Olympics As a Social Force

The Ancient Olympic Games, an athletic festival was originated in ancient Greece and was revived in the late 19th century. The Olympics Games were held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece until they were abolished in the early Christian era. The revival of the Olympic Games took place in 1896, and since then they have been held every fourth year (except during World War I and World War II

The Modern Olympic Games were held in Athens, Greece, in 1896. The credit to start the modern Olympic games goes to Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France. Having studied political science, he came to know about national and international problems. He thought national and international problems can be easily solved through the Olympic games. It was Coubertin’s imagination to restart the ancient Olympic games at the world level. After many endeavors, Coubertin succeeded in enlisting worldwide support, and the first modern Olympics games were held in Athens in 1896.

In 1896, Athens Olympic games, only nine countries participated in the first modern Olympic games. The number gradually increased and in 1972, Munich Olympic games 122 countries participated.

The Olympic motto was coined by a French educator Father Didon in 1895. It is compromises of three Latin words – Citius, Altius, Fortius which means Faster, Higher, Stronger respectively.

The Olympic flag was created in 1913 at the suggestion of Baron Pierre de Coubertin. The Olympic flag is made of white silk and contains five interlocking rings in five colors representing five continents of the world – America, Europe, Australia, Asia, and Africa. The interlocking of the rings symbolizes cooperation and friendship.

Olympics act as a social force in achieving international brotherhood, fraternity, peace, and solidarity. Olympics provide a broad platform for attaining these values. 

Olympic provides the platform for the development of the following values 

  • Free from discrimination

The most important objective of the Olympic games is that there is no discrimination based on caste, race, and religion. Though exceptions are always there. The racial difference was seen during the 1936 Berlin Olympics when Adolf Hilter refused to honor Jasse Owens who got four gold medals in that Olympics.

  • Fair play

Rules and regulations should be applied fairly to each team. But in fact, there is a gap between the words and actions of the officials. Nowadays every team wants to win by hook or crook. The slogan like “stay out for sports and stay out of courts” and “live by code or get out” have become useless as these are not found in practice. Therefore, it can be said that the Olympic games in this respect are not so successful as they should have been.

  • International Friendship and Solidarity

Olympic games provide many opportunities to develop international friendships not only among the participants but among the nation also. It also provides ample opportunity to enhance the feeling of brotherhood and unity among various nations.

  • Harmony

During Olympic games, the various teams belong to different religions, colors, castes, and social backgrounds but even then the harmony is developed between them. They don’t have any ill-will or malice. They believe in the following Olympic deals : 

“The important thing in Olympic is not to win, but to take part; The important thing in life is not the triumph, but to struggle; The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well”.

Benefits of Game Based Learning

Game-based learning, as the name suggests, is gameplay with defined learning goals, and designed to present subject matter in the form of a game to help learners understand the concepts. Often in a simulated environment and gain experience of their applications in a virtual environment before using them in the real world.

1. Development of  “Soft” Skills

Non-digital gaming develops valuable soft skills. Soft skills can be defined as people skills and management skills, a group of personality traits that can include social graces, communication, language skills, habits, empathy, time management, teamwork and leadership. They may also include other traits such as a growth mindset, self-awareness, and resilience. Participating in a card game allows players to develop these soft skills in a safe and nurturing environment. Players work as a team, practice oral communication skills, and learn to disagree, strategize, build consensus, and achieve a goal. 

2. Game-Based Learning Stimulates the Imagination

Game-based learning allows learners and instructors to visualize 3D models in real-time and at scale. This helps to make learning more contextual, more real and therefore more enjoyable and relevant to the learners. A virtually enhanced world encourages the learners to use their imagination and discover new possibilities in a fun and interactive way. Interactive learning facilitates deep learning, increasing the possibility of retaining information for a longer time.

3. Helps With Fast Strategic Thinking & Problem-Solving

Most games require children to think quickly. Moreover, they have to utilize their logic in order to think three steps ahead in order to solve problems and complete levels. This is great because it is something which helps children in later life as they develop their logic, their accuracy and their ability to think on their feet and outside of the box.

4. Sharpens Memory

Learning concepts through visuals leads to better retention power and sharpens the minds of kids. Visual Learning leads to a decrease in learning time, improves retrieval of information that leads to faster concept grabbing for students.

5. Allows students to judge their own potential in a wider peer group

In game-based learning which is implemented amongst a vast audience, the students can understand where they stand among their peers from all over the world. Learners can challenge other learners on various subjects and topics, thus understanding their potential level as compared to other people from their own school, country or around the world.


The aim of an educational institution should be all-round development of learners, and gaming is an important means of attaining that.



Famous places in Chennai

#. 1.Marina Beach:

Beaches in Chennai along the bay of bengal coast, it happens to be the longest Beach in India and one of the largest in the world.

#.2. Valluvar kottam:

those of you who love literature must have heard or read about the famous tamil poet and saint, Thiruvalluvar.

For the uninformed, thiruvalluvar is hailed as one of the greatest tamil scholars.

#.3. Thousands lights mosque:

It is believed that in olden times, about 1000times were required to light up the Hall of this mosque which is why it has been named as the thousands light mosque.

#.4. Dakshinachitra :

A quick trip to 4states under the same roof? Yes please if you are looking for places to visit in chennai with family,then this is the right pick as your children will learn a lot about sounth India here.

#.5.. Government museum:

This place is known for preserving some of the best ancient and modern South Indian bronzes. This place is known for preserving some of the best ancient and modern South Indian bronzes.


want to soak in the rich and colourful culture of Chennai? Head to mylapore which is regarded as the culture hub of Chennai, boasting a history going back 1500yrs.

#.7. Guindy national parks.

feelings a little adventurous? How about visiting a national park? Home to over 300kinds of trees and plants, 150bird species and 15species of mammals

#.8. Sri parthasarathy temple:

dedicated to Lord vishnu incarnation, Lord krisha, parthasarathy temple was built in the 8th century.

Location: narayana krishnaraja puram

#.9. Royapuram fishing harbour.:

A fishing harbour might not sounds too appealing but watching the fishermen bring freshly caught fish makes fir a sight to behold.

#.10.central Station:

biggest economic and education centres of South India, Chennai has become one of the top places for it firms and many other businesses to flourish.

