar to that of President in the national level; he is a titular head of the state in normal circumstances, but can exercise some powers when directed by the Union Government.
Besides the concept of the Constitution, there is also the all-important concept of ‘Constitutionalism’. Modern political thought draws a distinction between ‘Constitutionalism’ and ‘Constitution’. A country may have the ‘Constitution’ but not necessarily ‘Constitutionalism’. For example, a country with a dictatorship, where the dictator’s word is law, can be said to have a ‘Constitution’ but not ‘Constitutionalism’. The underlying difference between the two concepts is that a Constitution ought not merely to confer powers on the various organs of the government, but also seek to restrain those powers. Constitutionalism recognizes the need for the government but insists upon limitations being placed upon governmental powers. Constitutionalism envisages checks and balances and putting the powers of the legislature and the executive under some restraints and not making them uncontrolled and arbitrary.
Unlimited powers jeopardize the freedom of the people. As has been well said: power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. If the Constitution confers unrestrained power on either the legislature or the executive, it might lead to an authoritarian, oppressive government. Therefore, to preserve the basic freedoms of the individual, and to maintain his dignity and personality, the Constitution should be permeated with ‘Constitutionalism’; it should have some in-built restrictions on the powers conferred by it on governmental organs. ‘Constitutionalism’ connotes in essence limited government or a limitation on government. Constitutionalism is the antithesis of arbitrary powers. ‘Constitutionalism’ recognizes the need for a government with powers but at the same time insists that limitations be placed on those powers. The antithesis of Constitutionalism is despotism. Unlimited power may lead to an authoritarian, oppressive, government that jeopardizes the freedoms of the people. Only when the Constitution of a country seeks to decentralize power instead of concentrating it at one point, and also imposes other restraints and limitations thereon, does a country have not only ‘constitution’ but also ‘constitutionalism’. ‘Constitutions spring from a belief in limited government. According to SCHWARTZ, in the U.S.A., the word Constitution means “a written organic instrument, under which governmental powers are both conferred and circumscribed”. He emphasizes that “this stress upon grant and limitation of authority is fundamental”. As PROFESSOR VILE has remarked: “Western institutional theorists have concerned themselves with the problems of ensuring that the exercise of governmental power, which is essential to the realization of the values of their societies should be controlled in order that it should not itself be destructive of the values it was intended to promote.” The idea of Constitutionalism is not new. It is embedded deeply in human thought. Many natural law philosophers have promoted this idea through their writings.
Some of these philosophers are: ACQUINAS, PAINE, LOCKE, GROTIUS AND ROUSSEAU. The Magna Carta (1215) strengthened the traditional view that law is supreme. As observed by ARTHUR SUTHERLAND, “The Great Charter was obviously a cherished standard, a welcome assurance that people could set some limitation on the arbitrary power of the king.” A written Constitution, an independent judiciary with powers of judicial review, the doctrine of rule of law and separation of powers, free elections to legislature, accountable and transparent democratic government, Fundamental Rights of the people, federalism, decentralization of power are some of the principles and norms which promote Constitutionalism in a country.
Hi! For quite sometime, I wanted to discuss about homeschooling as one of my relative asked me whether homeschooling and online schooling are the same. No, they are not same, here’s how.
WHAT IS HOMESCHOOLING?
Homeschooling is Elective home education (EHE) is the education of school-aged children at their homes. It is teaching school subjects to one’s children at their own home instead of sending them to public and private schools. It is legal in a lot of countries.
Traditional school is the custom that our society follows. A student would be enrolled in a public or private school. The teachers allocated are the ones who take responsibility for teaching the syllabus.
REASON BEHIND HOMESCHOOLING
There are various reasons for the parents to consider homeschooling. It can be because they are not satisfied with the educational options available, children are not progressing in the traditional schooling, their belief, and they also might want their children to include religious texts.
It would be effective to teach them lessons that are not being taught in traditional schools. Not just that, homeschooling can strengthen the family, it would mean more family time. Homeschoolers have the advantage of blending lessons and values. It is a lot to consider and plan but at the end of the day, it is about education for your child. The efforts from you can take them a long way.
In most states, it is required that a child’s parent oversee homeschooling, which includes providing an equivalent education for their child. Check with your state law to know the requirements.
The parent should be taking full responsibility when it comes to homeschooling. Make sure your schedule and priorities are sorted. An understanding of your child’s learning pace, style and interest is vital for effective homeschooling.
Parents must decide on the homeschooling curriculum. Homeschooling space is a must! Create a space for your child to study. Get the space organized with a study table, lamp, calendar, clock and stationery items. The goals have to be set. A goal to accomplish can help us have a clear vision.
Don’t start without a plan, it need not be perfect buy it should be achievable and organized. A schedule is a must for homeschooling. The timetable has to be organized and neat. Engage your child with field trips, museum visits, take them to the library and such engaging activities. Try not to forget about sports and extracurricular activities.
PROS OF HOMESCHOOLING
Lack of peer pressure.
Learn at their own pace.
Special needs are taken care.
Happier at their own space.
CONS OF HOMESCHOOLING
Huge responsibility as a teacher and a parent.
Dedicating time means loss of income and reduce in your work.
In few states, it is not allowed.
Smaller circle of friends for the children.
Spend time reviewing the curriculum.
Spending lot for home school supplies.
Homeschooling will not ruin your child. If done right, it won’t affect the social life of them.
There’s an app for everything nowadays, from tracking steps to tracking calories. A good app offers some level of added utility to your day-to-day life without intruding in on your real-world responsibilities. When looking to get the most use out of your smartphone, look for apps that can enhance your work, hobbies, and relaxation. Apps can help you to take charge of three of the most important aspects of your day-to-day life: your family, your health, and your time.
Technology is a godsend. From the idea of communicating a thought to another person within seconds to freezing a moment in time—technology has made life more memorable, productive, and helpful. One search can result in a multitude of pasta recipes and life advice. One swipe could you find you a potential partner. A few movements and you’ve reminded your sister to feed the dog.
As easy as technology is, my life experiences have driven me to always be in the pursuit of more and more life altering apps to step up my act in being spiritual, healthy, productive, and social. Below are just a few.
iOS and Android
The Inshorts app, developed by Ada News InShorts Pvt. Ltd, is designed to summarize every news piece in 60 words—yes, exact 60 words. The idea is to deliver the news at speed, complete with facts and what you really need to know. Laborious analysis is kept aside, so as to not slow you down while in the process of catching up with the happenings of the day. The app covers a wide range of genres. All stories are condensed manually by the in-house editorial team, and each news article also includes links to the larger story on the source website. This app was previously known as News In Shorts.
iOS and Android
The UrbanClap app is perhaps the biggest indicator of a new trend of hiring professionals for executing various tasks and services. This includes repairs and maintenance tasks, including AC repairs, managing home care, plan events such as weddings and birthday parties as well as signing up for services such as tutors and for hobbies, among other things. Once a user puts in a specific request in the app, UrbanClap matches it with the registered professionals and assigns accordingly. UrbanClap says that they have more than 50,000 professionals registered to work on the platform and have more than 1 million users.
iOS and Android
The idea of opening an app on the smartphone, and depending on what catches your fancy that day, ordering food has caught on quite quickly. Indian app Swiggy is currently available in eight cities—Delhi, Gurgaon, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Pune, Kolkata and Chennai. Users, depending on the city and the precise location, can order from restaurants in the vicinity. Swiggy currently does not have any minimum order criteria for delivery of the order.
iOS, Android, Windows Phone
Instant messenger apps are by far the most popular smartphone apps, simply because they have made communication with friends a lot faster and a lot less cluttered. The made-in-India Hike Messenger has 100 million users and the platform is used for exchanging as many as 40 billion messages every month. Over time, Hike Messenger has become more polished to use, and has added some rather cool features as well. The latest version of the app includes optimization for better connectivity when the 2G/3G/4G connection falters as well as a Hidden Mode for keeping chats private. Hike Messenger includes a Direct feature which lets you share files with friends, who are in close physical proximity at that time, without using the mobile data or Wi-Fi connection.
Free (in-app purchases)
iOS and Android
Once you are done with the food that you ordered using a food delivery app on your smartphone, it may be time to count the calories and pull out the fitness app on your phone. And the Fitso app for Apple iPhone and Android smartphones does just what is expected from it. Users can track their activities, set goals, manage workouts and also chat with a coach to get tips on how to improve your fitness routine.
Free (in-app purchases)
iOS and Android
Sleep is one of the most often-overlooked aspects of a person’s health. The Sleep Cycle app helps users achieve optimal sleeping habits by waking them up at the best possible time each morning. Intelligent graphs and insights help the user to understand their sleeping habits and how to achieve a more restful sleep cycle.
Free (in-app purchases)
iOS and Android
Make the most out of your free time. Wattpad is a popular app for reading enthusiasts as it provides a diverse library of materials that don’t require downloading huge PDFs or connecting to the internet. Liven up your commute or make better use of your downtime with a book, article, or short story.
8. Insight timer:
Free (in-app purchases)
iOS and Android
Mental health is every bit as important as physical health, and Insight Timer helps to improve your mental health through mindfulness and meditation. Give your mind a chance to relax from the stresses of a busy day at work.
Narcissistic personality disorder or NDP is a personality disorder characterized by grandiosity. You may see it in people who have an inflated ego, with little regards to others. It is important to note that NDP is a psychiatric condition, and it is more complex than simply being arrogant. It’s distressing for those who have it and for those who’re around them. Hoping to shed some light on the condition, and sign that a person should seek help. While much of T.V and movies portray narcissism as people who feel like they’re better than everyone else, it’s usually not just the case.
What is narcissism?
Narcissism is a set of traits classified and studied by psychologists. The psychological definition of narcissism is an inflated, grandiose self-image. To varying degrees, narcissists think they’re better looking, smart and more important than other people and that they deserve special treatment.
Psychologists recognize two form of narcissism as personality traits:
What is NDP?
NPD is a personality disorder in which the person feels self-important and craves constant validation.
Their feelings of superiority often hint at a deeper problem.
As their need of validation often comes from a place of insecurity and instability rather than genuine self love which they may not be aware of.
What causes NPD?
While the cause of NPD is unknown, researchers believe that it has to do with a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
It’s believed that 6% of people have this disorder. Men have a higher chance of this disorder than women.
Some believe that NPD is developed to cope with trauma and feelings of inadequacy. Others believe it may be learned in early childhood from dealing with anything, from abuse to excessive pampering.
There is even a debate as to how much of the disorder is passed down from parents to children acquiring the disorder.
What are the signs and Symptoms?
The feeling of grandiosity where they feel that they’re superior to others and low empathy are often seen in those with NPD; they don’t care much for others expecting to receive constant validation.
People with NPD feel as though they’re entitled to whatever they want which can be dangerous as it can manifest into toxic relationships.
They may manipulate others to get what they want.
They brag and exaggerate their achievements or feel envious of anyone that outperforms them, but deep down the person with NPD may be really dealing with their own feeling of inadequacy.
How to get help?
People with NPD may not seek help for the disorder itself as they may not know that there’s an issue.
Usually, people are diagnosed because they seek treatment for other issues such as depression or addiction.
However people who feel that they may have the condition and urged to reach out for help. NPD and the underlying feelings of inadequacy can be treated. It not only benefits the individual, but also to people around them.
What treatment options are available?
People diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder will most likely work with a therapist using psychotherapy methods.
Other self-improving activities such as:-
Doing exercises and,
Hobbies may be used in conjunction with therapy.
Coming to a conclusion, we do live in a very materialistic and Consumersious society and as long as that’s the case, narcissism is going to win because it’s about putting yourself first and not caring as much about others. Not to mention people with NPD can be very generous when it’s going to get them what they need. They may buy everyone big dinners and take everyone on a big vacation so it creates this illusion that there’s lots of people all around them, because it’s all the stuff that they’re making possible for them. It’s important to know that treatment is available and that life can be made more manageable.
Malware is malicious software that is designed to affect computer operations or gaining access to the computer system without the user’s knowledge or permission. Computer viruses, worms, Trojan horses, ransomware, spyware, adware, scareware are some of the malware. Malware is simple to identify. Most cybercriminals target the user’s end devices through the installation of malware.
A malicious executable code attached to another executable file is known as a virus. Most of the viruses need the end user’s initiation and can activate at a specific time or date. Computer viruses are spread through removable media, downloads from the internet, and email attachments. The virus can be simple or destructive. They may delete or modify the user’s data. Opening a file may trigger a virus. The USB flash drives are infected by the virus and then spread to the system’s hard disk. A virus will also be activated by executing a specific program. Once the programs get infected by a virus, it will affect the other programs on the computer network. The Melissa virus was an example of a virus that has spread through email and affected thousands of end-users.
Worms are malicious code that exploiting vulnerabilities in networks. Unlike a virus, they replicate independently. Viruses require a host program to run whereas worms can run by themselves. Worms are used to slow down the networks. Other than the initial infection, worms no longer need the user’s participation. Worms share similar patterns and once they affect the host they can spread fast through the network. Worms propagate themselves by carrying a payload. The code red worm in 2001 has affected nearly 658 servers.
A Trojan horse is a malware that carries out malicious operations. It is disguised under the desired operation such as playing an online game. Once the user runs the files with Trojan horse, the malicious code exploits the privileges of the user. The Trojan horse binds to the non-executable files. Some of such files are image files, audio files, or games.
A logic bomb is a malicious program. It requires a trigger to work. It remains inactive until it is triggered by an external event. Once the bomb gets activated, it harms the user’s computer. A logic bomb can modify data records, or remove files or attack the operating system. The logic bomb overdrives the devices like cooling fans, CPU memory, hard drives until these devices get overheated or corrupts.
Ransomware holds the files and devices until the target makes the payment. It works by encrypting the data with a key unknown to the user. To remove the restriction, the user may pay a ransom to the criminals. Some other versions of ransomware can take advantage of specific vulnerabilities to lock down the system. It may enter through the downloaded files or sometimes it may propagate as Trojan horses. Once the victims pay the ransom, the criminals will issue the key to unlock the code or the programs that decrypt the files. They receive the payment through the untraceable payment system.
A backdoor refers to the criminal introduces the malicious program or code by compromising the system. Netbus and Back office are some of the backdoors that allow remote access to unauthorized access. Even though the organization fixes the original vulnerability, the backdoor grants the cybercriminals future access to the system. Usually, criminals run a Trojan horse program to install the backdoor to the user’s system.
To introduce a backdoor in the system, the rootkits help to modify the operating system. The attackers use the backdoor to access the system. Most rootkits take advantage of software vulnerabilities to modify or delete the system files. Rootkits modify the system forensics and monitoring tools.
DEFENDING AGAINST MALWARE
Some steps to follow that defends against all types of malware:
· ANTIVIRUS SOFTWARE: Most of the malware is caught by the antivirus suites. On the daily basis, cybercriminals develop and deploy new threats. Therefore the key to an effective antivirus solution is that keep the systems updated. A signature is like a fingerprint to identify malicious codes.
· UP-TO-DATE SOFTWARE: Through the software vulnerabilities in software both in the OS and applications, malware can achieve its objectives. The application-level vulnerabilities also cause severe risks to the system. So always use the up-to-date software.
You might have heard about the deadliest punishment that one could never wonder in their dreams. It is also known by the name Kala paani ki saza or by the name The black water punishment. So why is this jail different from other jails?
During the colonial rule, Britishers got short of places where they could keep and punish the freedom fighters and political activists who were emerging against them. So they made single cellular jail punishment there they can punish the freedom fighters. In the year 1896, Britishers decided to build this jail on Andaman & Nicobar islands and in the year 1906 it was completed.
It was named as “cellular jail” because every jailer was kept in a single cell, so that the one jailer could not talk to others. As the jailers were freedom fighters so if they communicate somehow they will be able to find a way out. The cellular jail is also on an island which is surrounded by water so that the jailer won’t ran way.
The cellular jail wasn’t any normal jail it was like an experimental jail for the Britishers which involved torture, medical tests, forced labor and also some of these punishment which are unimaginable. The Britishers used to send freedom fighters to 1300 km across the water to the Andaman & Nicobar islands. It was so far away from India that people would die even on the boat voyage. So if the prisoners made it that far, they were kept in the cells which were designed for solitary confinement.
The cells of the jail is made up of brick and concrete where there is no toilet, the jailers were allowed to go to the toilet in the morning and at night and the rest of the time they were just locked in the cell. They prisoners were also forced to do labor like to extract 30 pounds of coconut oil and 10 pounds of mustard oil in a day. And if they don’t, then they have to face the consequences by beating up with iron rods while they are chained in iron chains.
Britishers in their own jail
In the year 1944, Japanese came to India and invaded the Islands and took over. The Japanese prisoned the Britishers in their own prison. As per Mahatma gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore’s demand the Indian prisoners were set free.
After the Japanese lost in World War II, they had to retreat, and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands became India’s part when it got independent in the year 1947.
After independence the cellular jail was declared as a National Memorial which is now a tourist place for all. There is also a Museum where you can get to know about all the freedom fighters along with their stories.
Brain Drain in a nation happens when the country’s intense residents who have imagination and virtuoso withdraw for other better nations abroad to improve working freedoms. This relocation and take off of talented people are known as Brain Drain. Cerebrum Drain can be a crucial misfortune to a country since it loses a lot of proficient individuals, who might have in any case contributed altogether to the country’s monetary and logical accomplishments.
Brain Drain can reach out over different degrees dependent on their inclination. The normal sorts of cerebrum channel incorporate – Organizational Brain Drain, geological mind channel, and mechanical mind channel. Topographical cerebrum channel alludes to the definition given above; it is the displacement of splendid and gifted individuals starting with one geological zone then onto the next.
Authoritative cerebrum channel is the development of splendid brained and capable individuals starting with one association then onto the next. Because of such a mind channel, the mother association is set for a misfortune. The authoritative cerebrum channel happens because of better compensations and working conditions in different associations. Modern Brain Drain, then again, alludes to the moving of skilled and blessed individuals starting with one industry then onto the next; this happens because of possibilities of better work and better compensation in different areas. Whatever be the sort of cerebrum channel, it unavoidably brings about a financial and social misfortune.
the measure of cerebrum channel in India is gigantic. There can be a few factors that add to such a situation. First and foremost, India needs giving open positions. The pace of joblessness in the nation is extremely high. Accordingly, splendid understudies, in the wake of having finished their higher investigations, plan to move to another country to benefit better positions and profession openings.
Moreover, innovative progression in India is hopeless; the nation needs current logical gear. A particularly hopeless condition doesn’t give an ideal workplace. Individuals will in general move to other progressed nations.
Moving abroad to first world nations not just permits one to have better profession possibilities, yet they can likewise benefit of a superior way of life, a superior way of life, and better living offices. They feel that their ability is being perceived and recognized deservedly abroad. India can’t offer such steadiness to its residents. Thus, they move out.
In the event that the cerebrum channel is passed on open to occur with no limitations, India would be wrecked. In the event that every one of the brains in the nation go for different nations to benefit of better working conditions, there would be no ability left. Without mastery, talented individuals, and clever people, the areas like law, designing, clinical, the organization would set until the end of time. They would not progress.
The best way to confine mind channel is to better compared to expectations for everyday comforts in the actual nation. The work rate ought to be mitigated – a more noteworthy number of occupations ought to be given. More number of positions should open available. Every one of the areas in the nation ought to be modernized; logical and mechanical headway ought to be in help. Thusly, the possible gifted individuals in the nation will feel approved and needed.
Instagram (commonly abbreviated to IG, Insta or the gram) is an American photo and video sharing social networking service created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. In April 2012, Facebook acquired the service for approximately US$1 billion in cash and stock. The app allows users to upload media that can be edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Posts can be shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Users can browse other users’ content by tags and locations and view trending content. Users can like photos and follow other users to add their content to a personal feed.
List of languages Chinese (Simplified and Traditional),Croatian,Czech,Danish,Dutch,English,Finnish,French,German,Greek,Hindi,Hungarian,Indonesian,Italian,Japanese,Korean,Malay,Norwegian,Polish,Portuguese,Romanian,Russian,Slovak,Spanish,Swedish,Tagalog,Thai,Turkish,Ukrainian,Vietnamese,Persian.
Instagram was originally distinguished by only allowing content to be framed in a square (1:1) aspect ratio with 640 pixels to match the display width of the iPhone at the time. In 2015, these restrictions were eased with an increase to 1080 pixels. The service also added messaging features, the ability to include multiple images or videos in a single post, and a ‘stories’ feature—similar to its main opposition Snapchat—which allows users to post photos and videos to a sequential feed, with each post accessible by others for 24 hours each. As of January 2019, the Stories feature is used by 500 million users daily.
Originally launched for iOS in October 2010, Instagram rapidly gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, and 1 billion as of June 2018.The Android version was released in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited desktop interface in November 2012, a Fire OS app in June 2014, and an app for Windows 10 in October 2016. As of October 2015, over 40 billion photos had been uploaded. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the subject of criticism, most notably for policy and interface changes, allegations of censorship, and illegal or improper content uploaded by users.
As of June 2021, the most followed person is Portuguese professional footballer Cristiano Ronaldo with over 300 million followers.The most followed woman is American singer Ariana Grande. As of January 14, 2019, the most-liked photo on Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, created with the sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. The picture currently has over 55 million likes.The second most-liked photo is a wedding photo of Ariana Grande and her husband Dalton Gomez.Instagram became the 4th most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s.
In 2021, Washington Post reported that it has made an international black market for migrant workers, women in Africa and Asia, sold into servitude as maids in Persian Gulf countries.
Instagram was the runner-up for “Best Mobile App” at the 2010 TechCrunch Crunchies in January 2011. In May 2011, Fast Company listed CEO Kevin Systrom at number 66 in “The 100 Most Creative People in Business in 2011”. In June 2011, Inc. included co-founders Systrom and Krieger in its 2011 “30 Under 30” list.
Instagram won “Best Locally Made App” in the SF Weekly Web Awards in September 2011. 7x7Magazine’s September 2011 issue featured Systrom and Krieger on the cover of their “The Hot 20 2011” issue.In December 2011, Apple Inc. named Instagram the “App of the Year” for 2011. In 2015, Instagram was named No. 1 by Mashable on its list of “The 100 best iPhone apps of all time,” noting Instagram as “one of the most influential social networks in the world.” Instagram was listed among Time’s “50 Best Android Applications for 2013” list
In May 2017, a survey conducted by the United Kingdom’s Royal Society for Public Health, featuring 1,479 people aged 14–24, asking them to rate social media platforms depending on anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying and body image, concluded that Instagram was the “worst for young mental health”. Some have suggested it may contribute to digital dependence, whist this same survey noticed its positive effects, including self-expression, self-identity, and community building. In response to the survey, Instagram stated that “Keeping Instagram a safe and supportive place for young people was a top priority”. The company filters out the reviews and accounts. If some of the accounts violate Instagram’s community guidelines, it will take action, which could include banning them.
In 2017, researchers from Harvard University and University of Vermont demonstrated a machine learning tool that successfully outperformed general practitioners’ diagnostic success rate for depression. The tool used color analysis, metadata components, and face detection of users’ feeds.
Throughout 2019, Instagram began to test the hiding of like counts for posts made by its users.
Correlations have been made between Instagram content and poor body dissatisfaction, as a result of body comparisons. In a recent survey half of the applicants admitted to photo editing behavior which has been linked with concerns over body image.
In response to abusive and negative comments on users’ photos, Instagram has made efforts to give users more control over their posts and accompanying comments field. In July 2016, it announced that users would be able to turn off comments for their posts, as well as control the language used in comments by inputting words they consider offensive, which will ban applicable comments from showing up. After the July 2016 announcement, the ability to ban specific words began rolling out early August to celebrities, followed by regular users in September.In December, the company began rolling out the abilities for users to turn off the comments and, for private accounts, remove followers.
In September 2017, the company announced that public users would be able to limit who can comment on their content, such as only their followers or people they follow. At the same time, it updated its automated comment filter to support additional languages.
In June 2017, Instagram announced that it would automatically attempt to filter offensive, harassing, and “spammy” comments by default. The system is built using a Facebook-developed deep learning algorithm known as DeepText (first implemented on the social network to detect spam comments), which utilizes natural-language processing techniques, and can also filter by user-specified keywords.
In July 2019, the service announced that it would introduce a system to proactively detect problematic comments and encourage the user to reconsider their comment, as well as allowing users the ability to “restrict” others’ abilities to communicate with them, citing that younger users felt the existing block system was too much of an escalation.
