How to increase your short term memory

It’s always frustrating to forget why you walked into a room, or to forget someone’s name right after being introduced. Before worrying that annoyances like these are signs of a memory problem, try out some simple techniques that may naturally enhance your short term memory.

Boost your memory

Focus on what you want to remember.

Scientifically speaking, short term memory only lasts around 15-30 seconds—after that, the information is either discarded or moved to long term memory. Therefore, focusing closely on a new piece of info for 15-30 seconds can keep it in your short term memory and may help transfer it to your long term memory.

Engage multiple senses.

Using your senses increases focus and builds memory-helping associations. When you meet someone new, listen carefully and look directly at them as they state their name. Repeat their name immediately afterward. Shake their hand and feel their grip. Even take notice of their perfume or cologne! The more sensory associations you build, the more firmly the memory is encoded.

Utilize mnemonic devices.

These visual and verbal techniques really help with multiple bits of information. Do you still remember learning “VIBGYOR” in school to keep track of the order of colors in the rainbow? Mnemonic devices can really stick in your memory! Try constructing colorful, even silly visualizations or verbalizations to help encode a group of things in your short-term memory.

Lay out structured associations.

Memorize the primary pieces of info and how the secondary pieces relate to them. In other words, prioritize remembering the most vital information, but also focus on memorizing the structure that connects this vital info to the less important material you also want to remember. Essentially you’re creating a mental “bubble map”—where the central bubble contains the main info and is connected by lines to surrounding bubbles containing supporting info.

Eat a brain-healthy diet.

Healthy food choices are good for your brain and may improve your memory. By and large, the healthy, balanced diet you should strive to achieve for overall health is also what is needed for a healthy brain that is better primed to encode memories. Eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables, add in lean proteins and whole grains, and cut back on saturated fats, sodium, and sugars.

Keep your brain active


5 habits To Be A Successful Person

In this universe, everyone wants to be successful in life. But very few are tasted this. Every day in the newspaper, we read many successful person stories. How their property value increases day by day, about their lifestyle, their bungalow, rising of shares in the stock market, and many more. If you talk about the successful person in the world, then the list is very long. Every day there will be a new addition. We always have that eagerness to know their success stories. A successful person does not achieve all those things in one night, it will accomplish by facing many obstacles, criticism, and failure. Every successful person follows a routine life if you observe deeply.

Determination is the most crucial thing to success in life. We have to maintain discipline in our life to be successful. It is not an easy task to continue those habits. Difficulties are more often in every successful person’s life. There are certain habits and mentalities which most successful people carry. By regular practice of those habits, they will master organizing their lifestyle that leads to success.

We discuss those five habits that make an ordinary person successful.

Get up Early

Billionaires are always get up early in the morning, the research said. They are going to bed early also. If you are get up every day at 4 am then you will have enough time to plan your day according to your lifestyle. You also give proper time to every work, which you will perform the rest of day. This habit not only saves your time also has extra time for doing any other work or spend quality time with your friends and family.

Read A lot

Successful people have a large bookshelf. Reading is a common habit in every successful person’s daily routine. Reading turns to be calm and organized in life. Reading improves your memory power. Reading many books, articles, and the newspaper makes knowledgeable about the various sector, which helps to work in industry or corporate sector more efficiently. It also reduces stress and keeps your brain healthy.

Write down your idea

Ideas are the vital thing that played a role in every successful person’s life. A small idea can build an empire. When you are sitting alone, think creatively and talk to yourself for better ideas. Note down those small ideas in a paper and choose which one is suitable for you. Once you select one of these, take immediate action.

Set Goal

By setting the objective you have a clear vision of what you want to achieve in your life. Make a list of temporary and long-term goals and set your deadlines accordingly. Set your goals measurable, achievable, specific, and realistic so that you will achieve them within a time frame.


70 percent of successful people exercise for at least 30mins every day. It can help you to maintain your health, reduce your risk of many chronic diseases. Exercise makes you productive and motivates you to work for long hours.

Sex Education

What is sex? Is it normal to talk about it? Why sex education is important?

Avoidance of this topic, increased my willingness to write on this topic. I will try to cover up these questions in my article.

Sex is the most common word used for sexual intercourse, having various synonymous such as coitus, commerce, lovemaking, sexact etc. It is completely obvious for mammals to perform intercourse. It’s the reason for our existence, so why we avoid talking about it? It don’t make us inferior if we talk about it, it must be included in primary education . Yeah it take time to bring a change, we have saw addition of reproduction and menstrual cycle in our Academic syllabus in past decades, now we are looking forward to include sex education also soon.

I was 10 years old , when I got my first period. A blood stain on my white frock, I was amused and scared , my mother watched me out and I was told, ‘Ab tum badi ho gyi ho’ It felt like lot, like my life has just changed in few minutes, I was a tiny girl few minutes back and now I am an adult with responsibilities. It felt like lot to bear, my mum guided me with how to handle sanitary napkins and hygiene. Knowing the fact that all this new thing is going to happen now every month scared shit out of me. So this is the story how I came to know about Menstrual Cycle.

In 6th , a boy became good friend of mine , charming , cute boy. I used to talk to him a lot, and one day he held my hands out, it might seem no big thing to you, but it beacame my biggest fear. My periods were delayed and all I could think was Am I pregnant because my friend holded my hand. Hilarious? Offcourse it is. But yes, that’s were we lacked acknowledging the requirement of sex education in our schools and family. I could not talk about this to anyone, back in those years I was not aware of incognito so searching ‘delayed periods reason’ which would apper in the search history of my parents phone abstained me from searching it. So I was all alone with my miseries and fear. I was scared if my own family is going to accept me because my friend holded my hand that made me pregnant.

Luckily ,I got my periods a week later. I felt so relaxed, as if god has listened to my prayers and helped me out from the trauma. Remembering that incident still make me laugh, if someone could have just told be right reasons, I won’t be that lonely kid feeling guilty then. If family is supposed to be the closest, then these things should be made normal to talk about, we can’t just wait and avoid.

Sex education is required in family, society and at schools. We can just normalize out things instead of covering it up. We will see a better understanding upcoming generations , where things will be heard and solution will be well entertained and implemented.