Secret of being and making others happy

Life is a beautiful journey were nothing is certain every day, every hour, every minute and every second is precious. You never know what the next moment brings, so instead of wasting our life in getting wild or being sad, it would be best to enjoy every moment . So how can a person always be happy? Because life has a another name that is problems. This is the general question ,every person has in mind. But if every single person change their perspective of seeing their problems, then there might be a chance of getting a solution. Basically if we see a problem as a problem, then that problem will always be like a problem. It sounds weird right , but if we see the problem as a new adventure of life and start dealing with it like playing a game , then that problem can also be solved and make us happy . So in short you don’t always need a person or reason to be happy ,you just need the guts and belief to create that moment. As I said,”Life is a one time go ,once the time flew away it wont be back”.So live your life to the fullest . Set amazing and adventurous goal ,Don’t just fret over the past, Instead of being greedy, start giving more. Forgive people, forget trash memories and recall happy moments. Give up your best in perfection, Enjoy every simple moments and things. Be practical and socialize, just free your heart from hatred and spend some time with your family. Be your own care taker. Pray and meditate, expect less, whenever you feel low, just take a deep breath and believe in yourself. Embrace simplicity, be humble and kind. Be grateful ,do random acts of kindness. If you think you are not lucky enough to be happy, just visit an orphanage or old age home spend some time there you will eventually feel blessed and happy . The secret of being happy ,is just accepting where you are in life and making others happy.



The need for partnership form of organization arose from the limitations of sole proprietor.

In sole proprietorship, financial resources and managerial skills are limited.

partner, firm, firm name:

person who enter into partnership are individually called ‘partnered ans collectively called ‘a form and the name under which the business is carried on is called “firm name’.

features of partnership:

  1. Agreement
  2. Multiplicity of person
  3. Sharing of profits
  4. Agency relationship
  5. Lawful business
  6. Contractual relationship
  7. Unlimited liability
  8. joint and several liability
  9. No separate legal entity
  10. Implied agency.

Types of partnership firm:

1.general partnership-( partnership-at-will

Particular Partnership

Joint venture).

A partnership in which the liability of all the partners is unlimited is known as unlimited partnership.

2.limited partnership:

A partnership in which the liability of the partners is limited is called limited partnership.

Duties of parnters.

*. Absolute duties

*. Qualified duties.

kinds of parnters:

*managerial interst: divided into

active parnters

sleeping partner

*Profits sharing: divided into

nominal parnters

parnters in profits only

*behavior:divided into

parnters by estoppel

parnters by holding out

secret parnters

*status: divided into

minor parnters

sun parnters.

Advantage and disadvantages of partners:

partnership deed:

a partnership firm can be formed through an agreement among two or more person. In India this agreement may be oral or in writing.

5 Animated Movies for All Age Groups

 Animated movies are generally considered to be made for children. While it is true that originally animated movies and their plots were created to cater to children, this has changed with time. Animation studios decided to make more movies with plots which would appeal to older audiences as well and be enjoyable for them.

5 animated movies which everyone can enjoy regardless of age are:



Tangled is based on the story of Rapunzel, but with a big twist. The story follows Rapunzel, a young lady who lives in a secluded tower, constantly dreaming of exploring the world beyond, but forbidden from doing so by her mother. When her mother leaves on a week-long journey, a thief, Flynn Rider breaks into the home while escaping palace guards with treasure. In return for his stolen treasure, she enlists his help to navigate the outside world and show her the mysterious lights which always appear on her birthday.



The premise of Coco is based on the Mexican holiday of the Day of the Dead. The story follows Miguel, a young boy who dreams of being a musician despite music being banned in his family. On the eve of the holiday, Miguel gets transported to the Land of the Dead. To return to the Land of the Living, Miguel sets out on a journey to search for his deceased great-great-grandfather, a musician, and also help lift the family ban on music. Coco was praised for having an all-Latino principle cast and has won multiple awards and accolades.

The Polar Express

The Polar Express

Now considered a classic, The Polar Express is a beautiful story of belief. The story follows the adventure of a young boy, who does not believe in Santa, on the night of Christmas Eve. As he goes to bed, he notices a mysterious train outside his home. Learning that it is called the Polar Express, he then decides to get aboard it as it travels to the North Pole towards Santa and the elves. The movie was made through live-action motion capture of actors. According to the Guiness World Records, The Polar Express is the world’s first all-digital capture movie.



Frozen is one of the most iconic animated movies to be released in the recent years. It is loosely based on the story ‘The Snow Queen’ by famous fantasy writer Hans Christian Anderson. It is centered around two sisters- Elsa and Anna. At a young age, Elsa is born with snow-based powers she has difficulty controlling. An argument with Anna causes her to lose control of her powers. Scared, she flees, accidently setting off an eternal winter in their kingdom. Anna, along with an iceman Kristoff, his reindeer Sven and a snowman Olaf set out on a journey to find Elsa and stop the winter.

Toy Story 3

Toy Story 3

Toy Story 3 is the third movie in the Toy Story movie franchise. The story is set a few days before Andy, the owner of the toys leaves for college. However, the toys accidently get moved to a day-care centre rather than the attic of Andy’s house. At its core, Toy Story 3 is a simple narration of moving on and learning to say goodbye.


Have you ever wondered why are birthday cakes round in shape and not rectangular , triangular or any other shape? And how and who came up with the idea of cutting cakes on your birthday ? It is believed that cakes originated in Germany in the 15th century at the festival of kinderfest , and the time period before that cakes were only used for weddings , not birthdays.

Photo by Marina Utrabo on Pexels.com

Cakes could only be afforded by the wealthy before the industrial revolution and hence was a symbol of luxury . Tracing our steps back to ancient Greece , we can discover more about the history of cakes . Artemis , the Greek Goddess of Moon and the hunt was very much adored and respected . It is believed that people brought cakes in the temple of Goddess Artemis . The cake was round in shape as it represented the shape of the moon , and the candles that were placed on the cake represented the glow of the moon , and the smoke from the candles would carry wishes of the people up to the sky , where the Gods resided. That is why people are asked to make a wish !

Greeks were the first to put candles on cakes .The Egyptians are the ones who started the ‘birthday’ tradition . Ancient Egyptians believed that when Pharaohs were crowned , they became Gods . Hence their coronation day was their ‘birth’ day . Now that’s quite a story behind birthday and cakes !!! There is always a rich and intriguing history behind the most ordinary things , and that is bewildering !



