Issue related to poverty and Hunger


Poverty has many faces , which have been changing from place to place and across time , and has been described in many ways. Most offen , poverty is a situation that people want to escape .

While addressing the constituent Assembly in 1947 , Jawaharlal Nehru had said, ” This achievement (Independence) is but a step , an opening of opportunity , to the great triumphs and achievements that awaits us… the ending of poverty and ignorance and disease and inequality of opportunity .

Catergorizing Poverty :

For the purpose of defining poverty They divided people into two categories; the poor and the non-poor and the poverty line separates the two. However, there are many kinds of poor; the absolutely poor, the very poor and the poor.

Similarly there are various kinds of non-poor; the middle class, the upper middle class , the rich, the very rich and the absolutely rich . Think of this as a line or continue from the very poor to the absolutely rich with the poverty line dividing the poor from the non-poor.

“Overcoming poverty is not a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice. It is the protection of a fundamental human right , the right to dignity and a decent life” ____ Nelson Mandela

Main causes of poverty in india:

Rapidly rising population: The population during the 45 years has increased at the rate of 2.2% per annum. On average 17 million people are added every year to its population which raises the demand for consumption goods considerably.

Low productivity in agriculture:- The level of productivity in agriculture is low due to subdivided and fragmented holding, lack of capital , use of traditional methods of cultivation , illiteracy etc. This is the main cause of poverty in india.

Under utilised resources :- The extences of under employment disguise unemployment of human resources has resulted in low production in agricultural sector . This brought a down fall in their standard of living.

Low rate of economic development:- The rate of economic development in india has been below the required level. Therefore , there persist a gap between level of availability and requirements of goods and services . The net result is poverty .


Food insecurity and hunger have been constants throughout history. During times such as the Great Depression, the government has stepped up in an effort to help those suffering.

Today, there are still many in similar situations, although the problem of hunger has become invisible. The government is still making efforts to aid those in need, and thanks to research and media coverage, the issue of food insecurity is becoming more transparent. Communities and colleges are also battling social stigmas and lending a hand to those suffering from hunger.


Lord Dalhousie – Founder of modern India

Lord Dalhousie was an able administrator, though forceful and tough. His contribution in the development of communication-railways, roads, postal and telegraph services-contiributed to the modernization and unity of India. His notable achievement was the creation of modern, centralized states.

Other measures with the same object were carried out in the Company’s own territories. Bengal, long ruled by the Governor-General or his delegate, was placed under its own Lieutenant-Governor in May 1854.

A department of public works was in each presidency, and engineering colleges were provided. An imperial system of telegraphs followed. The first link of railway communication was completed in 1855.

The construction of massive irrigation works such as the 350-mile Ganges Canal, which contains thousands of miles of distributaries, was a substantial project that was particularly beneficial for the largely agricultural India.

He created an imperial system of post-offices, reducing the rates of carrying letters and introducing postage stamps. He created the department of public instruction; he improved the system of inspection of goals, abolishing the practice of branding convicts; freed converts to other religions from the loss of their civil rights; inaugurated the system of administrative reports; and enlarged the Legislative Council of India


To the civil service he gave improved leave and pension rules, while he purified its moral by forbidding all share in trading concerns, by vigorously punishing insolvents, and by his personal example of careful selection in the matter of patronage.

Another consequential set of reforms, were those aimed at modernizing the land tenure and revenue system.

8 Reasons why water is important for our body.

By Yogiraj Sadaphal

A river seems a magic thing. A magic, moving, living part of the very earth itself “.

Laura Gilpin

Water makes up 60-75 percent of a person’s weight. Dehydration can occur with a loss of merely 4% of total body water, and a loss of 15% can be fatal. Similarly, a human may go a month without eating but not more than three days without water.

Reasons of drink water are :-

1. It keeps your body temperature in check.

It’s critical to stay hydrated in order to keep your body temperature stable. During physical exercise and in heated situations, your body loses water through sweat. Sweat keeps your body cool, but if you don’t replace the water you lose, your body temperature will rise.

2. It helps excrete waste through perspiration, urination, and defecation.

To have good bowel and avoid constipation, you also need enough water in your system. Your kidneys are also responsible for removing waste from your body through urination. Adequate water intake aids in the proper functioning of your kidneys and the prevention of kidney stones.

3. It helps maximize physical performance.

During physical activity, it is important to drink plenty of water. During physical activity, athletes can sweat up to 6% to 10% of their body weight Trusted Source. Your strength, power, and endurance are all affected by hydration. Exercise in the heat without adequate hydration can result in dangerous medical issues such as low blood pressure and hyperthermia.

4. It helps in digestion.

Experts affirm that drinking water before, during, and after a meal will assist your body break down the food you eat more easily. The body adapts to variations in the consistency of food and stomach contents, whether they are more solid or liquid.

A Glass Of Water

5. It aids in the absorption of nutrients.

Water not only aids in the digestion of food, but it also aids in the dissolution of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. The vitamin components are subsequently delivered to the rest of your body for usage.

6.  It helps you lose weight.

Drinking water has been connected to body fat decrease and weight loss in both overweight girls as well as boys. While dieting and exercising, drinking more water may help you shed some pounds.

7. It enhances the flow of oxygen in the blood.

Water transports essential nutrients and oxygen throughout the body. Maintaining your daily water requirements will improve your circulation and benefit your overall health.

8. It makes you feel better.

Water deficiency can also have a negative impact on your mood. Dehydration can cause fatigue, confusion, and even anxiety.

A Brief Introduction to Stars

Stars are something we all know and see, glittering in the night sky above. Most people, however are content to just admire their beauty. These stars have their own fascinating physics and chemistry behind them. There are a lot of fascinating information which not many people are aware of. This article will attempt to give some basic information about stars to facilitate a greater interest in them.

What exactly are stars and how are they ‘born’

Stars are luminous spheroidal celestial objects made up of plasma. They are held together by their own gravity. They may be found singularly or in groups known as constellations. Stars are born in star nurseries called nebula. Nebula are nothings but clouds of gas and dust. Star formation begins due to instability in the gravity within molecular clouds. This gravitational instability soon causes the nebula cloud / clouds to collapse under its own gravitational force. The density of the region also increases. The gravitational energy gets converted into heat which causes a rise in temperature. After a certain period, the collapsed nebula cloud reaches the hydrostatic equilibrium condition. Hydrostatic equilibrium is the condition where and external force (like gravity) of an object either fluid or plastic in nature gets balanced by a pressure-gradient force. This gives rise to a protostar, which then evolves into a star.

Stars are comprised of gases, mainly hydrogen and helium. The structure of a star comprises of its core where various nuclear reactions take place, a conduction zone which carries energy outwards from the core, a convection zone which transfers gases of extremely high temperatures to the surface, and the surface of the star. The heat generated by these nuclear reactions is what makes the stars shine.

The types of stars

Red Giants

Red giants are stars which have run out of hydrogen from their core. As an alternative way, they start to use hydrogen present outside the core, which causes it to swell and puff up. After the hydrogen totally gets over, it starts burning up other gases which may cause it to grow into yellow or blue supergiants and hypergiants.

Betelguese, a red giant seen from a telescope
Betelguese, a red giant seen from a telescope

White Dwarfs

White Dwarfs are dying stars. They are formed from stars which has used up all of its available gas. It then collapses to form a small planet-sized star with only a white-hot and extremely dense core.

Sirius B, a white dwarf seen from a telescope
Sirius B, a white dwarf seen from a telescope

Neutron Stars

If a star roughly 5 times or more the size of our sun dies, it does not become a white dwarf. Instead, it undergoes a supernova explosion. Supernova explosions are very bright and powerful enough that it could be seen with the naked eye even on Earth despite the star being 168, 000 light years away (SN 1987A). The intense force of the gravity produced in the collapse causes the protons and electrons to merge forming a star made purely of neutrons, giving these stars the name ‘neutron stars’. However more massively sized stars, roughly 8 times the sun, instead collapse to form not neutron stars, but black holes, a region of space with gravity so extremely powerful that even light cannot escape it.  

Illustration of neutron star
Illustration of neutron star
Image of a black hole courtesy NASA
Image of a black hole courtesy NASA

Diversity of India

Indian Society is a vast social order with multitude of culture, language, religion and caste. It has a very extensive history. Indian society was a layered society from ancient times. Rulers of India belonged from different culture and religion ruled for a long time. “Unity in Diversity” is most frequent feature of our Indian Society. It manifests to unity among individuals who have different culture, ideology, religion, language, ethnicity, etc. Despite the diversity in people, they have the sense of unity. India has different people in every society yet it doesn’t lose their separate identity. People have been living here peacefully for thousands of years.

People have freedom to live their life in their own way. People from different culture and religion interact with each other in many ways which leads to exposure, development of trust, bonding among them, mutual respect for each other, love, etc. Unity in Diversity binds people to maintain peace and harmony and brotherhood. If the people are united like this it will help in the growth and development of country.

History of Indian Society

In ancient Indian history, many races and tribes were involved. The Greek, the Aryans, and many others were living in India. Each and everyone contributed in the development of Indian society, language, art and architecture, and literacy. They blended so perfectible from north to south, east to west.

Significance of history in present

Some people want to rehabilitate the ancient Indian society and culture. This was for the concern of preservation of ancient art and architecture. This advancement cannot be achieved without the clear and accurate understanding of the history. This can’t go along with the achievement of modern science and technology. This will increase social inequalities that can plague India. All these species of the past have to be eradicated from India for the growth of the nation.

Importance of Unity in Diversity

Unity in Diversity is of much importance in the Development of the country, Global Recognition, National Integration, Peace and Harmony. It is very easy to divide people having different ideology but if the people of India are united it is very tough to break down the nation. Unity between people maintains peace in the nation. If the Indian Society is weak and distributed on different terms, India won’t be able to move on the path of development. India is always appreciated on international platforms for its unity. It is a symbol of Unity for other nations despite their different culture and religion.

Role of Unity in Diversity

In India People from different religion and culture live here. Every state has different beliefs, language, ideas, culture, religion, rituals, etc. People follow religion of their choice as India is Secular country. Yet, they live with the spirit of love and brotherhood. Indian Society learned this all from ancient times. There are about 29 religions and more than 1,000,500 languages are spoken. In spite of such differences Indians have unity among them which threatens global society. “United we stand, divided we fall.”

Our Indian Society taught us caste, religion, language, creed, race cannot divide us. We should always stand united for the improvement of nation. We should always believe in the concept of love, peace and brotherhood. The distinction in culture, religion, language makes us strong and makes India recognizable.

Simple ways to lose weight at home

We all are working from home due to the covid-19 pandemic situation. So, this allows us to lose extra weight and lead a healthy life. Check out these simple ways to lose weight at home.

Morning routine

Start your morning routine with a 30 minutes yoga session or a short walk. Now, this is where the hardest part comes, because of our laziness wake up late, after two days we start our routine. But we have to win over laziness to maintain our health. There’s a saying that “If you practice something for 21 days, then it becomes a habit”

Morning walk
Morning walk

Then start your day with a light breakfast, eat a fruit salad, or whatever your breakfast is, eat moderately. 

Drink water frequently, but only when you are thirsty. There’s a fact that “Drinking a gallon(3.4 liters) of water a day will make you lose your weight”. But you have to remember that “If you are drinking that much water, then you tend to lose your appetite, which is unhealthy”. So, drink water only when you are thirsty.

Afternoon routine

Afternoon meal is what you usually eat more. But you have to eat very light in the afternoon or skip your afternoon meal. The hard part in this is, you feel less active. Your stomach starts to groan when you start to do this. During this time, take a nap or try to distract yourself. 