By Esha Singh Sisodiya

Accept to be the accepted one for others. 🙂




Vaccines are a critical component of our anti-infectious disease strategy. In addition to pathogen-specific immunogens, vaccines often contain variety of  preservatives,additives or adjuvants. The preservatives  helps in preventing microbial growth,The Adjuvents such as aluminium salts help in enhancing antigen-specific immune responses and additives such as gelatin helps in stabilizing live viruses. It may also contain byproducts of substances used during its production.

The amount in which these ingredients are used is considered safe and each of them serves a specific intent but,some ingredients are considered harmful if present in high amount. Also ,these ingredients helps in certifying its effectiveness.


Many of the components of vaccine are present in the human body. Many vaccine, for example, contain salts derived from sodium and potassium , which are vital for health. Although most people think it is an artificial chemical and found in minute amounts in the blood naturally.

These components are existing in trace levels, and no indication has been observed that these concentrations can lead to any damage. The limited percentage of individuals who seem to be hypersensitive to these components, even if it is existent only in low concentrations, is an exception . If you observe some vaccine components closely on the internet, you may notice that they are potentially hazardous, however maximum of them are often present in vaccines in quantities that are perfectly safe for human bodies. Even salt , which is required for regular biological function, is toxic in excess quantities.


As ,Each component of vaccine aids a specific purpose so the vaccine ingredients are used during production, help in providing resistance against a particular disease as well as keeping it safe and long lasting .


Antigens are the constituents derived through structure of infection-causing organisms, which are regarded as ‘foreign’ by the body’s defenses and stimulates a defensive immune response to the vaccine.

 In vaccines they are considered as active ingredients because they cause the body’s immune system to respond and develop defensive antibodies specific to that antigen. Antigens are either destroyed, weakened or artificially manufactured versions of the disease-causing organism or parts of the organism.

Individuals with weakened immune systems should not get live vaccinations because they may acquire the disease that the vaccine is designed to prevent.


Thimerosal is a mercury-containing chemical compound. It is often used in the preservation of a variety of pharmaceutical drugs. It also protects against life-threatening contamination driven on by dangerous bacteria.It is used as a preservative in multi-dose vials of flu vaccinations, and it is also utilised in the production process of two related children vaccines.

When separate doses are taken from the multi-dose vial, the preservative thimerosal prevents contamination. Thimerosal is added to vials which contains multiple doses  to prevent pathogens like bacteria and fungus from multiplying. When a syringe needle is inserted into a vial while preparing a vaccine for delivery, microbes and fungus can be introduced.

 Contamination of a vaccine by microorganism may result in severe inflammatory response, acute illness, or death. these preservatives  are added to some vaccines during the production process to inhibit microbial development.The kind of mercury present in certain types of fish is methylmercury. it  can be harmful to humans at high amounts of also includes ethylmercury, which is eliminated from the human body faster than methylmercury and so has a lesser risk of damage.

Aluminum salts

Even though we intake aluminum-containing foods and beverages on a daily basis, only a small quantity of aluminium enters the bloodstream during digestion; the remainder is excreted in the form of faeces. The kidneys processes and eliminates the majority of the aluminium in our bloodstream through urine.

In general, the use of aluminium adjuvants in vaccinations results in the requirement for less antigen or, in the case of certain vaccines, fewer doses.The use of aluminium salts in vaccines has a long and successful track of safety. Local responses and, less often, the formation of subcutaneous nodules at the injection site have been linked to aluminum-containing vaccine in some studies. This is especially true if the injection is administered too near  the skin’s surface.

An evaluation of all known trials of tetanus, pertussis and diptheria vaccine containing aluminium salts found no evidence that aluminium salts in vaccines cause major or long-term adverse effects.

Sugars and Gelatin

Gelatin is derived from pigs and works as a stabiliser to protect living viruses from the effects of temperature. There have been a few reports of adverse response to vaccine containing gelatine in about one case out of every 20 lakh doses of vaccine.

Stabilisers inhibit chemical reactions in the vaccine as well as component separation or adhesion to the immunisation vial during transit and storage. Sugars like sucrose, amino acids like glycine, and amino acid salts, as well as partly hydrolyzed proteins, are all examples of stabilisers.

Egg protein

Frequently, vaccine producers utilise chicken eggs to develop an inactivated or live-attenuated vaccine, resulting in tiny quantities of egg protein in the vaccine.These vaccinations are refined after manufacturing to eliminate the culture components.

Even yet, certain remants of the culture may be left behind. People with severe allergies may be at danger as a result of this. In addition to most flu vaccines, egg protein can be found in the yellow fever vaccine. Even after taking the appropriate precautions, the danger of acquiring the flu or yellow fever nearly always overcomes the risk of obtaining the appropriate vaccinations in persons with severe allergies.


Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring substance already present in the human body as a part of normal metabolism(Approx. 42.52 grams ) and is used by scientists for killing live microbes in inactivated vaccines . Its concentration in large amounts of can be extremely toxic. Formaldehyde breaks down into its basic elements quickly both in the environment or once consumed by the human body thus preventing its accumulation.Also, its amount present in vaccines is a small portion of per day value found in humans.It is used to detoxify or deactivate the live microbe or toxin used in some vaccines and most of It is removed during the process of purification. It is required for the synthesis of DNA.


Vaccine safety and efficacy are under research. Safety testing is done as soon as a new vaccine is under consideration, continues until it is approved, and is then monitored permanently after approval. Some vaccine contain preservatives to protect them against  contamination by bacteria or fungi. The need for preservatives in vaccines emerged from a number of events in the early twentieth century in which patients acquired serious and most often lethal bacterial infections after receiving shots from multidose vials. In  vaccines, each component has a distinct function. These components has undergone thorough research and proven to be safe for people. Safety testing occurs as soon as a new vaccines are under consideration, continues until it is approved, and is then monitored permanently after approval.

Career in Psychology

Psychology is a study of human mind, behavior and how it influences their overall personality. If you are a person who loves to know about every aspects of human mind, then you should definitely go for a career in the same. Psychology is something that most people has interest in but refuse to make a career out of it thinking that there is no scope! Let me tell you, no career is any lesser than other careers if you are truly into it. Let us know some basics about career in psychology.