In today’s world, many organizations use the network to store, gather and share information. As more data is gathered and stored, the protection of this information is significant. To protect these data, the field of cybersecurity is introduced. Cybersecurity is a practice of protecting your computers, mobile phones, servers, data, and other electronic devices from malicious attacks. On a personal level, you have to protect your identity, data, and computer devices. At the industrial level, it is everyone’s responsibility to protect their organization’s data. In the modern world, protecting our data and privacy is really important. This field provides a wide range of opportunities due to the increasing reliance on computers and the internet. Cybersecurity can also be called network security, information security, and information technology security. Any information about you can be considered as data. It may be educational, medical, employment, and financial data. Sometimes the data which you stored in your computing device can be profitable to others. By hacking your device, they get access to your data and they may threaten you. So it’s your responsibility to be aware of the cyber world.


The three main principles of cybersecurity are confidentiality, integrity, and availability. (CIA Triad). This provides the guidelines for data security for an organization.


Confidentiality ensures the privacy of data by restricting unauthorized access to the data. So, the term confidentiality can also be termed as privacy. An organization’s policies should restrict the access to data only to the authorized person and ensure that the data is only viewed by those authorized individuals. For example, a Java programmer in a company should not have access to view the personal details of other employees in that company. In addition to this, an organization has to make sure that proper training is given to the employees to protect themselves and company from the cyber-attacks. Some of the methods to ensure confidentiality is data encryption, create strong passwords (a word containing uppercase and lowercase letters, special symbols, and digits with a minimum of 8 characters), multifactor authentication, and be aware of fraudulent emails.


 Integrity ensures the accuracy, consistency, and trustworthiness of the data. Data integrity can also be referred to as data quality. Data undergoes varieties of stages include storage, retrieval, update, and transfer. During these states, data must remain unaltered. The need for data integrity varies among different organizations. For instance, Instagram does not verify its user profiles whereas in the bank and financial sectors data integrity is indispensable, and in the medical field it is the matter of life and death. Loss of data integrity may cause severe problems to the organization. So it is important to ensure data integrity. Data integrity can be compromised by human error (input), transferring from one device to another device, or by any cyber-attacks. Data integrity can be verified using a checksum. It verifies the strings of characters in a file after they have been transferred from one device to another device.


Availability is the principle that explains the availability of data at the point when users needed. Proper mitigation plans should be done in case of sudden attacks to recover from it quickly as possible. The denial-of-service (DoS attacks) can threaten system availability. An organization can ensure its availability of data by proper maintenance of equipment, keeping the software and operating system up to date, mitigation plans, new technological implementations and performing hardware repairs, and keeping backups of data.

The Art of doing one thing at a time

The fundamental effect of being focused

This image here speaks a thousand words with making any noise. It’s a fundamental concept with equally difficult mindset to create. We all understand it but find it extraordinarily hard to follow it.

We can achieve almost anything in life…As long as we focus on achieving one thing at a time. It’s a time-tested strategy that’s been shared by many successful people.

But don’t let the simplicity of this idea fool you. It’s one of the hardest things to implement in your life.

That’s because we, human beings, are fickle. Our desires are constantly changing. We pursue new things before we finish our old goals.

We’re dealing with an invisible force that is always trying to confuse us. Instead of focusing on one thing at a time, we set multiple goals, and think we can multitask ourselves to achieving them.

There’s a discrepancy between what we know ( to focus on one thing at a time) and what we do (focusing on everything at the same time).

One Thing per Area of Life

There are various field’s in everybody’s life i.e. career, relationships, education etc. Focus on one thing at a time.

Do not aspire to be the top of your class while creating the perfect body and learning all the skills at the same time. This only creates more confusion and frustration because you won’t be complete even one them.

A simple outcome of the above situation is, suppose you are tired from the class and you decided to give up on going to the gym. You tell yourself it’s just for today. But that’s the division we make of our energy which results in inefficiency to reach out target. This demotivates a person to the length we fail to forsee.

So yes, you can achieve a lot of things…But just not at the same time.

Manage Your Desires

The natural thing to do for most people is to start setting goals or picking one priority they want to focus on. But unless you have trained your mind to focus on one thing, it’s not a smart thing to do.

You must improve your focus muscle first. Otherwise, you set a goal, focus on one thing, and get back to your old behavior within a week.

You want to change your mindset. Go from “I want everything” to “I appreciate what I have.”

All this doesn’t mean we shouldn’t desire to improve our lives. On the contrary, the whole purpose of life is to move forward.

So don’t be afraid to set goals and aim for great things. Just achieve one thing after the other.

Practice Single-Tasking

Now, it’s time to practice. For the next week, only do ONE thing at a time. If you’re a modern human being that is used to technology, that will be very hard. But I guess you like the challenge, otherwise you wouldn’t be reading this.

This is also called being present. Just be less distracted. That’s all. And you can practice with anything by doing only one thing.

Time To Set one Goal Per Area

Only after you have controlled your desires and practiced doing one thing at a time are you ready to apply the “One Thing” strategy to your life.

The reason you want to practice is that life is long. If you take the time to become less distracted by desires, the more reliable you will become.

You will become a person who does what they say. You will become a person who achieves what they set out. And after you start achieving one thing after the other, you will get momentum. Your job is to keep the momentum.

This is how people become happy and wealthy. Both those things add up over time.

Remember to keep the bigger picture in mind. You WILL achieve all your goals. Who cares whether you achieve them now or in the future? What matters is that you are not influenced by desire or outside forces. You are the maker of your own life.




Keep smiling

Hi gorgeous,
Today I came up with an interesting & important topic “PEACE OF MIND”.
But, what does it mean?
Peace of mind is a state where you are free from worries and you stay calm. It is a state where you smile from your heart.