Afternoon nap
Afternoon nap

Drink fruit juice, vegetable soup, or eat fruit salad, vegetable dishes.

Evening routine

Drink a cup of tea with light snacks you like between 4-6 pm. You can also drink a cup of milk or a health drink. 

Tea with snacks
Tea with snacks

Night routine

Eat your dinner between 7-8 pm. You can have a light or heavy dinner. After eating dinner, take a walk for 30 minutes on your terrace. Try to sleep 7-8 hours at night. 

A good sleep
A good sleep

It is a simple routine to lose weight gradually. You can lose up to 3-4 kg in six months by following this routine.

Simple Steps to Overcome Anxiety

Here are some steps that will help to overcome anxiety –

  • Just Breathe

One way to reconnect the mind to the body is breathing. Deep breathing helps you calm down and put your mind at ease. Take a slow breath in through the nose, hold it for 1 or 2 seconds and then exhale slowly through your mouth. Wait a few seconds before taking another breath. About 6-8 breathing cycles per minute is often helpful to decrease anxiety. As clinical psychologist Ryan Howes, Ph.D., “A big struggle right now is that with all the emotions people are feeling, it can be hard to tease out and identify what’s going on.”

  • Writing Down Your Thoughts

Writing down your thoughts, positive or negative, helps you gain perspective and feel better. It is one of the effective ways to monitor and control your anxiety is to keep track of your symptoms and the techniques that help you control them.

“You cannot always control what goes on outside, but you can always control what goes on inside.”

– Wayne Dyer

  • Get Quality Sleep

Anxiety is directly connected to sleeping problems. Excess worry and fear make it harder to fall asleep. Sleep is the time when your body gets time to recharge. Trying relaxation techniques or breathing techniques can help you to fall asleep quickly. Try to get at least 7-8 hours of sleep each night. 

  • Exercise Regularly

Exercise not only helps to prevent anxiety but also improves several mental health-related problems including depression, anxiety, and panic attacks. Regular exercise helps you take your mind off worries and releases feel-good endorphins that can enhance your sense of well-being.

  • Positive Thinking and Self-Talk

Positive thinking doesn’t mean that you keep your head in the sand and ignore life’s less pleasant situations. Positive thinking just means that you approach unpleasantness more positively and productively. You think the best is going to happen, not the worst. Positive thinking often starts with self-talk. Self-talk is the endless stream of unspoken thoughts that run through your head. These thoughts can be positive or negative. This enables you to cope better with stressful situations.

  • Work-Life Balance

Work-life balance is adjusting your day-to-day activities to achieve a sense of balance between work life and personal life. Balancing the demands of a busy lifestyle is not an easy thing to do, but is best managed by regularly reviewing and assessing your priorities. Anxiety can develop if an individual is unable to achieve a healthy work-life balance.

  • Positive Affirmations

Positive affirmations can change your negative thoughts to a positive ones. If you start focusing on what can be done rather than what can’t and begin to focus more on solutions than problems, then this can lower your stress levels by helping you feel more in control. Surrounding yourself with positive people who love you and believe in you.

  • Adjust Your Diet

There aren’t any diet changes that can cure anxiety. Try these steps –

  • Drink plenty of water
  • Limit or avoid alcohol
  • Limit or avoid caffeine 
  • Eat complex carbohydrates 
  • Eat lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, and don’t overeat


Leave your fear.

Hii wonderful’s,

Today I came up with a very familiar topic. And my topic is about “FEAR”.
Fear – being afraid to do or speak out something. Everyone is having their own fear.
-Fear of starting, something fresh or new
-Fear to speak out i.e., to share views.
-Fear of losing our loved ones
-Fear to face the failure
-Fear to face the truth and so on.
Because of our fear we are really losing so many of our opportunities, chances and happy moments.

Let me share a story.
There once was this criminal who had committed a crime. Anyway, he was sent to the king for his punishment. The king told him he had a choice of two punishments.

He could be hung by a rope.Or take what’s behind the big, dark, scary, mysterious iron door.

The criminal quickly decided on the rope.

As the noose was being slipped on him, he turned to the king and asked:

“By the way, out of curiosity, what’s behind that door?”

The king laughed and said:

“You know, it’s funny, I offer everyone the same choice, and nearly everyone picks the rope.”

“So,” said the criminal, “Tell me. What’s behind the door? I mean, obviously, I won’t tell anyone,” he said, pointing to the noose around his neck.

The king paused then answered: “Freedom, but it seems most people are so afraid of the unknown that they immediately take the rope.”

Like those criminals who missed their chance of escaping (or getting released) because of their fear, we missed many things because of our fear. But sometimes we even get feared, because of doing something unfair, as our conscience pricks us, for doing so.

Whatever it may be, let’s us take a STEP forward to Overcome our fear. And let’s us not do anything against our conscience.
That’s ok, what is going to happen.
-We may Get scoldings
-We may Face failures
-We may Lose someone (for speaking out/correcting a person)

That’s completely ok, As I said, in my previous content,’ living peacefully without any fears do matters than anything’.

Asusual at the end of the day everything is your choice
“Whether you gonna stay with fear or gonna leave your fear, decision is with you”.

Think about it.

Best of luck!!!

Have a good day.

The link for the above story:

A Short Story To Inspire You To Overcome Fear and Anxiety

The importance of solitude for a balanced life

In a society that values conformity over emotional support, where giving time to yourself is frowned upon , it is essential to liberate yourself from the sameness.
We as a society have been wired to conform to the social norms We constantly try to satisfy ourselves by satisfying others. True ,when you serve others you achieve some measure of happiness but if it comes at a cost where you neglect your own well being then it becomes a cause of concern

When people commit crimes , Society punishes them by locking up in solitary cells. This is not to say that they shouldn’t be punished though. You’d be considered a loser if you choose to stay at home on a Friday or a Saturday night.

The problem is that We’ve been wired to believe solitude is our worst

We’ve also tried to equate loneliness with being alone. Loneliness is a feeling of emptiness. It means you feel isolated and not connected to others , it’s a feeling or an emotion. On the other hand, solitude is a state of being happy and content with your own company.

Twice a year, Bill Gates takes a self-proclaimed “think week.” He spends seven days of solitude in a cabin in the forest.He does it to self introspect , to read books , to escape from the everyday
stress in life and to develop a deeper creative thought.

Spending some valuable time with oneself is vital for your mental health and serves as an essentially ingredient for your personal growth . And perhaps the greatest gift to solitude is that it allows you to become the best version of yourself.

10 Things not taught to students in school or college

1. Get used to the ups and downs of life. In life , things are never always good or always bad. Learn to go with the flow and make the best of any situation.

2. People respect you more if you respect yourself. Do not show off before you prove yourself.

3. Do not make the mistake of thinking you can get a high post or attain overnight success after graduating college. It take a lot of hard work and effort.

4. If you think your teacher is strict, scary, hard, and dangerous, wait until you meet your boss. Your old teachers will pale in comparison.

5. Do not blame yourself for your defeat, just learn from your mistakes and move forward.

6. Your parents were not as boring and unimaginative before you were born, they matured after caring for and nurturing you.

7. Consolation prizes are only in school. In reality the rules are different for those who fail. There are No Second Chances for Losers.

8. In real life, you do not get vacation after a few months of work, like you do in school. You do not get the luxury of teachers i adult life. You have to rely on yourself and teach yourself.

9. What is shown on TV is not the reality of life. In reality there is Work and only Work.

10. Study Constantly and work hard. Do not tease your friends there may come a time that you have to work under them.

The Lovely Bones

The Lovely Bones is a 2002 novel by American writer Alice Sebold. It is the story of a teenage girl who, after being abused and murdered, watches from her personal Heaven as her family and friends struggle to move on with their lives while she comes to terms with her own death. The novel received critical praise and became an instant bestseller. A film adaptation, directed by Peter Jackson, who personally purchased the rights, was released in 2009. The novel was also later adapted as a play of the same name.

The lovely bones


On December 6, 1973, 14-year-old Susie Salmon takes her usual shortcut home from her school through a cornfield in Norristown, Pennsylvania. George Harvey, her 36-year-old neighbor, a bachelor who builds doll houses for a living, persuades her to look at an underground kid’s hideout he constructed in the field. Once she enters, he abuses and murders her, then dismembers her body and puts her remains in a safe that he dumps in a sinkhole, along with throwing her charm bracelet into a pond. Susie’s spirit flees toward her personal Heaven, and in doing so, rushes past her classmate, social outcast Ruth Connors, who can see Susie’s ghostly spirit.

The Salmon family initially refuses to believe Susie is dead, until a neighbor’s dog finds Susie’s elbow. The police talk to Harvey, finding him odd but not suspicious. Susie’s father, Jack, gradually suspects Harvey. Jack’s surviving daughter, Lindsey, eventually shares this sentiment. Jack takes an extended leave from work. Meanwhile, another of Susie’s classmates, Ray Singh, who had a crush on Susie in school, develops a friendship with Ruth, drawn together by their connection with Susie.

Sussie Salmon

Later, Detective Len Fenerman tells the Salmons the police have exhausted all leads and are dropping the investigation. That night, Jack peers out of his den window and sees a flashlight in the cornfield. Believing Harvey is returning to destroy evidence, Jack runs out to confront him, armed with a baseball bat. The figure is not Harvey, but Clarissa, Susie’s best friend who is dating Brian, one of Susie’s classmates. As Susie watches in horror from heaven, Brian—who was going to meet Clarissa in the cornfield—nearly beats Jack to death, and Clarissa breaks Jack’s knee. While Jack recovers from knee replacement surgery, Susie’s mother, Abigail, begins cheating on Jack with the widowed Fenerman.

Trying to help her father prove his suspicions, Lindsey sneaks into Harvey’s house and finds a diagram of the underground den, but is forced to leave when Harvey returns unexpectedly. The police do not arrest Lindsey for breaking and entering. Harvey flees from Norristown. Later, evidence is discovered linking Harvey to Susie’s murder as well as to those of several other girls. Meanwhile, Susie meets Harvey’s other victims in heaven and sees into his traumatic childhood.

Abigail leaves Jack and eventually takes a job at a winery in California. Abigail’s mother, Grandma Lynn, moves into the Salmons’ home to care for Buckley (Susie’s younger brother) and Lindsey. Eight years later, Lindsey and her boyfriend, Samuel Heckler, become engaged after finishing college, find an old house in the woods owned by a classmate’s father, and decide to fix it up and live there. Sometime after the celebration, while arguing with his son Buckley, Jack suffers a heart attack. The emergency prompts Abigail to return from California, but the reunion is tempered by Buckley’s lingering bitterness for her having abandoned the family for most of his childhood.

Sussie in the light house

Meanwhile, Harvey returns to Norristown, which has become more developed. He explores his old neighborhood and notices the school is being expanded into the cornfield where he murdered Susie. He drives by the sinkhole where Susie’s body rests and where Ruth and Ray are standing. Ruth senses the women Harvey has killed and is physically overcome. Susie, watching from heaven, is also overwhelmed with emotion and feels how she and Ruth transcend their present existence, and the two girls exchange positions: Susie, her spirit now in Ruth’s body, connects with Ray, who senses Susie’s presence and is stunned by the fact that Susie is briefly back with him. The two confess love as Susie has longed to do after witnessing her sister and Samuel. Afterwards, Susie returns to Heaven.

Susie moves on to another, larger part of Heaven, but occasionally watches earthbound events. Lindsey and Samuel have a daughter together named Abigail Suzanne. While stalking a young woman in New Hampshire, Harvey is hit on the shoulder by an icicle and falls to his death down a snow-covered slope into the ravine below. At the end of the novel, a Norristown couple finds Susie’s charm bracelet but don’t realize its significance, and Susie closes the story by wishing the reader “a long and happy life”.