Types of job roles in psychology

  1. Career counsellors – Career counsellors are people who gives advice on choosing the right career paths for students who are in need of them. Choosing a career is one of the important decisions that we need to make in our lives and we need career counsellors to properly guide us towards the right path. You may think anyone can do that, even my aunt can do that. The difference is these people focus more on the suitable path for you rather than comparing jobs based on salary. They will first conduct tests to analyze your personality, interests, skills, intelligence level etc. You can opt for this job role if you believe you have enough knowledge about different career paths.
  2. Forensic psychologist – Forensic psychologists are professionals who work with police investigators. They are taken along with the investigators to crime scenes where they are needed for crime investigation and law cases. Psychologists are much suited for investigates since they know how human brain works, they know how to get the truth from the criminal.
  3. Clinical psychologists – Clinical psychologists have their own clinics or they work in hospitals. They deal with patients with mental illness and emotional disorders. They are professionals whoa are highly trained in diagnosis and psychological treatment. They conduct research and experiments on various psychology related topics to get better understanding of clinical psychology.
  4. Educational psychologists – Educational psychologists learn about the learning process of our brain, and differences in learning of individuals. They are professionals who work in schools or colleges where they help the students who are suffering with mental issues. Educational sector can be hectic at times and makes the students suffer with random disorders. We have always needed people to talk when we feel suffocated from school/college works. Well, that is why educational psychologists exist.

Myths about career in psychology

  • You can’t become a psychologist if you are an introvert” – It doesn’t matter whether you are an introvert or an extrovert if you have enough knowledge and the ability to cure patients with mental illness, If you can communicate your thoughts and give advice to your patients, then you can totally pursue that.
  • Psychologists can read minds” – Absolutely not, they have greater understanding of human personality and behavior with which they can infer your state of mind but they can’t read minds!

Coronavirus: Top 10 Popular Coronavirus Myths

Coronavirus has been causing a deadly disease which has taken upon the world within a very short period. This disease caused by Coronavirus has created not only a lot of panic among the public but has also resulted in several rising rumours and myths. At this stage, to curb the disease, it is very important to know everything about it. Here are ten myths which common people have mistaken as facts.

1. “Coronavirus can also be called Chinese disease.”

It’s called COVID 19 and not a Chinese virus. The name of the virus has been divided simply into, CO from corona because the shape of the virus appears to be crown-like, VI stands for the virus, D is for disease and ’19’ symbolizes that it started spreading in the year 2019. Many people are calling it a Chinese virus. Even President Donald Trump recently addressed it as ‘Chinese virus’. It’s not spreading from Chinese, not every Chinese person has it. A girl from Manipur, in India, was called ‘Corona’ by an old man, and he spat ‘paan’ on her face to show his disgrace towards her. North-eastern Indians are facing many racial remarks because of this outbreak. Many Chinese people living abroad have faced similar situations. It’s not just racist but also inhumane. People should address the virus with the correct name and should think twice before making any such insensitive remarks.

2. “Drinking alcohol can kill the virus.”

 False! Alcohol is a disinfectant was thought to be a killing substance of the virus, but it’s not as easy as it sounds. The virus, once inside the human body, cannot be killed by alcohol. Any surface might be disinfected with alcohol, but using alcohol on the skin can cause harmful reactions and consuming excessive alcohol can definitely take a toll on your liver.

3. “Only Old people can die of the virus.” 

Anyone, including a child of one day, or even inside the womb, can catch the virus. Younger people might have higher immunity and may have higher chances of surviving the virus, but it is still deadly for them. The virus is indeed more deadly for old people or people having an underlying health issue such as diabetes, heart problems or asthma, but that does not mean that the younger are safe. Everyone should take precautions.

4. “Stay away from people who are wearing a mask.” 

The virus has infected not everyone who is wearing a mask. They might just be wearing it to protect themselves. Incidents have been reported where people wearing masks in public were harassed. People can wear the mask as a precaution, but it should be noted that even though one is wearing a mask, the chances are that the virus enters through your eyes. Hence, the only solution is to suggest anyone who is coughing, should wear a mask or cough in their shoulder so that no droplets fall around and infect nearby people.

5. “Eating ginger, garlic or lemon will increase your immunity

 People started with their own home-based remedies. Eating healthy may increase immunity but will not create complete protection from the virus. Even drinking cow urine was said to be one of the ways to kill the virus. There was a lot of fake WhatsApp news which were circulated. It was also said that smoking weed could kill the virus. People also said that sitting in the sun or warm climate can kill the virus. People around the globe considered taking a hot bath can kill the virus within their body. The only way to cross-check any such news is to visit the ‘WHO’ site and check if they have published any such news or not. Any news related to the research of coronavirus, be it positive or negative, will be posted on the WHO site.

6.” Only people coming from abroad should get tested and be scared of having it.” 

 It’s highly wrong to think that only those people should be scared who have travelled recently abroad. Anyone who has symptoms of the virus should immediately get checked. Anyone who has a recent travel history should try self-quarantine. One should understand that if the person who recently travelled abroad failed to take any precautions and refused to self-quarantine, he/she might end up spreading it to others. So, you could be infected by a complete stranger in public. Staying at home and getting checked if showed any symptoms, is the only way to fight the spread of the virus.

 7.”It is a city disease.” 

 Most of the labourers are going back to their village or hometown, considering that the virus is only spreading in “cities.” However, they are not taking into account how there is a chance that they might transmit the virus with them to their respective hometown. Going back to your hometown, even with current zero cases of the virus, does not mean that one stops taking precautions to be safe. Under all circumstances, social distancing should be practised.

 8. “Chicken, dogs, and cats are spreading the virus.” 

No! The disease can be transmitted only through human contact. There has been no study which proves that animals can transmit the disease. Animals should not be treated with cruelty on any basis. One should consider the well-being of the street dogs and cats, and should at least feed them during the lockdown. In India, the rate of chicken had seen a drastic fall, especially in the state of Maharashtra, because of the rumour that the disease can be spread via eating chickens. In fact, the truth is that consumption of chicken may help in increasing your immunity and save you from the seasonal flu.

 9.” Coronavirus has a 97% Survival rate; the government is making us panic for nothing.”