Let me tell a story:
There once was a King who offered a prize to the artist who would paint the best picture of peace. Many artists tried. The King looked at all the pictures, but there were only two he really liked and he had to choose between them. One picture was of a calm lake. The lake was a perfect mirror, for peaceful towering mountains were all around it. Overhead was a blue sky with fluffy white clouds. All who saw this picture thought that it was a perfect picture of peace. The other picture had mountains, too. But these were rugged and bare. Above was an angry sky from which rain fell and in which lightening played. Down the side of the mountain tumbled a foaming waterfall. This did not look peaceful at all. But when the King looked, he saw behind the waterfall a tiny bush growing in a crack in the rock. In the bush a mother bird had built her nest. There, in the midst of the rush of angry water, sat the mother bird on her nest in perfect peace. Which picture do you think won the prize? The King chose the second picture. Do you know why? ‘Because’ explained the King, ‘peace does not mean to be in a place where there is no noise, trouble, or hard work. Peace means to be in the midst of all those things and still be calm in your heart. That is the real meaning of peace.
The above story made us to realize what peace really means. Many of us, are really searching peace outside. But actually our peace of mind is in our hands, i.e., in our mindset & perception.
*Have we ever tried to be free without any thoughts?
*Have we ever felt satisfied with the things and stuffs we posses? No, we don’t.
Yes, we all have ‘n’ no.of. commitments, responsibilities. With our busy schedules, we are running to accomplish our tasks and commitments.
*Have we ever took time to enjoy the present moment?
Many of us are running in a fast forward mode, where we are losing our peace of mind, a good relationship, our health, enjoyment and so on.
-Achieving our goal is important.
– Earning and saving is important.
– Fulfilling family needs are important.
After all LIVING WITH PEACE OF MIND IS MORE IMPORTANT. Staying happy and smiling from your heart is more important.
*Take time to appreciate yourself.
*Take A moment to see the good in all
*Take time to enjoy your present moment.
Never ever say that ‘because of that person I lost my peace of mind‘. Make sure that no one spoils/disturbs your peace of mind. You have to be the only reason for your peace of mind. My dad always used to tell me that “Never ever give your KEY OF HAPPINESS in the hands of others, that key has to be in your hands”.
But many of us are failing to hold our key of happiness with us. Try to hold it tightly
In order to stay peacefully let us stop expecting, though it’s human nature to expect, let us try to stop our expectations. Come on everyone, from now on let us enjoy everything that comes in our way. Let’s accept all kinds of situations, let us start to say” I AM SATISFIED WITH WHAT I HAVE”.
At the end of the day,it is your decision, whether you gonna live with peace of mind or you gonna live a suffocated life.
The choice is left to you.
Think twice before you make any decision.
Do remember “The moment when you smile from your heart, is the moment where you are really living your life peacefully”.
And I do feel very happy for all those people who are smiling from their heart.
All the best.
Have a peaceful day.

The link for the above story:

Hiroshima Day – 6 August

Hiroshima Day is seen on August 6 consistently to bring issues to light of the heart-breaking impacts of the nuclear bomb and the need to advance “harmony legislative issues” among countries. The day is a token of the besieging assault on Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States during World War II in 1945, which annihilated practically 90% of the city and killed a great many individuals.

The bombings on the two Japanese urban communities were the first occasion when that a nuclear bomb was utilized for external testing. No atomic weapon has at any point been utilized against an objective from that point forward. After Germany’s acquiescence to the Allied powers in May 1945, the Second World War proceeded in Asia as the Allies battled royal Japan.

The United States accepted that the utilization of an atomic bomb would constrain Japan to yield and save a huge number of US setbacks. The US made two nuclear bombs through the Manhattan Project, a program for creating atomic weapons. The main bomb called ‘Little Boy’, was to be dropped on Hiroshima, and the subsequent one, called ‘Fat Man’, was to be dropped on Nagasaki.

On the morning of August 6, 1945, an American B-29 aircraft dropped ‘Little Boy,’ on Hiroshima city killing about 80,000 individuals right away. Nearly 1,000 others passed because of radiations of the bomb. Following three days, on August 9, another B-29 dropped ‘Fat Man’ on Nagasaki killing another 40,000 individuals. The bombings denoted the finish of World War II as six days after the blast over Nagasaki, on August 15 Japan had to respect the Allied Powers.

As per authorities, the choice to utilize atomic weapons against Japan was made get-togethers examination uncovered that a far more noteworthy number of individuals would have kicked the bucket in case Japan was attacked by Allied powers.

Why was Hiroshima targeted?

The city was designated in light of the fact that it held vital staff and establishments. Hiroshima was the base camp of the second General Army and fifth Division with 40,000 Japanese soldiers posted inside as far as possible. Numerous different urban areas were picked for comparative reasons, in any case, some were dismissed because of terrible climate.

As per sources, around 54% of the passings in Hiroshima were soldiers and slave workers while 72% of the passings in Nagasaki were war industry representatives and slave workers. Japan’s nerve-racking experience during the Second World War prompted the appropriation of the three Non-Nuclear Principles which expressed that the nation would not make or attempt to organize atomic weapons later on. During the yearly Hiroshima commemoration, the public authority reconfirms its obligation to an atomic free world.

To stop such nuclear bomb attacks treaties banning use of nuclear weapons are enforced among the nations which prohibits testing of nuclear bombs and It’s a good initiative to promote peace among the nations.

On 6th August 2021, let us remember the sacrifices of this great East Asian nation in pulling out its people from starvation, misery and international humiliation to world-leaders in technology, manufacturing and transportation.

Marketing strategy

A marketing strategy refers to a business’s overall game plan for reaching prospective consumers and turning them into customers of their products or services. A marketing strategy contains the company’s value proposition, key brand messaging, data on target customer demographics, and other high-level elements.

Indian Farmers Struggle

India’s history tells right about its agricultural efficiency, excellent climatic conditions, and natural-resource availability. India (that utilises extensive parts of its land for cultivation of wheat, rice, cotton) is also a leading producer of spices, pulses, and milk in the international market.

In a nutshell, India is an influential agricultural powerhouse worldwide, having farmers and all related workers as its backbone. Like many other sectors, the agricultural landscape also faces decades-long problems and unexpected challenges that are crucial to rectify. Let’s discuss some of the main issues farmers face in India and the best possible solutions.

Main Problems often faced by Indian Farmers

1. Insufficient Water Supplywater shortage

Water availability in India is more than sufficient to irrigate all cultivation areas; the problem is that we still have to find cheap and suitable solutions to utilise such enormous water supplies. Due to several reasons, farmers either don’t receive the appropriate amount of water or don’t get the supply on time; many farmers rely on rainwater for irrigation

2. Less Use of Modern Farming Equipment

In most areas, to date, farmers follow primitive cultivation methods; traditionally-used plough and relevant native accessories continue to be farmers’ preference. Despite no shortage of efficient equipment and machinery, there’s very little use of modern equipment, majorly because most farmers don’t have lands huge enough to use advanced instruments, heavy machinery.