On August 9, 2012, English musician Ellie Goulding released a new music video for her song “Anything Could Happen.” The video only contained fan-submitted Instagram photographs that used various filters to represent words or lyrics from the song, and over 1,200 different photographs were submitted.
In August 2017, reports surfaced that a bug in Instagram’s developer tools had allowed “one or more individuals” to gain access to the contact information, specifically email addresses and phone numbers, of several high-profile verified accounts, including its most followed user, Selena Gomez. The company said in a statement that it had “fixed the bug swiftly” and was running an investigation.However, the following month, more details emerged, with a group of hackers selling contact information online, with the affected number of accounts in the “millions” rather than the previously-assumed limitation on verified accounts. Hours after the hack, a searchable database was posted online, charging $10 per search.The Daily Beast was provided with a sample of the affected accounts, and could confirm that, while many of the email addresses could be found with a Google search in public sources, some did not return relevant Google search results and thus were from private sources.The Verge wrote that cybersecurity firm RepKnight had found contact information for multiple actors, musicians, and athletes, and singer Selena Gomez’s account was used by the hackers to post naked photos of her ex-boyfriend Justin Bieber. The company admitted that “we cannot determine which specific accounts may have been impacted”, but believed that “it was a low percentage of Instagram accounts”, though TechCrunch stated in its report that six million accounts were affected by the hack, and that “Instagram services more than 700 million accounts; six million is not a small number”.
In 2019, Apple pulled an app that let users stalk people on Instagram by scraping accounts and collecting data.
Iran has DPI blocking for Instagram.
On December 17, 2012, Instagram announced a change to its Terms of Service policy, adding the following sentence:
To help us deliver interesting paid or sponsored content or promotions, you agree that a business or other entity may pay us to display your username, likeness, photos (along with any associated metadata), and/or actions you take, in connection with paid or sponsored content or promotions, without any compensation to you.
There was no option for users to opt out of the changed Terms of Service without deleting their accounts before the new policy went into effect on January 16, 2013.The move garnered severe criticism from users,prompting Instagram CEO Kevin Systrom to write a blog post one day later, announcing that they would “remove” the offending language from the policy. Citing misinterpretations about its intention to “communicate that we’d like to experiment with innovative advertising that feels appropriate on Instagram”, Systrom also stated that it was “our mistake that this language is confusing” and that “it is not our intention to sell your photos”. Furthermore, he wrote that they would work on “updated language in the terms to make sure this is clear”.
The policy change and its backlash caused competing photo services to use the opportunity to “try to lure users away” by promoting their privacy-friendly services,and some services experienced substantial gains in momentum and user growth following the news.On December 20, Instagram announced that the advertising section of the policy would be reverted to its original October 2010 version.The Verge wrote about that policy as well, however, noting that the original policy gives the company right to “place such advertising and promotions on the Instagram Services or on, about, or in conjunction with your Content”, meaning that “Instagram has always had the right to use your photos in ads, almost any way it wants. We could have had the exact same freakout last week, or a year ago, or the day Instagram launched”
The policy update also introduced an arbitration clause, which remained even after the language pertaining to advertising and user content had been modified.
Environmental pollution is an internationally viewed concern and its effects on ecosystems and human health are very evident. Sources and occurrences of pollutants that are clearly defined and measured in environmental compartments, food and food-related items, and human bodies. Activities urbanization, industrialization, mining, and exploration are at the forefront of global environmental pollution. Both developed and developing nations share this burden together, though awareness and stricter laws in developed countries have contributed to a larger extent in protecting their environment. Despite the global attention towards pollution, the impact is still being felt due to its severe long-term consequences. The decline in environmental quality as a consequence of pollution is evidenced by loss of vegetation, biological diversity, excessive amounts of harmful chemicals in the ambient atmosphere and in food grains, and growing risks of environmental accidents and threats to life support systems. A pollutant can be any chemical or geochemical substance, biological organism or product, or physical substance that is released intentionally or inadvertently by man into the environment with actual or potential adverse, harmful, unpleasant, or inconvenient effects. Pollution can be characterised Air Pollution Water Pollution, Soil/Land Pollution, Noise Pollution, Radioactive Pollution, Thermal Pollution. Which is threatening the environment, humans, plants, animals, and all living organisms.
Environmental pollution caused by the dumping of a wide range of industrial waste is now serious. Hazardous waste sites occur worldwide resulting in the deposition of xenobiotics in soil and water .Like all living creatures, microorganisms need carbon, nutrients, and energy to survive and replicate. Such organisms obtain nutrients and energy from the chemical degradation of contaminants into simple compounds, that is, water, carbon dioxide, salts, and other nontoxic substances. Major sources include the emission of pollutants from power stations, refineries, and petrochemicals, the chemical and fertilizer industries, metallurgical and other industrial plants, and, finally, municipal incineration. Climate is the other side of the same coin that reduces the quality of our Earth. Pollutants such as black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols affect the amount of incoming sunlight. As a result, the temperature of the Earth is increasing, resulting in the melting of ice, icebergs, and glaciers, ir pollution can have a disastrous effect on allcomponents of the environment, including groundwater, soil, and air. Additionally, it poses a serious threat to living organisms. In this vein, our interest is mainly to focus on these pollutants, as they are related to more extensive and severe problems in human health and environmental impact. Acid rain, global warming, the greenhouse effect, and climate changes have an important ecological impact on air pollution. Ozone is a gas formed from oxygen under high voltage electric discharge It is a strong oxidant, 52% stronger than chlorine. It arises in the stratosphere, but it could also arise following chain reactions of photochemical smog in the troposphere. Ozone can travel to distant areas from its initial source, moving with air masses It is surprising that ozone levels over cities are low in contrast to the increased amounts occuring in urban areas, which could become harmful for cultures, forests, and vegetation as it is reducing carbon assimilation. Ozone reduces growth and yield and affects the plant microflora due to its antimicrobial capacity In this regard, ozone acts upon other natural ecosystems, with microflora and animal species changing their species composition. Ozone increases DNA damage in epidermal keratinocytes and leads to impaired cellular function. Ground-level ozone is generated through a chemical reaction between oxides of nitrogen and VOCs emitted from natural sources and/or following anthropogenic activities. Ozone uptake usually occurs by inhalation. Ozone affects the upper layers of the skin and the tear ducts. A study of short-term exposure of mice to high levels of ozone showed malondialdehyde formation in the upper skin (epidermis) but also depletion in vitamins C and E. It is likely that ozone levels are not interfering with the skin barrier function and integrity to predispose to skin disease. Due to the low water-solubility of ozone, inhaled ozone has the capacity to penetrate deeply into the lungs. Toxic effects induced by ozone are registered in urban areas all over the world, causing biochemical, morphologic, functional, and immunological disorders Daily ozone concentrations compared to the daily number of deaths were reported from different European cities for a 3-year period. During the warm period of the year, an observed increase in ozone concentration was associated with an increase in the daily number of deaths. Environmental pollution is a concern in which all the countries have to come together at the global level and take initiatives.
Mass communication can be defined as the process of creating, sending, receiving, and analysing messages to large audiences via verbal and written media. These mediums are wide-ranging, and include print, digital media and the Internet, social media, radio, and television. Mass communication is a strategic process which includes integrated marketing communications, journalism, and more. Mass communication professionals use their knowledge of rhetorical principles and strategic media practices to develop, share, and evaluate effective messages targeting large audiences. Public relations specialists, journalists, broadcast professionals, advertisers and marketers, content writers, graphic designers and illustrators, public health educators, corporate media managers, and other media professionals use mass communication strategies on a daily basis to craft and launch strategic communication plans from broadcast news to online marketing campaigns and public health announcements across nearly every industry. The diversity of mass media and communication practices allows for creativity and flexibility in career selection. Individuals with an education in the field can pursue employment in a great number of areas, including marketing and advertising, entertainment, healthcare, journalism, public relations, non-profit and government, communications consulting, broadcast media, financial services, and foreign services etc.In media and mass communication is also a research area within academia.
Types of communication
Advertising, in relation to mass communication, is marketing a product or service in a persuasive manner that encourages the audience to buy the product or use the service. Because advertising generally takes place through some form of mass media, such as television, studying the effects and methods of advertising is relevant to the study of mass communication.
Journalism is the production and distribution of reports on events for presentation through the media. The study of journalism involves analyzing the dissemination of information to the public through media outlets such as newspapers, news channels, radio stations, television stations, and, more recently, e-readers and smartphones.
3 Public relations
Public relations is the process of providing information to the public in order to present a specific view of a product or organization. Public relations differs fromadvertising in that it is less obtrusive, and aimed at providing a more comprehensive opinion to a large audience in order to shape public opinion. Unlike advertising, public relations professionals only have control until the message is related to media gatekeepers who decide where to pass the information on to the audience
3. Social media
Social media, in its modern use, refers to platforms used on both mobile devices. and home computers that allow users to interact through the use of words, images, sounds, and video. Social media includes popular sites such as Facebook and Instagram, as well as sites that can aid in business networking such as LinkedIn. The use and importance of social media in communications and public relations has grown drastically throughout the years and is now a staple in advertisements to mass audiences. For many newer companies and businesses geared towards young people social media is a tool for advertising purposes and growing the brand. Social Media provides additional ways to connect and reach out to ones targeted audience.
Radio is considered the most widely accessible form of mass communication in the world and the medium used to the greatest degree in the United States Internet radio has now become increasingly more popular, as radio stations are streaming content through their websites and other applications. Music streaming services such as Apple Music and Spotify, have also integrated radio features onto the platform. Spotify Radio is a feature that allows Spotify to continuously create a playlist for its users with tracks and podcast segments based on any artist or playlist they wish.
5. Film and television.
The film industry began with the invention of the Kinetoscope by Thomas Edison. His failure to patent it resulted in two brothers, Louis and Auguste Lumiere creating a portable camera that could process film and project images. In the 1970s, television began to change to include more complicated and three dimensional characters and plots. PBS launched in 1970, and was the home for programming that would not be suitable for network television. It operates on donations and little government funding, rather than having commercials.
Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass communication by demonstrating facts or reinforcing ideas. Although the photos are altered digitally, it is still considered Photography plays a role in the field of technology and mass
Stress is something that every 3 people out of 4 are affected with Stress can be very harmful and or helpful Stress is the experience of a perceived threat to one’s mental, physical or spiritual well-being, resulting from a series of physiological responses and adaptations. It could help motivate you to meet a deadline and perform a task under pressure. Stress can also be very harmful, such as memory problems. moodiness, aches and pains, and eating more or less. There are two types of stress eustress and distress. Eustress is good stress that keeps us efficient and makes are performance better where as distress is bad stress which ultimately leads to the wear and tear of our body. Stress is a normal physical response that happens when one feels threatened or upset. When our feel that you are in danger whether it is real or imaged. Your body has a response when stress occurs and it is a way of actually protecting us. Stress can affect the mind, body, and behaviour. These affects could cause our relationships to hamper. Stress has many different symptoms the most often and most common is having a headache. On your body the effects of stress are muscle tension or pain, chest pain, and fatigue. The effects of stress on your mood is anxiety, restlessness, and lack of motivation or focus. Stress also shows symptoms like overeating or under eating, drug or alcohol abuse, and social withdraw. Adults and teenagers get stressed easily due to school, spots and or jobs. At times it may seem like stress is taking over your body leaving you physically, emotionally and mentally hurt but what you can do is learn how to manage your stress to have a healthier and happy lifestyle Stress management is learning to deal with your
stress and take charge. Stress management can be defined as a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies to control a person’s stress level: especially chronic stress Effective methods and techniques of stress management help an individual break the hold that stress has on their lives. This, in turn, helps. people in leading a productive lifestyle. Stress management includes preventing stress by practicing self-care and relaxation; also managing one’s response to stressful situations when they occur. Stress is a survival instinct or response when the body thinks that it is in danger. This is why one’s sympathetic nervous systemkicks in, increasing the heart rate with which there is a burst of the energy hormone adrenaline, which helps in dealing with any situation. This is also known as a flight or fight response. The problem starts when a person deals with constant stress and worry or unaware of ways to manage stressful situations. There are various stress management models, with each having distinctive explanations of mechanisms for dealing with or controlling stress. The first step of stress management is to identify the sources of stress in one’s life. Stress management serves as beneficial as it reduces heart diseases, digestive problems, blood pressure, and many more physical ailments. Stress management also helps in dealing with mental health issues such as anxiety or panic disorder. There are various techniques in reducing stress in one’s life, from meditation to exercising and even journaling. Yoga is a popular physical form of stress management technique. A morning or evening jog and other forms of cardiovascular exercises help release the happy hormones – endorphins-into the system that helps prevent stress throughout the day. Apart from these, making changes in everyday habits such as maintain a proper sleep schedule, avoiding cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs, making sure that one’s diet consists of proper nutrition; spending time doing things that bring them joy goes a long way in letting go of the stress that one comes across every day.
The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt’s native inhabitants and outside influence. Much of Egypt’s ancient history was a mystery until Egyptian hieroglyphs were deciphered with the discovery and help of the Rosetta Stone. Among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is the Great Pyramid of Giza. There was seen political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first king of the First Dynasty, Narmer. Predominantly native Egyptian rule lasted until the conquest by the Achaemenid Empire in the sixth century BC. In 332 BC, Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered Egypt as he toppled the Achaemenids and established the Hellenistic Ptolemaic Kingdom, whose first ruler was one of Alexander’s former generals, Ptolemy I Soter The Ptolemies had to fight native rebellions and were involved in foreign and civil wars that led to the decline of the kingdom and its final annexation by Rome. The death of Cleopatra ended the nominal independence of Egypt resulting in Egypt’s becoming one of the provinces of the Roman Empire. Egypt remained entirely Ottoman until 1867, except during French occupation from 1798 to 1801. Starting in 1867, Egypt became a nominally autonomous tributary state called the Khedivate of Egypt. However, Khedivate Egypt fell under British control in 1882 following the Anglo Egyptian War. After the end of World War I and following the Egyptian revolution of 1919, the Kingdom of Egypt was established. While a de jure independent state, the United Kingdom retained control over foreign affairs, defense, and other matters. British occupation lasted until 1954, with the Anglo-Egyptian agreement of 1954. The modern Republic of Egypt was founded in 1953, and with the complete withdrawal of British forces from the Suez Canal in 1956, it marked the first time in 2500 years that Egypt was both fully independent and ruled by native Egyptians.
President Gamal Abdel Nasser introduced many reforms and created the short lived United Arab Republic (with Syria). His terms also saw the Six-Day War and the creation of the international Non-Aligned Movement. His successor, Anwar Sadat changed Egypt’s trajectory, departing from many of the political, and economic tenets of Nasserism, re-instituting a multi-party system and launching the Infitah economic policy. He led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regainEgypt’s Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967. This later led to the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty. The pharaoh’s role in Egypt was both political and religious pharaohs were generally thought to be imbued with divinity and were effectively regarded as intermediaries between the gods and people, the pharaohs were also responsible for the more earthly concerns of leadership, and each pharaoh had a unique legacy; some were architectural innovators or revered military leaders while others were brilliant diplomats. Djoser is perhaps the most famous Third Dynasty pharaoh he oversaw the construction of the famous step pyramid at Saqqara, a hugely significant milestone in ancient Egyptian architecture. This pyramid, in which Djoser was buried, was the first structure to realise the iconic step design. A Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, Khufu’s greatest legacy is undoubtedly the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the World. The monumental structure is a testament to the bewildering sophistication of Egyptian architecture and, remarkably, remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for the best part of 4,000 years. Only the second woman to assume the role of pharaoh, Hatshepsut was the wife of Thutmose II and reigned in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Her step-son Thutmose III was just two years old when his father died in 1479 and so Hatshepsut soon took on the role of pharaoh. The son of Amenhotep III, Akhenaten was named Amenhotep IV at birth but changed his name in accordance with his radical monotheistic beliefs. Akhenaten’s wife, Nefertiti, was a strong presence during his reign and played a significant part in his religious revolution After Akhenaten’s death, Egypt rapidly returned to polytheism and the traditional gods he had disowned. The youngest pharaoh in Egyptian history when he ascended to the throne at just nine or 10 years old, Tutankhamun became the most famous pharaoh of all. The cause of his death remains a mystery to Egyptologists. Ramses II’s reign was undoubtedly the greatest of the 19th Dynasty Ramses II went on to declare himself a god, while earning a reputation as a great warrior, fathering 96 children and ruling for 67 years. The last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra presided over the dying days of the Egyptian empire, yet her fame has lived on through folklore, Shakespeare and Hollywood. It’s hard to disentangle the real Cleopatrafrom the legend but scholars suggest that her portrayal as a stunningly beautiful seductress undersells her brilliance as a leader. Egypt specially grabs attention of people because of its mysteries and Pharos.
It’s the year 1939 Germany during the Nazi era. The country is gasping for air. Death has never been busier, and it will continue to be so.
Marcus Zusak’s gripping debut novel tells the storey of Liesel, who sees her younger brother’s death while travelling through Germany on a locomotive. Liesel clutches a volume she finds concealed in the snow while standing at her brother’s grave, regardless of the fact that she has yet to learn to read. When Liesel is placed with a foster family on Himmel Street, she quickly settles into a happy but impoverished life. The risks, however, are raised tremendously when news of the inevitable war and Hitler’s impact on Germany and the Jewish race reaches Liesel and her foster family, posing a significant threat to the family because they take on a Jewish soldier and hide them in their home as an act of honour for an old friend. Soon, Liesel, her family, and her friends on Himmel Street are pushed into the adversities that only war can bring, experiencing devastation and misery but ultimately making memories that will help them survive Nazi Germany’s challenges.
The importance of the plot was one of the reasons why this work was able to accomplish all of the aforementioned goals. I discovered that allowing readers to explore Liesel’s romance through words provides a significant reprieve from the war-focused storey, giving us glimpses of the carnage while deflecting skillfully with other crucial plot points, such as the relationships between the children on Himmel Street, Liesel’s tense relationship with her foster mother, or Liesel’s infatuation with stories and words. Zusak achieves a nice medium in between dark, tortured horror thriller and the study of youth and Liesel’s coming-of-age storyline by doing so. Thereby, Zusack guarantees that ‘The Book Thief’ transcends a single genre, offering readers who enjoy a variety of reading styles a sample of a novel from every perspective.
I was taken aback when I first opened this book and saw that Liesel was not the narrator. I wasn’t sure how attached I would feel to the protagonist’s rise and fall in Nazi Germany without hearing it directly from her. I realized how important it was having Death as the narrator which only enhanced my love for the work tenfold. Death provided a genuine insight into the impact of war on society, giving readers a look into the tragedies that may rip men, women, and children apart. One of the hallmarks of a great novel is how it makes the reader think about a particular topic, and I can confidently say that not only did Zusak give an opinion on the insufficient disparity between social classes and demographics, but he also managed to give voice to something that–in our lives–will never be given a chance to speak, much like the oppressed people who were suppressed during Adolf Hitler’s reign.
This book was quite eye-opening for me. It is among the first novels about the war that I have read that is written from the perspective of someone who lives in Germany. It makes you realise that so many people in Germany suffered as a result of the war, and that they weren’t all as bad as they are frequently depicted. The grief surrounding Liesel’s narrative sneaks up on you until you realise how common it was and continues to be for so many others.
Overall, I found this to be one of the most pleasant and powerful novels I have ever read. All authors aim to strike all of the correct notes in their novels, but it’s uncommon for an author to nail every single stride on the first try. The narrative gives the storey an unusual viewpoint. Death says a lot of things that are intellectual and even beautiful.
In some respects, The Book Thief leaves you with a feeling of guilt when you think about it. Because it is British bombs that fall on Germany, and it is British bombs that murder so many people in the narrative, leaving the reader’s cheeks wet in tears.
The biblical definition of non-fiction is prose writing that is based on facts, real events, and real people. Non fiction encompasses the factual and literal aspect of the literary canyon, which includes everything from biography, history, self-help, health and fitness, politics, religion, spirituality, business and money, parenting, relationships etc.
According to recent findings by several sources including Forbes, non-fiction literature is rising in ranks compared to its other fictional counterparts. “Revenues for adult non-fiction have rapidly risen every year since: $4.97 billion in 2014, $5.59 billion in 2015, $5.87 billion in 2016, and finally $6.18 billion last year.“
Non- fiction helps its readers get in tandem with the real world and connect to the everyday happenings as fiction sweeps them through different realms. Reading non-fiction can help one acquire knowledge about subjects crucial to the capitalist world today.
Curated below is a list of 4 non-fiction books that you must check out!
1. The Secret
Rhonda Byrne’s, ‘The Secret’, is among one of the most celebrated and widely endorsed self help books ever. This book sets out to piece together a secret by sifting through age old oral traditions, religions, literature philosophy blending it with the acumen of modern day experts, ultimately giving rise to a secret like no other. This secret based on several simple factors, has perhaps what it might take to transform lives.
This book in a methodical manner unravels the secret and teaches its application in our everyday lives. This secret has the means to explore all that energy within you that you think is redundant and possibly channel it in a positive manner.
2.Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking
Malcolm Gladwell’s ‘Blink’, is best described by its title itself. Based on psychological aspects of decisions made in the blink of an eye, this book might after all, give answers to some of questions that everyone has had at some point about intuitions, good decisions and bad decisions.
Blink gives us insight into the makings of quality decisions and the minds of quality decision-makers. It explores a vast world of thinking or perhaps not thinking sometimes and explains how those decisions come to play.
3. Tuesdays with Morrie
Mitch Albom’s, ‘Tuesdays with Morrie’, is an inspirational story of Mitch Albom’s reconciliation with Morrie Schwartz, his college professor from nearly twenty years ago who gave Mitch advice and understanding when he was lost and needed it the most. After Mitch meandered through life, after losing touch with his mentor, with several haunting questions of his.
As he meets his mentor, suffering from a fatal disease, almost two decades later, they get into a routine from the college days with Mitch visiting Morrie every Tuesday. Tuesdays with Morrie morph into insightful last lessons on life and living.
4. How to Win Friends and Influence People
Dale Carnegie’s masterpiece, ‘How to Win Friends and Influence People’, has influenced millions of people since getting published in 1936. This book contains solid and practical principles that can help one attain a steady footing on the ladder of success. This book focuses upon maximum discovery and use of one’s potential in the best ways possible.
One of the must reads in self help, this book preaches the principles to make people like you, to win people over by your way of thinking, to change people without arousing resentment.
Rules are important whether in sports or life. A game of cricket or football can’t be played without rules.
A game with no rules in force will finally end in chaos and disturbance. So is true with the society and the country as well.
A country also needs to be governed by definite rules, that all of its citizens and government institutions must follow, to maintain order and discipline.
There has to be a definite way in which democratic elections are conducted; the powers of the judiciary, executive, and the legislative; powers vested in states and union; fundamental privileges are given to the citizens, etc all are defined in the constitution.
When the Indian Constitution did come into effect?
What had been the Dominion of India became the Republic of India after the constitution came into effect. It replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the principal governing document of the country.
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar, the Chairman of the constitution drafting committee, presented the draft constitution to the then President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad on 25th November 1949, subsequently it was adopted by the constituent assembly on 26th November.
The constitution of India came into force on the day when the final session of the constituent assembly was held on 26th January 1950.
Salient Features of Indian Constitution
The constitution of India has several salient or distinguishing features that separate it from the leagues of other constitutions around the world. The most distinguished and significant salient features of the Indian constitution are defined as under.
Longest handwritten constitution
The constitution of India is one of the lengthiest and most detailed constitutions of the world. The English version of the constitution has 117,369 words contained in 444 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules, and 115 amendments as of 2020.
The lengthiness of the Indian constitution was necessitated by the diversity of India. The constitution became larger in order to accommodate several demographic differences of the state of India.
Parliamentary form of government
The constitution of India stipulates a bicameral legislature, that is, the power and authority are shared between two separate houses, in this case, Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.Opposite of bicameral is a unicameral legislature where only one house is present. In a bicameral setup debates and discussions play an important role in the passage of a bill.
A rigid and flexible constitution
The constitution of India is neither completely rigid nor flexible. A constitution is said to be rigid when it is difficult to make amendments, like the constitution of the United States.On the contrary, the constitution of India has been amended 103 times since it came into force, but all the amendments have to pass through definite tests and mandatory requirements.
The constitution of India is therefore considered a perfect blend of rigidity and flexibility.
The preamble to the constitution.
The preamble of the Indian constitution is its introductory paragraph that declares the constitution’ss fundamental philosophy and purpose.
It declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. It also states some objectives like, securing justice, liberty, and equality to all the citizens and promoting fraternity in order to maintain national unity and integrity.
The constitution of India is quasi-federal because it combines the features of both the federal government and the unitary government.
The Supreme Court of India has also stated that India has a federal structure with a strong bias towards the center.
Federal features of the constitution are – supreme law, a bicameral legislature, dual government policy, a written constitution, a rigid constitution, independent judiciary, and revenue sharing.
On the other hand, unitary features of the constitution are – single constitution applicable to the union and states, unequal representation of states in the Rajya Sabha, the unequal division of power between the center and states, states depend on center, non-rigid constitution, unified judicial system and proclamation of emergency.
Fundamental rights and duties
The constitution of India describes the fundamental rights and duties of all the citizens of India irrespective of the states, region, religion, or ethnicity.
The seven fundamental rights provided by the constitution to every citizen are – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, and right to constitutional remedies.
Fundamental duties are enshrined in the constitution to promote integrity. Some of the important fundamental duties are to uphold the sovereignty and unity of India, to preserve rich heritage, to safeguard public property, etc.
Directive principles of state policy
The directive principles of state policy are contained in Part IV of the Indian constitution. These are the sets of instructions meant for the states.
Basically, they constitute the instructions to the legislature and the executive that are mandatory to be followed whenever the state frames new legislation.
Adult suffrage means that any Indian citizen irrespective of gender, caste, or any other difference, has a right to vote to elect the government, provided that he or she is above 18 years of age.
This right is guaranteed by Article 326 of the constitution. Initially, the age of voting was 21 years but after the 61st amendment also called the Constitution Act 1988, it was amended to 18 years. However, the right to vote doesn’t apply to non-citizens, persons with unsound minds, or criminals.
The constitution of India has several provisions to ensure that the judiciary remains unbiased and independent.The Supreme Court of India acts as the caretaker of the constitution and ensures that its provisions are followed.Also, the courts at the state and district levels are out of the influence of bureaucracy or political governments.High courts in states directly function under the Supreme Court.
The term ‘Secular’ in the constitution was added by the 42nd amendment in the Preamble.It was included to promote peace and harmony among different religious groups of India. Every citizen of India is free to follow the religion of his/her choice and it is obligatory for the government to ensure that his/her rights and privileges are protected.
Part II of the constitution from Article 5 to Article 11 deals with citizenship. According to it, all the citizens of India enjoy equal rights and privileges across the complete territory of India.In whatever state or Union Territory of India you may travel, you will enjoy similar rights and privileges as enjoyed in your home state.
Importance of Indian Constitution
The constitution is the supreme law that governs the country. The three pillars of democracy – the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, functions as per the provisions provided in the constitution.
It guarantees the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens and ensures that India remains a secular state, which is important considering its religious and cultural diversity.
Without the constitution, the whole democratic setup would just crumble and rights and privileges could not be exercised.India is one of the world’s most successful democracies today because its people and the government religiously follow every word of the constitution.
At the core of the constitution is an idea to generate an equal and civilized society that is governed by principles and definite rules.
Like every game has its rule book, similarly, the constitution of India is also the rule book that dictates all the rules, regulations, powers, and privileges to effectively govern the country.
The computer was born not for entertainment or email but out of a need to solve a serious number-crunching crisis. By 1880, the U.S. population had grown so large that it took more than seven years to tabulate the U.S. Census results. The government sought a faster way to get the job done, giving rise to punch-card based computers that took up entire rooms.
Today, we carry more computing power on our smartphones than was available in these early models. The following brief history of computing is a timeline of how computers evolved from their humble beginnings to the machines of today that surf the Internet, play games and stream multimedia in addition to crunching numbers.
Parts of computer
The computer is one of the most versatile and beneficial inventions for mankind. Its enormous capacity to process data makes it a fundamental part of the development of the world. There are some basic parts of computer that make it possible to process and complete the task at extraordinary speed.
The computer monitor is a significant part, without it the user cannot function the computer. The screen of the monitor allows the user to interact with the computer. The monitor screen is for visual display of all types of information provided by the computer.
The main function of the monitor is obviously visual. As it acts as an interface between the CPU and the user. It doesn’t matter how powerful or fast your computer is, without a monitor display, the computer is incomplete or even useless.
The monitor is designed to display all kinds of information like image, video, symbolic, graphical, etc, as Soft Copy on its screen. A cable is connected with a video adapter that is set up with the computer’s motherboard to display the given data.
Through computer monitors, we can carry out, or view all the important content, review stored information, and do a lot of tasks.
The keyboard is one of the most important parts of computer. The keyboard is designed to input the data by typing letters, symbols, numbers (ABC,123,!@#). The keyboard is used for writing work on the computer.
The shape of the keyboard is rectangular and the buttons are arranged horizontal contain about 108 Keys. These keys allowing us to the entry of information encoded into the computer system by pressing the keys.
The main function of the keyboard is to enter data and information into the computer. The keyboard is a means of communicating with the computer system by the user. By using Keyboard, we can make PPT, spreadsheets, use the Internet, calculations, sending mails, etc, on the monitor screen.
The mouse is an input device also known as a pointing device of a computer. Its main function is to facilitate user interaction with the monitor screen of the computer like the keyboard. A mouse is a device connected to a computer for controlling the cursor on the screen.
The control is detected by the mouse when it is moving it along on the flat surface on which it is located, as well as by pressing the buttons that located on the upper surface of the device and scrolling the wheel, which, as a rule, is located between the control buttons.
In this way, it issues various commands and information to the computer to perform certain actions, that it is interpreted by the CPU and, thus, the mouse pointer imitates the movement on the computer screen.
Some mice types have a Laser Light or some have a rubber ball attached below it. When the mouse moves on a surface, the rubber ball rotates or laser light also moves. The speed and direction of the mouse convert into the monitor’s screen cursor, this is how the mouse works.
The mouse is placed on the Mouse Pad, for controlling the cursor. By Right-Clicking, Left-Clicking, Dragging, scrolling, Double Clicking. By using the mouse, we can do basic tasks on the computer like selecting, opening, deleting the files and folders, etc.
A printer is a device whose main function is to print electronic information like text and images onto paper as a hard copy. In this way, the process of transferring data to hard paper is called printing, and the result is a printout.
The printer prints the files like images, and text stored in a computer, by converting the data from soft copy to hard copy. Printers are used to print signs, printing online images, Excel sheets, PPT, and office documents at offices.
Normally the printer is equipped with a computer with a USB port, LAN, Ethernet, or simply a wireless connection. At present, many printed devices are featured with technologies like Wi-Fi, Cloud, and Bluetooth. Due to this, it becomes easier to complete the printing task by computer.
The computer case is a visible and most important part of computers also known as the computer tower and chassis. It is used to store the main components of a computer like a motherboard with a processor, power supply, a video card, and RAM, hard disks, CPU fans, optical disk drive, memory cards, etc.
A computer tower is not only a “packing box”, but also an important function that provides storage and rigid fixation of all its internal devices. As well as providing them with a power supply and a hard protective structure against internal damage from external influences like dust, liquid, etc.
There are a lot of sizes and models of computer cases, and each type of case is designed to occur storage and perform a specific task.
The computer motherboard is to acts as the main circuit that enables the integration of all components of a computer. Its main function is to connect the different devices, components, or peripherals to the systems to transport the information to the corresponding destination, through this, it facilitates communication between devices.
They are designed based on the type of CPU (central processing unit) in which they will be installed. The motherboard houses the connectors necessary for the processor, RAM, ports, and other devices like video cards, network cards, ROM, processors, power supply, etc.
The main function of the motherboard is communication between the devices that include, control and monitoring, administration, or management of electrical energy as well as its distribution throughout the computer.
The processor is the most important component placed on the motherboard, present in the computer case as a CPU (Central Processing Unit). The processor acts as the brain of the entire operation of the computer system and it is the 4th generation of computer.
The processor unit allows the computer to perform different tasks like processing the data, control the operation of all the computer’s devices, and most importantly performing logical and mathematical operations.
And other actions like controlling the flow of information within the PC, managing and controlling the RAM and ROM memory, and performing basic operations on the computer’s data.
In simple words, it is just processes everything that happens on the computer and executes all the actions. The faster the processor a computer has, the faster the computer will be work.
The hard drive or HDD is one of the computer storage devices that can store any kind of digital information based on magnetic technology. As well a Hard drive is a ROM Memory of computers.
They are used to store the information and data like photos, videos, text small or big files, computer programs storing backup copies of data, like file storage, etc. on our computer system.
The storage capacities of the hard drive disk have now reached 6TB. On such a 6TB hard drive computer is able to can store up to 1,600,000 photos or 615 hours of video and up to 2,000,000 songs.
In this way, it is possible to keep the information stored on such a medium permanently (hence it is not volatile memory). And one of the important parts of computer.
However, a computer user can use other latest storage devices like Pen drive, SSD, Memory card, etc.
The RAM’s full form is ‘Random Access Memory’. RAM is a type of operative memory of computer systems. The ROM memory is used to store data but in the case of RAM memory is used to run the whole computer system in real-time.
Like the processor, RAM is inserted into the motherboard for communication with various elements of the system. RAM runs the software like computer programs, games, software applications, and other information in (CPU) the central processing unit for direct and quick access when needed to perform tasks.
RAM is the fastest type of memory, and it has the ability to be read and write the data but temporarily until the Power Supply to the device. Because as the computer is turned off, all the processed data of RAM automatically goes to the trash.
Nowadays the maximum capacity of RAM is up to 32 GB that is specially made for gaming computers.
Computer speakers are a way that computers make sounds by means of digital or analog audio. In other terms, the speaker is also called the ‘dynamic head’. This speaker can now be found on many other devices, like, on a TV, radio, smartphone, telephone, children’s toys, and others.
The main function of speakers is a way for computers to interact with their users. These provide a means for the computer to produce audio. The sound produced by computer speakers is done by a hardware component whose name is a sound card that is pre-installed with the computer.
The speaker is important because for listening to the audios and sounds fo the videos and games which is significant for a computer user to perform all kinds of tasks on the computer.
However, in order to increase the sound of the computer in a louder way one may need external speakers. Alternatives to the speaker for computers are headphones, earphones, earbuds, etc.
Uses of computer
* Playing computer games * Writing * Solving math problems * Watching videos * Listening to music and audio * Audio, Video and photo editing * Creating sound or video * Communicating with other people * Using The Internet * Online shopping * Drawing * Online bill payments * online business
* Word processing * Spreadsheets * Presentations * Photo Editing * E-mail * Video editing/rendering/encoding * Audio recording * System Management * Website Development * Software Development
Malaria is associated with a bite from the female Anopheles mosquito and in a few cases, can cause serious health complications. Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease of humans and other animals caused by protists (a type of microorganism) of the genus Plasmodium.
The term malaria originates from Medieval Italian: mala aria — “bad air”; the disease was formerly called ague or marsh fever due to its association with swamps and marshland. Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America, where it is no longer endemic, though imported cases do occur.
The disease is most common in tropical and subtropical climates (hot and humid) where the parasites can live and are generally active.
Types of malaria:
Parasites of the genus Plasmodium cause malaria. There are many species of the malaria parasite Plasmodium. However, only five of them infect humans. These are:
– Plasmodium falciparum: Found in tropical and subtropical areas and is a major contributor to deaths from severe malaria.
– Plasmodium vivax: Mostly found in Asia and Latin America. It involves a dormant stage that can cause relapses.
– Plasmodium ovale: Found in Africa and the Pacific islands.
– Plasmodium malariae: Found worldwide and can cause a chronic infection.
– Plasmodium knowlesi: Found throughout Southeast Asia. It can rapidly progress from an uncomplicated case to severe malaria infection.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Incubation period refers to how long it takes from initial infection to the appearance of symptoms.
This generally depends on the type of parasite:
· P. falciparum – 9 to 14 days
· P. vivax – 12 to 18 days · P. ovale – 12 to 18 days
· P. malariae – 18 to 40 days However, incubation periods can vary from as little as 7 days, to several months for P. vivax and P. ovale. If you are taking medication to prevent infection (chemoprophylaxis) the incubation period is usually longer.
The signsand symptoms of malaria typically begin 8–25 days following infection; signs include:
· Decreased consciousness
· Significant weakness such that the person is unable to walk
· Inability to feed
· Two or more convulsions
· Low blood pressure (less than 70 mmHg in adults or 50 mmHg in children)
· Breathing problems
· Circulatory shock
· Kidney failure or hemoglobin in the urine
· Pulmonary edema
The best way to prevent malaria is to keep our home and surroundings clean. Having a strong civic sense is the best way to ensure safety from malaria.
1.Fog them out:
Get fogging in your neighborhood done before the rainy season starts as it helps to kill the mosquitoes that might be hiding at places.
2. Choose the right clothes:
Make sure you choose the right clothing to prevent malaria. Wear cover-alls, full-sleeved clothes, long pants that can help prevent mosquito bites.
3.Use mosquito repellent products:
You can use various over-the-counter mosquito repellant creams and bands. The same will help keep you safeguarded even when you are sitting in a garden or outside playing.
4.Use mosquito nets:
This is the simplest and ineffective way of keeping the mosquitoes away. A person is most vulnerable when they are sleeping. Using mosquito nets neither exposes you to harmful mosquito chemicals nor does it harm your body.
5.Use window nets:
Cover your windows well and keep them closed.
6. Keep your surroundings clean:
Keeping your surroundings clean is one of the best-recommended methods to prevent yourself from malaria. While travelling, make sure that you avoid loitering around.
Vectors: Plasmodium may exploit several genera of mosquitoes, as vectors and intermediate
· Mansonia and
i. Bites of mosquitoes,
ii. Mechanically by blood transfer as in mass vaccination,
iii. Caponization and injection.
Malaria parasites are transmitted from person to person through Anopheles mosquitoes.
When a mosquito bites, blood containing the parasites is taken into the mosquito’s gut. Over a
period of 10 or more days, the parasites undergo a complex development, the mature parasite
eventually coming to reside in the mosquito’s salivary glands, ready for transmission to a new
person when it bites again. In the next human host, the parasite first infects the liver,
undergoes rapid replication in this site for at least five days, and then infects red blood cells.
It is in the blood that the parasites causes the most serious symptoms of malaria, including
cerebral malaria initiated by parasitised blood cells blocking blood capillaries in the brain.
The term social media marketing refers to the use of social media and social networks to market a company’s products and services. Social media marketing provides companies with a way to engage with existing customers and reach new ones while allowing them to promote their desired culture, mission, or tone. Social media marketing has purpose-built data analytics tools that allow marketers to track the success of their efforts. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are commonly used to execute social media marketing. Social media has changed the way we function as a society, including the way we connect with one another. Social media websites allow marketers to employ a broad range of tactics and strategies to promote content and have people engage with it. Many social networks allow users to provide detailed geographical, demographic, and personal information, which enables marketers to tailor their messages to what is most likely to resonate with users. Social media marketing campaigns have the advantage of appealing to a broad audience at once. Viral marketing seeks to spread information about a product or service from person to person by word of mouth or sharing via the internet or email. The goal of viral marketing is to inspire individuals to share a marketing message to friends, family, and other individuals to create exponential growth in the number of its recipients. Today’s consumers rush to browse social media when they want to know more about an organization or product because that’s where they’ll find others talking about that business. Social media is an ideal place for brands looking to gain insights into their audience’s interests and tastes. The way experts see it, smart companies will continue to invest in social media to achieve sustainable business growth. Whether you want to launch a new product or a business, social media is the perfect launchpad to create a buzz around your initiatives. As we move further into the future of e-commerce, it’s clear that social media marketing isn’t just an option. In an increasingly competitive environment, your business can’t afford to miss out on social media. It’s especially competitive in the social media influencer space, where there are thousands of new influencers starting a brand every day. If you’re trying to build more of an online presence to become a social media influencer, make sure to read our comprehensive guide. A few years ago, the sole purpose of using social media channels was to generate website traffic. Today, it has developed into something more than just a place to broadcast content. Twitter allows companies to promote their products in short messages known as tweets limited to 280 characters which appear on followers Home timelines Tweets can contain text, Hashtag, photo, video, Animated, Emoji, or links to the product’s website and other social media profiles, etc. Twitter is also used by companies to provide customer service. Some companies make support available 24/7 and answer promptly, thus improving brand loyalty and appreciation.Facebook pages are far more detailed than Twitter accounts. They allow a product to provide videos, photos, longer descriptions, and testimonials where followers can comment on the product pages for others to see. Facebook can link back to the product’s Twitter page, as well as send out event reminders. As of May 2015, 93% of businesses marketers use Facebook to promote their brand A study from 2011 attributed 84% of “engagement” or clicks and likes that link back to Facebook advertising. By 2014, Facebook had restricted the content published from business and brand pages. LinkedIn, a professional business-related networking site, allows companies to create professional profiles for themselves as well as their business to network and meet others. Through the use of widgets, members can promote their various social networking activities, such as Twitter stream or blog entries of their product pages, onto their LinkedIn profile page. LinkedIn provides its members the opportunity to generate sales leads and business partners. Ability WhatsApp was founded by Jan Koum and Brian Acton. Joining Facebook in 2014, WhatsApp continues to operate as a separate app with a laser focus on building a messaging service that works fast and reliably anywhere in the world. Started as an alternative to SMS, WhatsApp now supports sending and receiving a variety of media including text, photos, videos, documents, and location, as well as voice calls. WhatsApp messages and calls are secured with end-to-end encryption, meaning that no third party including WhatsApp can read or listen to them. WhatsApp has a customer base of 1 billion people in over 180 countries. It is used to send personalised promotional messages to individual customers. It has plenty of advantages over SMS that includes to track how Message Broadcast Performs using blue tick option in WhatsApp.Instagram has proven itself a powerful platform for marketers to reach their customers and prospects through sharing pictures and brief messages. According to a study by Simply Measured, 71% of the world’s largest brands are now using Instagram as a marketing channel For companies, Instagram can be used as a tool to connect and communicate with current and potential customers. The company can present a more personal picture of their brand, and by doing so the company conveys a better and true picture of itself. The idea of Instagram pictures lies on on-the-go, a sense that the event is happening right now, and that adds another layer to the personal and accurate picture of the company. In fact, Thomas Rankin, co-founder and CEO of the program Dash Hudson, stated that when he approves a blogger’s Instagram post before it is posted on the behalf of a brand his company represents, his only negative feedback is if it looks too posed. Social media is a reliable asset for the promotion of product.
Poverty” is the worst form of violence”, said Mahatma Gandhi. Over the years, poverty has proved to be the biggest hurdle in the way of success of India’s development. Poverty is that condition in which a person fails to not only fulfil his basic physiological needs, but also fails to protect himself from diseases, get balanced nutrition, maintain good health etc.
In simple terms, a person in order to survive should have proper food, clothing, shelter, health care and education. Thus, poverty refers to a person failing to acquire these minimum levels of subsistence and in turn suffer from starvation, malnutrition, and diseases.
Poverty has been an inevitable problem since the time immemorial. From late 19th century through early 20th century, under British colonial rule, poverty in India intensified, peaking in 1920’s. Over this period, the colonial government, de-industrialised India by reducing garments and other finished products’ manufacturing by artisans in India.
They instead imported these from Britain. These colonial policies moved unemployed artisans into farming and transformed India as a region increasingly abundant in land, unskilled labour and low productivity, capital and knowledge. Moreover famines and diseases killed millions each time.
Recently, in 2013, the Indian Government stated 21.9% of its population is below official poverty limit. In other words, India with 17.5% of world’s total population, had 20.6% share of world’s poorest in 2013. A large proportion of poor people live in rural areas. Poverty is deepest among members of scheduled castes and tribes in the country’s rural areas.
On the map of India, the poorest areas are in parts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. In fact, the story of our prolonged poverty and tyranny attached has got so much fame that a , foreign director (Danny Boyle) produced a whole movie on the issue. This movie is Slumdog Millionaire which got worldwide acclamation through Oscar Awards.
Statistics reveals that economic prosperity has indeed been very impressive in India, but it is the distribution of wealth that has been uneven and has caused the grave problem of poverty. Other major causes of poverty are illiteracy along with uncontrolled population growth, unemployment and under-employment, dependence on agriculture, caste system and corruption. The causes of rural poverty are manifold including inadequate and ineffective implementation of anti-poverty programmes.
The over-dependence on monsoon with non-availability of irrigational facilities often results in crop-failure and low agricultural productivity forcing farmers in the debt-traps. The children of poor families are forced to take up jobs at a tender age to fend for their large families, thus are not only deprived of their childhood but education too adding to the illiterate bulk of the country.
Central grants for programmes like Indira Awas Yojana and others, which was aimed at providing housing to the poor, have been utter failures due to lack of proper implementation. Massive transfer of ‘Black Money’ overseas and under-utilisation of foreign aid have also contributed to the deepening of poverty in India. Nelson Mandela once quoted:
“Like Slavery and Apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings”.
Interestingly, the incidence of rural poverty has declined somewhat in the past years as a result of rural to urban migration. In order to combat the grave problem of poverty, first and foremost, there should be a strict check on population increase. Creation of employment opportunities, spread of education, elimination of black money, decentralisation of planning, helping women and youth to become self-reliant are some other ways to combat this problem. Empowering the weaker and backward section of society is also expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty. It is not due to lack of resources or technical assistance that we are failing in achieving our goals but more so due to lack of execution of these plans and programmes.
Who comes in the category of the poorest class in India?
Tribal people, Dalits and labour class including farmworkers in villages and casual workers in cities are still very poor and make the poorest class in India.
Where do the majority of poor live in India?
60% of the poor still reside in the states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The reason for these states to be in the category of the poorest state is because 85% of tribal people live there. Also, most of these regions are either flood-prone or suffer from calamities. These conditions hamper agriculture to a great extent, on which the household income of these groups depends.
According to the Global Hunger Index Report 2018 by the International Food Research Institute, India ranks 103 in the Global Hunger Index (GHI). Though there is no shortage of food production in India, our nation still has 35.8% of children under five in the underweight category. India is working hard to become a superpower in 2020, but such statistics are worrisome, as our nation still lags behind in improving GHI. At the same time, India seems to have achieved commendable success towards poverty eradication, because it is no longer the country with the largest number of poor people.
In 2018, for the first time in decades, Nigeria pipped India to the top slot in terms of the total number of people living in extreme poverty. As per World Poverty Clock, India’s figure of 70.6 million was surpassed by Nigeria’s 87 million people living in extreme poverty.
Moreover, according to a Sustainable Development Goals Report of the United Nations Development Program released in 2018, India has made significant progress: “Between 2005-06 and 2015-16, the incidence of multidimensional poverty in India was almost halved, climbing down to 27.5 percent from 54.7 percent as per the 2018 global Multidimensional Poverty Index report. Within ten years, the number of poor people in India fell by more than 271 million (from 635 million to 364 million). This MPI index measures progress across 3 key dimensions of health, education and living standards, and uses 10 indicators – nutrition, child mortality, years of schooling, school attendance, sanitation, cooking fuel, drinking water, electricity, housing and assets. People who lag behind in at least a third of the MPI’s components are defined as multidimensionally poor.
Causes of Poverty in India
The high population growth rate is one of the major reasons of poverty in India. This further leads to a high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and lack of access to financial resources. Also, high population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower. It is expected that the population in India will reach 1.5 billion by 2026 and then India will be the largest nation in the world. But India’s economy is not growing at the same pace. This means a shortage of jobs. For this much population, near about 20 million new jobs would be required. The number of poor will keep on increasing if such a big number of jobs won’t be created.
The ever-increasing prices of even basic commodities is another reason for poverty. A person below the poverty line finds it difficult to survive. The caste system and unequal distribution of income and resources is another reason for poverty in India.
Apart from all these, unskilled workers are paid very low in spite of the hard work they put in daily. The problem lies with the unorganized sector as owners do not bother with the way their workers live and the amount they earn. Their area of concern is just cost-cutting and more profit. Because of the number of workers looking for a job is higher than the jobs available, unskilled workers have no other option but to work for less money. The government should really find a way to impose minimum wage standards for these workers. At the same time, the government should ensure that this is implemented well.
Poverty must be eradicated from India as every person has the right to live a healthy life.
How You Can Improve or Solve Poverty in India?