To put this in a simple analogy, it’s like if you are given ten apples, and one of them is infected, you probably shouldn’t take the chance to infect yourself by eating any of them. There is a limited supply of healthcare services, and in a country like India, which is highly populated, should not risk the spread of it. If the number of cases keeps going higher, we might fall short on several doctors and nurses present to help the patients. 

10.” Stock as much food as possible.” 

The pandemic created such a panic among the public that on the announcement of the lockdown, people rushed to the stores to buy as much food as possible. In this rush, they forgot how close they were standing to strangers and how the deadly disease could be passed on unintentionally as many failed to wear a mask. Stocking of excess food will also create a shortage for others who are in need. People were found stocking up on basic medicine as well, such as fever and cold. This might have created a deficit for someone who is currently in need of it. The government is taking as many measures as possible to make ends meet. In Maharashtra, grocery shops will be open all day and night to provide essential items to the customers.


By Megha Sharma

Posted in Internship

Rating: 1 out of 5.

Is Black Money black in color ?

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

Of course not, we can’t tell if a money is lawful or not just by looking at it. All earnings acquired through illicit activities and otherwise legal income that is not recorded for tax purposes are referred to as “black money.” The proceeds of black money are frequently received in cash from illegal economic activity and are therefore not taxed. Increased amounts of black money in the economy are frequently associated with a rise in corruption.

How Black Money Works :-

Consider a store that only accepts cash and does not provide receipts to its consumers because it would not pay tax on unrecorded purchases, that store is transacting in black money. Consider another the case of a property buyer who pays Rs. 20, 00,000 for a piece of land. There is a Rs. 5, 00,000 black money transaction if the buyer merely discloses 15, 00,000 on the books and pays 5, 00,000 under the table.

 Effects of Black Money :-

1. The government’s deficit rises because black money consumes a portion of the tax. The government must balance the deficit by raising taxes, reducing subsidies, and borrowing more money. Borrowing increases the government’s debt by adding to the interest load. If the government is unable to balance the budget, it would have to cut spending, which will have a negative impact on development.

2. Higher inflation results from the flow of unaccounted black money into the economy, which disproportionately affects the poor. It also widens the gap between the rich and the poor.

3. Black money is commonly kept in the form of gold, immovable property, and other hidden assets. Such money does not enter the main economy and, as a result, is mostly out of circulation. The black money keeps circulating among the wealthy and creates more opportunities for them.

4. When the government uses progressive direct taxation to ensure that the tax burden is distributed fairly, tax evasion and the creation of black money undermine the concept of social justice by preventing the desired reduction in income disparities. When illegal activities such as smuggling, for example, cannot be taxed, the government would apply higher taxes on legally authorized.

5. Black money is spent lavishly on travels and tours, entertainment, ostentatious products, and the financing of extravagant elections, among other things. This has also resulted in the many societal ills and a degradation of common people’s life values.

6. The presence of black money has shifted the market’s choice coefficients in favor of luxury, resulting in the diversification of productive resources from essential to non-essential commodities.

7. The consumption pattern is biased in favor of the rich and elite, at the expense of encouraging the production of bulk goods. A rise in overall consumption means fewer resources are available for investment in priority sectors, which has a negative effect on growth.

Government Initiatives to curb Black Money.

1. Black Money Declaration Scheme 2017 –

This scheme was launched by the government headed by PM Modi. This scheme allowed black money hoarders to declare all of their illegal earnings and gave them till March 31, 2017 to do so. Everyone was permitted to report their illegal earnings to the bank or the post office. It was also stated that one must pay a total of 49.90 % of the total unaccounted income in tax, surcharge, and penalty. A 25% of the unaccounted income was to be deposited in the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana.

2. Demonetization – 

This was one of the most significant steps made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government to combat black money in the country. The central government announced the demonetization of the Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes and the introduction of new Rs 500 and Rs 2000 notes on November 8, 2016. The government took this step as a result of the country’s economy falling behind that of the rest of the world, as well as to combat different terrorist activities that had arisen in the country.

3. Linking Bank Accounts with Aadhaar & Pan –

The government launched the linkage of Aadhaar and Pan cards so that it could keep track of each person’s accounts and even their bank statements, giving the government a source to know how much a citizen earns and how much he pays in taxes. Though this strategy plays a significant role in the removal of fake bank accounts. This system can also be used to track suspicious transactions involving large sums of money.

4. Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Amendment Act, 2016 –

This law prohibits Benami transactions and provides for the confiscation of Benami assets. In 2016, the legislation was amended to provide that if a person is found guilty of a benami transaction offence by a court, he would be sentenced to jail for a period 1 year which may extend to a maximum of 7 years. In addition, the person will be responsible for a fine of up to 25% of the property’s exact market value.

5. New Benami Transactions Informants Reward Scheme, 2018 –

The Income Tax Department has launched this initiative in order to encourage widespread participation of people to fight against black money in the economy. Under this plan, the informant will be paid up to Rs one crore if he provides relevant details to the Joint or Additional Commissioners of Benami Prohibition Units (BPUs) of the Income Tax Department’s Investigation Directorates.

Pokemon unite


Steps to play a game:

step 1. Don’t skip the tutorials.

Resist the urge to drive into pokemon unite right away. Both seasoned MOBA players and beginners should take the time to check out the game’s six tutorials. The game let’s you enter live matches after completing the first few but it’s worth going through all of the lesson first.

The tutorials go through very basic and advanced mechanic that you would know about if you didn’t go through these short training exercise.

The first three tutorials teach you how to attack and score. But it’s the latter three that are the most interesting. The trip of tutorials teaches that attacking different wild pokemon can change the dynamic of a match.

step 2. Don’t skip the setting menu either:

The setting menu isn’t the most exciting place to visit in a game. But considering the fast paced nature of pokemon unite there are some option there worth exploring.

one of the first setting to look at is attack control. Switching to advanced control allows you to press two different button to attack different opposing. Turning on this setting is important because the game defaults to an automatic basic attack mode. There will be time when you accidentally target a wild pokemon when you are trying to hit an enemy player or vice versa. Switching to advanced control helps you stay in control of where your basic attacks go.

Lock-on-icon: Is another setting you may want to turn on. Enabling this setting allows you to prioritize specific pokemon to attack.

step 3. Which pokemon should you unlock first?