A Long and Happy Life



Tradition is a custom or belief passed from past generation to present generation. India has a continuous history covering a long period. By following the Indologist, DR.A.L.Basham’s analysis, the Indian heritage can be best appreciated with different historical periods. This period is broadly discussed as follows:


This culture came to light through excavations at Mohenjodaro (in Sind) and Harappa (Punjab) – both now in Pakistan, Harappa/Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal (Gulf of Cambay)(Gujarat) and Surkotada (Gujarat). The Indus Valley finds reveal a great civilization that flourished in the dim, distant past. The civilization – the material aspects of life or the external features of living – was marked by: streets and lanes laid out according to a set plan; houses built of bricks; public tanks; places of worship; granaries for storing grain; fortifications. The people occupied themselves in agriculture, made use of pottery, and sculpted on metal. It was the Age of Bronze – objects made of the bronze-like knife – blades, saws, sickles, chisels, celts, razors, pins, tweezers, fishhooks were used in households. Spears, arrowheads, and short swords made of bronze were used for defense.

1500 BC – 1000 BC: EARLY VEDIC AGE:

The Vedic hymns which are chanted even today, the personal rituals that are practiced, The patriarchal and patrilineal family system are some of the legacies from this period.


To this period we owe the passion for speculation on ultimate causes (as reflected in the Upanishads), the quest for the Absolute (the concept of Brahman), the doctrine of transmigration and rebirth (the idea of Karma and consequences of good and bad acts), the concept of a release from a cycle of births and deaths ( the goal of Liberation or Moksha) and the glory of mysticism. This period saw the crystallization of the four classes (‘Varnas’, a social order originally conceived as a functional division of labor, which has turned out to be a mixed blessing though corruption); the introduction of iron; the domestication of the elephant; and the development of kingdoms out of tribal chieftainships.


Siddhartha Gotama, known as the Buddha, is the founder of Buddhism. The four main principles taught by Buddha are life is suffering, craving causes suffering, suffering can be overcome, following noble 8-fold paths to end suffering.


We have inherited from this period: the Indian idea of statecraft as embodied in Arthasastra of the Mauryan Minister, Kautilya, also known as Chanakya; the earliest surviving sculpture of India (the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath); the oldest artificial caves ( Lomas Rishi Caves, Barabar Hills, Bihar) and the most ancient Buddhist stupas (Sanchi). The national symbol of the Ashoka Chakra is taken from the Ashoka Pillar at Sarnath with its Lion Capital. The Dharma Chakra represents the dharma or the Law of the Buddha, and the lions the temporal power of the emperor who has dedicated all his resources to the victory of dharma (dharma Vijaya). “The symbolism of Indian art attained its highest expression in the Sarnath capital, which is as much Buddhist as Vedic in the significance of its several parts”.


New forms of devotional religion, with Shiva and Vishnu as the central deities, emerged. The Mahabaratha and The Ramayana were edited. Sanskrit literature, consisting of drama and poetry, developed. Philosophical schools characterized by logical reasoning emerged.


This is the classical period of Indian civilization from which we have inherited the works of Kalidasa (Sanskrit drama and poetry); the paintings of Ajanta; the place notation of numerals (with nine digits and zero); The Puranas (legends illustrating the Vedic religious conceptions and philosophical doctrines). Stone-built temples appeared throughout the land. Worship of the deity as Mother Goddess came into vogue.


The devotional hymns of the Alwars and the Nayanmars of the South gave an impetus to the bhakti movement in the country. To this period belong the imposing temple structures of the South and the bronze images of various gods.


The new style of architecture with the dome and the arch made its appearance. Vernacular literature appeared instead of Sanskrit which was the main vehicle of literary expression till then.


Imposing edifices like the Taj Mahal belong to this period. Sikhism belongs to this period – ‘born as a small devotional sect and reborn, when the period concluded, as a martial brotherhood’.


After a period of stagnation in the 18thcentury, India began to feel the impact of the West. The study of the English language was made compulsory and the English system of administration was introduced. As a reaction, the modern Indian renaissance, which included a revival of ancient learning and reform of Hindu social customs and practices, began with Raja Rammohan Roy is in the lead. Sri Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, Dayananda Saraswati, Sri Aurobindo, among others, held up the glories of our religious and philosophical heritage, by precept and example. Mahatma Gandhi emerged as the Father of the Nation delivering the people from bondage into freedom. The subcontinent was divided into India and Pakistan and both countries attained complete independence from foreign rule. India became the Sovereign Democratic Republic on January 26th, 1950 with freedom and dignity assured to every individual citizen under the country’s new Constitution.


Women play a prime role in everyone’s life. Either a men or a women’s life, it always has something to do with a woman. The life of a successful woman involves a man and, the life of a successful man includes a woman. It is always one way or another. Let’s talk about the life of a woman in India.

Women in India are said to be dependable on a man. That is, a daughter has to depend on her father till she gets married. Then she has to rely on her husband by being his support. At last, if she has a son, then she has to rely on his son for her needs. Everyone can think this is some old story that is not happening everywhere. Yes, it is not the case in all places, but it’s just our misconception.

Life of a women
Life of a women

Yes, We all think independent women are still there even after their marriage. But think about reality, in a relationship, either one has to sacrifice for their happiness and, in most cases, a woman is doing it. Yes, even an independent woman sacrifices something at some point for their family’s happiness. In some cases, men did it. But when it comes to the majority, it’s always women. 

A painting of young indian girl cooking
A painting of young indian girl cooking

So, the majority of the women are sacrificing something they need for their family(including parents, brother, husband, and children). I’m not bragging about it, but all I need to ask is, ‘Is a women’s sacrifice worth those?’ or ‘Why a woman always does it willingly?’. There’s no answer for those questions when asked to a woman in India. It’s not like they are not able to answer, it’s just, they are tired of explaining things to this Indian society.

A painting of a women holding her child
A painting of a women holding her child

Most of the girls in India are taught to serve a man from the start of their life. And a boy is not taught to do his chores. And unfortunately, it’s not because of a man it’s because of a woman who believes the old myth she was told by. In India, “Woman has to be like gold, She has to melt herself to fit in the form the society expects, her value is high, but her voice is not respected”. 

But, we women believe everything changes in the future with our broad mindset!

Romeo Juliet – Love Retold

Fanfiction of Romeo and Juliet by wordsoflavanya

On the way to the castle

“Take your hand inside sweetheart, you’ll catch a cold,” said the nurse. The coldness of the night and the beauty of the moon can’t stop Julia from peeping out. She wrapped her warm arms around and lost herself in the view. She was distracted by the sudden fire and cries of the people. 

“Nurse, the carriages are set on fire by the Montagues” a stammered and broken voice was heard. 

“Julia, come here dear. We’ll be okay” comforted the nurse. 

A man who hid in his clothes pulled Julian’s hand. “Dare to harm my child!” the nurse shouted in anger. 

“What are you doing…we aren’t here for this” he took his hands off her. 

“But these people…they…”

“Romeo…let’s move. They’re here”, Benvolio shouted at the top of his voice. 

But they were already lost in their sight. They couldn’t take their eyes off each other but were forced to move. 

Tybalt and the Capulet men rushed to the scene and found the carriages and their commodities set on fire. Tybalt took off his sword and tried to tear their face cover. Within a strike of lightning, the men in the black horses disappeared. And Julian was finally able to hear the nurse’s voice.

“Are you okay dear…Speak something?” she asked. “Yeah…I…I’m okay…” she replied.

“Calm and cold was the night

Until the lovers were made to meet

The dreamers had their first dream

Romeo and Juliet – destiny they called

The moon smirked behind the clouds

As if it already knew their fate.”

That night neither the two eyes had a wink of sleep. Both had a question linger in their mind, “Are we meant to be?”

Capulet’s castle

“We are having a ball in a fortnight and Montague is trying to trigger us into a fight,” said Lady Capulet.

“Calm down. We must not react as we shall meet Count Paris anytime” advised the Lord. 

“You have promised Julian to me, Uncle,” Tybalt interrupted. 

“You are unable to save the people and my Julia…how can I promise my child to you and the connections are more important to us than your feelings” replied Lord Capulet and left the room hastily.

“Prepare the ball and let the Montagues be invited as it is a social gathering” ordered Lady to the servants. 

Juliet’s room

“Nurse, I think I’m in love. I couldn’t think of anything else since I met him” she told the nurse. 

“Julia, who are you talking about?” asked the nurse with a smile. 

“The man we met last night…Romeo”

 “Have you lost your mind? This can’t happen. Your father is going to announce your engagement in a fortnight. Better forget him dear” she advised her. 

“Why can’t you understand nurse, Count Paris isn’t a good man…” 

“But that’s what the Lord wants my child” she replied. Julia sighed and went outside the room to watch the stars or it was the silly reason she gave herself to get lost in Romeo’s thoughts. 

“Oh, Romeo! Thou art a Montague?

You and I are foes but I love you

I don’t care about the rest if I have you

Will I ever hear a word from you?”

She questioned looking at the sky. 

“Juliet, Oh my love!

And a sudden yet familiar voice hit her ears. 

Will you be my bride?

Our name is the pain

Our love is the cure”

“I recognize your voice, Romeo?” “How did you come here?” she asked. 

“Didn’t you want me here, Julia?” Romeo jumped into her balcony from the dark.  

“Your eyes are the lanterns of my night sky. I would get lost in the depth of your eyes and never wake up. You are the sun that lights up my world and the serene moon which makes me calm. You’re my life, my love!” 

“Don’t you feel the same, Juliet? 

“I do, my love”. Her eyes gleamed in the moonlight. 

“Come inside Juliet” her nurse called. 

“Go. Otherwise, they’ll find you Romeo” “Let’s meet at the square tomorrow at noon. I’ll wait for you,” she said, holding his hands unwilling to let go. 

“I’ll wait for you there…come soon. Good night love. Let’s meet in our dreams” he kissed her forehead. It’s been a perfect night for the lovers, the nightingale sang their love story and the sky blushed. 

“Where have you been my dear friend, I find something mysterious in you…?” 

“Mercutio, I met the most beautiful woman in the world. Her eyes teach me new words and I wish to be hers’ forever. I’m in love with her, my friend” 

“I’m in love with Juliet Capulet”

“So, Romeo Montague is in love with Capulet” “But do you know that Count Paris is suited to Juliet?” Mercutio asked.

“It doesn’t matter when love is the only language we know” he smiled and took his departure. 

At the Square

It has been their longest wait. They craved to see each other, hold hands, and to get lost in their world. Julia was on the way riding a black horse to meet the love of her life.

“You look more beautiful in the day than at night,” he said, resisting himself to adore her. 

“Finally, I see your hair color,” she said smiling.

A week passed in a fraction of a second. Their love grew stronger and greater as days passed by. They lived an eternity every time they met. They decided to marry in the presence of Friar Lawrence as they knew it would be impossible to convince their parents.

Two days before the ball

On a bright sunny day, at the holy church, the lovers exchanged their marriage vows. Their meeting wasn’t an accident. Their paths are meant to be crossed and now they are two bodies and a soul. It was the happiest moment for the lovers. They weren’t lovers anymore. After spending the entire day together, they had their goodbye kiss as husband and wife. 

“I’ll sort everything out very soon. Don’t you worry my wife” he said.

“We will,” she said. 

Some stories last for a lifetime

Some are just made to cross paths

But there are some which are

meant to be – the eternal one

Romeo and Juliet.