3. Over Dependence on Traditional Crops

Indian farmers are growing rice and wheat for centuries now in several regions. The excessive production of the two grains, many times lead to the storage, sale problems and shortage of other farm products.“India is heading toward a fourth record wheat harvest and near-record rice production for 2020-21” – the US Department of Agriculture. SourceMany farmers depending upon only these traditional crops indicates a lack of an effective, nation-wide agriculture plan.

4. Poor Storage Facilities

In rural areas, storage facilities are either insufficient or completely absent. In such a situation, farmers usually have no other option than selling their produce immediately once it’s ready, at market prices that are often very low. They are far away from a legitimate income.

5. Transportation Problems

Lack of cheap, efficient means of transportation is a big problem widely seen in the Indian agriculture sector; small farmers still rely on bullock-carts for transporting their produce. Moreover, lakhs of villages are connected with highways and market centres with temporary (kutcha) roads that become muddy and useless in rains. Consequently, farmers cannot deliver their produce to the central market and helplessly sell it in the local market at low costs.

The farmer is the only man in our economy who buys everything at retail, sells everything at wholesale, and pays the freight both ways.



advertising us a promotional activity for marketing a commodity.

In the present day world of mass production and distribution, advertising serves as a powerful tool in the marketing machinery.

Advertising means a Non-personal stimulate of demand for a product. It is activity through which visual or moral message are addressed to the general public.

objectives of advertisement:

  1. To make an immediate sale
  2. To build primary demand
  3. To develop overseas markets
  4. To built overall company image
  5. To increase market share
  6. To introduce a price deal
  7. To inform about a products availability
  8. To build salesman by creating an awareness of a products among retailers
  9. To help salesman by creating an awareness of a products among retailers.
  10. To increase the number or quality of retail outlets.


BENEFITS TO MANUFACTURERS: it helps easy I introduction of products In the markets.

BENEFITS TO WHOLESALERS AND RETAILERS: it helps quick sale of the products and increase the turnover. Thus, there is no question of old stocks. It reduced the expenses on overhead chargers.

BENEFITS TO CONSUMER: advertising gives information about the prices and quality if a commodity . It guides a consumer to choose the products.

BENEFITS OF SALESMAN: advertising creates a background for a product among the consumer.

demerits of advertising:

  1. Economic objections
  2. Social objections
  3. Ethical objections

Some example of advertising:

Ex. 2

How to choose a course ?

We all have similar question like how to choose a course after completing our Schooling. Our school teach us how to behave, how to be discipline, and lot and lots more. And definitely they also teach and advice us in our higher education how to choose a right course according to our groups.

These are the general things what we have been seen and crossed away


  • First we have to find the right path.
  • Have a clear mind to choose.
  • plan to be the best.
  • listen the words of Expreanced person.
  • observe all the things.
  • Don’t hesitate to ask questions.
  • Remember all the things which you gathered.


Consider your interests.

Think about your interests

Discuss your career goals.

Discuss your career aspirations.

And talk about how the course aligns with your career goals.

Highlight your strengths.

Focus on positive reasons.

Be enthusiastic.


Course selection is also important because it can help students focus their interests and learn more about a field they’re interested in studying in college. … It’s important to be focused when applying to college, and course selection can factor into that.


when you step into choose a new courses there might be plenty of clarification. Your senior may suggest you to do this and parents might suggest a another one. So in this case you definitely feel stagger and confused.

To ignore that, you have to cary your clear visibility mind and you must have to consider what you have been studied in schooling whether your courses are connected with that.

And finally make your own decision with comparing yourself what you are capable. And you should plan before you entre.


Before entering into higher studies you should know the scopes.

Do you know what is scope ?

  • 1.The extent of the area or subject matter that something deals with or to which it is relevant.

2. The opportunity or possibility to do or deal with something.

SCOPE is nothing, but where we find the more opportunity by learning one thing. This is most important for choosing a course. Because your course is going to help you finally to get a job. Of course you have to score but apart from that your knowledge only going to speak at every place.

Some people learn all the things but, they does not know how to exploit. Don’t be the part of this.

After entering into the right path also you should utilise everything. Everyday thing what you are doing and what we learnt.


Course Content.

Before selecting a course of your choice, research about the content in the course modules.

Graduate Employment Rate.

It is vital that you take a marketable course.

Your Commitment.



Your Academic Performance.


Your Values.

Think about your existing experience and skill set. Consider prospective careers and employment opportunities.Think about what subjects interest you.Talk to your employer, colleagues or peers about which courses are relevant and may improve your career.


Bright your future by selecting the right one. Have a clarity in your mind then get started by carrying all the above points….

Famous temple Tirupati

venkateswara temple is a hindu temple situated in the hill town of thirumala at tirupati in chittoor district of andhra pradesh, India.


the temple is constructed in tamil architecture. The 1st temple at thirumala tirupati was built by tamil king thondaiman, tamil ruler of the ancient thondaimandalam.

the first recorded endowment was made by pallava queen samavai in the year 966CE.she donate many jewelry and two parcels of land and ordered to use the revenues generated from that land to be used for the celebration of major festival in the temple

the pallava dynasty (9th century), the chola dynasty (20th century), vijayangara pradhans(14th century) &15th century) were committed devotees of venkateswara.

he is said to have built the original gopuram and the prakhara in the 8th century.

it is the richest temple in the world in terms of donation received and wealth.

thirupathi hills history”:

  1. temple is dedicated to venkateswara, a firm of vishnu,who is beloved to have appeared here to save mankind from trails and troubles of kali yuga.
  2. Thirumala hills are part of the seshachalam hills range.
  3. The hills are 853mrts above sea level.
  4. The hills compromise seven peaks, representing the 7heads of adisesha.
This rock structure is a natural formation of Lord venkateswara swamy shape.

5.venkateswara Swamy face on thirumala hills, from distant far from tirupati, one can view venkateswara swamy face on thirumala hills.

popular food in tirupati “

Some of example: 1.pulihora

2. Pongal

3. Murrukku


5. Bisibelebath


7. Andhra thali.

the tirupati balaji temple is righly caleed the bhuloka vaikuntam-the above of vishnu on earth.

its of belived that Lord vishnu has manifest himself in this temple during this kali age to guide and direct his devotees towards salvation.

the temple is run by the body thirumala tirupati devasthanams which is under direct control of the Andhra pradesh government.