After you play through the opening tutorials, you’ll receive a unite license which let’s you unlock a pokemon.

  1. Eldegoss is a support pokemon:they use long ranged attacks to hit enemies and their main foscus is to hit enemies and their teammates.
  2. Snorlax is a defender pokemon: they are powerful melee fighters.
  3. Pikachu is a ranged attacker:They use long -range attack to overpower enemies and defeat them from a distance.
  4. Charizard is an all-round:their skills allows them to be a threat at both close and long range.
  5. Talon flame is a speedster: their fast speed allows them to move all over the battle arena giving them to ability to a be a threat anywhere on the map.

step. 4 . How to make different builds:

as you levels up through out the match, your gain the ability to learn new attack. Over time yor learn new that over write the two starting skills you begin the match with.

At level 5&6 7, your pokemon can learn news, skill. You will always have to two different choice to make at these points. Each characters has different moves that support new way to play.

Step 5. Learn your lane:

each pokemon excels at different areas of the map. When you are preparing for battle, the game will let you know which lane is recommend for each pokemon.

when you are in the lobby selecting your pokemon, enter the battle prep screen to learn which map path you should take. When you press the exit button, you will be shown which lane is best for the top lat. Speedster should around two centre and all are rounder are great for the bottom.



A personality disorder is a way of thinking, feeling and behaving that deviates from the expectations of the culture, causes distress or problems functioning, and lasts over time. Personality is the way of thinking, feeling and behaving that makes a person different from other people. An individual’s personality is influenced by experiences, environment (surroundings, life situations) and inherited characteristics.

A person’s personality typically stays the same over time. Personality disorders are long-term patterns of behavior and inner experiences that differs significantly from what is expected. The pattern of experience and behavior begins by late adolescence or early adulthood and causes distress or problems in functioning.

Symptoms and Types of Personality Disorders | Bell Foundation®


Borderline Personality Disorder has several signs and symptoms. For diagnosis, mental health professionals have grouped the symptoms into 9 categories. A person who shows at least 5 of these symptoms for a long duration is diagnosed as suffering from BPD. 

  1. Fear of abandonment

One of the most prominent signs of BPD is a fear of abandonment. People with BPD are always scared of being left alone by loved ones. Something as simple as a family member coming home late from work can trigger intense reactions. As a result, individuals suffering from BPD put frantic efforts into keeping family and friends close.

2. Unstable relationships

  People with BPD tend to have relationships that are intense and short-lived. You may fall in love quickly, believing that each new person is the one who will make you feel whole, only to be quickly disappointed. Your relationships either seem perfect or horrible, without any middle ground. Your lovers, friends, or family members may feel like they have emotional whiplash as a result of your rapid swings from idealization to devaluation, anger, and hate.

3. Unclear self-image

Self-image is a perception of self that defines how much you like yourself. With BPD, individuals struggle to keep a stable perception. They go from loving themselves one day to absolutely hating themselves the next day. Such people do not have an idea of who they are and what they want in life.

4. Self-destructive behaviour

If you have BPD, you may engage in harmful, sensation-seeking behaviors, especially when you’re upset. You may impulsively spend money you can’t afford, binge eat, drive recklessly, shoplift, , or overdo it with drugs or alcohol. These risky behaviors may help you feel better in the moment, but they hurt you and those around you over the long-term.

5. Self-harm

After self-destruction comes self-harm. Individuals suffering from BPD do not hesitate from harming themselves. They may easily cut themselves or burn themselves and may also take a step with the intent of suicide. Loved ones have to be vigilant at all times and on the lookout for suicidal thoughts.

6. Mood swings

 Unstable emotions and moods are common with BPD. One moment, you may feel happy, and the next, despondent. Little things that other people brush off can send you into an emotional tailspin. These mood swings are intense, but they tend to pass fairly quickly , usually lasting just a few minutes or hours.

7. Chronic feelings of emptiness

Individuals with BPD suffer from a chronic feeling of emptiness. They often feel like “nobody” and have this uncomfortable void that they try to fill with the help of extreme and risky behaviors. This feeling is uncomfortable, so you may try to fill the void with things like drugs, food . But nothing feels truly satisfying.

  1. Explosive anger

BPD causes impulsiveness, which often results in explosive anger. It also results in a short temper that comes out even at the slightest of disagreements. Explosive anger may be accompanied by behavior like throwing things or screaming (even in public places).

9. Feeling suspicious

 People with BPD often struggle with paranoia or suspicious thoughts  about others’ motives. When under stress, you may even lose touch with reality an experience known as dissociation. You may feel foggy, spaced out, or as if you’re outside your own body.

MBA Chai-Wala

Getting into a top Business school in India to pursue the dream career is still a dream for many aspirants. This is an inspiring story of a middle-class Indian Prafull Billore, who wanted to pursue an MBA. To get into top B Schools you have to clear the CAT exam. He failed 3 out of the 3 times he appeared for the CAT exam. On his repetitive failure, he got depressed and quit his CAT preparation, and traveled few cities. After weeks of traveling, he landed in Ahemdabad, he felt like home.

To sustain life, he started working at McDonald’s. After serving for some time, he was promoted to the kitchen staff who would take orders and served customers. During this phase of his life, he gained a lot of experience but he felt like a person having/with no identity. He often wondered, “Why sell burgers for someone else, while I can make and sell on my own”. But the question was why would anyone come to his stall and not go to McDonald’s. He dropped the idea of selling burgers and decided to set up a tea stall, as tea was his staple beverage during his CAT preparation, and India loves chai.

The early phase in starting roadside business attracted many stigmas such as these businesses are done by lower class or less educated people but this didn’t stop him. Prafull Billore’s father thought that he might be pursuing an educational course but he wasn’t aware of what was running in Prafull’s mind. It took 45 days to muster the courage and set up his tea stall.

The first day went bad as there was not even a single customer. The next day, he decided to approach customers with a friendly gesture and conversed with them in English. The taste and unique way of serving tea, his communication skills caught many people’s attention and his business started growing.