At the ball

The Capulets, the Montagues, the King and the Prince all were gathered for the ceremony. Lord Capulet was very eager to inform his daughter’s engagement with Count Prince. Tybalt was filled with anger. Romeo and Juliet were in mixed emotions. It is the last opportunity to expose their relationship to their family. 

“You’re beautiful Juliet Capulet, my wife,” said Count Prince.

“I’m a loyal wife of Romeo and I have the same second name as him” she confronted everyone in the hall. 

Everyone in the ceremony was speechless. Lord Capulet and Montague started to argue. Tybalt, who was full of anger, took out his sword and tried to attack Romeo. But he wasn’t ready to fight as Tybalt is his family now. Mercutio tried to convince Tybalt but was triggered by his anger. He took out his sword and started fighting. Within a moment, Mercutio was hurt. There was blood and he was on his verge of death. Romeo was crying beside him, unable to control his emotions.

“You must live, my friend. Violence won’t end violence; only love will. My love wasn’t meant to be and I want you to live. I want your love to end this war” he said. He smiled at a woman in the crowd. He knew she was the only one who could give him peace even in the pain. 

Mercutio died. 

The Prince lost his temper. He ordered Tybalt to leave the country. He also ordered the Capulets and the Montagues to accept Romeo and Juliet. Juliet was crying. Romeo consoled her. 

“We won’t accept you,” said Lord Capulet.

“Neither will we,” said Montague.

But the lovers were sure. It’s them or nothing. They started their life hoping it will grow beautiful someday. 

Ten years later

“Wake up kids. We need to pay a visit to your grandparents” Jula said to Catherine and Harry. 

Romeo entered the room.

“You’re beautiful my love” he kissed her. 

Julia held his hands and smiled at him. 

On a beautiful morning
At our home filled with
our children’s laughter
With you by my side
I would still tell,
“You’re beautiful”
And you’ll smile back at me.

Advantages of Fitness Trackers During Pandemic

Fitness bands have become quite popular nowadays. A fitness band is worn on the wrist, often with a display that can be used to control a smartphone or to keep track of information such as fitness levels.

              Fitness trackers certainly can be a helpful tool to track health and weight loss progress, the individual still has to stay motivated to make dietary changes or keep up with that new exercise routine.

“The health and fitness technology market is growing by 20 percent each year, making fitness trackers more popular by the minute”.

                While we are all social distancing due to the COVID-19 pandemic , fitness trackers can help us all stay on track with our fitness goals. Fitness trackers are a popular way to keep track of your progress. Depending on the tracker, can track steps, calories, distance traveled, caloric intake, and even heart rate and sleep. Some even offer GPS tracking to map your distance and pace.

Advantages of fitness trackers are mentioned below:

  • Personal accountability: Fitness trackers track your goals and your progress, psychologically encouraging you to walk more steps than you did yesterday; to run faster than you did yesterday; to sustain that peak heart rate for just a little longer for that intense interval training.
  • Promote activity in the workplace: Fitness is no longer an individual hobby or habit. Workplaces are getting involved in encouraging employees to adopt and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  • Motivation: A fitness tracker gives a visual of your progress and accomplishments each day. Seeing your progress is good motivation to improve more and more each day.
  • Healthy eating: It is important to eat a healthy diet while you exercise. By keeping track of your food and water intake helps you maintain a healthy lifestyle.
  • Set goals: Set goals for yourself to accomplish each day. For example, 10,000 steps a day. It is a great feeling to know you are capable of achieving anything you set your mind to.
  • Tracks sleep: A fitness tracker has the ability to track your sleep patterns, how deep or light you sleep, how long you slept, and each time you woke up. Recognizing your sleep patterns can allow you to have a good night’s sleep and improve your mood the next day.
  • Stay Connected: There are some fitness trackers that include Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. This allows you to receive incoming calls, text messages, or emails without looking at your phone. It is a great way to stay connected without always being close to your phone.
  • Monitors Heart Rate: Most fitness trackers have the ability to monitor your heart rate by measuring your pulse. This allows you to reach your target heart rate with each workout. The maximum heart rate is about 220 minus your age. During moderate physical activities, your target heart rate is about 50-70% of the maximum heart rate and with vigorous workouts it should be about 70-85% of the maximum heart rate. The fitness tracker can detect changes that may occur to your heart rate.
  • Weight loss tool: trackers help to keep track of your weight.


Photo by Nothing Ahead on

Us humans have a common enemy , that is fear . A human is born with just 2 fears – the fear of heights and fear of loud noises , and all the other fears are developed over the years . A normal amount of fear is good , it acts as a driving force and pushes you to do your best , but an abnormal amount of fear can be harmful as it prevents you from moving forward . There are ways to overcome these fears , here’s how :

IDENTIFY YOUR FEARS – The most important part of overcoming fear is actually identifying them . Knowing what exactly is causing so much fear helps you in becoming more aware about it . Once you know the root cause of your fears , it will be easy confronting it . Write down about in and sit with it for a while . Once have identified and being familiarised with your fear , you will be one step closer to overcoming and mastering your fear.

USE YOUR POWER OF IMAGINATION – When in a state of fear , we use our imagination to visualise the worst possible outcomes which inevitably leads to us being pushed deep into the labyrinth of negative thoughts . Instead of visualising the worst that can happen , try visualising the best possible outcome . This can help you resort to a state of calmness and prevent panicking .

FEAR CAN BE YOUR MOTIVATOR – Fear is actually your biggest motivator as it does not let you be in a state of complacency . Its the excess fear that is harmful . Your fear can actually lead you to the exact path you are supposed to be in. Stop viewing fear as a threat , view it as your guide that helps you in your life journey . Changing your mindset can really be beneficial .

NO MORE WHAT IFs – We humans have a tendency of complicating our lives by thinking about alternative outcomes. We have this ‘what if?’ question in our head , what if i lose ? what if this turns out to be horrible ? what if i fail? what if i hadn’t taken that step ? . Stop doing that , it’s not helping as what’s done is done , and we can never predict the future . So refrain from asking the what ifs as it gives fear more space in your head . Just let it be , let it go , just take action.

TALK TO SOMEONE – Talking about your fears with a friend , your parents or anyone in general can mitigate it and help you relax a bit . Ask for help if you need and discuss about your fears. It is very helpful as it helps you rationalise your fears and prevent it from spiralling out .

Master your fear , don’t let it have control over you .

Book Review – Swami And Friends by R.K Narayan

Swami and Friends: R. K. Narayan - Article | ATG

The Author of the Novel

Rasipuram Krishnaswami Iyer Narayanaswami commonly known as R. K. Narayan, was an Indian writer known for his work set in the fictional South Indian town of Malgudi. In his long career he published fourteen novels, over two hundred short stories, a memoir, two travel books, innumerable essays, and two plays. His first novel was Swami and Friends (1935). Sahitya Academy Award winner ,”The Guide ”was adapted for the film winning a Filmfare Award for Best Film and for Broadway. And He was Also Awarded Padama Bhushan And Padama Vibhushan.

Preface  the Novel

The Novel “Swami and Friends” was written by famous Indian author RK Narayan in 1935, This is a friendship based Book. The full story of this Book is based on Swami and his friends live in the small town of Malgudi in Southern India. Swami and Friends was written between the first and second world wars . A literary Period of notable creative experimentation that likely encouraged Narayan in his mission to create uniquely personal comedic depiction of his remembered childhood.

Theme of the Novel

The whole story revolve around the  10-year-old boy Swami. He is an unconstrained, indiscreet, wicked but then also an exceptionally honest child. His character is a kid in the fullest feeling of the world. How he grows up, his mischiefs which made his family irritated, his wonder, growing pains and innocence and many aspects are being portrayed in the novel. He lives in a universe of bossy grown-ups. He is a student at Albert Mission School. It is a British established school where importance is given to Christianity and English education.

Characterisation of the Novel

Swami is the central character of the plot.. As a child, he goes to school where he does not like studies and gets bored easily. He is an honest boy of seven but, on the other hand, he also does not hesitate telling lies to his father. He loves his granny’s stories. He is good at cricket and is nicknamed “Tate.” Later in the course of the novel, he became bolder and socially prominent.

Mani is one of the closest friends of Swami. He is known as “the mighty good for  nothing.” Swaminathan was proud of his friendship.

Rajam is the son of the Police Superintendent and one of Swami’s closest  friends. Rajam is new to Swami’s school at the start of the novel, and initially Swami and Mani view him as an enemy due to his quick wits, fine clothes, and fearless nature.

Shankar is another bosom friend of Swami. He is a brilliant boy of the class.. He could speak to the teachers in English in the open class

Swami’s another bosom friend was Samuel, the Pea. He was called the Pea as he was very small in size.

Somu, the monitor of the class. He was set about his business, whatever it was, with absolute confidence and calmness. He was known to be chummy even with the teachers.

Swami’s father, W.T. Srinivasan, is an imposing figure who works at the courts and is usually strict with Swami. Swami sometimes feels afraid of his father, but at other times he turns to him for help and support

Swami’s mother appears in the novel only occasionally, usually in the context of providing Swami with something he wants or backing him up in an argument with his father.

Swami’s grandmother, whom he calls Granny, is an old woman who lives with Swami and his mother and father. Swami views Granny as ancient and sometimes embarrassing, but she is also a source of comfort and security during times of change, particularly when Swami’s brother is born.

Conclusion of the Novel

The moral of swami and friends the book written by RK Narayan is it reminds us about our childhood memories such as mischief’s in childhood, plucking mangoes etc. and in short it briefly explains the sweetness of childhood and importance of friendship.  His father use to say you must rise up early to study and “remember boy, your examination is not going to wait but your granny can!”. Therefore this paragraph teaches us that  “never force any child too much to study”, as a first life lesson from swami & friends.

On International Cat Day 2021-You should know that Cats Are the Finest Pet You Can Have

British Shorthair tortie and white female cat with tortie and white kitten, and chocolate and cream bicolour kittens

The cat (Felis catus) is a domestic species of small carnivorous mammal. It is the only domesticated species in the family Felidae and is often referred to as the domestic cat to distinguish it from the wild members of the family.

Owning a cat can bring unconditional love and companionship in your life. Having a cat can also help to relieve stress and improve your heart health.Owning a cat can be an extraordinarily rewarding relationship. A cat has the ability to both calm your nervous system and provide an immediate outlet for fun and play.

        Most cats love to curl up in your lap at the end of a long day while you watch television or read a book. The simplicity of this act can cause an automatic release of all the right kinds of chemicals to your brain, allowing you to ease into the evening without the weight of the world on your shoulders.

On August 8, the world observes International Cat Day to celebrate and learn more about one of man’s common and ancient pets. Announced by International Fund for Animal Welfare, International Cat Day is being celebrated since 2002.  International Cat Day is celebrated to help raise public awareness about cats, to learn about ways to keep and protect them.

On International Cat Day, I would like to enlist why cats make a great pet:

1.Cats are good for your health:

While owning any pet can provide a numerous health benefits.

  • Lower the risk of stress and anxiety: Research studies shows that a cat’s purr can calm your nervous system and lower your blood pressure.
  • Reduce feelings of loneliness. Cats make great companion animals. They offer an unconditional love that can be equal to many human friends.
  • Improve your cardiovascular health. Cat owners have been reported to carry a lower risk for heart disease and stroke.

2. Cats are low maintenance: 

cats are most fascinating quality is that they are lower maintenance and cost less than dogs, who need walking, training, frequent grooming, and more toys and attention.