Poverty can be solved by improving food security by providing three meals a day and making them healthy and providing houses for those people at low cost and giving them proper education and facilities so that they can earn well and take care of their family and leave peaceful life. Awareness on population so that once the population is under control, the economy of the country will improve and move towards developed and decrease in the poverty line. Poverty is becoming a complex problem for the peoples and for the government, how to overcome out from this, in India the poverty is high comparing other countries because the growth rate of per capita income per person is very low. With lack of job opportunities many people move as a rickshaw puller, construction workers, domestic servants etc, with irregular small incomes hence they live in slum areas. Also, lack of land resources has been one of the major causes of poverty in India, even the small farmers of our country leads to poverty because they cultivate but do not get proper money in terms of profit and leads to poverty.
Yes, dark circles are stubborn. They do not go away easily. All they contribute to your beautiful face is to leave you looking like a panda. And don’t you just hate the fact that you have to hide them (and the bags that come with them) with an enormous amount of makeup and lots and lots of concealers. And well, the pandemic along with the ensuing lockdown made it worse by messing with our sleep schedules.
Dark circles are caused due to a variety of reasons. The skin around our eyes is extremely thin and delicate which is why the changes that our body goes through begin to show right here. Ageing might be a common factor. Fatigue, lack of sleep, straining our eyes from increased screen time are also common causes of it. Some are also likely to get dark circles due to genetics. But that doesn’t entirely mean it isn’t curable. Scroll below to know the remedies.
Applying a cold compress twice a day can reduce dark circles. Or if you haven’t got the time to apply it once. Hold the compress for 10 minutes. That’s it. The safest and quickest way of not looking like a panda.
Cucumbers have skin-lightening and cooling properties. It has astringent to help lighten up our under eyes. Cut the cucumber into slices and refrigerate for up to 30 minutes. Cleanse your eyes, lie down and place the slices over your eyes. Keep it for 15-20 minutes before washing it off with water.
Teabags are a great way to eliminate those dark circles without any side effects. The antioxidants in tea bags help fight fine lines, dark circles and puffy eyes. It can improve blood circulation also. Just take two used tea bags and chill them for about 15 minutes. Take it out and place them on your eyelids and dark circles for 10 minutes. Use it daily to see the difference.
Aloe Vera is rich in anti-pigmentation properties and Vitamin E that helps fight dark circles. And being a tropical plant, it is present in every house. Take an aloe vera leaf and extract all the gel out of it, take equal amounts of honey and mix it well. Now clean your eyes and apply this mixture all around them. Leave it for 15 minutes. Now wash it off. Use it daily for best results.
Tomato, Yes, these red round fruits can work wonders. They have natural bleaching properties that lighten up the skin. It also has moisturizing and regenerating properties. Take a tomato and grind it into a paste. Apply it over the dark circles and rinse it off after a few minutes. You can also drink tomato juice first thing in the morning. It improves the skin color under our eyes.
The deadly coronavirus, which was first detected in Wuhan in China has almost affected every country in the world, infecting and killing millions of people everywhere around the world. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused bought dramatic loss of lives worldwide. It created challenges to public health, food systems, and the economy of the country. The impact of this pandemic is very big: tens and millions of people are falling at the risk of falling into poverty.
Millions of enterprises face drastic damage and nearly half of the world’s 3.3 billion people are at the risk of losing their livelihoods. Due to the lockdown around the world, many companies have experienced a severe loss in the business. Without the means of income, many are unable to feed their families or themselves. In further, no income means no food or less nutritious food. Due to the lockdown, the transport system has stopped which caused a major impact on businesses.
The pandemic has caused several problems to agriculture. Border closures, trade restrictions, and other measures have been a barrier for farmers for buying their inputs as well as selling their inputs. It also delayed the process of harvesting crops due to insufficient labor and thus affecting the food supply chain across the world. The food security and nutrition of women and men are at risk especially in the low-income countries which include small-scale farmers with a big population. The migrant agricultural workers are the ones who got affected mostly. They weren’t able to get proper shelter to live in. They are struggling to access support measures announced by governments.
Colleges, Schools, and Universities are closed with no certainty as to when they will be open. The sources that are strictly prohibited in schools are now the only medium through which teachers can interact with the students. The classroom education system is replaced with an online mode of teaching. Applications such as zoom meet, Google meet, Webex, Microsoft teams are used to attend the online classes. Students are facing a lot of problems with this online mode of teaching. Eye problems will occur frequently in students. They are not able to understand the concepts clearly as compared to classroom education. Not all students have proper resources to attend online education.
An individual’s savings account gets affected when there are big shifts in stock markets. The FTSE dropped 14.3% in 2020 which is the worst performance since 2008. The unemployment rate has increased across major economies. If the economy is good, that means that more wealth and more job opportunities. It is calculated by looking at the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated that the global economy is shrunk by 4.4 % in 2020. The organization has announced the decline as the worst since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
HEALTH CARE SYSTEM:
COVID-19 pandemic has affected almost every country in the world. Thousands of people are dying each day. Social distancing and lockdowns have reduced the impact slightly. People with other diseases are not able to treat properly due to the immediate threat of COVID-19 consuming health systems. Scientific researches around the world also now focusing only on the COVID 19 which delays the research on other diseases. Due to the pandemic, the number of people seeking health care has increased. Health care systems have to become more accessible and prepared for future pandemic-like situations.
In conclusion, the impact of the pandemic is more than we imagined. Many people across the world have lost their relatives, friends, and families. We are not able to do anything when our dearest one dies. The impact is high. To overcome this pandemic, we have to work together and follow the guidelines issued by the respective governments and be aware of the pandemic’s effects.
Disaster can be defined as an event which disrupts the functioning of the society wherein the event is of such magnitude that it cannot be coped up with the resources of the society on its own. During such times one requires a force which is specialized in rescuing, rehabilitating and bringing normalcy in the society after the natural disaster has struck. With disaster management force, they are trained, keeping in mind three principles – how to prepare for future disasters, how to respond it when the society is in fear and what to learn from the shortcomings for future disaster management. The said disaster management force are tasked and deployed not only for naturally occurring disasters but also for disasters with man-made origins.
In 1999, the Government of India set up a High-powered committee while keeping in mind the need for a disaster management. Following this decision and the 2001 Gujarat earthquake, the Government of India introduced a national committee for the making and preparation of National Disaster Management plans. In December 2005, the Disaster Management act was enacted by the Government of India which lead to the creation of the Disaster management authority. The Disaster management authority was divided in three parts wherein the national disaster management authority was spearheaded by the Prime Minister, the state disaster management authority was headed by respective Chief Ministers of each state and the district disaster management authority would be headed by the district magistrate or Collector.
The National Disaster management authority is the apex body which lays down guidelines for disaster management. The guidelines which are laid down by the National disaster management authority have to be adopted and followed by the State disaster management authority under the supervision of Chief ministers of each state. For fulfilling the vision of building a safer and disaster resilient society, the national disaster management authority can recommend funds for mitigating. The national level disaster management authority helps in coordinating the enforcement as well as the implementation of policy for national as well as state level authority.
Disaster management authority –
The National Disaster management authority has demonstrated excellent disaster planning during Cyclone Hudhud and Cyclone Fani. In both of these cyclones, the National disaster management authority evacuated thousands of people from the worst hit zone and moved them to cyclone shelters. Due to this, the management authority helped in reducing the mortality rate due to Cyclones. Occasionally, the management authority runs intensive earthquake drills and mock exercises for crisis management. In order make everyone aware, the authority planned on implementing guidelines in schools regarding natural disaster management; prepared guidelines for hospital safety; provided the minimum standard which had to be maintained in shelters, etc.
Shortcomings and suggestion–
There are four phases in disaster management which go hand in hand and one cannot be removed or omitted in order to focus on one of the phases. Focus, funds and infrastructure has to be put in for all four phases or else it defeats the purpose for disaster management. The first phase is mitigation wherein the disaster management authority takes actions to eliminate or reduce the potential impact of a hazard. This phase helps in prepared for the hazard which would eliminate higher casualty rates. The second phase is preparedness which focuses on training the disaster management forces with exercises and drills which would lead to efficient evacuation and rehabilitation. Due to the drills and exercises, the forces would be well prepared and educated in terms of how to act and what to do in case a natural disaster strikes. The third phase is response wherein certain actions are taken by the authority towards responding to disaster emergencies. What needs to be done and how it will be done are a part of the third phase along with quick response in the disaster struck area. Once this is done, recovery of the area is the next step, which is the last phase as well. Once people have been evacuated from the danger area, then the authority can work upon recovering the services as well as bringing back the normalcy to the disaster struck area.
In the past decade, it has been observed that in times of a natural disaster, the national disaster management authority is quite late on the scene and in times when they are on time, the work provided is inefficient. Due to this, the Indian army is called for providing their services. During the Kedarnath cloud burst, Srinagar floods, roads collapsing in certain states – it was the Indian army who was called for the rescue and rehabilitation process as the National disaster management authority or the state disaster management authority seem to be inefficient. From this it can be concluded, that the national or state disaster management authority lacks in all four phases. Due to not being aware of what kind of impact a certain disaster can cause, there is lack in preparedness which results in inefficient evacuation and rehabilitation process.
The national disaster management authority should take some inspiration from the Japanese National disaster management who helps the affected area in recovering from the disaster effortlessly due to the knowledge that they possess regarding disasters, how to tackle them, what is needed to be done during the situation and after the storm has calmed down. The tsunami which had struck Japan had created a havoc in the affected areas, however, within a span of few weeks, the place was back to its original environment with people being rehabilitated to their houses. The National disaster management authority has to strive towards becoming more efficient then only will the forces be able to help out the victims of the disaster.
According to the world economic forum report the pandemic has delayed gender parity by a generation.
Pandemic delays gender parity by a generation: World Economic Forum
Having lost jobs at a higher rate than men, a range of studies have shown that the covid 19 pandemic had a more severe impact on women than men. Women had to take on much more of the extra childcare burden when schools closed.
With the goal of gender parity moving further away. The effects will be felt in long term according to the Global Gender Gap Report published by the world economic forum.
In their previous report which it published round December 2019, right before the pandemic hit, they found that gender parity would be reached within next 100 years. But this year’s report shows the world is not on track to close the gender gap for another 135.6 years.
“Another generation of women will have to wait for gender parity,” the WEF said in a statement.
The forum annual report tracks disparities between the genders across four areas: education, health, economics prowess and political power in 156 countries.
Workplace equality in 267 years
On the brighter side we can see that women have been closing gap in areas such as health and education. The most complex area where it has been most difficult for women is inequality in workplace. Inequality in the workplace — which has long appeared to be the stickiest area to fix — is still not expected to be erased for another 267.6 years.
And the pandemic has not helped.
A study by the UN’s International Labour Organization showed that women were most likely to lose jobs in times of crisis because of their disproportionate representation in sectors directly affected by lockdowns, pointed the WEF.
Other surveys have shown that women were carrying a greater share of the burden of increased housework and childcare during lockdowns, contributing to higher stress and lower productivity levels.
In another front men were hired back faster than women as work places opened, according to LinkedIn data referenced in the report.
“The pandemic has fundamentally impacted gender equality in both the workplace and the home, rolling back years of progress,” WEF managing director Saadia Zahidi said in the statement.
“If we want a dynamic future economy, it is vital for women to be represented in the jobs of tomorrow,” she said, stressing that “this is the moment to embed gender parity by design into the recovery.”
Political gender gap growing
It was in the political sphere that the march towards gender parity did the biggest about-face, with several large-population countries seeing the political gender gap widen, the WEF study found.
Only a quarter of parliamentary seats are held by women worldwide and only 22.6 percent of ministerial positions.
The political gender gap will not close for another 145.5 years if it continues in the same trajectory, the report found.
That marks a 50-percent hike from the estimated 95 years in the 2020 report, WEF pointed out.
Progress across the categories varies greatly in different countries and regions.
The report pointed out that while Western European countries could close their overall gender gap in 52.1 years, countries in the Middle East and North Africa will take nearly 142.4 years to do so.
Overall, the Nordic countries once again dominated the top of the table: the gap between men and women was narrowest in Iceland, for the 12th year running, followed by Finland and Norway. New Zealand took fourth place, ahead of Sweden.
Air pollution is a global malice. It destabilzes the climate, punishes our lungs and now according to a new study could possibly affect our eye sight or might make you blind.
The research was published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, it analysed 115,000 participants over 14 years. At the start of the study in 2006, these people have no eye problems but in the latest medical examination , 1,286 of them reported A.M.D (Age related Macular Degeneration). It is the leading cause of blindness among the people aged 50+ in rich nations. There are 200 million people living with this condition.
There appears to be a link between A.M.D and air pollution. People exposed to fine particulate matter are more vulnerable to A.M.D, nearly 8% vulnerable and this isn’t from industry level exposure. Even relatively low level of air pollution could be triggering A.M.D.
Effect on eye sight
The eyes have particularly high flow of blood. This leaves them vulnerable fine particles that flow through the body. It’s important to note that this study is observational. It cannot categorically establish a link between air pollution and A.M.D. However there has been similar study elsewhere with the same results. And the link between smoking and A.M.D has always been known.
The threat from air pollution has always been clear, but new studies are revealing more dimensions of this threat.
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that air pollution contributes to 7 Million deaths annually. This leaves us with another cause of concern, toxic air could leave you blind.
Today, we continue to meander through the spectral world of love.
1. I Owe You One
Sophie Kinsella’s, ‘I Owe You One’ is a tale of self discovery, empowerment and love.
Fixie Farr’s father has always taught her to value family, above all else and that is what Fixie endeavours to upkeep after he passes away, leaving his business of housewares store to his wife and children. Since all her other siblings are out there doing something on their own, Fixie has no choice but seize the reins of her father’s store.
When one fateful day, a charming stranger asks her to watch his laptop for sometime, Fixie, being the person she is, not only watches it for a while but also manages to save it from some impending disaster. The computer’s owner, Sebastian turns out to be an investment manager and leaves an IOU with a business card for Fixie.
In a series of events, Fixie’s childhood crush, Ryan enters into the scene and his lack of work, compels Fixie to take up Sebastian’s, IOU to ask a job for Ryan. Sebastian agrees. What ensues is a tale filled with more IOUs, life altering favours and Fixie torn between her family and her life choices.
2. This Lullaby
Sarah Dessen’s, ‘This Lullaby’, revolves around Remy, scared of commitments and known for breaking it off just as things start getting a bit serious after the initial romantic scurry. Remy seems to have inherited her dating skills from her mother who’s at husband number five at present. Remy has had a number of liaisons in the past and dumped her boyfriends with acute precision. This time, Remy just cannot bring herself to dump Dexter. She goes into wild speculations to ascertain why. This might just be the beginning of an epic love for Remy, granted she opens up her heart to an honest relationship without any inhibitions.
3. Catching Jordan
Miranda Kenneally’s, ‘Catching Jordan’, revolves around Jordan Woods, the captain and quarterback of her high school football team. Jordan hangs around with the hot jocks of the team as one of them. She puts all her elbow grease into football and bears anything and anyone, as long as she gets her athletic scholarship to a powerhouse university.
When Ty Green, stunning and an amazing QB moves to Jordan’s school, all that Jordan has ever strived for is somehow put on the line. Her emotions are a wreck as she tries to give her all to her game without distraction from the heart.
4. The Edge of Never
J.A. Redmerski’s’, ‘The Edge of Never’, tells the tale of Camryn Bennett, a Twenty year old girl with an unmatched and out-of-the-box imagination. Following a series of setbacks, Camryn decides to push forth and not give up. After an unforgettable night at the hottest club in downtown North Carolina, Camryn decides to leave everything behind and pursue what she always wanted.
With a will of steel, a phone and a small bag and no sense of destination and direction, Camryn boards a Greyhound bus where she finds a guy named Andrew Parrish, someone she can relate to and who has several guarded secrets.
Although sworn to never fall in love, Camryn finds herself in the midst of a whirlwind called Andrew. Together, they do things that Camryn never thought she’d ever do. Their chemistry is fierce, the pull undeniable but the secrets threaten it all.
Sustainable development is the need of the present time not only for the survival of mankind but also for its future protection. Unlike the other great revolutions in human history the Green Revolution and the Industrial Revolution the ‘sustainable revolution’ will have to take place rapidly, consciously and on many different levels and in many different spheres, simultaneously.
On the technical level, for example, it will involve the sustainable technologies based upon the use of non-renewable, fossil fuels for technologies that take advantage of renewable energies like the sun, wind and biomass, the adoption of conservation and recycling practices on a wider scale, and the transfer of f cleaner and more energy efficient technologies to countries in the developing world.
On the political and economic levels, it will involve, among other things, the overhauling of development and trade practices which tend to destroy the environment, and the improvement of indigenous peoples, a fairer distribution of wealth and resources within and between nations, the charging of true cost for products which exploit or pollute the environment, and the encouragement of sustainable practices through fiscal and legal controls and incentives.
On the social plane, it will involve a renewed thrust towards universal primary education and health care, with particular emphasis on the education and social liberation of women. On the environmental level, we are talking about massive afforestation projects, renewed research into and assistance for organic farming practices and biopest control, and the vigorous protection of biodiversity. On the informational level, the need is for data that will allow the development of accurate social and environmental accountancy systems.
The aim of ecologically sustainable development is to maximise human well-being or quality of life without jeopardising the life support system. The measures for sustainable development may be different in developed and developing countries according to their level of technological and economic development.
But developing countries, like India, can focus attention on the following measures:
1. ensure clean and hygienic living and working conditions for the people
2. sponsor research on environmental issues pertaining to the region.
3.ensure safety against known and proven industrial hazards
4. find economical methods for salvaging hazardous industrial wastes.
5.find out substitutes for proven hazardous materials based on local resources and needs instead of blindly depending on advanced nations to find solutions.
The prime need for sustainable development is the conservation of natural resources. For conservation, the development policy should follow the following norms:
(i) Make all attempts not to impair the natural regenerative capacity of renewable resources and simultaneously avoid excessive pollution hampering the biospherical capacity of waste assimilation and life support system.
(ii) All technological changes and planning strategy processes, as far as physically possible, must attempt switch from non-renewable to renewable resource uses.
(iii) Formulate a phase-out policy for the use of non-renewable resources in general.
Thus, for a worldwide sustainable growth, there is need for efficient and effective management of available resources. In this field, the production of “environment-friendly products” (EFP) is a positive step. With the industrialisation and technological development, markets are flooded with products of daily consumption. They could however be a source of danger to health and damage to our environment.
There is thus need to distinguish the more environmentally harmful consumer products from those which are less harmful, or have a more benign impact on the environment right from the stage of manufacture through packaging, distribution, use, disposal and reusability or recycling.
Throughout the world, emphasis is now being put on the production of EFP. In India, plans are afoot to market EFPs with combined efforts of Bureau of Indian Standards, Ministry of Environment and Forests and Central Pollution Control Board. Since 1990, a scheme of labelling ECOMARK has also been started. In its first phase, the items included in this are soaps, plastics, papers, cosmetics, colours, lubricating oil, pesticides, drugs and various edible items.
The objectives of the scheme are:
(i) to provide an incentive for manufactures and to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,
(ii) to reward genuine initiatives by companies to reduce adverse environmental impact of their products,
(iii) to assist consumers to become responsible in their daily lives by providing them information to take account of environmental factors in their purchase decisions,
(iv) to encourage citizens to purchase products which have less harmful environmental impact, and
(v) to improve the quality of the environment and to encourage the sustainable management of resources.
Not only in consumer goods production but in the field of energy production also, environment-friendly techniques of power generation can be used. For example, in power production from coal, PFBC (Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combined Cycle) technique is useful in which coal is burnt efficiently and cleanly in combined cycle plants.
To cope with increased demand of the basic requirement of life and the limited supply of the natural resources, along with consideration of environmental degradation and ecological balance, we need to emphasise on optimal management of land, water, minerals and other natural resources. There is also need to utilize the native wisdom of those people, who live close to nature and earth, for eco-restoration along with development.
In order to apply the principle of sustainable management in reality, a highly complex way of looking at the problem is required, involving various disciplines. Sustainability is first and foremost a mental question. Without a grasp of the need or the will to change awareness, we will not succeed in realising the principle of sustainability in agriculture.
It is upon the decision-makers in politics to create the right framework and the pre-conditions for a sustainable development in agriculture. Global involvement, on the other hand, must not be left out of account. Sustainability reflects our understanding of necessity and responsibility on the question for whom, for what and how production can be guided into the future in a way that is efficient, environmentally sound and sparing on resources.
Global change is an ecological phenomenon, whereas globalisation is concerned with economic change. A recent analysis of sustainable agriculture in the context of trade liberalisation and globalisation raises equally significant concern for a more informed decision-making process at local, regional and international levels.
The emerging issues related to the impact of globalisation on sustainable agriculture are as follows:
1. There are explicit problems with the conventional theoretical economic conditions for agricultural sustainability, especially when applied at the global level.
2. The processes of trade liberalisation and globalisation will not be uniform given the ecological and institutional diversity of the nations of the world.
3. There will be disparities in globalised impacts between rich and poor countries for agriculture, industries, sustainability and environment as well as income and poverty.
4. There is need for serious analysis of problems and policy initiatives, since the risk of disruption to agricultural systems and environmental deterioration, social disruption and dislocation in the poorer countries of the world is clearly very high.
5. The type of production technology research, facilitated by private research, will not address the significant public good and externality issues facing developing countries.
The pursuit of sustainability demands choices about the distribution of costs and benefits in space and time. There is also need to take advantage of the ‘traditional ecological knowledge’ (TEK), which encompasses all issues related to ecology and natural resource management, both at local and regional levels. Along with political dimensions of environment-society relations, the TEK can be used for both eco-restoration and sustainable development.
The problem of population is the main cause of ecological environment damage. As the population grows up and economic develops, the increasing demand of resources is becoming more and more severe. Because of deforestation, unreasonably overgrazing dykes to reclaim land from a lake, marsh reclamation, excessive usage of land and water resources, which leads to the destruction of biological environment or even disappearance, the normal survival of the species is affected a lot. There is a large number of species which have not yet been detected by human beings. They have quietly become extinct, thus leading to destruction of biodiversity.
Land is the material basis of human survival. In the demand of the food sources of the survival of human beings, crops cultivated land accounts for 88%, 10% of grasslands and pastoral areas and 2% counted for marine. With the development and utilization of ocean, energy applied by sea food for human beings will increase. At present, the cultivated land of the world is about 1.37 x 109 hm2, which shows per capital is about 0.26 hm2. But due to the increase of the non-agricultural land land desertification, soil erosion, soil pollution and so on, it prompts the contradiction between population increase and reduce land resources becoming more and more sharp. What’s more, the pressure of increase in population on land is becoming bigger and bigger. According to the United Nations food and agriculture organization, nowadays, about 500 million people around the world are in a state of super land bearing capacity.
So the fresh water is going to run out. To discover and to make use of new sources are necessary within two aspects. One is to find fresh water resource which hasn ‘t been found or used. The other way is to thoroughly look for fresh water from where other than the fresh water resource it self. This is mainly asked to turn which is not fresh water purification into fresh water. Since sea water accounts a lot of the total water resources of the earth. The key means to turn them into the water we can drink is to purify and desalinate. Although it is not because that there is no water desalination plant in the world, why we still worry about water resources drying up? That is mainly due to the desalination technology which is not very mature and completed. Not to mention, the cost is very high as well. Ordinary people can not afford such high price. That explains why this technique is not popularized worldwide, but most concentrated in the developed countries. That is to say, if we want to fade in seawater batches, the most important is to rely on science technology to improve the efficiency of desalination, reduce the desalination cost and let ordinary people be able to use the desalinate water under a proper price.
Organisms of this ecosystem may generally be divided into three categories:
1. Producers, 2. Consumers, 3. Decomposers.
Producers mostly belong, to the category of plants that make their food by the inorganic substances by themselves in the presence of light.Consumers particularly include animals including human being, that depend for their food on other organism including plants, and the decomposers come in the category of bacteria and fungus etc. that decompose the organic substances present in dead plants and animals.
The system is useful to man. A perfect ecological balance cannot be expected in the wake of growing industrialisation as owing to this, pollution of environment becomes inevitable.The environment has “carrying capacity”, or the amount of pollution or damage an environment can sustain without further degradation.
A lake that is 5 times larger than another one can carry roughly 5 times the pollution load. If the loads of pollution are not minimised or environment upgraded to an extent that it will be able to carry them, the environmental degradation will inevitably worsen.
By the misuse, abuse and uncontrolled use of resources both natural and otherwise have upset the equilibrium between human activity and nature.