His chai business started getting popular, annoyed the roadside vendors, as Prafull’s chai business was bringing down their business. He got threats from local goons and local authorities to shut down the chai stall. He didn’t lose hope and reached a hospital owner for renting a nearby space for a tea stall for 10K rental. He even created a platform for job seekers who mentioned their details on paper which was further picked up by job providers as even they were his regular customers. The candidate that suited the job profile was called up by the job provider. This way he gained more popularity.

Prafull named his business “MBA Chaiwala” which stands for “Mr. Billore Ahemdabad Chaiwala”. Within a few months, he got fame and his business MBA Chaiwala, gathered crores every month. Praful’s most memorable occasion was a Valentine’s Day event. He distributed free chai to singles on Valentine’s Day, which went viral and acquired worldwide recognition.

And look at the irony of life! Now, MBA Chaiwala is invited to IIM’s and Harvard Business school only to deliver a talk on how to pursue a passion and become big. It all started with his failure to seek admission to these very prestigious colleges like IIMS and Harvard.

Today, Prafull Billore owns a 300 sq ft restaurant named “MBA Chai Wala”, where he has employed 20 people. In the financial year 2019-20, he recorded a turnover of Rs 3 crore. “My dream is to sell tea across the country, and that every Indian drink my tea,” he says.


Hi All, Today, I gonna share a beautiful story.

A bird was flying across the sky. It landed on a lawn. The air was fresh, the breeze was light, and the sun was cool. The bird noticed someone crying in the distance, sitting on a lawn chair outside of a house.

When the crying had finished, the bird flew over to the person, who now looked corpse-like on the chair.

“What’s happened?” chirped the bird.

“I’m not sure if I’ll ever get the job I want,” said the person, with a tone of resignation.

“Oh. What’s a job?” asked the bird.

“Just something we do so we can earn money to buy stuff, to pay for food, clothes, houses, cars and stuff like that,” said the person.

“Oh,” said the bird. “So do you have a job?”

“Yes,” said the person. “But I hate it, I really want a different one.”

“Oh,” said the bird. “Where is your job?”

“About fifteen minute’s drive away,” said the person.

“Oh,” said the bird. “So if it’s that far away, why is it making you cry?”

“Because I know I have to go back there again and I really don’t want to,” explained the person, having some patience with the bird who was obviously not intelligent enough to understand his problem.

“Oh,” said the bird. “So don’t go back then…”

“No, you don’t understand,” said the person, now becoming impatient at the bird’s lack of understanding, “I have to go back so that I can pay my bills and buy food!”

“Oh,” said the bird, beginning to understand this person’s dilemma. “So if you have to go back there, and you feel you have no choice to just stop going, then what is the purpose of your unhappiness?”

“I don’t like it there. I don’t like the people or the work that I do.”

“But what is the purpose of your unhappiness, what does it do for you?” enquired the bird.

“Well I…” suddenly the person asked themselves the same question. They began to speak out loud…

“Well the reason for my unhappiness, I thought, was because I hate my job.”

“Yes,” said the bird, “but has the unhappiness helped you to get a new job, or helped you to no longer go to the job you have now?”

“…No,” said the person, slowly “…but, I can’t really be happy about it can I?!” he remembered.

“You don’t have to be anything at all,” the bird said, “but your feeling unhappy does not seem to help you.”

Suddenly the person began to feel lighter, they felt slightly happier, but not through trying to be happy…

“So what about getting another job? How can I do that if I’m happy with my current job?”

“You misunderstand,” explained the bird, “you are not happy with your job, you are just no longer unhappy. You see that your unhappiness is not helping you resolve your situation. Without unhappiness, would you still not want another job?”

“Well, yes, of course, but it is not such a big deal now…and I’ve realised that I’ve been assuming this job will be forever, again and again, but that is not true either…”

“What do you mean forever?” asked the bird.

“Oh…nothing,” said the person, realising the bird did not know what time was. “So, ok, well – thanks,” said the person. “That’s great, I don’t have to be unhappy, and I can still go for another job.”

“Yes, of course,” said the bird, and off he flew, forgetting everything that had just transpired.

Yes, we are all being, same like that man.
Being unhappy, not gonna solve any issues. It’s not gonna help you in any way, instead it will stress you, it will break your confidence, it will break your hope, break your trust .

Instead, if we stay happy and positive it will boost our confidence, automatically we will live happily and peacefully.

Let us all try to be happy, even if you get a small reason to be happy, be happy.

At the end of the day, your life will go as per your choices and wishes. So, As usual, staying happy or being worried, the choice is left to you .

Make a wise choice.

Have a best day

Keep smiling❣️

The link for the above story:

“Internships : A Door To Opportunity”

Internships- really being a door to opportunity for so many of us, being the only source for the growing students to learn something new & to explore different work fields in this leisure. Internships are the proven way to gain some knowledge, interest & maintaining a healthy connection with the work fields. This lockdown has taught us the meaning of internship, and to work as an intern in a firm. Since online studies are going on, doing an internship in this leisure is a perfect & productive way to utilise your free time! Internships not only enhance our skills, but also makes us confident, independent and self reliable. Since, adults has nothing to do in this lockdown, internships are way better to do something productive and to invest our time in learning something new. Internship is basically a platform where students puts up their education into practice, and develop relevant personality development and skills as well. For the college going students, internships plays a very important role in their lives. Being indulged in internships not only helps you to know more about the work fields, but also unleashes different side of your personality that you didn’t even know that it existed.


Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life, it provides a real life experience of working for the firms & companies for the fresher students! Freshers, who are new to this world, internships provides a platform for them to learn something new apart from their studies, and to enhance relevant interest in different fields. It is an ideal approach to gain understanding of your chosen Industry and field. Providing a platform to maintain a healthy yet professional connection with the work staff, and to learn & explore that how a firm works. It gives you a significant practical experience of working with the firm and also an opportunity to showcase your knowledge of degree program in real- life situations. Internships, based on hard work & stipend gives an opportunity to the students to showcase their hard work and skills on the respective fields and earn a minimal amount based on their skills and performance. It provides students the value of earning money on the basis of their hard work, and to work as an intern for a company.


  1. Get Industry Experience

The first and foremost factor of doing an internship is that it provides a platform for the students to explore the working of an industry or a company, and gives relevant workshops to learn that how exactly a company works. Fresher students learns how to work in a company by working as an intern so that they can gain experience of various fields they have chosen to work in. It further helps them to work in different fields , and hence built a significant connection with the workspace and the staff. It provides a practical way of learning and working for a company, and to gain an experience of how a company works and gives an opportunity to the students to put up the knowledge they’ve gained till now in real life situations.