3. Cats are ideal pets for apartments:

Cats are also perfect for apartments or city living. They don’t need tons of space to play and explore. Compared to dogs, cats require less space and can take better advantage of vertical space. 

4. Cats are quiet:

cats are a great choice of pet. cats tend to meow when they’re hungry, but you rarely have to worry about being woken up or distracted from a task by a cat begging for attention. this makes them an ideal pet if you are working from home.

5.They’re independent:

cats are independent animals who like to scavenge and explore on their own terms, they are also very affectionate with their owners and people they trust. A cat will be there for you when you need them but they’re also perfectly adept at entertaining themselves. One of the best things about cats is that they are very independent creatures. Unlike dogs, who require quite a high level of attention cats are quite happy to have time to themselves.

6.cats can help kids to learn skills:

Cats can have a bunch of positive effects on children. According to study conducted owning a cat can teach kids social skills and help them cope with traumatic situations.

“Cats are connoisseurs of comfort.” – James Herriot

Vodafone Tax Case Study


In this article, we will discuss about the Vodafone tax case. This tax case was started more than 13 years back and even today this case has not been solved out. We will now find out what makes this case so complicated.

Tax Haven

So before we begin with the case, Let me give a small brief about what is a tax haven. So, A tax haven is generally an “offshore country” that offers foreign individuals and businesses little or no tax liability in a politically and economically static environment. This means Tax havens provide the advantage of little or no tax liability. Why do these countries do so? Tax Haven Countries benefit by way of attracting capital to their banks and financial institutions. Individuals or Businesses benefit by saving tax, which in tax haven countries may range from zero to low single digits. This is a win-win situation. There are many tax havens all over the world. A list of some of the most popular tax haven countries includes the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Cook Islands, The Isle of Man, and Mauritius.

The Deal

  • Four companies were involved in the transaction.
  • First is Hutchison Telecommunications International Limited (HTIL). It is situated in Hong Kong. It holds 100% shares in CGP Investments Holdings Ltd.
  • CGP Investments holdings ltd is situated in Cayman island, Mauritius, and holds 67% shares in HEL.
  • The third company is Hutch Essar Limited (HEL). It was situated in India and was formed by the merger of HTIL and Essar groups.
  • The fourth company is Vodafone International Holdings (VIH). It is situated in Netherland.
  • Before 2007, HTIL owned CGP investments completely and CGP investments had a major stake in HEL in India. This means HTIL was owning HEL indirectly through CGP Investments. Vodafone wanted to acquire HEL. Now if it straight away buys the shares of HEL, then that would attract huge Capital Gains tax in India under the Income Tax Act. To save tax, Vodafone opted to acquire CGP, which is holding company of HEL. So, after the deal, Vodafone became the owner of HEL but indirectly through CGP.
Tax Return Form and Notebooks on the Table

IT Department view

But this transaction came under the notice of our Income Tax department and they did not like it. Their contention was simple- CGP was created just to take benefits of tax exemption. According to them, this was the case of Tax Evasion. They were looking at Substance over form. Substance means reality and form mean what is there on paper. So according to them, the transaction was to transfer rights in HEL to Vodafone. This is because though Vodafone paid 11.9 Billion dollars in consideration for a stake in CGP. But CGP in itself was not doing any business. Therefore Vodafone was served a legal notice as it failed to deduct tax. IT Department issued Rs 11,200 crores plus interest Notice to the Vodafone.

Vodafone goes to Supreme Court

Vodafone however, did not relent. The company approached the Supreme Court where the discussion largely revolved around one subject— Was this a deliberate case of tax avoidance or was it simply prudent tax planning? After all, if Vodafone had designed the transaction in a deliberate ploy to avoid taxes, they could be held liable. But if they could prove they had simply executed the transaction without ill intention, maybe they’d get some reprieve. And after lengthy deliberations, the Supreme Court opined that the sale did not amount to tax avoidance. The judges ruled that Vodafone no longer had to pay taxes on this transaction and that should have been the end of this conversation. The government, however, brought retrospective amendments in 2012, which made Vodafone liable for taxes. Vodafone sued the Indian government at the International arbitration court at Hague and this case is still going on.


So, to conclude this is a very complex tax case and for years, this case has been evolving. Recently a bill was tabled in the parliament to revoke the retrospective effect of 2012 amendments. The International court ruled in the favor of the Vodafone and it is at the discretion of the government whether to comply with that or not. If India taxes Vodafone for that transaction, it will ruin India’s image in ease of doing business ranking. Let’s wait for how government ultimately reacts and what will be the fate of the Vodafone. What do you think? Should government drop the case and pay damages to the Vodafone or should it demand the taxes?

Interpersonal Skills-A Way to Success

To open the doors of success,

Get out of the pleasing fake bubble,

And meet the harsh real world.

Photo by Christina Morillo on

There are 3 basic questions that arise in the minds of each individual when thinking about their interpersonal skills:

  • What are interpersonal skills?
  • Why is there a need to absorb these skills?
  • How to identify and improve them?


Interpersonal skills are the skills that a person uses to interact with others. They are also referred as social skills, which helps you to interact , communicate & collaborate with others effectively. Some examples of such skills are:

  • Self confidence
  • Positive attitude
  • Empathy
  • Listening skills
  • Controlling your emotions
  • Communication skills


In today’s world the most important interpersonal skill is the communication skill. For an effective interaction and good relations, we need to posess and polish our communication skills. It is divided into 3 divisions:

  1. Verbal communication– To convey our thoughts and ideas to the other person, it is very important to express them clearly and precisely, either verbally or through written mediums(letters, reports, etc.)
  2. Non-Verbal communication– Not all conversations are verbal, some are also carried by non-verbal components like when we express our opinion by our gestures or body language.
  3. Effective listening– Yes, listening is also a part of communication. Only a good listener can be a good speaker, as to make others understand your viewpoint, you need to first listen theirs.


We often come across various people for different purposes but our relation with them depends on our ability to handle them. The key role, here, is played by our interpersonal skills. As we grow, we possess some of these skills unconsciously while some of these has to be assimilated.

For a successful career we need to have good relations with others. A student having good social skills has many opportunity doors opened and can explore different areas. A person seeking job needs to first pass the interview round(in almost every paid job)where his interpersonal skills are tested. Even in a business, good social relations increases the chances of a longer and successful business.

Not only for our career but social skills are also important for a good personal life. Whether it is our friends, family, relatives or partners, each of them is to be handled with care by using your skills. These skills also enhances your overall personality, boosts your confidence and makes you a better person. Also some people may wonder that such skills are present in every human being by birth but that’s not true, each individual is different and such skills comes with experience. As we grow, we tend to develop them, but to make them useful you need to polish them as well.


By now, you may have identified some of the social skills you have. To identify these skills, the most effective way is to interact with more &more people(known and unknown)as this will help you spot your strengths and weaknesses. After doing so just pick out your strengths and practice them daily and use them to overpower you weakness. In due course of time you will see that your polished strengths have reduced and ultimately removed your weaknesses.

So just focus on your skills, improve them and conquer your dreams….

Small Steps to Help the Earth

In today’s time of climate change and environmental degradation, it is of utmost importance to rein in the damage done to the environment before it crosses a point of no return. The major portion of environmental damage caused can only be worked towards reducing if the various governments, organizations and corporations work towards solving the various issues and the sources causing these issues. But that doesn’t mean that normal people cannot do anything. We each can, in our own way, change certain habits and follow a certain way of lifestyle which can be more efficient and reduce environmental strain. One person, or a small group of people’s efforts will not do anything. However, if all of us on the Earth try and make an effort to our best abilities, then our small steps will give rise to a large positive impact on the environment.

By regulating the way we manage certain things in our life and by following certain practices, right from within our home itself, each one of us can contribute to reducing environmental damage and making the Earth a better place.

A few ways you can make a difference in the health of the environment and planet:

Practice the 3Rs: The 3Rs stand for Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Reduce means to limit and decrease the use of something. Reuse is using a used item again. Recycling is to make a new object from an old one.


Both plastic as well as glass bottles can either be reused or recycled. However, not all types of plastic can be recycled, only certain types of plastic can. This recyclable plastic is taken to factories and used in the automobile industry to make plastic parts for cars. Glass bottles get taken to factories and recycled by crushing and then melting them to eventually form new bottles and the like. Both glass and plastic bottles can be reused. They can be reused normally or be used to grow small plants in.

Reuse of bottles
Reuse of bottles

Paper can also be recycled to make new paper and cardboard. Recently, notebooks made from recycled paper have shown a rise in popularity.

Old clothes can either be sent to charity organizations, where they are given to the needy or sent to textile mills where they get recycled.

Vegetable waste like fruit peelings, tea leaves and even paper to a certain extent can be used to make compost. This compost is very nutrient rich and can be used for keeping plants grown at home healthy.

Carrier bags should be reused. It is better to use cloth bags, as they are not only eco-friendly, but also can be reused multiple times and repaired and washable if they get spoiled.

Electrical and energy consuming appliances should be switched of when not in use. Water taps should be checked to ensure that no water gets wasted due to dripping.

Apart from all this, it is necessary to spread awareness too. Educate and encourage your family, neighbors, friends and acquaintances. Students can form ‘Green Clubs’.

At first glance, these may seem insignificant, but with everyone doing it, it will make a difference.

F.R.I.E.N.D.S – The learning

How many of you have watched the series “F.R.I.E.N.D.S”? If you haven’t and if you are above 18, go watch it right now. I am a diehard friends fan. I can watch the series all day. I can watch from the middle, I can directly watch the last season and the 6 of them never fail to make me the happiest. I am sure there are haters and the main reason for hating the show is because of the on and off relationships or some meaningless dates. Yeah, some things don’t make sense to me too but there are so many other things that I could learn from the show.

I’ll be there for you

Each and every character in the show is well created with perfect personalities and with perfect balance. If I was asked to choose between any 2 of them it would be so difficult because everyone is balanced. The show never failed to make me cry. There are so many emotional moments that make the viewers cry. I can write whole another article to show my love towards the show but I am now here to list out things that I have learned from the show (list down reasons for you to watch the show)

It is never too late

I learned that it is never too late to get back on your feet, never too late to follow your passion.

Rachel Green

Be it Rachel Green, the spoiled little girl who was going to get married, who then realized that that is not what she wants in her life. That one thought can change everything. She started as a waitress. Later she found a job for her passion (fashion). She escalated step by step, at the end she was capable enough to get a job in Paris. The way she gets hold of her life and works towards her passion will never fail to inspire others.

Chandler Bing

On the other hand, we have Chandler Bing, the king of sarcasm. Chandler was in this job statistical analysis and data reconfiguration the whole time. When he realized that this job is not what he really likes, he quits. In an episode he says that he hates his job whereas everyone else says that they love their job. In another episode when he can’t be with his wife on Christmas, he quits the job without a second thought. He finds his passion and gets a job as a writer.

These two people showed that it is never too late to follow your passion and you can change you fate and career whenever you want if you work hard.

Never care about what others think

Phoebe Buffay

Who comes to your mind when you read this? Of course Phoebe Buffay. I absolutely adore her for her attitude towards her surroundings, her confidence, her weirdness. She simply does whatever she wants to do without even thinking about what others will think of her. But she doesn’t forget to check on her friends or take care of them because friends are very important to phoebe. She managed to keep herself happy even though she had a terrible childhood. She plays guitar for herself and only for her happiness despite the negative comments she have got. She did not have long term relationships, because she did not want to get to attached to some random dating guy. Whenever she did, she was left hurt. Except for when she found the love of her life Mike. The package of Phoebe Buffay’s personality amuses me and I can aww about it all day. I simply love her.