Over-exploitation of natural resources in the name of industrialization is posing a great danger to the ecosystem. This danger may be understood in following two ways:
1. Physical Environment. 2. Human Environment.
Physical Environment consists of all constituents of natural origin like physiography-, climate, vegetation, soil, water bodies, wild animals and minerals.
Human Environment consists of all elements having a human touch in their origin. Such elements include all manifestations of human activities.
Of course natural resources cannot be confined to the physical manifestation of nature, it also includes the entire environmental scenario-the carrying capacity of nature, the extent up to which the nature can accommodate.
Can we predict the ecological effects of pollution and climate change?
Governments and citizens around the world are increasingly aware of the consequences of atmospheric pollution and climate change. In large-scale experiments, plants and animals are exposed to carefully controlled atmospheres and different ecological conditions. Scientists use this information to understand how they respond to pollution levels, and make predictions about future climate change.
Can we fish the ocean without depleting its riches?
It is possible, but does depend on where we are in the world. In the Antarctic, the marine ecosystem is currently managed as a whole under an international agreement to conserve living resources. This makes it easier to understand marine communities and their interactions, as well as help monitor threatened species more closely.
Can we conserve a habitat and its biodiversity?
Yes. Ecology provides the essential basis for nature conservation. Maintaining a mosaic of habitats ensures the survival of a rich variety of species. For instance, heathland is a valued landscape that is fast disappearing throughout much of Western Europe, but studies have helped identify how to preserve its ecological characteristic.
There are different kind of games played in India, from popular sports such as football and Cricket to lesser known but most played local games Kho- kho. Here is the lit of top most popular sports in India with the special place and part of the physical culture in ancient India.
Cricket is not only the most popular sport in India but also an important part of the Indian culture,played almost everywhere. BCCI is body for cricket in India, Indian Premier League is the most watched sports leagues in the world.
Indian cricket team is the winner of all format of Cricket be it Twenty20 World Cup, 2011 Cricket World Cup, ICC Champions Trophy and ICC Test Championship.
Badminton is the second most played sports in India and the team is governed by the Badminton Association of India. The Indian team of Badminton players are taking the world in all kind of Championships, P.V. Sindhu, Saina Nehwal, Ashwini Ponnappa and Jwala Gutta.
Football as a sports is very popular in the state of Kerala, Goa, West Bengal and north-eastern India, From where professional players like Bhaichung Bhutia and Sunil Chhetri promote Indian football to the country.
Kabaddi is one of the most popular sports in India, popularized as a competitive sport and part in the Asian Games, international kabaddi competition – Kabaddi World Cup and Pro Kabaddi League based on Indian premier league.
Pro Kabaddi League is second most watched sports in India after IPL, also uses a franchise based model with rules same as indoor version of Kabaddi and 2019 season of Pro Kabaddi League features 12 teams.
Field Hockey is one of the oldest ancient games played in India, Considered as the unofficial National sport of India. Odisha field hockey has dominance in field hockey in India and a league called Premier Hockey League started like IPL.
Tennis in India is limited to urban areas but counted among the top ten most popular sports in India along with Badminton and Football, introduced in India in the 1880.
Sania Mirza is an Indian professional tennis player. A former doubles world No. 1, she has won six Grand Slam titles in her career. From 2003 until her retirement from singles in 2013, she was ranked by the Women’s Tennis Association as India’s No. 1 player.
Pehlwani from India is a form of wrestling and old Malla-yuddha game, originating from the Indian subcontinent and today known as Kusti. Wrestling is the form of modern Pehelwani and very popular in India since ancient times where it was famously known as Malla-yuddha.
Malla yuddha is the ancient Indian game of Pehlwani and the competitions known as kushti or dangal, place of practice Pehlwani is called Akhara.
Boxing combat sports game is getting popular in India after the Indian Olympic boxer like Mary Kom, Pinky Rani,Sarita Devi, Shashi Chopra and
Champion Vijender Singh are inspiration many boxers in India.
Mallakhamba is another well known traditional sports of India which includes wrestling grips, aerial yoga postures on a vertical hanging wooden pole. The free standing pole usually made from Seesham wood Indian Rosewood tree and polished with castor oil, where a gymnast practiced and performs.
The game of basketball is not that much popular sports in the country like Cricket and Badminton but already make a significant mark in the list of sports played in India.
Kho kho is an ancient sport from India and second most played traditional tag games of the Indian subcontinent, after Kabaddi. The traditional Indian sport also played in South Africa by the Indian community and one of the must play sports of India.
National Sports Day is celebrated every year in India on 29 August. The day is celebrated to commemorate the birth anniversary of Indian hockey legend, Major Dhyan Chand.
Major Dhyan Chand was a legendary figure in Indian and world hockey. He played a very significant role in helping India complete their first hat-trick of Olympic gold medals with victories at the 1928, 1932 and 1936 Summer Olympics.
Though Dhyan Chand himself led the Indian team (under British rule) to three consecutive Olympic gold medals (in 1928, 1932 and 1936), it was at the 1948 London Summer Games that Independent India defeated hosts Great Britain 4-0 to win their first Olympic gold post-Independence.
The legendary Milkha Singh broke the 400m Olympic record but lost the bronze medal by just 0.1 second at 1960 Rome as ‘The Flying Sikh’ went on to win gold at the Asian Games in 1958 as well as 1962.
Sushil Kumar won the bronze medal at the Beijing Olympics and went on to better this achievement four year later, when he settled for silver.
National Spots Day is celebrated to honor the legacy of Major Dhyan Chand and acknowledge the importance of sports in our life. Various programs, events, seminars etc are organized by the government to raise awareness about the significance of physical activities and sports in life.
On this day, multiple awards like the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, Arjuna Award, Dhyan Chand Award and the Dronacharya Award are conferred to sporting heroes to honor their contribution to sports.
Tokyo Olympics (2021):
The Tokyo Olympics, which was supposed to be held in 2020 got postponed to 2021 and it perfectly worked out for India as the contingent returned with it best ever medals haul.
Mirabai Chanu won India’s first medal she became the first Indian woman wrestler to win an Olympic silver medal.
The second medal of the Tokyo Olympics was won by Lovlina Borgohain, a bronze in the women’s welterweight (64-69kg) category. It was also the India’s third ever Olympic medal in boxing.
PV Sindhu secured India’s third medal when she won a bronze in the women’s badminton singles. With that she became India’s only second double Olympic medalist.
The Indian men’s hockey team then ended a 41-year medal drought at the Olympics after defeating Germany 5-4 in a thrilling comeback victory in the bronze medal match.
Indian wrestler Ravi Dahiya then won a silver medal in the men’s freestyle 57kg category, which was soon followed by Bajrang Punia winning bronze medal in the 65kg freestyle category.
India’s Tokyo Olympics then came to a grand end with Neeraj Chopra winning a historic gold medal. With a throw of 87.58m he won independent India’s first-ever medal and gold medal in athletics.
” I dont play to prove a point to anyone. I play for my country and myself. If I feel I have the ability to achieve something, I’II keep trying to succeed.”
The process of organizing and planning over the amount of time spent on specific activities is known as time management. Good time management will be useful for decreasing work pressure. Time is a special resource because you cannot store or save it for later use. Wise time management helps you to find time for what you desire to do. You can schedule your priorities by managing time. Time management will help you to make conscious choices so that you can spend your valuable time on important work. It keeps you healthy and free from stress. One has to maintain the right balance wheel of life. He/she should balance health, family, finance, and work to balance your life. So, time plays an important role in achieving this. It is a fact that time is a non-renewable resource. Once it is gone, we cannot get it back. You will never be able to see this moment again. Every second is important. We have to spend every second effectively and productively.
Write things down: Write down your important schedules and prioritize the events according to their importance. This will be more helpful than using your memory to keep track of too many things.
Prioritize your lists: Prioritizing your to-do list will help you to spend more time on the important task. Rate your tasks according to their priority.
Plan your week: Spend some time at the beginning of each week to plan the schedule for that week. This will help balance the time taken for long-term projects and urgent tasks. All you have to do is spend 15 to 30 minutes planning the week.
Continuously improve yourself: While doing these tasks, try to improve your natural skills and abilities. For example, reading books. Continuously improving yourself will be a key factor to achieve financial independence.
Use a time management system: By using a time management system, one can keep track of every work, organize them and efficiently complete the work.
Identify bad habits: List the bad habits that are stealing your time, breaking your goals, and success. After doing this, try to eliminate these habits from your lifestyle. For eliminating bad habits, you can replace them with better habits.
Don’t do other people’s work: Don’t try to do other’s work. This will take your precious time. Instead, you can teach them how to the work.
Utilize productive procrastination: Procrastinating the less important tasks is not a bad thing. (Sometimes, there is no need for work). Wait until for the tasks to become important enough to deserve your attention.
Ask yourself: Whenever you are confused about what to do next, just ask yourself by doing which things will be more useful in managing the time.
Clean your desk: When you have so many things on your desk, you may get distracted. So, always clean the desk and only the necessary things.
Learn to relax: Working hard is important but you also need time to enjoy and relax. This will help eliminate stress.
Don’t overschedule: Scheduling too many things to complete is not a good way. Because, while seeing this, you may feel burdened. So, always schedule the things that you can be complete in time.
Honey doesn’t have an expiry date, it goes through natural changes. Natural, properly stored honey won’t get expired. Honey may get dark and lose its aroma in the long run. The reason for the magical longevity of honey lies in its biological makeup. Organisms that spoils food won’t be able to do have fun when it comes to honey.
FACTS ABOUT HONEY
Honey is 80% sugar and 20% water.
It is the only food that includes all the substance necessary for life including water.
There are different flavors and colors of honey.
Not all bees makes honey.
Not all honey are made by bees, some are made by wasps.
Honey is a versatile food.
BENEFITS OF HONEY
Honey is used as medicine and food. It is healthy in many aspects.
Honey has antioxidants which is linked to reduce risk of heart attack.
Less bad than sugar for diabetes.
Lower blood pleasure.
Honey can help you improve colastrol level.
Honey is also an effective treatment for diabetic foot ulcers.
It can help in burn and wound healing.
Honey can help to suppress cough for children.
Honey is sometimes used to treat digestive issues.
Medicine for sour throat treatment.
Can honey be consumed daily? No. However beneficial it is. Too much of anything is good for nothing. As the tamil saying goes ‘அளவுக்கு மீறினால் அமிர்தமும் நஞ்சு.’
Phytonutrients are compounds found in plants that help protect the plant from harm. The phytonutrients in honey are responsible for its antioxidant properties, as well as thought to be the reason raw honey has shown immune-boosting and anticancer benefits.
TYPES OF HONEY
There are vast variety of honey with different flavor, taste and smell. There are more than 200 variety of honey it depends upon the flower source. Few of those are avocado, ironbark, jarrah, clover, linden, Heather, Basswood, Beechwood, Bluckwheat etc.
White honey doesn’t have to be white. It generally have milder flavor compared to darker ones. Lighter honey gives light taste and sweetness. White honey also contains such antioxidants. Antioxidants help to protect your body from cell damage due to free radicals. Free radicals contribute to the aging process.
WHY WOODEN DIPPER HAVE GROOVES?
A honey dipper is an utensil, made of wood that consist of equally spaced groove(the spiral is called as groove). It is often made of turned wood. The tool is used by dipping the grooved end in honey, then slowly twirl. The tool is sometimes made of plastics and glass too.
The groove allows the honey to be pulled in while they are horizontal but flow out when vertical. Why wood? The metal and plastic degrade slightly while in honey. Wood lasts longer and will take on the flavor of honey.
It is also because it resembles beehive. The shape is to provide a larger surface area for the volume. This traps more of the liquid in the slow-flowing boundary layer.It holds more honey in one dip. Easy to drizzle over pancakes and bread.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (French: Jeux olympiques)are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world’s foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating.The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, alternating between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years in the four-year period.
Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games (Ancient Greek: Ὀλυμπιακοί Ἀγῶνες), held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement,[definition needed] with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.
The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with disabilities, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games (Pan American, African, Asian, European, and Pacific), and the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The IOC also endorses the Deaflympics and the Special Olympics. The IOC has needed to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. The abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to the acceptance of professional athletes participating at the Games. The growing importance of mass media has created the issue of corporate sponsorship and general commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Olympics; large-scale boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Olympics; and the 2020 Olympics were postponed until 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 14,000 athletes competed at the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2018 Winter Olympics combined, in 35 different sports and over 400 events.The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.
The Games have grown so much that nearly every nation is now represented. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and a terrorist attack in 1972. Every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games also provide an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world
The Olympic Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Olympic Charter. The Olympic symbol, better known as the Olympic rings, consists of five intertwined rings and represents the unity of the five inhabited continents (Africa, The Americas (is considered one continent), Asia, Europe, and Oceania). The coloured version of the rings—blue, yellow, black, green, and red—over a white field forms the Olympic flag. These colours were chosen because every nation had at least one of them on its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914 but flown for the first time only at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp, Belgium. It has since been hoisted during each celebration of the Games.
The Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius, a Latin expression meaning “Faster, Higher, Stronger” was proposed by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 and has been official since 1924. The motto was coined by Coubertin’s friend, the Dominican priest Henri Didon OP, for a Paris youth gathering of 1891.
Coubertin’s Olympic ideals are expressed in the Olympic creed:
The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well.
Months before each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit at the Temple of Hera in Olympia in a ceremony that reflects ancient Greek rituals. A female performer, acting as a priestess joined by ten female performers as Vestal Virgins, ignites a torch by placing it inside a parabolic mirror which focuses the sun’s rays; she then lights the torch of the first relay bearer, thus initiating the Olympic torch relay that will carry the flame to the host city’s Olympic stadium, where it plays an important role in the opening ceremony. Though the flame has been an Olympic symbol since 1928, the torch relay was only introduced at the 1936 Summer Games to promote the Third Reich.
The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the Games’ identity promotion since the 1980 Summer Olympics, when the Soviet bear cub Misha reached international stardom. The mascot of the Summer Olympics in London was named Wenlock after the town of Much Wenlock in Shropshire. Much Wenlock still hosts the Wenlock Olympian Games, which were an inspiration to Pierre de Coubertin for the Olympic Games.
The Ancient Olympic Games
The history of the Olympics began some 2,300 years ago. Their origin lays in the Olympian Games, which were held in the Olympia area of ancient Greece. Although there are some theories on its initial purposes, the Games have been said to have started as a festival of art and sport, to worship gods. The ancient Olympic Games, however, ended in 393 because of the outbreaks of wars in the region in which they were held.
The Modern Olympic Games
After a 1,500 year absence of the ancient Olympic Games, the event was resumed in the late nineteenth century, thanks to the efforts of Baron Pierre de Coubertin, a French educator. In 1894, his proposal to revive the Olympic Games was unanimously approved at the International Congress in Paris, and the first Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece, two years later. He also devised the five-ring emblem that is familiar to most people as the Games’ symbol, which represents the unity of the five continents.
The Olympic Games in Japan
The “Father of the Olympic Movement” in Japan is Jigoro Kano – a man who also contributed to the propagation of judo – who was the president of the Tokyo Higher Normal School (the present day University of Tsukuba). In 1909, he was appointed a member of the International Olympic Committee for the first time as an Asian and established the Japan Amateur Athletic Association (today’s Japan Sports Association) to realize the participation of Japanese athletes in the Olympics. The selection of athletes for the Olympics was carried out in 1911, when Yahiko Mishima, a track athlete, and Shiso Kanaguri, a marathon runner, were chosen to represent Japan. Japanese athletes participated in the Olympic Games (the V Olympic Games) for the first time in Stockholm, Sweden in 1912.
Are you planning for an abroad trip? If yes, get to know things you shouldn’t do abroad. We travel to abroad for various reasons, to study, work, try new things, to disconnect and reconnect.
Travelling makes us happier. It can also boost your creativity. Creates a space for us to get to know and learn about new cultures. The feel of travelling to a new place and returning to your comfort zone is fascinating. Hodophile is the word for “one who loves to travel.”
TRAVELLING NEED OR WANT?
Travelling is not a need. It is just an option, few love to travel while others don’t. Travelling doesn’t necessarily mean luxurious and lavishly spending. It helps us to broaden our horizons. Being exposed to new people, environment, and forces us to get out of our comfort zone.
THINGS WE SHOULD KNOW
In India, we believe in eating the food using hands as its part of our culture. Using your left hand to eat is not appreciated unless you are left-hander. It might sound bizarre for tourists. What is considered as a custom in a country need not be universal.
We use cutlery, such as fork, spoon, knife but in Thailand, it is rude to use a fork to eat. Do you find slurping annoying? Well, it is considered a good gesture in Japan. Making that sound while having noodles is not weird. It conveys that you are enjoying the food and complimenting the cook.
In some countries, leaving the plate empty is considered a good gesture but China thinks the opposite. People assume when the plate is empty you are hungry and in need of more food. In China, flipping the fish when served is assumed bad luck.
Italy is known for their love for food. There, adding cheese to seafood is not admired. In South Korea, the eldest at the table takes the first bite. Also leaving chopstick upright in the bowl and waving chopstick around considered rude in China.
British is known for their love for tea. While stirring the spoon shouldn’t touch the sides of the cup. Neither should we leave the spoon in cup. It must be placed on the saucer.
In Thailand, even if it’s hot people have to keep their shirts on. Another strange traffic rule is, in Phillipine, people can’t drive in certain areas based upon what day of the week it is and the last digit on their license plate. The driver can be fined if found driving. New Jersey also has a strange law where residents are required by law to honk prior to passing, which will be so confusing.
In Russia, driving a dirty car would end up in fine. It doesn’t matter whether the car is dirty inside or outside. Anyone requiring vision-correcting glasses in order to drive the streets of Spain must keep a spare set in their car at all times
THINGS WE SHOULD AVOID
In Japan, don’t leave tips. They believe that you are already paying for a good service, so there is no need for extra. You can instead just thank the waiter and waitress. I find is reasonable and fascinating.
In Ukraine, avoid giving even number of flowers. Even number of flowers are given for funeral. In some countries, yellow flower is a sign of betrayal.
In China, avoid presenting umbrella and clock as gifts. It is considered bad omen, as it indicates attending a funeral ritual. The Chinese word for umbrella sounds like breaking up.
In Germany don’t congratulate before the birthday. Wishing someone early brings bad luck. It is strange to know that it also indicates arrogance as the person will live till the birthday. Life is uncertain! Yes. But thus is weird.
There are more such facts and beliefs. It is fascinating to know about countries and their culture.
During a new investigation of 2.5-billion-year-old Australian rocks, scientists have tracked down those volcanic emissions may have animated populace floods of marine microorganisms, making the initial puffs of oxygen into the air.
This would change existing accounts of Earth’s initial environment, which expected that most changes in the early climate were constrained by geologic or substance measures. The discoveries of the investigation were distributed in the diary ‘Procedures of the National Academy of Sciences’
However, centered around Earth’s initial history, the exploration additionally has suggestions for extra-earthbound life and even environmental change. The investigation was driven by the University of Washington, the University of Michigan and different establishments.
“What has begun to end up being undeniable in the previous few decades is there really are a lot of associations between the strong, non-living Earth and the development of life,” said first creator Jana Meixnerova, a UW doctoral understudy in Earth and space sciences. “However, what are the particular associations that worked with the development of life on Earth as far as we might be concerned, addressed Meixnerova.
In its most punctual days, Earth had no oxygen in its air and scarcely any, oxygen breathing lifeforms. Earth’s air turned out to be for all time oxygen-rich with regards to 2.4 billion years prior, likely after a blast of lifeforms that photosynthesise, changing carbon dioxide and water into oxygen. In any case, in 2007, co-creator Ariel Anbar at Arizona State University dissected rocks from the
Mount McRae Shale in Western Australia, detailing a transient whiff of oxygen around 50 to 100 million years before it turned into a super durable installation in the climate. Later examination has affirmed other, prior, transient oxygen spikes, yet hasn’t clarified their ascent and fall.
In the new investigation, specialists at the University of Michigan, driven by co-relating creator Joel Blum, broke down similar old rocks for the focus and number of neutrons in the component mercury, radiated by volcanic ejections Large volcanic emissions impact mercury gas into the upper climate, where today it circles for a little while prior to pouring out onto Earth’s surface.
The new investigation showed a spike in mercury two or three million years before the brief ascent in oxygen “adequately sure, in the stone beneath the transient spike in oxygen, we discovered proof of mercury, both in its bounty and isotopes, that would most sensibly be clarified by volcanic ejections into the environment,” said co-creator Roger Buick, a UW teacher of Earth and Space Sciences.
Where there were volcanic outflows, the creators contemplated, there probably been Laval and volcanic debris fields. Also, those supplement rich rocks would have endured in the breeze and downpour, delivering phosphorus into streams that could treat close by seaside regions, permitting oxygen creating cyanobacteria and other single-celled lifeforms to prosper. “There are different supplements that tweak natural action on short timescales, however phosphorus is the one that is generally significant on long timescales, Meixnerova said. Today, phosphorus is abundant in natural materials and in horticultural manure. However, in extremely old occasions, enduring of volcanic rocks would have been the primary hotspot for this scant asset.
“During enduring under the Archaean air, the new basaltic stone would have gradually disintegrated, delivering the fundamental full scale supplement phosphorus into the streams, Meixnerova added.
“That would have taken care of organisms that were living in the shallow seaside zones and set off expanded natural usefulness that would have made, as a result, and oxygen spike, Meixnerova clarified.
The exact area of those volcanoes and magma fields is obscure, however huge magma fields of about the right age exist in cutting edge India, Canada and somewhere else, Buick said “Our examination proposes that for these transient whiffs of oxygen, the prompt trigger was an expansion in oxygen creation, as opposed to an abatement in oxygen utilization by rocks or other non-living cycles,” Buick said “It’s significant on the grounds that the presence of oxygen in the climate is key – it’s the greatest driver for the advancement of huge, complex life,” Buick added.
Eventually, analysts said the investigation proposes what a planet’s geography may mean for any life developing on its surface, an agreement that guides in recognizing liveable exoplanets, or planets outside our close planetary system, in the quest for life in the universe.
Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman recently asserted that the cryptocurrency bill is before the Union Cabinet and it is likely to take decision soon.
The bill was supposed to be presented in the parliament during monsoon session but did not happen due to varying circumstances. The bill proposed that all private crypto currencies except any and every digital currency issued by the state. But crypto experts are hoping for the best.
Edul Patel, CEO & Co-founder of crypto trading platform Mudrex, says, “We could expect an accommodative and progressive stance by the government towards cryptocurrencies. The government is expected to evaluate all possible aspects. All these events transpire to positive expectations from the cryptocurrency bill.”
In its report an inter-ministerial panel on cryptocurrency under secretary (economic affairs) had studies issues around virtual currencies and proposed specific actions.
Looking at the growing opportunities in this space, Siddharth Menon, COO of cryptocurrency exchange WazirX, says calibrated regulations that encourage the industry and safeguard consumers will help the ecosystem grow. “We don’t know the details but we expect it to be positive. Once we have more details, we will comment. Else it will be purely speculative,” Menon adds.
Looking at the growing opportunities in this space, Siddharth Menon, COO of cryptocurrency exchange WazirX, says calibrated regulations that encourage the industry and safeguard consumers will help the ecosystem grow. “We don’t know the details but we expect it to be positive. Once we have more details, we will comment. Else it will be purely speculative,” Menon adds.
Some experts say India cannot be as a laggard when the world is rapidly moving ahead with blockchain technology. This has led to reports that crypto as an asset class might be allowed in India but the government will not accept it as legal tender as yet.
Crypto enthusiasts are betting on analyst views that say there might not be a blanket ban on cryptocurrencies. Menon is among those who does not think a blanket ban is possible. The government has understood crypto assets are not a threat to national currency. “Also, this is a new and growing global fintech industry. India cannot stay behind,” he adds.
Banning cryptocurrency would severely affect a lot of people in India as there are several startups revolving around cryptocurrencies and more than 15 million people invest in crypto in India.
From brushing and flossing to straightening and whitening, people today put a lot of work into maintaining a health and appearance to their smile. The current trend is for straight, pearly white teeth. But history of dental care stretches all the way back to the beginning of human society.
Ancient ways of cleaning teeth
Prehistoric humans who lived before the advert of oral care actually had very few dental problems. Scientists believe this is on account of their diet, which consisted of unprocessed fibrous foods that help clean their teeth while they ate. However as human evolved, so did the food on menu. Overtime, people found if they didn’t take care of their teeth, they developed dental problems.