2. Boost the value of your CV

There no task harder for a fresher to build a CV when they have literally no experience. No experience mentioned in the CV is a big turn off for most of the companies, why would a company hire you when you don’t have any work experience? The importance of doing an internship not only gives you opportunity to showcase your knowledge in real life situations, but also enhances your personality development and skills that are vested in your personality. You can easily know about the importance of internships when you will list down the accomplishments on a piece of paper, and that piece of paper literally decides your future. Thus, after completing an internship, you must sit down to contemplate over all the things you got to learn and how they can help you professionally as well as personally. As an intern, you will have to chance to take up new tasks and get an edge over your competitors, thus ensuring that your CV gets more than a casual glance from your potential employer.

3. Facilitates Self Growth

Internships not only help you in developing professionalism but also enhance self-growth. You certainly develop various characteristics like integrity, commitment, and self-motivation. Pursuing an internship, you will get to work on a wide range of tasks that will boost your managerial skills, and working in a team, you can polish your interpersonal and communication skills while learning about the importance of teamwork. Furthermore, you additionally get a chance to investigate the different choices that you have without the obligation of a full-time job. You can do different internships in different enterprises and profiles before you make sense of the best field for yourself. 

4. Learn new Abilities and Aptitude

While an undergraduate program gives you the perfect foundation for your professional journey,  internships add to it by giving you a chance to learn new aptitudes. These new abilities include a mix of both complicated and easy aptitudes. With a temporary position, you get the chance to learn new things, be it a software application or any other skill you wanted to explore. Many companies provide interns with the scope to explore working in different departments and find the best one they like working in. Correspondingly, you get the opportunity to improve your abilities by learning interpersonal and communication skills and how to behave in a workspace. 

In short, Internships plays a very prominent role in a students life it polishes our interpersonal and communication skills at its best! and helps us to explore more about the working sector in a very interesting manner. Apart from this, student also got a performance based stipend, solely based on their hard work and the performance they’ve showed while working as an intern. 


Writing Tips

Every day, you write, whether it’s a college paper, blog post, work document, email, or social media update. Your writing represents who you are personally and professionally, so it’s worth it to hone your skills. Here are writing tips to help you communicate better in text.

How to get Started

1 Set writing goals

Maybe you want to write a certain number of words per day or upgrade your vocabulary. You can’t reach a goal unless you have one, so write that goal down and work toward it.

2 Write in the morning

For many people, writing comes easier right after a good night’s sleep. Grammarly’s research also shows early birds make fewer writing mistakes. (No matter when you write, Grammarly has your back. Try Grammarly to get more writing tips to help keep you on track.)

3 Write daily

Getting started on a big writing project can feel intimidating if you’re not used to the act of writing. Practice this skill daily—whether a short sentence or full paragraph—to get accustomed to the mental and physical concept of writing.

4 Get inspired by research

Before you begin writing, do some reconnaissance reading. Take notes as you read up on your subject material. Ideas will form as you research.

Here’s a tip: Once you’ve jumped into the writing process, don’t stop to do more research. Instead, add a placeholder like [RESEARCH] and keep rolling. You can come back to finalize facts and add references when your first draft is finished.

5 Always carry a notebook and pen

Inspiration can hit you at any time. Don’t leave a gripping pitch for a client, poetic sentence, or catchy project name to your memory. Write it down in a dedicated notebook, or create a note file on your smartphone. 

6 Experiment with writing prompts

One of the best writing tips for aspiring writers is using a prompt. You can find endless writing prompts online that are suited for all types of genres. Pick one that stimulates your imagination and encourages you to get creative.

7 Outline

If you often find yourself rambling on without a clear structure, start with an outline. Follow this simple, no-fail outlining process to organize yourself from the start.

“COVID-19 : The Second Wave & The Children”

“COVID-19” the disease, which doesn’t have a full stop, it’s been increasing & increasing since the last 1.5 years. “Covid-19” itself is a disastrous emotion, which has destroyed lakhs of innocent lives and families. India, being the second most populated country has experienced the beyond reproach mortality rate in these 1.5 years, it’s just heartbreaking to see the deterioration of the country in every aspect -economically, socially, the governance, the medical facilities and what not. Lakhs of innocent lives took their last breath due to covid, COVID-19 has taken many innocent lives, whether the person is the age of 24 or 49 or 80, COVID-19 took lives abruptly despite of the age in a very heartbreaking manner one could not have ever imagined. It’s been 1.5 years and till now, the daily cases hasn’t come to an average number, it’s just getting back and forth in the terms of cases per day, there’s no improvement since it all started in India. India being the second – most populated country has imposed so many versions of lockdown which has resulted in the social and economic deterioration at its peak. The “new normal” life with masks is becoming the reason for shortness of breath and innumerable problems for most of the people. It’s something an indescribable phase, that India has ever faced in its history till now.


The wave which has ended so many of families in just a night span. The second wave which has destroyed the future of young children’s and those aged parents who’ve lost all the hopes to even survive a single day. The second wave of covid in India was the most horrifying phase that India has ever imagined, where covid was just sweeping away the lives, and even the whole families in just a couple of minutes, the medical crises and the union and the state government clashes has become the most heart throbbing time for the nation. India has been hit by a huge second wave in terms of social, economic, the governance and in medical aspect. The second wave phase has witnessed for more than 4 lakh cases in just 24 hour period. The second wave was much larger than the first, with the shortages of vaccines, hospital beds, oxygen cylinders, oxygen concentrators, injections, medicines, hospitals and every resource that could save a life!? By late April, India was abruptly under a very disheartening crises in terms of economy, lack of governance and medical facilities. People were even dying on the roads, taking their last breath while standing in a queue in a hope that they might get a cylinder or a bed, sitting under the hot & humid atmosphere and trying their level best to not give up while taking oxygen. India was the first ever country to record 4 lakh + cases in a 24 hour- period. Not only the hospitals were flooded with the patients, even the crematoriums were full. The dead bodies were lying on the road, so many of dead bodies were lying outside the crematorium, at the homes and even in the ambulances. The dead bodies were lying on the death bed for even 4 days in the house, where no one was taking the dead body to the crematorium, even no one was touching, not even the son was touching his mother’s or father’s lifeless body” New Delhi, being the heart of India, has faced the tremendous deaths in just a night span in the second wave. Delhi being the only state surrounded by the working of government officials and bodies has faced the most as compared to the other states of India. Delhi was in a horrifying state at that time, even remembering those times in Delhi could give goosebumps to the Delhites.