She has taught me that you can change your traumatic day-to-day life to a fun filled beautiful life if you have the right attitude and mindset. She doesn’t speak much about her bad experiences form childhood and that is why she has always been a mystery.

You can always be nice

Ross Geller

The nicest person in the show would be Ross Geller. He doesn’t hold grudges and he has a pure heart. There are many situations where Ross could have simply walked away but he chose to be nice. Be it the time he helped Rachel get ready even though he had a big thing going on in his life (He was going to get featured in discovery channel, poor Ross). His friend seemed very important to him. The way he supports his sister’s life decisions and takes care of her. He has always been a great buddy to Chandler and Joey. How he supports Rachel with the whole pregnancy thing. He struggles to make her stay by getting her job back at Ralph Lauren but when he realizes that moving to Paris will make Rachel happy. He genuinely accepts that.

I will not forget to mention the time when he got Phoebe her first bike. That is the nicest thing someone could do. It takes very small things to be nice to others but we fail to understand the importance of that.

Cherish the people around you

Monica Geller

This would definitely be Monica Geller. I mean, as chandler said “She is a mother without a child”. That is one of those emotional moments that made me cry. Monica has always been the hostess. Taking care of others made her happy. What more can you learn from a person. The utmost generosity is taught to us by Monica. Right from season 1 to season 10.

All 6 of them hang out in Monica’s apartment and she never really thought bad about it. She wanted them to be around her. As she did not have many friends when she was young, she loved to keep the closest people and take care of them no matter what. She let Rachel stay with her without any second thought. She let Joey take food from her fridge whenever he wants. She hosted thanksgiving dinner every single year and made everyone so happy and so full. She is definitely a mother without a child.

Bring humor out of every problem

You are right, this is Chandler Bing. He taught us that no problem is bigger than you happiness. You don’t have to feel down because of the problems. You can still make fun of them and face them with humor. Something that is very difficult to do but Chandler Bing is very smooth with that. His humor is one of the best things in the show or should I say that he is the king of sarcasm.

He too had a terrible childhood, he dealt with parent’s divorce. That is when he found sarcasm to deal with all this. He waited for the right girl and when he found Monica he grew into whole other person who is mature, responsible and who no longer has commitment issues. Seeing chandler grow is one of the best parts of the show.

Keep following your passion

Joey Tribbiani

Joey is an actor in the entire show. He doesn’t get any big breaks. He doesn’t get so many opportunities but he kept trying and staying in the same field just because he loves it. No matter what others comment about his acting skills, he kept doing it. That is the kind of confidence that we all should have.

To conclude I would say, hold on to people who care about you. Take care of them, be supportive and be nice. Being nice takes nothing but gives you happiness that anything could ever give. Chandler selflessly took care of Joey like his kid. Only real friends can do such selfless act. Personally I am not very fond of friends (I’m an introvert), but I do believe in people who genuinely cares. Even if they are not nice to you, you can still be nice. Be the bigger person. But don’t please anyone.

Do you know these fact of Olympics Games

By – Yogiraj Sadaphal

“The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not winning but taking part; the essential thing in life is not conquering but fighting well.”

                              – Pierre de Coubertin

Ancient Olympics Games.

There were lots of stories about the origin of Ancient Olympic Games. The word Olympic is derived from Olympia a valley, where first such games were organized. The ancient Olympic Games were primarily held in honor of Zeus, the father of the Greek gods and goddesses, as part of a religious festival. Olympia hosted both the festival and the games. The athletes were all male citizens of the city-states from every corner of the Greek world. The olive wreath was the prize for the winner at the Ancient Olympic Games.

Modern Olympic Games.

Baron Pierre de Coubertin of France is credited with reviving modern Olympic Games. The first Modern Olympic Games were held in Athens in 1896, thanks to his tireless efforts. The First Olympic Games featured nine countries. Medals are awarded in three categories: gold, silver, and bronze, for first, second, and third place, respectively.

Olympic Flag

Rings in Olympic flag:-

The symbol was originally created in 1913 by Coubertin. The Olympic flag has a white background, with 5 interlaced rings in the center i.e. Blue, Yellow, Black, Green and Red which represent different continents of the world. It represent the universality and the spirit of Olympism.

Blue Ring represent – European continent.

Yellow Ring – Asia continent.

Black Ring – Africa continent.

Green Ring – Australia continent.

Red Ring – America continent.

Objectives of Olympics:-

1. To develop personality, characters, citizenship among nations.

2.To pay attention towards  physical  education  and  sports  Competitions among countries.

3. To develop International fraternity and peace.

Organizations for Olympics:-

International Olympic Committee (IOC):–

It is the top body in charge of the Olympic Games. With the help of Baron de Coubertin, it was founded during the International Athletic Congress, which took place in Paris on June 25, 1894. The Headquarter of IOC are located in Lausanne (Switzerland).

Indian Olympic Association (IOA) :–

Dorabji Tata was the founding president of the Indian Olympic Association (IOA), which was founded in 1927. The International Olympic Committee is linked with the Indian Olympic Association. The executive board of the Indian Olympic Association is comprised of members such as the president, vice president, secretary, joint-secretary, treasurer, state Olympic associations, and national federation representatives.

Till now, in the history of India’s Olympics Medals, India won 7 medals which contains 1 Gold, 2 Silver & 4 Bronze in Tokyo Olympic Games 2020 which is more than the previous one. I hope India’s athletics will made India proud by their dedication and enthusiasm towards their games.

Education and academic news

Education is the essential thing for our life, and it helps in the growth of human civilization. Education is necessary to understand the universe around us and convert it into something more beneficial. With the help of knowledge, we can develop a new perspective for our life. If people are educated, then they can know their responsibilities and rights quite well. Education is a very powerful medium to grow in life and perceive something important. In a human’s life, education benefits a lot in decreasing the difficulties of a hard life. The expertise obtained through the education era encourages everybody regarding their life. Education is a way to enter into several doors for possibilities to obtain more real prospects in life to improve career growth. Government is also arranging various programs to educate everyone about education and its benefits in our life especially in rural areas. Education delivers knowledge of equality among everyone in society and encourages the growth and improvement of the nation.

There was a survey conducted in the year 2014 which result in the following Education in India Statistics. A survey on ‘Social Consumption: Education’ was conducted in NSS 71st round (January-June 2014).A sample of 36479 rural households from 4577 villages and 29447 urban households from 3720 blocks were surveyed all over India. Literacy rate among persons (aged 5 years and above) in India was 76%. In rural areas, the literacy rate was 71% compared to 86% in urban areas. The difference in literacy rate among males and females (aged 5 years and above) was observed with male literacy rate higher (83%) than female literacy rate (68%). Percentage distribution of rural persons of ages 15 years & above by highest completed levels of education: 35% were not literate, 23% were literates up to the primary, 17% were of level upper primary, 20% were of levels secondary and higher secondary and 4% were graduate & above.
Percentage distribution of urban persons of age 15 years & above by highest completed level of education: 16% were not literate, 17% were literates up to the primary, 16% were of level upper primary, 30% were of level secondary and higher secondary and 18% were graduate & above.

Indian government considers education as a key area where drastic growth and development is required. So various future prospects have been considered and policies are drafted. The vision is to ensure that education in India is of the highest quality and available to the whole population without discrimination. Let us look at some projects the government wishes to implement successfully. Though the education level has increased for both youth as well as adults, still the number of illiterates is as much as the population was at the time of independence. The constituent assembly passed the Constitution of India in the year 1950. Free and compulsory education for the children till 14 years of age within 10 years from the commencement of constitution wasnoted

ICMR says, Covishield, Covaxin blend can give better outcomes

The examination was led on 18 individuals who have gotten two portions of two distinct vaccines and it has not yet been peer-assessed, reports said.

The Research:

The Indian Council of Medical Research has uncovered that a blend of Covishield and Covaxin, the two fundamental antibodies of India’s Covid inoculation program, can really yield better outcomes, news organization ANI detailed. The investigation was just led on 18 individuals of Uttar Pradesh’s Siddharth Nagar, who accidentally got two dosages of two separate immunizations / Vaccines. As indicated by the finding of the examination which is yet to be peer-checked on vaccination with a blend of an adenovirus vector stage-based antibody, trailed by inactivated entire infection immunization was protected as well as inspired better immunogenicity. Covishield, fabricated by Pune’s Serum Institute of India, is the adenovirus vector stage-based antibody and Covaxin, created and made by Bharat Biotech and the ICMR, is the entire infection immunization. Covishield and Covaxin have a place with two distinct sorts.

The investigation named ‘Fortunate Covid-19 Vaccine-Mix in Uttar Pradesh, India: Safety and Immunogenicity Assessment of a Heterologous Regime’ has been transferred on medRxiv. Under this investigation, 18 individuals got two dosages of two unique immunizations, the response of which was contrasted with 40 recipients of two portions of Covishield and 40 beneficiaries of two portions of Covaxin, news organization PTI announced. The examination length was from May to June 2021, it said.

Blending of immunizations is being talked about universally, all investigations are supportive of blending two antibodies to build the insurance against future contamination. The subject master panel of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization has in July suggested a preliminary of blending Covishield and Covaxin, which will be led by the Christian Medical College in Vellore on 300 sound volunteers.

While that will be an appropriate clinical preliminary to examine the adequacy of the mixed drink of Covishield and Covaxin, the ICMR’s investigation depended on the goof-up that occurred in May. There was no prompt antagonistic effect of the misunderstanding of the recipients. Presently, further investigation has uncovered that the misunderstanding has really worked for insurance as these individuals have more security than the individuals who have gotten two shots of a similar antibody.

What WHO has to say:

The issue of blending antibodies is touchy as World Health Organization has cautioned that people ought not settle on blending immunizations. Niti Aayog part (wellbeing) Dr VK Paul had before said that hypothetically there is no issue in blending two antibodies as the second portion in such a case will function as a promoter shot. Yet, as the public authority began its immunization drive on January 16, it requested that wellbeing laborers practice outrageous alert to ensure that the recipients get the second shot of the very antibody that they got as their first shots.

What to Understand?

  • We don’t have to take two different doses of vaccine; second shot should be of the same vaccine which we got as first dose.
  • We should adhere to advice of WHO, it will benefit our health only.

Science and technology

Science and technology are important parts of our day to day life. We get up in the morning from the ringing of our alarm clocks and go to bed at night after switching our lights off. All these luxuries that we are able to afford are a resultant of Science and technology. Most importantly, how we can do all this in a short time are because of the advancement of science and technology only. It is hard to imagine our life now without science and technology. Indeed our existence itself depends on it now. Every day new technologies are coming up which are making human life easier and more comfortable. Thus, we live in an era of science and technology.

Essentially, Science and Technology have introduced us to the establishment of modern civilization. This development contributes greatly to almost every aspect of our daily life. Hence, people get the chance to enjoy these results, which make our lives more relaxed and pleasurable.

If we think about it, there are numerous benefits of science and technology. They range from the little things to the big ones. For instance, the morning paper which we read that delivers us reliable information is a result of scientific progress. In addition, the electrical devices without which life is hard to imagine like a refrigerator, AC, microwave and more are a result of technological advancement.

Furthermore, if we look at the transport scenario, we notice how science and technology play a major role here as well. We can quickly reach the other part of the earth within hours, all thanks to advancing technology.

In addition, science and technology have enabled man to look further than our planet. The discovery of new planets and the establishment of satellites in space is because of the very same science and technology.
Similarly, science and technology have also made an impact on the medical and agricultural fields. The various cures being discovered for diseases have saved millions of lives through science. Moreover, technology has enhanced the production of different crops benefitting the farmers largely.