Archaeology found evidence that early humans cleaned their teeth by picking at them with things like porcupine quills, animal bones, and tree twigs.
In earlier 3,500 BCE, Mesopotamians were using chew sticks to clean their teeth. Egyptian and Chinese have known to use them as well.
Ancient people were always aware of the tooth decay. But the first known scientific theory about its causes dates back at least 5,000 years, to Ancient Sumeria. The theory was that cavities were caused by a creature known as the tooth worm, which they believed would wore holes in teeth.
Cavities can actually resemble the kinds of holes that the worms bore through other materials, like wood. The Sumerians, Greeks, Egyptian, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian people all believed in the tooth worm. Some European doctors were still warning people that worms were the cause of their tooth decay as late as the 14th century.
Though no one knows exactly when people started brushing their teeth, archeologists believed the practice originated somewhere in the neighborhood of 3,000 BCE. The Babylonians and the Egyptians were the first cultures we know of to fashion rudimentary toothbrushes, which were made mostly from twigs.
The first used bristle toothbrush was created in China sometime during the Tang dynasty, between the 7tg and 10th centuries. It was made from hog bristles which would have been attached to a handle carved from bone or bamboo.
Explorers eventually brought these to the West. And in the 17th century, they began to be adopted in Europe.
In modern times, the dental ideal is considered to be a bright smile with straight white teeth. People will wear braces, use whiteners, to achieve the look. But most didn’t realise, its a relatively new fashion.
The popularity of look really only goes back to the 20th century and was greatly created by Hollywood movies. The trend, arguably, began their veneers, created by cosmetic dentist named Marcus Pincus in the 1940s. It was spotted by movie stars, like Shirley Temple and Judy Garland, who became famous for perfect smiles.
While mass market teeth whitening products didn’t became a thing until the 1980s, teeth whitening itself is nothing new.
The Drug Controller General of India on 20th August gave approval to Zydus Cadilla for Emergency Use Authorization for its covid vaccine ZyCoV-D, touted to be the world’s first and India’s first
covid 19 vaccine which based on DNA and can be administered to all humans above 12 years of age.
The world’s first plasmid covid vaccine India’s second indigenous vaccine after Covaxin
had earlier received recommendation by the Subjects Expert Committee (SEC) of
the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) which cleared a major
hurdle in the vaccines’s emergency use.
Safety and efficacy
In the adaptive PhaseI/II clinical trials the ZyCoV—D demonstrated a robust
immunogenicity and tolerance and safety profile said Zydus. The interim analysis
of the symptomatic RT-PCR cases showed that ZyCoV-d had an efficacy of 66.6
percent for the three doses (2mg per dose).
severe cases of Covid or deaths due to covid were found due to Covid-19 after
the second dose was successfully administered said Zydus. After successfully
administering the third dose no moderate case of covid-19 was observed in the
covid arm implicating an efficacy of 100 percent in moderate cases.
a rash appear after administering the vaccine then it s called a covid arm. More
than 28000 volunteers volunteered to have phase -III trials conducted on them in
more than 50clinical sites scattered across the country that too during the peak
of the second wave of covid-19 in India which reassures the vaccine’s
effectiveness against the new Delta variant – the new and the most dangerous
strain of covid-19. Another big breakthrough of the company is that ZyCoV-D is
safe for children that belong in the age group of 12-18 years.
Another breakthrough of this vaccine is that it is needle-less and is
transferres via an applicator called PharmaJet to ensure painless intradermal vaccine
delivery. PharmaJet was also developed in India and in a record time.
said it can produce 10-15 million doses of ZyCoV-D per month. The company said
it can produce 3-5 crore vaccines by December. The capacity numbers
suggest that Covishield and, to some extent, Covaxin will remain as the
major workhorses for the government’s vaccination drive for some more time.
Evaluating two-dose regimen
said it has also submitted data for a two-dose regimen for ZyCoV-D, using a 3
mg dose per visit and the immunogenicity results had been found to be
equivalent to the current three-dose regimen. The company said this would help
in reducing the full-course duration of vaccination while maintaining a high
safety profile in the future.
Children & adolescents
has submitted applications for EUA for children in the 12-18 year age group.
Cadilla has taken a novel approach for its potential COVID-19 vaccine. Called
plasmid DNA, the vaccine consists of genetic material of SARS-CoV-2 proteins,
which instruct human cells to make the SARS-CoV2 antigen, eliciting an immune
company says that this approach is easily replicable and scalable, requiring
just Biosafety Level (BSL)-1. The vaccine can be stored at 2-8 degrees
temperature, making it conducive for Indian cold-chain conditions. The vaccine
is delivered through the intradermal route (between the layers of the skin),
which makes its administration much easier. DNA vaccines are also theoretically
easy to redesign quickly against a mutating virus.
the platform is novel. Not a single human vaccine using this platform has been
approved anywhere in the world. The other big challenge is that the vaccine has
to be administered in three doses – the first dose, and the other doses after
28 and 56 days. Being a three-dose vaccine adds an additional layer of
distribution and administration complexity, possibly raising the cost of the
vaccine. While the company has promised to ensure that the vaccine is
affordable, it has also sought approval for a two-dose vaccine.
After moving to internal organs such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow, a parasite causes illness. If not treated, it nearly invariably leads to death.
People get this condition by sandfly bites, which contracted the parasite after consuming the blood of a parasite-infected person. There are more than 20 distinct Leishmania parasites that cause the illness around the globe, and 90 different sandfly species that carry the infection.
However, in India, there is just one parasitic species, Leishmania donovani, and only one sandfly species, Phlebotomus argentipes, that spreads the illness.
Visceral leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is marked by recurrent bouts of fever, significant weight loss, spleen and liver enlargement, and anaemia (which may be serious).
In underdeveloped nations, if the illness is not treated, the mortality rate can reach 100% in as little as two years.
When people develop visceral leishmaniasis, the most typical symptoms are
ENLARGEMENT OF SPLEEN AND LIVER
Misdiagnosis is critical, because kala-azar has a near-100 percent death rate if not treated properly. It does not always leave its hosts unmarked, even after restoration. A secondary form of the illness called post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis, or PKDL, may develop after effective treatment—usually a few months after kala-azar, but as long as many years with the Indian strain. This illness begins with tiny, measles-like skin lesions on the face that grow in size and spread throughout the body.
In individuals who have recovered from the illness , it is characterised by a hypopigmented macular, maculopapular, and nodular rash and generally emerges 6 months to a year or more after the disease appears to be cured, although it can happen sooner or even simultaneously.
It is thought to have a crucial role in the disease’s maintenance and transmission, notably by functioning as a parasite reservoir. The lesions may eventually consolidate into disfiguring, bloated formations that resemble leprosy, causing blindness in certain cases if they extend to the eyes.
The visceral type of Leishmania is caused by two different species of Leishmania. L. donovani is the species found in East Africa and the Indian subcontinent, whereas L. infantum, also known as L. chagasi, is found in Europe, North Africa, and Latin America.
Life cycle is completed in two hosts: humans and sandflies. The adult female sandfly feeds at night and is a bloodsucker. When a Leishmania-infected person is bitten by a fly, the parasite is consumed along with the blood.
The protozoan is an amastigote, which is spherical, non-motile, and just 3–7 micrometres in diameter. The amastigotes inside the sandfly’s stomach soon change into the promastigotes, which are elongated and motile forms. It is spindle-shaped and thrice the size of the amastigote, and has a single flagellum that allows it to move. They live extra cellularly in the alimentary canal reproducing asexually and migrating to the proximal end of the gut where they become ready for a transmission.
The promastigotes are introduced after being released locally at the biting site as the fly bites. Promastigotes infect macrophages once inside the human host. They revert to their tiny amastigote form inside the cells.
In macrophage cells, amastigotes reproduce. They tear down their host cell by sheer mass pressure after repeated replication, although there is also new hypothesis that they are able to exit the cell via activating the macrophage’s exocytosis response.
The protozoans in the daughter cells then move to new hosts in fresh cells or through the circulation. The infection progresses and affects the spleen and liver in particular. Sandflies eat the liberated amastigotes in peripheral tissues, which starts a new phase.
The traditional treatment is with
Resilience is increasingly prevalent in India, with resistance rates as high as 60% in some regions of Bihar. Amphotericin B in its many liposomal formulations is now the treatment of choice for visceral leishmaniasis acquired in India. The first oral therapy for this illness was miltefosine. Miltefosine had a cure rate of 95% in Phase III clinical studies.
The medicine is typically well tolerated compared to other medications. Gastrointestinal disruption on the first or second day of therapy (a 28-day course of treatment) is the most common adverse effect, but it has no influence on effectiveness. Miltefosine is a medication of choice since it is accessible as an oral formulation, which eliminates the cost and inconvenience of hospitalisation and allows for outpatient delivery of the drug.
The drawbacks include that after a decade of usage, there is evidence of decreased effectiveness. It is teratogenic and should not be used by women who are planning to have children. Sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate have been used to treat kala-azar (Glucantime). Only injections can be used to deliver these medications. They are poisonous, have several adverse effects, and are administered over a 30-day period.
Hey! Are you a Vampire Diaries fan? Well, I’m. After watching Vampire Diaries I became curious to know whether vampires exist. Vampires are said to be undead creatures from folklore. It is fascinating to discuss vampires.
Vampire in popular legend is a creature, often fanged, that preys upon humans, generally by consuming their blood. Vampires have been featured in folklore and fiction of various cultures for hundreds of years, predominantly in Europe, although belief in them has waned in modern times.
The belief is that Vampires feed on blood. Almost every nation has a blood drinker in its mythology. Vetalas in India are beings that inhabit corpses. In Persian, Lilith was considered a demon who drinks the blood of babies.
WHERE IT ALL STARTED?
Vampires Legacy didn’t start with Dracula by Bram Stoker. In Eastern Europe, tales from the 17th and 18th centuries formed the basic vampire legacy. Later it got popularised. The exact way of origin of legacy is unclear.
MYTHS ABOUT VAMPIRES
Drinking blood is the most spoken myth about being a vampire. We have seen movies and series where vampires drink blood by biting the victim. Vampire bat is the only species of mammal that feeds exclusively on blood. They prey on warm-blooded animals.
Vampires are often considered immortal, there are few animals that possess the same quality. The immortal jellyfish is one of those species.
Vampires are often depicted with heightened senses such as vision and hearing.
THEN WHO ARE VAMPIRES?
Vampires are just people who suffer from Porphyria. It is a disorder resulting from build-up of certain chemicals related to red blood cell, which means your skin is sensitive to the sun. That explains why the myth says vampires get burned in daylight. It is called as the vampire disease.
vampires drink blood. Because porphyria can result in brow urine, this may have led to the (false) belief that individuals who demonstrated this symptom had been drinking blood.
There are people out there who consume animal and human blood that doesn’t make them a vampire. Haematomania is the condition if craving blood. Even though we have scientific reasons behind these vampire myths. The question about vampires still goes around.
They exist. They are one of us. Vampires are not the same old mythical creatures. They are very much human, I would like to think they are not immortal. The real-life disease like Porphyria, Rabies, and Tuberculosis influenced vampire folklore. Maybe as there was a lack of awareness about the medical conditions.
In the 1800s, it wouldn’t have been too big a stretch of the imagination to think that people who were dying of tuberculosis were having the life sucked out of them by a supernatural creature. People suffering from (untreated) tuberculosis lose weight, become physically weak, have fevers, and cough up blood. In addition, tuberculosis spreads from person to person via the air.
With that said, I still feel like there might be chances of these folklores being real. Even with scientific evidence and research, we can’t erase the myth of vampires from our hearts. Let me know in the comments whether you believe in vampires.
The collection of inter-related data and several programs that are used to handle the data is known as Database Management System (DBMS). The main aim of DBMS is to store and efficiently retrieve the data from the database. To manage the data in the database, define the structure for storage of information and provide a proper mechanism for manipulation of information. The database system must also ensure the safety of the information that is stored.
DATABASE SYSTEM APPLICATIONS
Several applications use a database system. Some of the applications are listed below:
Accounting: To maintain the data of employees, salaries, and payroll taxes in the company, students in schools, patients in hospitals, database systems are used.
Manufacturing: In factories, database systems are used to manage the supply chain and tracking the production of items.
In shopping marts: For maintaining customer, product, and purchase information of items, databases are used.
Banking: The database systems are useful in maintaining the customer’s account information, loan details and for maintaining the transactions of credit card history.
Universities: DBMS is quite useful in maintaining the student details, course details, and accounting in universities.
Reservation systems: To maintain the reservation and schedule information, database systems are used in airways and railways reservation systems
Telecommunication: For maintaining the records of the call made and generating the bills, DBMS is useful.
PURPOSE OF DATABASE SYSTEMS
Earlier database systems are created to manage the commercial data. Data are stored in files. For adding new data or updating the data or deleting the data, various programs are written. Separate applications have to be written for the addition of new data. As time evolves, more files and more applications are required by the system. This typical file processing system is supported by an Operating system. In this system, the data is permanently stored in files. It requires different application programs for extracting or adding new information. Before the introduction of the Database Management System (DBMS), the file processing system was in use.
CHARACTERISTICS OF DATABASE SYSTEMS
It represents the aspects of real-world applications.
For managing the information systematically.
Multiple views for representing the data.
Operations such as insertion, deletion, and updating can be done efficiently.
A logical relationship between records and data is maintained.
ADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS
The data redundancy is removed i.e, there is no duplication of data in DBMS.
DBMS allows you to retrieve the desired data in an efficient way.
Data isolation can be done in separate tables for convenient usage.
A simple query language can be used to access the data.
In DBMS, the data integrity is maintained.
If some operation is performed on the particular data in one table, then the changes will be reflected on the entire database. So, the atomicity of data is maintained in DBMS.
Concurrent access to multiple users is possible in database systems.
In DBMS, we can also make the user access only the desired part of the data by restricting the access.
DISADVANTAGES OF DATABASE SYSTEMS
The complexity of database design is high. And it is also time-consuming.
If some failure has occurred in either software or hardware, a large amount of investment is needed to repair it.
The entire database may get affected if one part of the database gets affected.
For converting the file from a conventional file system to a database system, a large investment is needed to buy the required tools and adopting different techniques.
More training is needed for the people who design and maintain the database system.
Disaster is a very common phenomenon to the human society. It has been experienced by them since time immemorial. Though its form may be varied, it has been a challenge for society across castes, creeds, communities and countries. The latest development which has been discovered in the World Disaster Reports recently is that the disasters have increased in frequency and intensity.
People are becoming more and more vulnerable to disasters of all types, including earthquake, flood, cyclones, landslides, droughts, accidents, plane crash, forests fire, etc. With the technological advancements and progress, the force of disasters is also changing. When they occur they surpass all preparedness and eagerness of society and pose bigger challenge to them. This is quite true in case of both developed and developing countries. The floods in UK, France, and heat wave in Europe, particularly in France in 2003, claimed more than 35000 lives. In the year 2006, America had to face bigger disaster in the form of tornadoes and other cyclones. They caused great loss of lives and property. All these are sufficient to prove that technological mechanisms are inadequate.
There is a direct correlation between higher human development and higher preparedness. The countries which have lesser human development are more vulnerable to risks of disasters and damage. Of all the disasters, floods are the most common followed by wind storms, droughts and earthquakes. But the drought is the deadliest disaster which accounts for 48 per cent of all deaths from natural disasters. The highest numbers of people die from disasters in Asia. India, China and Bangladesh are the worst affected countries by flood. Besides the natural disasters, transport accidents and technological disasters are also faced by the developing countries.
India, due to its geographical locations and geological formations, is a highly disaster prone country. Its long coastline, snowclad high peaks, high mountain ranges, the perennial rivers in the north all combine to add to this problem. India, which has only two per cent the total geographical area, has to support 16 per cent of total world population. Naturally, there is a tremendous pressure on the natural resources, which directly or indirectly lead to the occurrence of disasters, namely floods, droughts, landslides, earthquakes, etc.
Like human population, India has to support large cattle population, which also heavily depends on biomass and graze into forest area. The forest cover with more than 0.4 densities is 12 per cent of the land area, though forest, at present, is 23 per cent. Due to overgrazing the quality of soil is also degrading resulting in soil erosion, silting of rivers, and removal of fertile soil and heavy silting of cultivable land. We see heavy rainfall during the monsoon, sometimes 100 cm rain in 36 hours or getting the whole monsoon rain two to three days like the ones in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Kolkata. From the region wise analysis, it is clear that northern region of India is faced with problems of avalanches, landslides, floods, drought and earthquakes because this region fall under the seismic zones III to V.
The Eastern region is confronted with the heavy floods in the perennial rivers of Brahmaputra, Ganga, etc. Drought, heat wave, hailstorm, cyclone, heavy wind and earthquake are also common in this region. The Northeastern region faces the natural disaster in the form of flood, landslides, wind outrage, earthquake as most of this part of the country comes under the seismic zones IV and V.
The Western region is widely known for severe drought, wind erosion of land and soil, flood and cyclone. This area is also prone to earthquakes. The Southern region, particularly the coastal region is vulnerable to cyclones, sea erosion, tsunami, landslides. The islands of Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep are confronted with the problems of sea erosion and tsunami. Indian coastal areas faced some of the severest cyclones both in Eastern coast and Western coast. One of the natural disasters, namely the volcanoes is in the barren island in Andaman group of islands which periodically become active.
In recent times, it was active in 2005. Among all the disasters, tsunami is the latest phenomena, which was never seen or heard earlier. Due to having no adequate warning system, it devastated a large portion of coastal region of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh besides Andaman & Nicobar Islands and claimed a large number of innocent lives and destroyed property worth crores of rupees.
India has faced a number of disasters, ranging from flood, earthquakes, cyclones, tsunami, drought, landslides. A few recent disasters faced by India include Uttar Kasha earthquake in UP in 1991, Later earthquake in Maharashtra in 1993, Chama earthquake in Gujarat, super cyclone in Orissa in 1999, Buhl earthquake in Gujarat in 2001, Tsunami in 2004 and Mumbai-Gujarat flood in 2005. Besides, India has a bad experience of technology-related tragedy in the form of gas tragedy in Bhopal in 1984. India also faced the problem of Plague in Gujarat.
The direct or indirect impacts of disasters, either natural or technological, are always damage, destruction and death. They cause loss of life of both men and animals and properties as well. At the occurrence of disaster, everything goes haywire in view of the destruction of lifeline support systems, namely communication, power supply, water supply, drainage, etc. In this situation the health care and hospitals are also put under severe stress. Commercial and economic activities are badly affected. Life almost comes to a standstill.
The impact is almost same, in case of man-made disasters like riots. The worst affected group is the poor sections of society, who are daily wage-earner. They are the most vulnerable and they suffer the loss of their livelihood. The psychological traumas caused by the disasters are sometimes so severe that they span the whole of life of the victim. Besides other rehabilitation works, psychological rehabilitation is of great importance.In some natural disasters like cyclones, tsunami and earthquake, it is the building structure which becomes the cause of destruction and death. It is due to this fact that in building construction, building codes are not followed property. In developing countries only 30 per cent of built infrastructures are constructed as per the building codes, while semi-permanent and other buildings do not follow the plan. Besides, the low quality of building material, liberal flouting and lack of master plan are some of the major constraints in this regard.
Rehabilitation is an integral part of disaster management. When disasters occur administrative measures are terribly inadequate and perhaps this is the most difficult period for a victim. The role of administration does not end with end of disasters. In fact its effort and commitment get more complex. It requires proper coordination among various agencies. In this context it is very important to note that disasters are non-routine events that require non-routine response. Government cannot rely on normal procedures to implement appropriate responses- the rescue teams require learning special skills, technologies and attitudes in dealing with disasters.
Disaster Management has assumed great importance in recent times. To handle the situation efficiently, we need to be well-equipped with latest technologies. It cannot avert the situation, but can mitigate its impacts.
If hamburgers are a regular part of your diet, you’ll need to make some adjustments before visiting India! Cows are protected by their own set of rules in the Constitution, making killing a cow a crime. Even on crowded city streets, cows have the liberty to roam where they please without fear of being harassed by humans.
2. India is the wettest inhabited place on Earth.
Meghalaya village has won the Guinness world record title for the wettest place on Earth, with about 11,873 milli liter of rain annually. The monsoon season lasts six months, so make sure you pack an umbrella!
3. India has over 300,000 mosques and over 2 million Hindu temples.
Get ready to be awed and amazed by all the stunning architecture India has to offer. About 15% of India’s population is Muslim. The mosques across the country range from small village buildings to immense famous ones, like the Mecca Masjid in Hyderabad or the Jama Masjid in New Delhi.The same can be said about India’s Hindu temples, which surpass two million to serve the 79.8% of India’s Hindu population.
Just the holy city of Varanasi has over 23,000 temples. It is safe to say India is the land of temples!
4.Rajasthan has a Temple of RatsThe animal wonders of India continue.
Although rats might not be the first species you think of to worship, there is a temple in Rajasthan dedicated to rats.Thousands of rats call the temple home, making it one of the country’s most unique attractions. Many pilgrims visit the temple every year on their own religious journeys, so make sure to be respectful of local customs when visiting.
5.The popular game “Snakes and Ladders” originated in IndiaNow sold across the world (sometimes adapted to “shoots and ladders”), this board game traces its roots back to India. It was first created to teach morals and lessons about karma in a way that young children would understand and remember.
6.India has 22 recognized languagesThe numerous languages spoken across India include Santali, Kashmiri, Bengali, Tamil, and Urdu. However, the official languages are English and Hindi.India also has the world’s second-largest population of English speakers (first is the United States), since most Indians speak their own regional language as well as English for easier communication.Sanskrit is considered the oldest language in the world, the “mother of all languages.” Every Hindu book is written in Sanskrit, and it is said that Sanskrit is the language of the demi-Gods.India also has the world’s second-largest population of English speakers (first is the United States), since most Indians speak their own regional language as well as English for easier communication.Sanskrit is considered the oldest language in the world, the “mother of all languages.” Every Hindu book is written in Sanskrit, and it is said that Sanskrit is the language of the demi-Gods.
In the economic study of the public sector, economic and social development is the process by which the economic well-being and quality of life of a nation, region, local community, or an individual are improved according to targeted goals and objectives.
The term has been used frequently in the 20th and 21st centuries, but the concept has existed in the West for far longer. “Modernization”, “Westernization”, and especially “industrialization” are other terms often used while discussing economic development. Historically, economic development policies focused on industrialization and infrastructure, but since the 1960s, it has increasingly focused on poverty reduction.
Whereas economic development is a policy intervention aiming to improve the well-being of people, economic growth is a phenomenon of market productivity and increases in GDP; economist Amartya Sen describes economic growth as but “one aspect of the process of economic development”. Economists primarily focus on the growth aspect and the economy at large, whereas researchers of community economic development concern themselves with socioeconomic development as well.
Many institutions of higher education offer economic development as an area of study and research such as McGill University, London School of Economics, International Institute of Social Studies, Balsillie School of International Affairs, and the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs.
economic development goals
The development of a country has been associated with different concepts but generally encompasses economic growth through higher productivity, political systems that represent as accurately as possible the preferences of its citizens,the extension of rights to all social groups and the opportunities to get them and the proper functionality of institutions and organizations that are able to attend more technically and logistically complex tasks (i.e. raise taxes and deliver public services) These processes describe the State’s capabilities to manage its economy, polity, society and public administration. Generally, economic development policies attempt to solve issues in these topics.
With this in mind, economic development is typically associated with improvements in a variety of areas or indicators (such as literacy rates, life expectancy, and poverty rates), that may be causes of economic development rather than consequences of specific economic development programs. For example, health and education improvements have been closely related to economic growth, but the causality with economic development may not be obvious. In any case, it is important to not expect that particular economic development programs be able to fix many problems at once as that would be establishing unsurmountable goals for them that are highly unlikely they can achieve. Any development policy should set limited goals and a gradual approach to avoid falling victim to something Prittchet, Woolcock and Andrews call ‘premature load bearing’.
Many times the economic development goals of specific countries cannot be reached because they lack the State’s capabilities to do so. For example, if a nation has little capacity to carry out basic functions like security and policing or core service delivery it is unlikely that a program that wants to foster a free-trade zone (special economic zones) or distribute vaccinations to vulnerable populations can accomplish their goals. This has been something overlooked by multiple international organizations, aid programs and even participating governments who attempt to carry out ‘best practices’ from other places in a carbon-copy manner with little success. This isomorphic mimicry –adopting organizational forms that have been successful elsewhere but that only hide institutional dysfunction without solving it on the home country –can contribute to getting countries stuck in ‘capability traps’ where the country does not advance in its development goals.