Money Management

The rich get richer and the poor get poorer, this it the reason why the topic of money should not only be taught in school but also in each and every child’s house. Many people learn how to manage money by their parents. In a poor family, if a child asks what is money or how should we manage money, the only thing a parent can tell is “go to school and study nicely”. There are chances that the child might study hard and pass out with good marks but what about the economic program or mindset, it will be still be same as a poor persons mindset when it comes to money management.

Here are some tips to low income family on how to manage money

If you are trying to save money on a low income, it can feel like challenge. But don’t let a low income stand between you and your savings goals.

  • Build a budget that works for you-Budgeting might sound like more trouble than it’s worth, but it can help you to build your savings. Unless you have a plan for your money, it can be extremely easy to spend it. With a budget, you can include your savings goals. Instead aimlessly saving what’s left over each month, you can meet your savings goals through careful budgeting. Learning how to budget is essential when it comes to how to save money on a low income.
  • Lower your housing costs-Housing expenses can be one of the biggest expenses. Image if you could cut down your housing expenses by a few Rs.500 each month. That money could make a huge difference in the size of your savings and overall quality of life. There are few ways to cut your housing costs including: A.) Move to new location-Location is a key detail in real estate prices. B.) Rent your rooms-If you could have more space in your home, you could rent them out to offset your housing costs. This is a great way to house hack. Consider a long-term tenants or short-term rentals, we can earn money from it.
  • Eliminate your debt-Debt can hold back from achieving new financial goals. The constant financial strain on your budget can leave no room for savings at the end of the month. Make it priority to tackle your debt. It will take commitment to erase your debts, but it can lead to an easier life. You will be able to put the money you were using for debt repayment towards your savings.
  • Be more mindful about food spending-Food spending can wreak havoc on any budget. With the constant temptation to eat prepared food at a restaurant, sticking to a food budget can feel like an impossible challenge. However, this is a good area to really focus on when it comes to how to save money on low budget or income.
  • Automate your saving goals-Making the choice to save money can be difficult. Forcing yourself to make that same choice many times each month can be unrealistic. You are more likely to spend all of the money in your checking account. Unless you move your savings automatically, you risk spending your intended savings.
  • Find free or affordable entertainment-One area of your budget that is entirely variable is your entertainment budget. You have the power to overspend in a big way with entertainment. On the flip side, some frugal fun can allow you to pad your savings without feeling deprived.
  • Go to the library- The library can be a great source of free entertainment. But it offers so much more that it deserves its own mention. Of course, you can check out books, movies and CDs. But most librabries often have many more. There might be community events, free local attraction passes, seeds for your garden and more.
  • Take care of your health-Health care is expensive. Unfortunately, there are not too many ways to cut down on your health care insurance costs. However, a preventive attitude about medical problems cam help you save money and enjoy a higher quality of life. A few ways to practice preventive healthcare include exercise, eating right, quit smoking, sleep enough.

5 Classic Reads with a Female Protagonist

For a long time, the main protagonist in a book was a male. As reflected in the patriarchal values of times long gone, women were relegated to either secondary background roles or as love interest or a role relative to the male lead. Gradually, as the times began to change, more and more authors started giving female characters the spotlight too, until literature finally breached the gender divide with the inclusion of women protagonists. Particularly, books with young female leads and their experiences became popular.

Here are 5 classic stories with a young female protagonist you must read:

The Anne of Green Gables series

The Anne of Green Gables series

Ever since its first published book (Anne of Green Gables), the Anne of Green Gables series has been considered a popular classic, with the titular character Anne Shirley becoming one of the most popular female protagonists in literary history. The Anne of Green Gables series is written by the Canadian author Lucy Mond Montgomery (published as L.M. Montgomery). The series follows the story of Anne Shirley, an orphan taken in by middle-aged siblings Matthew and Marilla Cuthbert. The series follows her life and experiences with others as she grows up.

A Little Princess

A Little Princess

A Little Princess is another popular classic, and has a high-ranking book in a number of surveys. It is written by Frances Hodgson Burnett, a popular children’s writer A Little Princess follows the story of young Sara Crewe, a kind young girl sent to a lavish boarding school. The death of her father sees her fall into poverty and being treated horribly by the headmistress and her peers. Yet, Sara does not lose her kind and generous personality. A Little Princess is, at its heart, a story about staying strong in the face of adversity.

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz

The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, commonly known as the Wizard of Oz is one of the most iconic literature pieces to come from the United States of America. The Wizard of Oz is written by Frank L. Baum, who went on to become one of the United States’ prolific children’s book writers with his Wizard of Oz series. The story follows Dorothy, who along with her dog Toto get caught up in a cyclone which transports them to a mysterious and magical land called Oz. Dorothy and Toto, along with their new allies, a Scarecrow, a Tin Woodman and a Cowardly Lion embark on a journey to find the powerful Wizard of Oz, the only one who can solve their problems.

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm

Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm

Rebecca of Sunnybrook farm is written by Kate Douglas Wiggins, an American author for children. The story follows Rebecca Randall, who is sent to live with her mother’s sisters at their farm. The story follows her experiences with them and her journey from a child to a young lady, gaining knowledge and wisdom along the way.

Alice in Wonderland

Alice in Wonderland

Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland requires no introduction. Though primarily made for children, its story appeals to adults to, even in this age. It is one of the world’s most popular stories and has been adapted multiple times in different formats. It follows the story of Alice, a young girl who follows a mysterious rabbit down a rabbit-hole to a magical fantasy world and follows her adventures there.

India VS England

source : ICC

India vs England : The first test at Trent bridge in Nottingham . India on day one dominating England as England bowl out for 183 the Indian bowlers did a great job to dominate English batsman as Bumrah strikes early in his first over and Rory burns goes back to pavillion , before lunch England was 61/2 . Joe root was the lone wolf for England and scored 64 runs on 108 balls after his wicket England batting line up collapsed like a pyramid of cards none of the English batsman has the answer of the swinging bowls of Indian bowlers . England before tea was 138/4 and then M.shami strikes 2 wicket in 1 over and England got all out for 183 . Every bowler goes with a wicket except Jadeja who bowled only 3 overs , Bumrah was the leading wicket taker for India with 4 wicket in his pocket . Indian openers managed to stay on the ground till the stumps of day 1 .