Tips For Enrich India’s Educational System To Produce Industry-Ready Engineers

In this competitive world, everyone will go for the job not only a student but also their parents expecting the same things from their children’s from their childhood. Due to which students are not focusing on their studies, they will only concentrate on their marks to complete their engineering and get a job in an MNC. A student after his engineering, just sitting on their couch and enjoying popcorn, this mostly happens in India. But in America, they developed the methodology and industry-based coaching for every student from the very beginning which feels comfortable and effortless to work in an industry after his engineering.

Skills To Devlop

Below are some key points which lead India’s engineering education system is not to produce industry-ready engineers.

  • The businessman entered this Education world and converted to a money market.
  • Students get several alternative options to score high in their semesters like a copy in exams, paperwork by giving bribery to corrupt officials.
  • College management’s destructive policy on producing engineers deal with companies to just select a student and after few months they will terminate those employees on their performance basis.
  • Lack of planning to provide industry-based education rather focusing on the percentage of students gets their jobs in the final semester.

Our students are also lack of skills to practically work on real-time projects in their company after they pass out. It is the main reason that leads to unemployment in India. Without certain industry skills, our students never are so successful in their future. We can easily differentiate our college studies from our corporate or industrial work.To change this track,we have to conscious about key things to improve as much as possible to get hired by big companies without any confusion.

Methodology For Best Coaching

Certain things to focus on for every student:

  • Problem-solving and analytical skills.
  • Improve good communication.
  • Creative thinking.
  • Acquire knowledge on practical things apart from books and college assignments.
  • Always updated according to market.
  • Eagerness for invention.
  • Workaholic nature and concentrate on learning technical skills.
  • More practice and basic training.

India sets an example by producing great engineers like Satish Dhawan, Sundar Pichai, and many more. So if we focus on those above points and extract every business person from this world, protect our education system from dishonest and fraudulent people, then we will see a better future ahead.

Life of a Language student

‘I’m learning a new language’ feels good to say right. When you tell other people that you are learning a language and they go ‘Awe that is awesome! But isn’t it difficult’ and then you reply ‘Nahh, it’s so easy and interesting (yes, I’m a born genius ())’. But who are you kidding, learning a new language is hell of a difficult job to do!!

When I started learning Japanese it was very fun, easy but as I progressed further it started becoming tough; tough, yes BUT interesting. You have no idea how good it feels to be able to watch anime without subtitles. Okay, okay sometimes I do need subtitles because I am still learning but you have to agree starting to understand a different language other than your own does feel like a great accomplishment, doesn’t it.

Now as to why I started to learn Japanese, because I AM IN LOVE WITH JAPAN, always have been ever since I was 10. I was always fascinated by it. I wanted to learn more about the country and still learning. I was a student of economics, yes I studied economics first, graduated and then currently doing my second graduation in Japanese. All of the people around me asked me ‘what the hell are you doing?’ ‘Shouldn’t you be doing your post-graduation?’ ‘Why are you wasting your time?’ and I had only one answer ‘BECAUSE I WANT TO¯\_()_/¯’.

Photo by Tomu00e1u0161 Malu00edk on

But the truth is I realized it a little late what I actually wanted to do. I took economics because it was a very trending course and everyone around me was doing it (luckily, got the percentage for it) but after 3 years of studying I realized this wasn’t what I should be doing because I was not able to see myself anywhere. The initial idea was to learn Japanese as something extra outside of my normal academic life but it turned out to be something that I should have been doing all along. So I did. After graduating I told my parents I want to do another graduation and they happily agreed. Then for the first time in my life I had the answer to the question-‘Where do you see yourself in the next 5-10 years’. The picture has finally become clear to me. So do what you want to do, then only you will be able to look in the future and see yourself standing where you actually want to be. No regrets.


Five Reasons Why Internships Are So Important

Nowadays, having a degree isn’t nearly enough for you to land your dream job. Employers are not only interested in knowing what you achieved academically but they also need something extra, outside the field of academics. Doing internships has become a necessity for upping your game to land your dream job by improving your CV. And you can do so by participating in all kinds of extra-curricular activities that you do besides your studies in college and by gaining work experience be it full-time or part-time.

There are many of you out there (I hope I’m not the only one) just like me who are a bit timid or don’t really know how or why do we need to go through the process of doing internships. I myself didn’t really understand as to why we need to do internships and didn’t want to do them anyway, because doing them would mean me talking to people, something I am not very good at.

 But one time I got a call from a very prestigious organization (won’t disclose the name but it was a big deal ✖‿✖). They had selected students through a seminar in our college and I had no idea about it, so when they called me for a phone interview…I.BLEW.IT. and it didn’t really bother me at that time because I wasn’t really wanting to do it, but as time passed and I started to think about my future and career it really hit hard that I wasn’t up to the level of my peers. Just studying won’t get me anywhere. Then I realized it was time to finally let go of my insecurities and start to think about how to better my CV to get to my dream.

Photo by fauxels on

Now let’s get to doing my job (as a part of my internship ¯\_()_/¯) which is to tell y’all why doing internships is so important, fun isn’t it, me telling you to do internships as a part of my own. But this is what makes me perfect for the job as I can put myself in your shoes and you can put yourself in mine and see for yourself that it’s not that difficult once you try.

Let’s start it off with something simple:

To learn new skills: when start doing internships, you will learn new things with every internship that you do because every job is different every jobs requirements are different which makes the environment very competitive as well. As you proceed doing different internships with different requirement you will learn a set of whole new things, which brings me to my next point.

Learning about yourself in a competitive environment: as I mentioned in the previous point that doing internships makes you learn new skills and while learning new skills and working under a competitive environment because there might be people who are already have those skills, this will indeed pressurize you to do your best, honing your skills. This will further help you in understanding yourself better and realize what you are actually good at and what you want to do long term.

Developing problem solving skills: Working under different environments will definitely help improve your problem solving ability. Thinking at your feet is a very good skill to have while on the job as it helps you to tackle problems that you face and that comes though experience. When you have had all kinds experience you become a quick thinker thus making your job easier.

Photo by Magnetme on

Getting a taste of real working environment: this point doesn’t really need an explanation it’s self –explanatory. While doing internships you will realize what a real working job feels like. This will be your first step into the world as a working individual.

Helps in social networking: it doesn’t have to do with social networking, it is social + networking….get that? Okay in easier words, when you are on the job you meet new people and socialize with them (something I’m not very good at) which helps you increase your networking; that is how many people you know on the job which might come in handy in the future. So here you have it SOCIAL + NETWORKING

This was me telling you why doing internships is important but if you still want to know more, then it is important to do your research.


Digital marketing

Any marketing that uses electronic devices to convey promotional messaging and measure its impact. In practice, digital marketing typically refers to marketing campaigns that appear on a computer, phone, tablet, or other device. It can take many forms, including online video, display ads,and social media posts. Digital marketing is often compared to “traditional marketing” such as magazine ads, billboards, and direct mail. Oddly, television is usually lumped in with traditional marketing.

Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel.

Digital marketing and inbound marketing are easily, and for good reason. Digital marketing uses many of the same tools as inbound marketing—email and online content, to name a few. Both exist to capture the attention of prospects through the buyer’s journey and turn them into customers. But the 2 approaches take different views of the relationship between the tool and the goal.

Digital marketing considers how each individual tool can convert prospects. A brand’s digital marketing strategy may use multiple platforms or focus all of its efforts on 1 platform.

Inbound marketing is a holistic concept. It considers the goal first, then looks at the available tools to determine which will effectively reach target customers, and then at which stage of the sales funnel that should happen.

Important dates of year , Teacher’s Day

Teacher’s Day is the festival of birth anniversary of Bharat Ratna beneficiary Dr Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan. He was a practical and inspirational teacher whom each student of the country used to cherish. In the memory of his contributions as a teacher, we praise the Teacher’s Day to respect our teachers and give them all the regard they deserve.

Teacher’s Day is a day for which the teachers and particularly students energetically wait for the entire year. Teacher’s Day is a celebration of joy, enthusiasm and worship that is the reason the individuals from various parts of India praise the day to offer appreciation to their teachers

Indian Schools and Colleges direct the most fabulous celebration on Teacher’s Day. Even though the School stay open, the students get a temporary leave from the regular studies and are permitted to appreciate the day in their manner. A few students take on the appearance of their teachers and arrive at the lower classes to control the students in those classes. They do as such to help their youngsters for their upcoming tests and have a sentiment of a traditional teacher.

Students additionally decorate their School and Classes and arrange some cake and snacks for their teacher. Their teachers cut the cake, and they convey some Speech on Teachers . Singing, Dancing and other fun activities are likewise a part of the celebration of the day which students perform to engage their teachers. The students likewise present a speech to show their appreciation towards their teacher. The event of Teacher’s Day help strengthens the bond between a teacher and a student.

Axis bank Crosses one million customers on Whatsapp banking.

Bank Building Vector Illustration.

Axis bank was founded on 3 December 1993 as UTI Bank, opening its registered office in Ahmedabad and a corporate office in Mumbai.[10] The bank was promoted jointly by the Administrator of the Unit Trust of India (UTI),[11] Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), General Insurance Corporation, National Insurance Company, The New India Assurance Company, The Oriental Insurance Corporation and United India Insurance Company.

Owner of the bank is AMITABH CHAUDHRY. The managing director and CEO of Axis bank.

Headquarters – Mumbai.

The first branch was inaugurated on 2 April 1994 in Ahmedabad by Manmohan Singh, then finance minister of india.

Axis bank has crossed the milestone of over one million customers on its WhatsApp banking channel with a total request count of 6 million till now.

● Axis Bank had launched banking services on WhatsApp in January 2021 and has since witnessed robust organic growth in its customer base for WhatsApp banking.

● After signing up for the service, customers can inquire and get details of products across savings account, credit and debit cards, deposits and personal loans.

● Non-financial service requests can also be initiated, such as locating ATMs or getting updates on third-party deals available on credit and debit card.

The United Trust of India (UTI) was considered as one of the largest private banks in India. On 30 July 2007, UTI Bank changed its name to Axis Bank. So Axis bank old name is UTI bank.

The First Woman Director in zoological survey of india.

The Zoological Survey of India, founded on 1 July 1916 by Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, as premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies to promote the survey, exploration and research of the fauna in the country.

Headquarters – Kolkata with 16 regional centre under the ministry of environment, forest and climate change.

The Indian government approved the appointment of Dr Dhriti Banerjee as the director of the Zoological Survey of India. She is a prolific scientist, conducting research in zoogeography, taxonomy, morphology and molecular systematics.

ZSI’s women scientists have been carrying out regular surveys exploring faunal diversity from the Himalayas to the deep sea and nearly 60% of the new species discovered are by women scientists today,” said Banerjee. “In the past century, only 20% of the total scientific staff strength in ZSI are represented by women. But their scientific contributions prove that they have played a key role in strengthening the roots of ZSI,” she said.

On breaking the glass-ceiling in this organization, she mused, “Women are blessed with unique power to strike a balance between work and family. But I was lucky to have had an exceptionally supportive one — my husband, Sughran, daughter Roinee and my parents. I am also grateful to my mentors in the organization for their guidance.”

Even though women are equal partners in scientific development and nation-building, their scientific journey around the world began only in the late 19th century. In fact, ZSI, headquartered in Kolkata with 16 regional centres under the ministry of environment, forests and climate change, started hiring women scientists as late as 1949, after more than three decades since its inception on 1 July 1916. Mira Mansukhani thus created history in an organization which until then was largely dominated by men.