Social development is about improving the well-being of every individual in society so they can reach their full potential. The success of society is linked to the well-being of each and every citizen.Social development means investing in people. It requires the removal of barriers so that all citizens can journey toward their dreams with confidence and dignity. It is about refusing to accept that people who live in poverty will always be poor. It is about helping people so they can move forward on their path to self-sufficiency.
Every New Brunswicker must have the opportunity to grow, develop their own skills and contribute to their families and communities in a meaningful way. If they are healthy, well educated and trained to enter the workforce and are able to make a decent wage they are better equipped to meet their basic needs and be successful. Their families will also do well and the whole of society will benefit.
Learning must start early in life. By investing in early learning initiatives, we can ensure a greater degree of success amongst our citizens. Making sure that children get a good start in their education goes a long way to increasing their success later in life.
An affordable, high quality child care system is also needed for society to succeed. When people know that their children are being well taken care of, they can be more productive in their jobs. When employers have good employees their business is more likely to succeed. When businesses succeed, the economic situation of a community is improved. An investment today in good child care programs can provide many long term economic benefits for society.
In addition, a safe affordable place to live is very important in helping people achieve self-sufficiency. It is the focus of family life; where families can live safely, nurture their children, build community relationships and care for aging parents. Without a decent place to live, it is difficult to function as a productive member of society .Other investments in people that contribute to the economic prosperity of society include youth programs and services, post-secondary education, job creation, promotion of healthy, active living and safe and secure communities.
To reduce poverty we need to take a social development approach and invest in our people. By investing in people we can reduce poverty. We need to go beyond looking at government to find ways to develop our most valuable resources, our people. We need to share responsibility with community organizations, businesses, universities and municipalities in the task of improving the well-being of all New Brunswickers and preventing and reducing poverty.
Consumer or producers or policymakers or central banks have one characteristic feature common in them – They are all affected by inflation which is a critical and cyclical macro indicator. With repsect to change in different time periods the capital markets also have to be adjusted to the far reaching implications of inflation. Almost everything is affected by inflation even something as basic as investment returns. Putting forward the theory of real returns which is nominal return less inflation is important for all investors to succeed in real life.
For example, we can look for ourselves how inflation is a silent money killer – for normal savings bank account return of 4% the customer is actually making a loss if we factor in the 12 month inflation value of 6%. With that understanding now in place, let us look at how inflation impacts multiple asset classes.
Fixed Income Inflation having an inverse relationship with interest rates impacts fixed income investments the most. With each point increase in inflation each investor alson wants to increase their return on investment so that they could beat inflation. Investors will usually shift to high yielding products than current ,ower yielding ones as interest rates on debt instruments are fixed over term. Debt investments dut to their characteristic fixed rates tend to lose the most in a rising inflation environment.In such kind of situations, the central bank usually takes actions around monetary policy and systemic liquidityto manage interest rates or yield or debt products but fundamentals catch up ultimately. In such cases people look for Infaltion Prtected Securities – a bond that adjusts yield to inflation and floating rate bonds.
Equity The case of inflation surrounding equities is a little volatile and could shift depending upon the level of inflation, nature – transient or persistent, the external macro environment, corporate sector exposure, balance sheet structure and pricing power. An inflation rate of around 2-6% is generally considered good for equities while a rate of 10-14% is considered extremely high and bad for equities. Corporates in such cases increase the price of the final product in accordance with the rate of inflation due to the rising prices of raw materials and at last the consumer has to suffer the wrath of inflation while the companies maintains its tradebook. This generally leads to a better revenue for the company and the reults are reflected in the stock price of the company But if the demand is suppressed due to weaker consumer sentiments, high unemployment, sector disruption or any other reason, then corporates would find it difficult to pass on the raw material price rise to final product price hikes. This will again be reflected in the stock prices of the companies.
Commodities The real, physical assets that act a hedge against inflation act and their prices define current inflation levels are called commodities. Inflation levels are indicated by their prices. Inflation is a weighted index of prices of different goods and services – raw materials (wholesale inflation) and final products (consumer inflation) – combined in a basket. Different government agencies determine the ratio of theses items in the basket. Naturally, commodities (metals, agricultural produce) tend to do extremely well in a scenario of rising inflation.
Gold The same relationship will hold true for gold as well because at the end of the a commodity after all. For countries like India gold is a preffered choice of investment in times of inflation as it acts as a hedgeGnd hence it is also called a ‘premium store of value’. Unsuprisingly this is not always the case as and when central bank take inflationary measures and raise the interest rates, gold becomes the lesser option for investors. The reason people tend to prefer gold over other assets is due to its various underlying characteristics such as return generating ability over a oeriod of time which has been tried and tested and a significantly low correlation among other asset class in both expansionary and recession periods.Investors also look at gold as an ‘alternative currency’ or ‘currency of last resort’ especially in countries where local currency is is losing value.
Real Estate Inflation has a direct relation with property prices which tend to increase with rise in inflation rates as landlords and home-owners demand higher rent or home prices to offset high consumption costs. In such cases real state also becomes an asset with positively high correlation with inflation. Investors in such cases invest in exchange traded funds for real estate which give better return in this class rather than owning something physical such as real pieces of land or industrial property.
Jellyfish and sea jellies are the informal common names given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria. Jellyfish are mainly free-swimming marine animals with umbrella-shaped bells and trailing tentacles, although a few are anchored to the seabed by stalks rather than being mobile. The bell can pulsate to provide propulsion for highly efficient locomotion. The tentacles are armed with stinging cells and may be used to capture prey and defend against predators. Jellyfish have a complex life cycle; the medusa is normally the sexual phase, which produces planula larva that disperse widely and enter a sedentary polyp phase before reaching sexual maturity.
Kingdom : Animalia Phylum : Cnidaria Subphylum : Medusozoa
Cladistically included but traditionally excluded taxa
* some Hydrozoa, such as Hydra
Jellyfish are found all over the world, from surface waters to the deep sea. Scyphozoans (the “true jellyfish”) are exclusively marine, but some hydrozoans with a similar appearance live in freshwater. Large, often colorful, jellyfish are common in coastal zones worldwide. The medusae of most species are fast-growing, and mature within a few months then die soon after breeding, but the polyp stage, attached to the seabed, may be much more long-lived. Jellyfish have been in existence for at least 500 million years,and possibly 700 million years or more, making them the oldest multi-organ animal group.
Jellyfish are eaten by humans in certain cultures. They are considered a delicacy in some Asian countries, where species in the Rhizostomae order are pressed and salted to remove excess water. Australian researchers have described them as a “perfect food”, sustainable, and protein-rich but relatively low in food energy.
They are also used in research, where the green fluorescent protein used by some species to cause bioluminescence has been adapted as a fluorescent marker for genes inserted into other cells or organisms.
The stinging cells used by jellyfish to subdue their prey can injure humans. Many thousands of swimmers are stung every year, with effects ranging from mild discomfort to serious injury or even death; small box jellyfish are responsible for many of these deaths. When conditions are favourable, jellyfish can form vast swarms, which can be responsible for damage to fishing gear by filling fishing nets, and sometimes clog the cooling systems of power and desalination plants which draw their water from the sea.
The name jellyfish, in use since 1796, has traditionally been applied to medusae and all similar animals including the comb jellies (ctenophores, another phylum).The term jellies or sea jellies is more recent, having been introduced by public aquaria in an effort to avoid use of the word “fish” with its modern connotation of an animal with a backbone, though shellfish, cuttlefish and starfish are not vertebrates either. In scientific literature, “jelly” and “jellyfish” have been used interchangeably.Many sources refer to only scyphozoans as “true jellyfish”.
A group of jellyfish is called a “smack”.
* Some jellyfish can glow in the dark.
* Jellyfish are the oldest multi-organ animal.
* Jellyfish don’t have brains.
* Jellyfish are found all over the world.
* Some jellyfish are immortal.
* Not all jellyfish have tentacles.
* There’s a giant jellyfish called the hair jelly.
* Jellyfish stings can be deadly.
* 150 million people are stung by jellyfish each year.
* Jellyfish have many predators.
TYPE OF JELLYFISHS
Coming in at number one is the Crystal jellyfish. Located in the waters around North America’s coast, this jellyfish species is actually completely colorless, hence its name! This beautiful specimen has around 150 tentacles lining its glass-like bell and in the daylight looks crystal clear. Although, this transparency belies a brighter side.
2.Bloodybelly Comb Jellyfish
Ranking high in the charts for the coolest and beautiful jelly-fish, is our next contender, the Bloodybelly Comb jellies, which, technically speaking are comb jellies and are only very distantly related to the jellyfish. This one doesn’t have the famous jellyfish stinging tentacles that others possess, and it is actually a harmless Comb jelly to humans.
Red looks very much like black in the depths of the ocean and specifically, the red belly of this Bloodybelly comb also helps to mask the bioluminescence glow of its prey and keeps it extra safe from the attention of its predators.
Getting its name from the wart-like projections this type has on its bell resembling that of a vegetable, we give you the Cauliflower jellyfish also referred to as the Crown jellyfish! While this jelly may not sound the prettiest of its species, it is still a truly beautiful species of jellyfish.
Very much like its vegetable nickname, this kind is often also found on dinner plates! Mostly in China and Japan where the species is considered to be a delicacy and is also known to be used for medicinal purposes within these locations.
4. White-spotted Jellyfish
At number four on, we have the White-spotted jellyfish. These jellies have very mild venom and therefore any jellyfish stings from its stinging cells are harmless to us humans. In fact, the white-spotted jelly doesn’t generally even use their venom to catch food at all!
5. Black Sea Nettle Jellyfish
Next, one of the largest jellyfish (the largest jellyfish is the Lion Mane jellyfish) is the Black Sea Nettles jellyfish! This particular species can be found in the deep sea Pacific waters around Southern California.
The bell of the Black Sea Nettles can reach up to three-foot across, its long tentacles reach up to 20 feet in length, and its stinging tentacles 25 feet long. Without saying, it would be pretty damn scary if you caught yourself in the middle of a bloom of these giants while in the water, but don’t worry too much as they are not that common to a lot of ocean waters.
Romance is a widely celebrated literary genre that primarily revolves around the romantic aspects of relationship between two individuals. Romantic books are very popular among people of all ages. Romance is a genre that can be amalgamated with any other genre to add some spice to the tale. Romance genre incorporates everything from historical to contemporary love equations. Romance novels may be driven driven by cliché and far fetched tropes such as ‘love at first sight’ etc.
The romance industry is a big shot economically, worth almost $1.08 billion dollars a year in the U.S alone.
Danielle Steel, Nora Roberts, Nicholas Sparks, and Robyn Carr are among some of the romance genre popular authors.
Today, we look at some of the romance must reads.
1. See Me
Nicholas Spark is one of the most prolific authors of the romance genre. His novel ‘See Me’ tells the story of two people in constant battle with the demons of their past and trying against al odds to come together as one.
Colin Hancock has a history of violence and an ever looming threat of prison. Haven been given a second chance, he’s trying to make the most of it, putting everything he has in his teaching degree. With constant reminders of his past shortcomings, the last thing on Colin’s mi d is love.
Maria Sanchez, a hardworking professional at a prestigious firm in Wilmington. A dark-haired natural beauty with an impeccable work record, Maria has a dark past that forced her back home.
A chance encounter between these two lost souls leaves in its wake thousands of unanswered questions and a deep yearning to be together. As love takes root, the demons from their past threaten to surface, destroying almost about everything.
2. The Bride Test
Helen Hoang’s, ‘The Bride Test’, tells the story of Khai Diep, an autistic person who thinks that he cannot ever feel anything. As he stays miles away from any potential relationship, his mother decides to take matters in her own hands and travels to Vietnam to find a perfect bride for him.
Esme Tran is a mixed- race girl living in the slums of Ho Chi Minh City. When she gets the opportunity to go to America for a potential marriage, she’s more than ready to do it to get out of her penury.
Esme had her mind made up about seducing Khai but ends up falling hopelessly in love with him, while Khai remain unfeeling and hard-hearted. As Esme gets close to leaving States, Khai gets closer to the answers he had always been seeking.
3. The Soulmate Equation
Christina Lauren’s, ‘The Soulmate Equation’, is a story of Jess Davis, a single mother and a statistics wiz who is trying hard to make ends meet while her grandparents, who raised her, help her raise her seven year old daughter, Juno.
Having been let down too many times in her past relationships- by her father, mother and her ex, Jess is extremely sceptical and absolutely unwilling to traipse back into the dating world.
Then, one fateful day, Jess comes across a matchmaking company, GeneticAlly that offers DNA-based matchmaking. When Jess’s tests show 98% compatibility with another person, Jess is astounded and the person is none other than Dr River Pena, GeneticAlly’s founder. Having known him earlier, Jess is certain about him not being he soulmate. But as the company offers to pay her for going out with Pena, Jess cannot refuse anymore. As these two get swept in the genetic dating league, they discover things about each other that might just change their perspective about everything.
After the second wave India Inc. should be expecting a faster than expected recovery as the economic news coming out is encouraging. The pace of business resumption crossed a milestone in mid-august, tracked by Nomura India Business, rising above 100 – the pre-pandemic level for the first time since the covid struck last year. Although the news is encouraging we won’t be seeing swifter than expected rebound in jobs.
Pandemic affect on jobs? There is an absence of timely jobs data due to which getting the exact scenario of the employment situation in India is difficult. But from an outside look one can give an analysis that workers in India have suffered an uneven hit because of covid.
The covid 19 pandemic’s impact was disproportionate in jobs market just as it was on growth. The drastic shift to work-from-home depended upon sector-to-sector where shifting to wfh was easier in IT, software and finance related jobs it was difficult in more contact-intensive jobs and nigh impossible in jobs such as manufacturing, construction, restaurant etc. Starting from informal sector the most adversely affected people are self-employed and daily wage workers and have been hit worst. Moving on to the the sector which employs the most the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) have been hit harder than big firms. Such kind of impact is called a K-shaped impact. The slack in the labor market is often used to measure unemployment in the labor market. This is measured by the Centre for Monitoring Indian economy (CMIE). The rate which stood at 8% mid-August which was a slight bit higher than pre-pandemic level of 7.8% in February 2020. Although this may as well be an understatement .
A decrease of 6 million workers was seen, data reveals as total employment was 406 mn back in February 2020 which is currently down to 399.4 mn in July 2021.Data is much more saddening when we talk number of workers who dropped out of workforce a staggering 10.9 mn and are no longer actively seeking work and those who had jobs had to take wage cuts, work less hours or are on indefinite leave. Disguised unemployment has also risen with mostly migrant workers returning back to their villages and working on their farms.
Future of jobs in India.
One can take a breath of fresh air as data suggests that the imoact of second wave has declines and the economy has rebounded. As the rate of vaccination is progressing and people have started to adapt the most affected contact-intensive sectors such as resteraunts, construction etc.
Job market recovery will have to be a slow and a gradual process due to two underlying reasons.Vaccinating majority of population is going to take a lot of time and will not happen atleast till end of 2021 and second as when the market recovers the firms would want to analyse the strength of demand before hiring and starting full scale production .
Obviously the pace at which different sectors come back will differ drastically and will depend upon worker-to-worker. The formal sector will have an advantage in this case as it is expected to bounce back faster than the informal sector. Starting with formal sectors the sectors with great demand will bounce back faster such as IT, software and pharma whereas more traditional sectors such as infrastructure, hospitality, real estate, media and entertainment may be slower to recover. As with informal sector workers, it will take much longer than anticipated due to worker hesitancy of leaving homes due to the whole migrant worker fiasco and although this may subside over time the small industry that shut down aren’t likely to open up making such kind of jobs gone forever.
Long term affect
Looking beyond the here and now, the pandemic may leave behind other long-lasting effects, while presenting both challenges and opportunities. For example, the pandemic has accelerated the pre-existing trend towards digitization and e-commerce. Video conferencing is now widely accepted. Telemedicine, delivery and fintech are a few examples of sectors that have witnessed fast-paced growth during the pandemic. Supply chain relocations as firms adopt a China plus one strategy have opened up a new vista of opportunities for India to integrate into global value chains and to create new manufacturing jobs. In contrast, business travel will likely decrease in a post-pandemic world. Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) type of tourism will likely decline. Demand for commercial office space may be lower. Automation may reduce employment intensity of manufacturing, hurting low-skilled workers. The pandemic has resulted in more market concentration, as big firms become even bigger, while small firms are squeezed, which could hurt job creation.
In contrast, business travel will likely decrease in a post-pandemic world. Meetings, incentives, conferencing, exhibitions (MICE) type of tourism will likely decline. Demand for commercial office space may be lower. Automation may reduce employment intensity of manufacturing, hurting low-skilled workers. The pandemic has resulted in more market concentration, as big firms become even bigger, while small firms are squeezed, which could hurt job creation.
Required policy toolkit These longer-term shifts will require an active policy response. Workers will need both reskilling and upskilling. We need an ecosystem for MSMEs to thrive. This includes less regulatory compliance costs, lower funding costs and ability to scale. More jobs will need to be created in the infrastructure and construction sectors. An ecosystem for startups to gainfully employ India’s youth is needed. Many other such new sectors that can create jobs have to be explored.
In short, reversing the pandemic hit to jobs is only a first step. The real jobs challenge still lies ahead.
Gaming Phone has been a dream for every teenager and chances are you’ve heard the shouts of “Revive me!” or “Flat spin!” consistently, especially in schools and colleges. With heavy games like PUBG Mobile, Asphalt 9, Garena, etc. carving a niche of relatability with the youth, rarely will you find someone’s phone with not even one such heavy game.
But then comes the problem gamers hate – lags and glitches. “I need gloves to play PUBG man!”, said one of my gamer friends. Confused, I enquired why. “Old phone, old processor, man! The phone’s heating will burn my hands one day!”, he replied. While his words were a definite exaggeration, it is a well-known fact that it’s not every other phone that will let you play heavy games – only a select few that will allow that.
The best one would clearly be – Samsung Galaxy S20 ultra. Go ahead, it costs only INR 92,999. For those of you who agree with that ‘only’, you can buy the phone. Those of you whose eyes – like mine – widened to the size of saucers, don’t worry. To make life easier for you, we’re here with a list of Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India. You can find answers such as which is the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020 or Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 8gb RAM or Best Samsung Gaming Phone under 20,000 or Best Camera and Gaming Phone under 20,000 and more with the help of our carefully curated list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020.
Best Camera and Gaming Phone Under 20,000
The Realme X2 features a 6.4-inch Super AMOLED Full HD+ display with a 1080 x 2340 display resolution and a Snapdragon 730G SoC inside, making it a perfect device for gaming. It has small bezels, and a screen-to-body ratio of 91.9% and contains a 19.5:9 ratio.
It comes with Corning Gorilla Glass 5 protection and has an in-display fingerprint scanner. It also has a sports a 64MP + 8MP + 2MP + 2MP quad rear camera setup and contains a 32MP selfie shooter. Moreover, it packs a 4000mAh battery that supports 30W fast charging. Realme X2 is obtainable with up to 8GB RAM. Games especially run quite well on this device and you’ll be able to expect high graphics from the smartphone. All these features make it arguably the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020.
The Poco X2 offers good value for money, with specifications and capabilities that few other companies can match within the sub-Rs. 20,000 market. The design, with its attention-grabbing circular patch on the rear and bright gradient finishes, maybe a touch polarizing but Poco have used Gorilla Glass 5 on the front and back for durability. You get an oversized 6.67-inch screen with dual front cameras embedded with a fine-finished cutout within the top-right corner. The display is bright and supports a 120Hz refresh rate.
Performance is extremely good due to the Snapdragon 730G processor, and the phone is a steal under 20,000 with 8GB RAM and up to 256GB of storage. This phone also boasts of a 64-megapixel primary rear camera and it took superb daytime stills. The night mode also helped low-light photos look good. Daytime videos looked good, but quality suffered plenty at the hours of darkness, especially when recording at 4K. Battery life was also quite good, but not spectacular.
Redmi Note 9 Pro Max
The Redmi Note 9 Pro is now the starting variant of the Note series with the Note 9 Pro Max getting most of the eye. ‘Max’ variant has the extra horsepower to tide you through difficult times. The Note 9 Pro Max gets a bigger 64MP camera sensor at the rear, a bigger 32MP selfie camera, and a faster 33W out-of-the-box charger. Most other hardware specs are the same as the Note 9 pro.
The Note 9 Pro Max offers a 6.7-inch LCD display with a punch-hole camera. It’s powered by the Snapdragon 720G together with 6GB RAM and 64GB storage within the entry variant under Rs 15,000. The phone also offers a 64MP quad-camera setup. There’s also another 8MP ultrawide lens, a 5MP macro lens, and another 2MP depth sensor. On the front, you get a 16MP front camera. The Note 9 Pro also comes with a 5020mAh battery with 33W fast charging and Corning Gorilla Glass 5 covering the front.
Redmi Note 8 Pro
The Note 8 Pro is on the market well under Rs 20,000. The new MediaTek processor blows the Snapdragon 712 out of water in gaming and artificial benchmarks. And if you thought that the 48MP camera on the Note 7 Pro wasn’t good, Xiaomi has upped the sport with a stupendous 64MP camera now. Other specs like the large battery, enough RAM, and ample storage make it a perfect budget phone. The Redmi Note 8 Pro can support PUBG at Ultra-high graphics and could be a competent alternative to Snapdragon 730G. Other perks include HDR display, 4500mAh battery, and a capable set of quad-cameras.
The Vivo U20 might not be the best in-range as per the market, but it is a consistent performer. The Snapdragon 675 could be a capable processor offering good gaming capabilities, while an enormous 5000mAh battery with 18W fast charging ensures you stay connected. There’s also an oversized IPS LCD display and a triple camera setup at the rear including a well-optimized 16MP primary camera, another 8MP wide-angle camera, and a 2MP macro lens. What more could you want, right?
The Realme XT was the primary commercial launch with a 64MP sensor on the rear at the time of its launch. That, together with the opposite 3 cameras on the rear and that we can safely assume that the camera department is all covered up. Other specs are Snapdragon 712, octa-core up to 8GB RAM and 128 GB of storage, in-screen fingerprint sensor, fast charging, and a decently large battery. it’s fueled by a 4,000mAh battery. You can install as many games on a 64GB/128GB inbuilt storage (expandable up to 256GB).
The handset retails in 4GB, 6GB, and 8GB RAM options. The gaming experience with this phone is probably going to be enhanced by the Oppo’s Hyper Boost technology. Flip to the rear and you get a quad-camera setup including 64MP +8MP +2MP + 2 MP Dual camera arrangement.
Xiaomi Redmi K20
Xiaomi Redmi K20 is another exciting gaming phone under the 20K price range. It’s powered Snapdragon 730 which contains a 35% performance boost over Snapdragon 710. It features a 6.39-inch Super AMOLED display with a 1080 x 2340-pixel resolution at 403 PPI. It comes with up to 8GB RAM and up to 256GB of internal storage. The K20 looks stunning with a flaming gradient finish and a bezel-less edge-to-edge display. At the rear, you will find be a triple-camera setup which will take some sharp photos both during the day and night. After the recent price-cutting, the Redmi K20 is a great budget buy under Rs 20,000
Realme 6 Pro
The phone is based on the proven performer Qualcomm Snapdragon 720G. It features a 6.6-inch LCD display, which produces good colors and brightness. there is no in-display fingerprint sensor so Realme has used a capacitive one within the power button. There’s face unlock too, which works all right. Realme has used a modern-looking, punch-hole cutout within the display for the 2 front cameras. The phone is on the market with variants of 8GB of RAM and 128GB of storage.
The latter is expandable. App and gaming performances are extremely good and users reported no issue with heating either. The 4,300mAh battery easily lasts for a day and a half and there is 30W fast charging too. Due to the power-efficient chipset, the 4300mAh battery lasts really long and therefore the 25MP selfie camera is an additional bonus.
Samsung Galaxy M40
Inarguably the Best Samsung Gaming Phone under 20,000, this phone makes it to the list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India on the back of strong user reviews and product reliability. This is Samsung’s first Snapdragon 675 based phone in the market and the chipset is apt enough to handle every game out there. Although there could be slight heating issues, users noted its nothing extreme.