50 Most Memorable Game Of Thrones Quotes And Dialogues

Eight Seasons, unexpected twists, bloodbaths, battles, love and power packed dialogues – that’s what ‘Game Of Thrones’ is all about! What keeps the audience glued to the cinematic extravaganza of this television show is not only the unpredictable plot, but also the witty Game of Thrones quotes and dialogues. While “Winter is Coming’ and ‘All Men Must Die’ are heard throughout the seasons, several great one-liners and GoT quotes are easily lost in the action of the show.

While Tyrion has always been known to deliver powerful punches with his comeback and one-liners, characters like Twyin Lannister, Olenna Tyrell and Cersei are not also far behind with their words. Game Of Thrones quotes are all about wit, humor, strong arguments and the naked truth of life and the world.

We bring you some of the most powerful and amazing Game of Thrones quotes and dialogues from the characters of this show.

1. “Money buys a man’s silence for a time. A bolt in the heart buys it forever.” – Petyr Baelish

2. “The Lord of Light wants his enemies burned. The Drowned God wants them drowned. Why are all the gods such vicious cunts? Where is the god of tits and wine?” – Tyrion Lannister 

3. “Can a man still be brave if he’s afraid?” – Bran Stark
“That is the only time a man can be brave!” – Ned Stark 

4. “The more people you love, the weaker you are.” – Cersei Lannister 

5. “There’s no cure for being a cunt.” – Bronn

6. “We don’t get to choose whom we love.” – Jamie Lannister 

7. “Explain to me why it is more noble to kill 10,000 men in battle than a dozen at dinner.” – Twyin Lannister

8. “Tears aren’t a woman’s only weapon. The best one is between her legs.” – Cersei Lannister

9. “A very small man can cast a very large shadow.” – Lord Varys

10. “There is only one god, and His name is Death. And there is only one thing we say to Death: Not Today” – Syrio Forel

11. “You’re mine and I’m yours. If we die we die. But first we’ll live.” – Ygritte

12. “A lion doesn’t concern himself with the opinion of Sheep.” – Twyin Lannister

13. People work together when it suits them. They’re loyal when it suits them. They love each other when it suits them, and they kill each other when it suits them.” – Orell 

14. “They don’t hurt little girls in Dorne” – Oberyn Martell
“Everywhere in the world, they hurt little girls.” – Cersei Lannister

15. “There are no men like me. There’s only me.” – Jamie Lannister 

16. “A reader lives a thousand lives before he dies. The Man who doesn’t read lives only one” – Jojen Reed

17. “Never forget what you are, for surely the world will not. Make it your strength. Then it can never be your weakness. Armour yourself in it, and it will never be used to hurt you.” – Tyrion Lannister

18. “I am not questioning your honor, ser Janos. I am denying its existence.” – Tyrion Lannister

19. “Death is so final yet life is full of possibilities.” – Tyrion Lannister 

20. “Some old wounds never truly heal, and bleed again at the slightest word.” – Ned Stark

21. “Everything’s better with some wine in the Belly.” – Tyrion Lannister 

22. “When you tear out a man’s tongue, you are not proving him a liar, you’re only telling the world that you fear what he might say.” – Tyrion Lannister

23. Cersei Lannister: “You’re a clever man, but you’re not half as clever as you think you are. “
Tyrion Lannister: “Still makes me more clever than you.”

24. “It doesn’t matter what we want, once we get it, then we want something else.” – Petyr Baelish

25. “I swear to you, sitting a throne is a thousand times harder than winning one.” – Robert Baratheon

26. “Poison is a woman’s weapon. Men prefer Steel.” – The Hound

27. “A mind needs books like a sword needs a whetstone, if it is to keep its edge. That’s why I read so much” – Tyrion Lannister

28. “Every time we deal with an enemy, we create two more.” – Tyrion Lannister

29. “I wish I was the monster you think I am. I wish I had enough poison for the whole pack of you. I would gladly give my life to watch you all swallow it. I will not give my life for Joffrey’s murder. And I know I’ll get no justice here, so I’ll let the gods decide my fate. I demand a trial by combat!” – Tyrion Lannister 

30. “Sleep is good and Books are better.” – Tyrion Lannister 

31. “Why is that when one man builds a wall, the next need to know what’s on the other side?” – Tyrion Lannister 

32. “It’s hard to put a leash on a dog. Once you’ve put a crown on its head.” – Tyrion Lannister 

33. “It is not easy being drunk all the time. Everyone would do if it were easy.” – Tyrion Lannister 

34. “I’m guilty of a far more monstrous crime. I’m guilty of being a dwarf.” – Tyrion Lannister 

35. “In Battle, Discipline beats numbers 9 times out of 10.” – Jon Snow 

36. “The powerful have always preyed on the powerless, that’s how they became powerful in the first place” – Tyrion Lannister 

37. “My reign has just begun.” – Daenerys Targaryen

38. “You’re going to die tomorrow Lord Bolton, Sleep well.” – Sansa Stark 

39. “A girl is Arya Stark of Winterfell & I’m going home.” – Arya Stark 

40. “I’m here to help. Don’t eat the help.” – Tyrion Lannister 

41. “When people ask you what happened here, tell them the north remembers. Tell them winter came for House Frey.” – Arya Stark

42. “Are you a Sheep? No. You’re a Dragon. Be a Dragon.” – Olenna Tyrell 

43. “No need to seize the last word. I’ll assume it was something clever.” – Sansa Stark 

44. “What did father used to say? Everything before the word “but” is horse sh*t.” – Jon Snow 

45. “Leave one wolf alive & the Sheep are never Safe.” – Arya Stark 

46. “A Wise Man Once Said That You Should Never Believe A Thing Simply Because You Want To Believe It.” – Tyrion Lannister 

47. “Tell Cersei. I want her to know it was me.” – Olenna Tyrell 

48. “The true history of the world is the history of great conversations.” – Tyrion Lannister 

49. Joffrey Baratheon: “Everyone is mine to torment. You’d do well to remember that you little monster.”
Tyrion Lannister: “Perhaps you should speak to me more softly then. Monsters are dangerous and, just now, kings are dying like flies.”

50. When asked by the Mountain Tribes how would he like to die.

That must have been some a great recap of this epic show with these Game Of Thrones quotes and dialogues. Which of these GoT quotes are your favorites? Do let us know!