While speaking to a leading daily about her new achievement, she stated that the 100-year legacy of Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) would help her to catapult the organisation to the next phase in biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Since 2012, she has worked as the co-ordinator of ZSI’s Digital Sequence Information Project.

On the occasion of its centenary celebrations in 2016, Banerjee had co-authored the “The Glorious 100 Women’s Scientific Contribution in ZSI”, which chronicled the contributions of women scientists in the domain of animal related groups.

Do this, Kids

Childrens of the age group 12 to 18 are so wearied of this pandemic scenario including back to back lockdowns, no school, no playing, no meeting people physically and many more will make a fresh bread rott.

In such situations there are so many things which can be adopted which will inturn utilise the time and benefit you in many aspects of growing life.

They include –

Cultivating hobbies-

a) Reading– Reading📖 is an incredibly inexpensive hobby that provides so many benefits. Most of the time, it requires little or no electricity to engage in reading, so you’re not burning up watts and adding to your energy bill. Moreover if you have a habit of reading your grades🎓 will automatically get boosted. Many great people have given green signal to cultivate reading as a life changer hobby.

b) Gardening- Gardening is an activity that’s good for both the mind and body, and can be enjoyed by people of all ages. … Plus, you get to eat the delicious fruits🍉, vegetables🥗 and herbs🌿 that you grow. So, grab your tools and get in the dirt! Surprise your parents by Saving their money and growing up your own kitchen garden or terrace garden of the vegetables you like the most..

Photo by Allan Mas on

c) Learning An Instrument🎺- Many children have hobbies of learning. When they watch Idiot Box 📺and see someone ringing Guitar🎸 or drumming Tabla🥁, a feeling that we should also do that, learn that arises in them. This age is the age of learning children can easily learn anything in this age. Not only is learning to play an instrument a great hobby, but it can offer valuable brain benefits that can make you smarter. Music 🎶Makes You Smarter. Gives lifelong enjoyment. Can also be source of income if it becomes ur passion.

Joining Course

Joining Courses are very helpful.Time spend to learn something is always usefull on some or other day. There are many such course available for children which help child stand in up to date world.

a) Animation– With the rise of the VFX and virtual visualisation of the big screen and other entertainment industries, animation courses are a good choice. Entertainment, advertising as well as the IT industry offer amazing job opportunities to candidates who pursue animation courses. Children who like toon would love to do such course.

b) Foreign Language– Learning Foreign Language gives many advantages in shaping career and fulfilling dreams also. International Jobs like translator, lecturer (international level), Hotel manager, Tour Guide, Flight attendent, Jobs in embassies etc. Also increase ones creativity, can explore culture, boost memory, Improve Brain etc. One gets opportunity to see foreign countries.

Illustration of language concept

There are many different Hobbies and Courses which children can do in lockdown to consume time in usefull things as per one’s interest.

. –Vinay Chopada

Are you also reading, “Satyanarayana & Chakrapani’s Book?

Yeah, you heard it right I am talking about the book that is used by most of the”PHARMACY” novices and other fields students also referred to this book.

The authors of this, book are “U. Satyanarayan and U.Chakrapani”.

Let’s talk in detail about this novel.

Why should we use this book, it’s a major question that arises in our mind, so the simplest key is that it includes clinical concepts along with its case studies, which will be helpful in the coming academic year.

we are pharmacy students, we should know about various clinical concepts alog with its case studies . So this book should be our perfect choice.

The silent features of this book are the –

    -It encompasses basic knowledge about biochemistry.

  –  It includes seven domains in the hierarchical order of biochemistry, which will be useful for us to study smoother.

  – Each chapter in this book is a carefully colour portrayal along with headings and subheadings to facilitate quick understanding.

      –  This book also incorporated knowledge about the various applications of biochemistry in our daily life.

“Why should we read this book?”

There are myriad boons of this book, for everyone it may be a student or it can be a teacher also.

This book amasses a variety of different things related to our syllabus, that fascinate everyone for reading.

    This book elucidates the important application of biochemistry to human health and disease are put together as biochemical or clinical beliefs, that are useful in the next year of our educational openings.

    The icons are used at appropriate places to serve as a ” landmark.”

The origin of the biochemical words, practical biochemistry, biochemistry in the laboratory and case studies with biochemical correlation, given in this book very properly, makes its book appropriate for various types of references studies.

    We never thought that the advances in biochemistry have a tremendous effect on human welfare and they have largely benefited mankind & their lives, that known to us after reading this book.

Now, we simply have to look at the organisation of the book:-

Section 1:- It deals with the chemical constituent of esprit that includes carbohydrates, lipids, proteins etc.

Section 2:-  It includes the physiological chemistry.

Section 3:- It embodies all the metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, nucleotides& minerals )

Section 4:-  It shrouds hormones, organ function tests, water, electrolytes etc.

Section 5:-  Is solely devoted to molecular biology and biotechnology.

Section 6:- Gives relevant information on the current theme such as the human genome project, gene therapy, bioinformatics etc.

Section 7:-  It deals with the basic aspects of learning and understanding biochemistry.

    Through looking the various sections of the book, you have came roughly idea about what is included in this book and its organisation.

I am also a pharmacy student, so according to me, it is the best reference tale for learning and understanding biochemistry.

Not only me but the professors have also suggested this book as a reference for students.

Finally, we can say that:-

 “The book is so organized as to equip bibliomaniac with a meticulous knowledge of biochemistry”.

The other links 🔗 for reference :-

!Thank you!

The Perfect Career

PERFECT CAREER : Myth or Reality ?

Image Source : Google

As the CBSE Results have been announced for class 12th on July 30, 2021 and of class 10th on August 3, 2021 many of the students have started searching for their further career fields and paths.

For many of us (the lucky ones) our interests and passion play a key role in finding our perfect career and for the others it might be difficult to find a passion that strong that can be converted into profession. As the date for admission for colleges and universities comes closer we all try to take as many as advices from out relatives, friends and fellowmates. But you see there is a very rare possibility that others will choose a right career for you.

So what can we do?

  1. Take a Notebook.
  2. Now write down your interests on that. Be it anything. Just remember there is a career for everything (unless it is illegal) and I am leaving that to you.
  3. After writing those down, just do a research on each one of them. Search for people with same profession over Google, LinkedIn, YouTube. Ask yourself is this really the thing you wanna spend the initial stage of my youth on. Trust me you will get the answer sooner or later.
  4. Just do not get too harsh on yourself and yeah you are allowed to change your career later on. Just do not be a puppet, what really matters is that whether you are happy or not. Have a look…

5. Do not let money be the sole purpose of choosing a career. I know its difficult but give importance to other factors as well.

6. Introspect more often than observation. Every minute of your life is different than that of your friend. Your thoughts might be similar but if you will go down the road of introspection you will sooner realize how unique and different you are from anyone else. That’s true.

Therefore, in my opinion, A’s career might look perfect at a point of time. But A has to deal with a lot of challenges following that career. And then A may find B’s career as perfect who might later wanna shift his/her career. So, this is a blend of myth and reality and depends on the person, conditions and time.

Love yourself, and see how you’re gonna achieve Wonders.


Journalism is a study of research, collection, preparation, and distribution of news and stories and features this material through print and digital media, in a form of blogs, newspapers, magazines, books, podcasts, webcast, social media sites, and also through radio, television, e-mails. Earlier, the word ‘Journalism’ was to be meant for those who used to report special events and used to write upon them. But with the evolution of television and radio and not forget about the internet, it coming more in the Digital format with a motion pictures. The 20th century includes all printed and digital formats of communication to spread the voices and stories.  In the new era, journalism seems to be a hardcore professional field of interest. With the advent of radio and television aka digital media, the press has suffered a great loss because digital communication has introduced us with the news bulletin to the public as soon as possible. The speed limit is too high, practically print media could not hope to match. We do not wait for the news like in Earlier times, we tend to know about it as soon as the incident occurs, we people do rely on these sources. Journalist puts public good above all and uses a specific method of investigation to follow the lead on the story so that it can be put in front of the public to know. It benefits the people and they check the stories and lead up to it regularly.

There are a few positives of journalism:

1. It explores the deep areas, unbiased journalism can break society’s laws and can bring the Stories from top to bottom and the deepest secret of it. It speaks about the evilness and darkness of society, which can develop people’s minds.
2. There were many ups and downs in the society due to this, but the benefit it has is to provided people an insight into economic, social, and political theories of the city, state, country, and the whole nation. Because of them, people can gather important information across the globe.
3. the government as journalists needs to help them to keep a political track of ongoing movements throughout the country and the world.

Negativity has gotten into people’s minds. The continuation of journalism is a need of an hour now. people need to differentiate the biased and unbiased journalism, as people can’t doubt and express their views on any religion, culture, or story. They are always on the urge to break the story first, with all the right data and facts. So that we don’t have to check upon it. Studies in journalism have improved and are being the priority subject. There are many types of Journalism, travel journalism, in the movie ‘Yeh Jawani Hai Deewani’ the role of Ranbir Kapoor is as a travel journalist. He travels the whole world and works along with the different channels and explores them. Another is lifestyle journalism, which has every bit of genres, magazine journalism, investigative journalism, business journalism, celebrity journalism, etc. These all have meaning inside their names.
Every type of journalism has its way of acting out and functioning. For some, a person should be extremely focused on and some are kind of chill. So, it’s up to you which kind of Journalism will suit you.

Never think less of yourself!

I am sure there were times you tried so hard to get something but you never got it. You felt like a failure. You saw people around you growing higher and higher, so you felt inferior. Everyone in their life goes through this phase. Let me stop you right there. I am not here to remind you about all those feelings. I am here to tell you that you are amazing.

You may think it is so easy to talk positively. But when someone is actually going through hard times, it is hard to implement positivity in their life.

Let me tell you, mindset is what matters in the end. I am going to list out things that you can instantly do in order to bring positivity.

Before that, I would like to include something about myself. Positive thinking is a very difficult concept for me. Even though I know how important it is and how it helps us get so much better when we are down. So I tend to feel inferior to others. I tend to feel that I am not good enough. I am still having a hard time. But I always try to do something (anything) to make myself happier and to keep myself busy. No matter what it is (except binge-watching series XD).

Whenever you feel inferior,

  • First of all, YOU ARE NOT INFERIOR. It is just a feeling, not a fact. So stop thinking like that.
  • People gave me the advice to communicate with others. That’s actually a good idea if you are a people person. Since I am not, I always did everything by myself. I isolated myself during hard times to come back stronger.
  • Try doing something that you really really love, no matter how SMALL it is! You got to do it if it makes you HAPPY.
  • Ask yourself this question. Why do I feel inferior? If you get an answer, that’s your answer! For example. If you don’t have a job but others do, which in turn makes you feel like a failure. Just keep trying. Seriously keep trying. It can take weeks, months, or even years. But keep trying with passion. Keep trying to get something that you really want to do. Keep working on that. One day you will get it, that would be the happiest time of your life. All of a sudden your inferiority complex will vanish, you will feel stronger. You will be proud of yourself. Doesn’t matter if you get less salary than others, at least you got something that you have been waiting for for a long time. Something that you love. That’s what matters. Keep it simple.

  • Most times it’s not you who actually feel bad about yourself, it is your surroundings. The questions like, what would my relatives think if I don’t get a job by this year? What would my parents say? What would people around me think about me? Will they think I am useless? Well, even if they do. YOU DON’T HAVE TO CARE ABOUT IT. Only YOU know what you are going through. Only YOU know how much u tried and what you really want.
  • So never ever give up on yourself. It is okay to let bad feelings out at times. But you don’t have to feel like that all the time. You deserve happiness. Keep yourself happy. Keep trying, keep learning.