The phone features a 6.3-inch full HD+ well-calibrated screen with Corning Gorilla Glass on top. The phone is obtainable in 6GB RAM and 128GB storage option only. Samsung’s new OneUI also includes a stimulating game mode which will make it possible to avoid interruptions while gaming. It boasts of many segment-firsts like a hole-punch display and a vibrating screen for an earpiece.
It features a bright and vibrant 6.3-inch full-HD+PLS TFT LCD display, which has good viewing angles but there’s also a gentle vignette around the edges, which may be distracting. The body is slim and lightweight but the plastic back attracts scuff marks pretty easily. So like all Samsung products, use a tampered glass and cover – Samsung phones are seldom made for rough handling.
There’s just one variant, which comes with 6GB of RAM and 128GB of storage. The latter is expandable but it is a hybrid slot so you cannot have two SIMs and a microSD card. OneUI runs well and is tested to run smoothly on Android 9 Pie.
Realme X is another affordable phone that provides good value-for-money and interesting gaming features. It ticks the majority of boxes that a budget gamer requires. The performance part is handled by Snapdragon 710 CPU that integrates Adreno 616GPU. It comes with a 6.5-inch AMOLED display which also contributes to the immersive gaming experience. The FHD+ resolution screen is notch-free and is surrounded by really narrow bezels. It also includes 3,765mAh battery with 20W VOOC 3.0 fast charging – which is to mention that you just can engage in extended gaming sessions without fear about the battery.
That concludes our list of the Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in India. Do you think your favorite Best Gaming Phone under 20,000 in 2020 is missing? Or one of the mentioned phones is not really the Best Camera and Gaming Phone under 20,000 and worth the money? Have reviews to give to our readers about any of these phones? Head down to the comments section and speak your mind!
With all these healthy routines they are missing one of the most important steps that play a very important role in one’s health and treatment that is to secure their future health expenses by taking a liable health insurance plan. Health insurance equipped the person to take all the treatment and hospitalisation at a reasonable rate.
Currently, the world is dealing with the deadly coronavirus which was originated as the very new virus in late December 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China. Even at the time, its name was not known than the situation gain international media’s coverage when virus cases started reporting from other countries as well along with a sharp increase in the death rate due to the coronavirus. The WHO declared it as the global pandemic in March 2020, with about 118,000 confirm cases with 4921 deaths in 114 countries.
The superpower of the world, the United States of America become the worst affected country in the world. Till now the USA has recorded 4.9 million confirmed cases with about 160 thousand deaths has been registered so far. In this dangerous and high-risk time of the pandemic, health-conscious Americans are taking all the necessary precautions to keep themselves fit and healthy. From following a healthy diet to regular exercising, they are doing almost everything to keep themselves away from the virus and other contagious diseases.
Importance of Health Insurance Plan
About 30 million workers living in America lost their jobs so does their health insurance plan during the outbreak of COVID 19 pandemic. Thus, along with the financial burden the Americans has to face the health crises and expenses also. As coronavirus treatment is the costliest so the necessity of a good health insurance plan for American citizens is enormous.
As the virus is new and unknown to scientists and doctors so the much study and research are not done on it as well as its vaccine formation time is still not confirmed so the treatment of virus is very expensive in different parts of the world. In America, thousands of dollars are required for the treatment of the corona patient. Because of these reasons, the need for good health insurance is essential.
As not only coronavirus but various other deadly viruses like Ebola, Zika and other dangerous diseases surrounds us and requires a lot of dollars for testing and treatment of the disease, so it is very beneficial to equip with the best health insurance policy to ensure the proper treatment and care by the health official at a very minimal rate which was already given to the health insurance company.
Health insurance also helps to maintain mental health along with the treatment of physical ailment. As the burden of disease and health problem is already on the mind of the patient so health insurance plan helps to detect financial burden from the mind and to maintain mental health.
As nothing is predictable in life, any unintended accidents can occur at any time of life. During these times health insurance plays a very vital role in saving our and our loves life.
As corona is also one disease which can enter in our lives at any moment of our life, so advance maintenance and preparations are very essential especially in American cities like New York where there is a large spread of the disease. The first step in the preparation is to avail the honest and liable health insurance plan.
Thus, along with following all the safety and hygiene protocols of Corona Virus, the person should also ensure the health insurance plan for themselves and their families. The Cities of New York and Boston are the worst affected so proper health insurance for its citizens is very essential.
Best Health Insurance Plan in New York
As the coronavirus claim a lot of deaths, some because of the lack of immunity while others due to the lack of money. The treatment and testing of Corona Virus are too expensive in New York city of America, the health insurance plays a vital role in ensuring treatment from the best doctors and the in the most renowned hospitals. The best insurance plans in New York health come under four categories.
These are bronze plan, silver, gold and platinum health insurance plans, all vary in its prices. There is government sponsor health insurance plan Medicare that comes at $ 1,005 for the single person, and for married couples, it can be bought at $ 1,354 under its qualified beneficiary plan. Medicare provides four types of the best insurance plan in New York health.
There is also Medicaid health insurance plan for poor families that cannot afford other health insurance plans. About 6% of New York residents are uninsured that compels officials to make some more good policies.
Best Health Insurance Plans in Boston
The Boston city in the United States is also one of the worst affected city that provides some of the most renowned health insurance plans. The best health insurance plans in Boston includes a basic life insurance plan that can be brought at $ 5,000 but its amount may variant with the age of the person. The Medicare Retiree Health insurance plan allows the usage of coverage even after the retirement.
There are many more such health insurance schemes offers both by the government officials as well as the private insurance companies. The Obamacare Health plan that is giving benefits to many Americans, is providing a lot of health insurance plans in different parts of America. These are some of the best health insurance plans in Boston that are making the lives of many citizens easy.
The Corona Virus Pandemic has put a halt to many things but it also brings the real condition of the health structure of many powerful countries. Even the most powerful and renowned country of the world, the United States of America is not able to control the virus initially that results in the thousands of deaths and millions of active cases. As well as millions of people lost their jobs and become unemployed.
In such a drastic and dangerous situation, the person’s health protector is a health insurance plan that protects the future of the person and makes it financially secured when such a disease or accident takes place. The Americans are looking for the best insurance plans that give them the most benefits of treatment and testing of the disease and by taking one of the health insurance plans our mind become peaceful without any worry of unpredictable tragedies of life.
In this, we see the information about the NIPER JEE entrance exam. Please read my previous content i.e.on GPAT exam preparation, which helps you to understand it easily.
National Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, conducts a joint entrance examination (NIPER JEE) every year for admission to doctoral and Masters level courses in the pharmacy field.
The Courses like M.Pharm, M.S.Pharm, M.Tech (Pharm.), MBA ( Pharm.) and PhD courses are open for admission through NIPER- JEE.
NIPER JEE examination pattern is designed and implemented by the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences or NIPER.
🌟Only “GPAT” qualified candidates can give NIPER JEE Exam.
Name of Exam
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Joint Entrance Exam
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Commonly Known as
Mode of examination
Duration Of Exam
Total no. of Questions
Yes, 0.25 for every wrong answer
we will talk about the different campuses or colleges of NIPER, based on their priorities.
SAS NAGAR, MOHALI
NIPER institute, Mohali is at the top position, because after graduation from this institute the students get the job with a high package. (Around 7-9 L.P.A.) Or we can say that placement in NIPER Mohali is greater as compared to other universities.
COURSES OFFERED BY NIPER INSTITUTE & THEIR BRANCHES:-
Pharmacology & Toxicology
Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulation)
Pharmaceutical Technology (Process Chemistry)
Pharmaceutical Technology (Biotechnology)
🌟The branches of these courses, vary as per the institute.
If you have to take admission for M.B.A. then you have to give a Group discussion.
🌟For the M.S., M.Pharm & M.Tech there will be a stipend or Scholarship for students but in the case of Pharm MBA, we don’t get any stipend or scholarship.
Eligibility Criteria for NIPER:-
Before filling the application form, all candidates are must be aware of the eligibility criteria for the NIPER entrance exam.
GPAT Score:- Candidates must have a valid GPAT (Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test) Score.
Qualifying Degree:- Candidates must possess a B.Pharm degree from a recognised university. Final year B. Pharm students are also eligible for the NIPER exam.
Academic Qualification:– To apply for the NIPER JEE exam, candidates must have passed the qualifying degree with a minimum of 60℅ marks. The qualifying marks may vary with category.
There is no official syllabus prescribed for the NIPER JEE exam.
we have to understand the previous 10-15 years questions format and then study further.
The syllabus is just like the GPAT entrance exam but more specifically in basic chemistry instead of medical chemistry and many more subjects.
The syllabus of NIPER JEE is broadly based on the qualifying exam curriculum. The NIPER JEE syllabus includes questions mainly from the Core subject i.e. Chemistry, Pharmacology, Biotechnology & Pharmaceutical analysis and other subjects questions also asked.
Let’s have a look at the syllabus for various courses in NIPER JEE:-
For PhD Courses:– Questions will be of M.S.Pharm, M.Pharm.
For M.Pharm /M.S. Courses:– For admission to master level courses the question will be from B.Pharm.
How to do preparation:-
Till now we will talk about the general basic information related to NIPER JEE. Now, endures some tips about how to do preparation.
The preparation strategy is the same as that of GPAT Preparation.
Just focus on the core subjects, solve the previous year question papers and solve MCQs as much as possible.
Focus on the hard subject, try to clear doubt and do group studies, make study timetable etc.
This is all basic knowledge about the NIPER JEE entrance examination, all fresher students should know this basic knowledge.
The fungus Blastomyces causes blastomycosis and the fungus can be found in nature, especially in damp soil and decomposing organic materials like wood and leaves. It is found mostly in the midwestern, south-central, and southern regions of the United States, notably in locations near the Ohio and Mississippi River basins, the Great Lakes, and the Saint Lawrence River. The fungus can also be found in Canada, and there have been a few instances of blastomycosis documented in Africa and India.
People can get blastomycosis by inhaling tiny fungus spores in the air, which frequently occurs after engaging in activities that disrupt the soil. Although the majority of individuals who inhale the spores do not become ill, some will have symptoms such as fever and cough. The infection can be serious in certain people, such as those with weaker immune systems, especially if it spreads from the lungs to other organs.
Blastomycosis is characterised by a high fever.
About half of those infected with the fungus Blastomyces will have symptoms. Blastomycosis symptoms are frequently comparable to those of other lung infections, and include the following:
• Night sweats
• Muscle aches or joint pain
• Weight loss
• Chest pain
• Fatigue (extreme tiredness)
Blastomycosis symptoms generally develop 3 weeks to 3 months after a person inhales the fungus spores.
Blastomycosis can spread from the lungs to other parts of the body, including the skin, bones and joints, and the central nervous system, in some people, especially those with weakened immune systems (the brain and spinal cord).
WHO IS AT RISK
Anyone who has been in an area where Blastomyces is present in the environment can acquire blastomycosis. People who engage in outdoor activities in these locations that expose them to forested areas (such as forestry labour, hunting, and camping) may be more susceptible. People with compromised immune systems are more prone than those who are otherwise healthy to acquire severe blastomycosis.
There is no vaccination to prevent blastomycosis, and it may not be feasible to avoid being exposed to the fungus that causes the disease in regions where it is prevalent. People with weaker immune systems should avoid activities in these areas that require disturbing the soil.
Blastomyces is a mould that generates fungal spores that thrives in the environment. The spores are too tiny to see with naked eyes. People and animals who inhale the spores are at danger of contracting blastomycosis. The body temperature permits the spores to convert into yeast when they enter the lungs. The yeast can remain in the lungs or spread to other areas of the body via the circulation, including the skin, bones and joints, organs, and the central nervous system.
Blastomycosis is diagnosed using your medical and travel history, symptoms, physical examinations, and laboratory testing. A doctor will most likely test for blastomycosis by sending a sample of blood or urine to a laboratory.
Imaging studies, such as chest X-Rays or CT scans of your lungs may be performed by your healthcare practitioner. They may also take a sample of fluid from your lungs or perform a tissue biopsy, which involves taking a tiny sample of damaged tissue from your body and examining it under a microscope. Laboratories may also examine it may grow in bodily fluids or tissues (this is called a culture).
The majority of patients with blastomycosis will require antifungal therapy. Itraconazole is an antifungal drug that is commonly used to treat blastomycosis in mild to moderate cases. For severe blastomycosis in the lungs or infections that have spread to other areas of the body, amphotericin B is generally used. Treatment might last anywhere from six months to a year, depending on the severity of the illness and the person’s immunological condition.
Hello everyone, Just spare few minutes in reading this context, for sure you are going to take something with you. Today I chose an interesting topic which is a growing trend in advertising method. Definitely today’s topic will help you, to get to know about video marketing and why it is important. As it is an era of digital marketing, every small to big business people are advertising their commodities through online, which became very common. Generally online advertisements are done either by Posters or by videos. And most of the company will have their own websites. Each and Everyone of us would have come across with various posters in Instagram, Facebook and in their websites. For example:50%off on so and so products, combo offer etc.
Then, what is video marketing/ advertising? In simple terms, video marketing is all about advertising a company’s product through an attractive and beautiful video. Some of the examples are lactocalamine, purple (beauty products), lucious, Spotify, bitcoins etc.. We would have seen these companies, advertising their products through videos, which will pop-up in between the YouTube videos, hotstar and all other applications which are used for watching programs. Video marketing is now even used by various gaming industries and also by matrimonies. For example:Tamil matrimony and such other matrimonies and for games decorate your home, MPL, rummy circle. Com etc. But have we ever thought, why they are advertising through videos. what is the purpose/importance of Video marketing while advertising online ?
Here’s the reason, 1. Videos and pictures are more attractive than words. Currently, most of the skills and lessons are learned by watching videos, because things which we see, will automatically get registered in our mind at times even it convinces us to go for it.
2.If that’s the case video advertisement will attract a huge group of people, irrespective of age difference.
3. Also It Breaks language barriers, as the video does have the capacity of explaining the details by itself .
4. Also, it is an easy way of approaching consumer.
5.Also, it act as a stimuli, it stimulates consumer to go for the product, whether they need that particular product or not, by continuous video advertisement a seller can convince a consumer , as the advertising video pops up nearly 3-4 times while watching a single video, whereas it is not possible with pamphlet, flex and other advertising methods.
6.Also,the seller can easily reach out consumer from all over the world, as the video is uploaded to most commonly used Portals/applications.
7.video marketing is considered as an effective way of advertising also it is a smart way of selling a commodity, as online. shopping becoming trend.
Video marketing is generally done to make consumer to feel easier and comfortable because through videos consumer will come to know most of the availing features of the products, which will convince them for purchasing it. The above points are the reason why video marketing is important in digital marketing.
So, all the budding business people and all growing business tycoons make use of this Video marketing in a beautiful and effective way were you can accomplish your target sooner. But don’t forget to add your own ideas and surprises.
My suggestion, if a seller brings 3D effect in video advertising ,it will help him/her to attract much more consumer. And I am pretty sure that each and every one of us would have purchased at least one product after watching the video Advertisement.
And yes, I am among them.
As everything is getting Digitalised, adopting to innovative digital marketing is necessary.
As we are getting adopted to it, we also want to use it properly and effectively .
Thanks for spending your time in reading this context, hope so it was useful.
Soon will catch you up with another interesting topic.
Child labor refers to the employment of a child in any work. This deprives the children of their childhood. It is physically, socially, mentally harmful to children. The education of children is drastically affected by child labor. Currently, the number of child labor has increased by 8.4 million in the last 4 years. There is a myth that most child laborers are orphans. But the truth is that only 3 out of 1000 are orphans. According to the International Labour Organization, currently, more than 168 million people between 5 and 14 are working. In India, according to the data collected from census 2011, it is estimated that there are about 10.1 million child laborers.
CAUSES OF CHILD LABOUR
PRIMARY CAUSES: The International Labour Organization suggests that poverty is the simplest reason behind child labor. For many poor families, the children have to work to fulfill their basic needs. Income from this child may be low but it contributes between 25 to 40% of the household income.
CULTURAL CAUSES: In European history, certain cultural beliefs have rationalized child labor and therefore encouraged child labor. Some people think that doing work is good for character building and skill development of children. In many cultures, children have to take over their parent’s businesses. Also, in many cultures, the education of girls is valued. They think that there is no need for educating the girl children. And these girls are pushed into child labor such as doing household services.
MACROECONOMIC CAUSES: The growth of poverty and unavailability of good schools lies on the supply side of child labor. The growth of low paying informal economy rather than the higher paying formal economy is the cause for the demand side of child labor. Other scholars suggest that the size of the informal economy, inflexible labor market, and lack of modern manufacturing techniques are some of the macroeconomic causes for child labor.
SOME ACTS THAT PROHIBITS THE CHILD LABOUR:
The Factories Act of 1984: This act prohibits the working of children below the age of 14 years in any factories. The law also includes rules that how long pre-adults aged 15 to 18 years to be employed in any factory.
The Mines Act of 1952: This act prohibits children under 18 years working in the mine.
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act of 1986: This law prohibits the working of children (under 14 years) in hazardous places listed by the law.
The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act of 2000: This law states that anyone who employs children in hazardous places will be punishable with prison term.
The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of2009: The law provides mandatory education to all children aged between 6 to 14 years. This law also states that 25% of seats in every primary school must be allocated to children from disadvantaged groups and physically challenged children.
In addition to this, many Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, CARE India, Child Rights, and You, RIDE India are working to eradicate child labor in India.
Despite these laws and prohibition acts in India, there are still millions of children are employed in homes, roadside restaurants, and factories across the country. Every year June 12 is observed as the anti-child labor day. As the citizens of India, we all should be united to eradicate child labor in our country. Donate funds to the NGOs and make awareness programs in rural areas. Start some small campaigns against child labor. Child labor can be eradicated if government performs effectively with public support.
Sci-fi is perhaps one of the coolest literary genre, that is widely read. Scientific fiction encompasses the vast abyss of human imagination that manifests itself in an astounding blend of creativity and literature. Sci-fi stories have a wide variety of themes, they can be based on absolute facts or be a figment of someone’s imagination as well. Fictitious sci-fi stories can include aliens, a world based in space, time travel, strange inventions and weird creatures as well.
Sci-fi might be hard or soft. Hard sci-fi is based on the real world with less novel elements. Soft sci-fi, however, includes far fetched scientific technology.
Sci-fi requires ingenuity on part of writers and proper assimilation of the readers part. Sci-fi is probably one of the most interesting of the genera of the great literary canyon.
Curated below is a list of 4 interesting Sci-fi books that you can check out.
1. The Time Machine
H.G Wells, renowned as ‘The Father of Sci-fi’, wrote ‘The Time Machine’, in 1895. In this extremely enthralling book, the protagonist goes on a time safari 800,000 years beyond his time. He is transported to an era of devastation and utter destruction of Earth, there he discovers two strange races ,the ethereal Eloi and the subterranean Morlocks that manifest the terrifying future occupants of the planet and describe the dying humane in humanity.
An absolutely enthralling read, that has gripped readers throughout years.
2. Snow Crash
Neal Stephenson’s, ‘Snow Crash’, is a riveting book that describes the parallel life of Hiro Protagonist in the real world and the Metaverse. Delivering pizzas for Uncle Enzo’s CosoNostra Pizza Inc. in the ordinary world, a warrior prince in the Metaverse. The story takes pace as he crusades through a volley of mysterious computer viruses. He strives to prevent utter destruction by bringing down the ultimate virtual villains.
The story meanders through technical know how of computers and is an absolutely thrilling read.
3. To Sleep in a Sea of Stars
Christopher Paolini’s, ‘ To Sleep in a Sea of Stars ‘, revolves around Kira Navárez, who dreams of life beyond the scape of Earth, in new unchartered worlds. When during a survey mission on a planet, Kira stumbles across an alien relic, although thrilled at first, Kira soon comes to dread her discovery as the ancient relic begins to move around her.
With Earth in great jeopardy and a war brimming amongst the stars, Kira experiences a life altering journey. With her being the ultimate hope, Kira must brave against all odds and delve into the expanse of the universe to bring about order.
Marissa Meyer’s, ‘Cinder’, is a riveting tale of a girl Lihn Cinder, a mechanic in New Beijing, the capital of the Eastern Commonwealth, s, who is a cyborg i.e. she is half mechanical, has prosthetic limbs and a complex wiring of internal organs. New Beijing is a place that faces consistent scourge of plagues. In this retelling of Cinderella, humans and androids coexist. When the heir to the throne of the Commonwealth, Prince Kai requires Kai’s help to fix his android, their lives take a thrilling turn. With her mysterious past and a strange Lunar people waiting for ambush from the space, Cinder must traverse through several trials to save the fate of her people and perhaps even the entire world.
In the atmosphere, gases such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, and methane act like the glass roof of a greenhouse by trapping heat and warming the planet. These gases are called greenhouse gases. The natural levels of these gases are being supplemented by emissions resulting from human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels, farming activities and land-use changes. As a result, the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere are warming, and this rise in temperature is accompanied by many other changes.Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate.
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group I (WGI) Fourth Assessment Report, from 1850 to 2005, the average global temperature increased by about 0.76ºC and global mean sea level rose by 12 to 22 cm during the last century. These changes are affecting the entire world, from low-lying islands in the tropics to the vast polar regions.Climate change predictions are not encouraging; according to the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report, a further increase in temperatures of 1.4°C to 5.8°C by 2100 is projected. Predicted impacts associated with such temperature increase include: a further rise in global mean sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, and more people at risk from dangerous “vector-borne diseases” such as malaria.
Vulnerability of biodiversity to the impacts of climate change
The present global biota has been affected by fluctuating Pleistocene (last 1.8 million years) concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, temperature, precipitation, and has coped through evolutionary changes, and the adoption of natural adaptive strategies. Such climate changes, however, occurred over an extended period of time in a landscape that was not as fragmented as it is today and with little or no additional pressure from human activities. Habitat fragmentation has confined many species to relatively small areas within their previous ranges, resulting in reduced genetic variability. Warming beyond the ceiling of temperatures reached during the Pleistocene will stress ecosystems and their biodiversity far beyond the levels imposed by the global climatic change that occurred in the recent evolutionary past.Current rates and magnitude of species extinction far exceed normal background rates. Human activities have already resulted in the loss of biodiversity and thus may have affected goods and services crucial for human well-being. The rate and magnitude of climate change induced by increased greenhouse gases emissions has and will continue to affect biodiversity either directly or in combination with other drivers of change.
Links between biodiversity and climate change
There is ample evidence that climate change affects biodiversity. According to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, climate change is likely to become one of the most significant drivers of biodiversity loss by the end of the century. Climate change is already forcing biodiversity to adapt either through shifting habitat, changing life cycles, or the development of new physical traits.Conserving natural terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems and restoring degraded ecosystems (including their genetic and species diversity) is essential for the overall goals of both the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change because ecosystems play a key role in the global carbon cycle and in adapting to climate change, while also providing a wide range of ecosystem services that are essential for human well-being and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.Biodiversity can support efforts to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Conserved or restored habitats can remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus helping to address climate change by storing carbon (for example, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Moreover, conserving in-tact ecosystems, such as mangroves, for example, can help reduce the disastrous impacts of climate change such as flooding and storm surges.
Ecosystem-based adaptation, which integrates the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall adaptation strategy, can be cost-effective and generate social, economic and cultural co-benefits and contribute to the conservation of biodiversity.Conservation and management strategies that maintain and restore biodiversity can be expected to reduce some of the negative impacts from climate change; however, there are rates and magnitude of climate change for which natural adaptation will become increasingly difficult. Options to increase the adaptive capacity of species and ecosystems in the face of accelerating climate change include:
Reducing non-climatic stresses, such as pollution, over-exploitation, habitat loss and fragmentation and invasive alien species.
Wider adoption of conservation and sustainable use practices including through the strengthening of protected area networks.
Facilitating adaptive management through strengthening monitoring and evaluation systems.
Ecosystem-based adaptation uses biodiversity and ecosystem services in an overall adaptation strategy. It includes the sustainable management, conservation and restoration of ecosystems to provide services that help people adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. Examples of ecosystem-based adaptation activities include:
Coastal defence through the maintenance and/or restoration of mangroves and other coastal wetlands to reduce coastal flooding and coastal erosion.
Sustainable management of upland wetlands and floodplains for maintenance of water flow and quality.
Conservation and restoration of forests to stabilize land slopes and regulate water flows.
Establishment of diverse agroforestry systems to cope with increased risk from changed climatic conditions.
Conservation of agrobiodiversity to provide specific gene pools for crop and livestock adaptation to climate change