Enid Blyton’s Best Series

When English children’s literature is discussed, the name Enid Blyton is bound to be brought up sooner or later. Enid Blyton was a British author who is known worldwide for her books targeted towards children. Even today, decades after her death, her books can still be found in the children’s section of libraries across the world even today. Out of the numerous books she’s written, she is most famed for her series. They span various genres like fantasy, boarding school slice of life as well as mysteries.

Out of Enid Blyton’s book series, these are her most popular five ones:

The Famous Five series

The Famous Five series

The Famous Five is centered around siblings Julian, Dick, Anne and their cousin Georgina and her dog Timothy. The series is set during their school vacations and follows various adventures the Five experience in the English countryside.

The St. Clare’s series

The St. Clare’s series

The St. Clare’s series is the second school boarding school-based series written by Enid Blyton after the Naughtiest Girl series. The story follows two twin girls- Patricia and Isabel O’Sullivan and their journey as well as the journey of their friends and schoolmates at the boarding school of St. Clare’s. The series sees their growth from conceited and arrogant girls to dignified and kind young women. While the original series contained only 6 books, author Pamela Cox, who was responsible for continuing Enid Blyton’s unfinished works after her death, added 3 more titles to the series.

The Secret Seven series

The Secret Seven series

The Secret Seven series follows the adventures of a group of seven children- Peter, his sister Janet, and their friends Pam, Barbara, Jack, Colin and George. The friends form a secret group, which they call the Secret Seven and solve mysteries together. The Secret Seven is one of Enid Blyton’s rare series in which the characters do not attend boarding school; all seven of the children are shown to be attending day school. Coincidentally, the Secret Seven group is based on a real group of friends. Enid Blyton’s publisher’s son Peter and his friends had a ‘secret’ group of their own; they even possessed badges with the inscription of ‘SS’ on them. Enid Blyton exchanged correspondence with this Peter and through his help laid the foundation of the Secret Seven. In 2018 and 2019, two new books, written by author Pamela Butchart were officially added to the Secret Seven series.

The Malory Towers series

The Malory Towers series

The Malory Towers series is Enid Blyton’s third school boarding school series. It follows the story of Darrell Rivers over her years spent at the boarding school of Malory Towers. The original series written by Enid Blyton consists of 6 books. In the year 2009, there was an official continuation to the series. Written by Pamela Cox, the books were a continuation of Darrell’s younger sister, Felicity’s life at Malory Towers.

The Five Find-Outers series

The Five Find-Outers series

The Five Find-Outers series is another children-based detective series by Enid Blyton. It follows the adventures of Fatty, Larry, Pip, Daisy, Bets and Fatty’s dog Buster and the various mysteries they get entangled in and trying to solve it before the local policeman Mr. Goon.

Assam Mizoram Conflict

India is the tenth-largest country by land. Carved out of 565 princely states & 17 provinces at the time of Independence, which were just 14 states and 6 union territories.

With time number of states has grown to 28 states and 8 Union territories.All the states have some issues in between one such issue which raised the eyebrows is the ‘conflict between Assam & Mizoram’.

Carved out of Assam in 1972 as a union territory, Mizoram gained its complete statehood in 1987.The states have a dispute over a border of 164.6 km

Mizoram stands by an 1875 notification, which came from ‘The Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation Act of 1873’.

Whereas, Assam claims the land as per ‘1933 notification by the state government that demarcates Lushai Hills’.

During Colonial time Lushai was known as Mizoram.

These borders change with natural obstacles like rivers, forests, etc. Often people living on one side of the land cross it as they are unaware of the border demarcation.

Other Land Disputes in Indian states-

• BelagaviDispute between Karnataka and Maharashtra.

• Assam & Nagaland dispute.

• Gujarat & Rajasthan dispute over Mangadh Hill.

• Himachal dispute with Haryana over Parwanoo region.

• Himachal dispute with Ladakh over claim on Sarchu.


Every day, tons of diversified animal species are killed for their own, people’s purposes, which is known as animal abuse or animal cruelty. Animal cruelty involves harm for no reason, injuring, killing, cruelty, etc. More specifically, causing harm or suffering them for mainly achieving something like killing animals for entertainment, Every 60 secs an animal is abused, especially in this culture of India where we pray, for example, cow and it has a tag ‘Cow is our God’, yet animal cruelty takes place daily and in all kind of places, not only in the industrial animal agriculture. It happens in our neighborhood, neighbors’ houses, but happily, we are not able to see that pain and killing. 

People abuse animals for a variety of reasons with various levels of harm. Most of the time, animals are not exploited for clothing and other needs but also consumption of food like meat and flesh, particularly Leathers and feathers. Apart from this, the main reason for exploitation is skin and feathers which are used in the making of shoes, handbags, clothes, belts, etc. Leathers are a kind of material that is strong, flexible, and prevents tanning and prevent decay, which is used for all the necessities. The Leathers are obtained from cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, and aquatic animals such as seals and alligators. The leading producer of leather is India and China. The top luxury high-end fashion brands which use leather are Prada, Gucci, Fendi, Louis Vuitton, and Chanel. Every year, the leather industry slaughters one billion animals and tan their skins. Just imagine the consumption of leather in a year. Another such thing is Meat production is profitable from not just only animal’s flesh but also the co-products include blood and fat which is used for explosives, tires, paints, cosmetics, and heart valves that are used for medicines, etc. The skin of the animal is the significant economy of the meatpacking industry. Cows are used for the production of milk, they are injected to produce fast milk. When the cows are declined to further produce more, then they are sent to slaughterhouses for butchering, and then beef trading is done. India is the highest seller of beef. The economic success of this kind of slaughterhouse is directly dependent on the sale of meat and skin and this leather stuffs. Many animals are used for experiments such as feeding dogs some pesticides, mice, and rats are forced to inhale fumes, and applying some sort of harmful chemicals in the rabbit’s eyes. Even if these products harm the animals, still are marketed to consumers.

This shows how negative impactful we have been towards animals. Its We humans are very cruel towards animals and have made their life a living hell. Animals don’t deserve to die like this, to be treated in this manner. Loving one animal and abusing another called speciesism is done by us humans every day. Is there an end to it? Yes maybe. Many cruelty-free cosmetic brands have been started which seems to be a very great initiative, many people are converting themselves into vegans to reduce the slaughterhouse economy and saving animals.