The word “COVID” is not only a disastrous emotion but also a haunting emotion for most of the children. The children’s, who’ve lost one of their parent, or both of them in just a couple of days or just in a week. Children’s are the ones who are surviving the most, with an uncertain future and are now being termed as orphaned”,who’ve lost their mother and father in this second wave. Most of the children’s are left with no family members. Siblings, of the age 9 and 13 are left with no hopes. Those children’s who’ve lost their families are now in a search of jobs to earn even one time of a meal. Most of the children’s lost their fathers and women’s who’ve lost their husbands in just a blink, left with no hopes at all. Women’s who are left with their only children’s are now looking for jobs to even feed their kid and to earn a livelihood. For the women’s who haven’t done any jobs, who’ve zero knowledge of even stepping out of the house and to earn a single penny are now trying their level best to let their kids study and trying not to give up on their studies. Those children’s and adults who are in the age of learning something new & exploring the world are now finding jobs to survive. Second wave has destroyed families in just one blink. Young adults of the age 24 or 26 died in the second wave , and their aged parents who only had one child, has left with no hopes. Children’s getting orphaned in just a night span is so heartbreaking. Young girls who are willing to do studies and to explore the world, are now getting ready for their marriage in order to survive their lives. Young women at the age of 27 has become a widow with an uncertain future and no hope’s. This wave was a turning point, or you can say a new birth in every individuals life who has lost their young mother, father, siblings, children’s, adults. Homes has become just a building with only 1 person left, photos and videos has become the only way to see the glimpse of the deceased person, and the children’s and adults who had spark in their eyes to learn and explore something new are now just surviving by counting the days one by one and no hopes to move on from this tremendous loss they could ever had.

In a nutshell, COVID-19 has turned lives upside down in just a blink for most of the people who are left with no hopes at all and are just counting their days to end. Hope this pandemic has a full stop. 



If you are a fan of history and love to go back in time , way back , then you will surely love movies and tv shows based on history , or famous classical novels . Here are a few of them that you can watch :

THE OTHER BOLEYN GIRL – This 2008 released period drama is based on the the life of King Henry the VIII th . The novel and movie were both inspired by history and are fictional events , but this doesn’t make this movie any less fantastic. It is available on Netflix.

MARIE ANTOINETTE – This 2006 movie is based on the actual life of Marie Antoinette , who was an Austrian archduchess , married to a French Royal . This movie is mesmerising , fun to watch is historically accurate . This movie should be added to your list . It is available on Netflix.

PRIDE AND PREJUDICE – This 2006 drama is based on Jane Austen’s literary classic novel – pride and prejudice . It is almost impossible for people to not know about this movie . You can watch it a thousand times , and still not get bored . It is a must watch and is available on Netflix.

BECOMING JANE – Released in the year 2007 , this bibliographical drama is based on the life of the writer Jane Austen and her romance with a young Irishman . This movie is really inspiring and is worth a watch , especially if you love reading Jane Austen’s novels.

The Best Time to Apply for an Internship

Hey there! So, Are you thinking about doing an internship but not sure when to start? Check out this!


An internship is a temporary period of work in some field where you can gain a piece of practical knowledge about the domain. It is up to you to select your field to gain experience.


When to start?

College! Yes, It is always the right time to start in your college.

You can be in your freshman year, yet you can apply for an internship.

It is always about your interests, not about your experience or prior knowledge.

In your freshman year, You can start applying for internships like content writing, video editing, digital marketing, etc. These are some digital internships that you can do from your home and don’t need much time. 

It's about right timing.
It’s about right timing.

Summer Internship

A summer internship is about doing an internship in your career field. It needs basic subject knowledge to work on. Also, Some of them will be a daily commute for a certain period. Benefits of summer internships include :

  • An opportunity to explore different career paths 
  • The chance to develop your interested skills needed for your chosen career
  • Experiences you can list on your resume when applying for jobs
  • The ability to build relationships and a network of professionals

You can start applying for summer internships after your second year. This will be the right time to apply for internship opportunities.

Virtual Internships.
Virtual Internships.

Tips for applying for a summer internship

Here are some tips to keep in mind when applying for summer internships:

  • Get your resume ready.
  • Follow application directions closely.
  • Be familiar with the deadlines for internships.
  • Prepare for the interview.

What to avoid when applying for a summer internship

  • Don’t apply for an internship where the organization demands money from you.
  • Don’t apply for a fewer internships.
  • Submit your authentic resume.
  • Waiting until the last time to apply.

Understand the term Feminism and Pseudo Feminism.

Women having equal rights and opportunities as a man have,this is called feminism.

But in today’s world, there are lots of misconceptions about Feminism. people get triggered by the name of feminism.

Let’s learn the basic difference between the two terms-


  • Women and men are equal and should give equal opportunities.
  • Men and women are not a competition of each other but they are a complement to each other,
  • Men also deserve to be respected.

Pseudo Feminism.

  • Women are superior.
  • Women can do whatever they want in the name of rights and equality.
  • Women can disrespect men, but they can’t answer back.

Women misuse their rights, many women file false cases of dowry and domestic violence. They put wrong allegations of rape on men just to take revenge.

Many so-called social media influencers portray the wrong image of Strong and Independent women. They take Feminism to another level, where you cannot utter a word against women, even if she is doing something wrong.

Society support women who are assaulted are good, but they have also support men who have been harassed. If women slap a man for touching her without her consent is Equality, then if men slap a woman for cheating on him is also called Equality. Standing in the queue and waiting for your turn is called Equality.

Let’s make the world a better place to live not just for women but for men also. Grow together support each other in every phase of life. Don’t be competition to each other.



Biodiversity is the term used to describe the tremendous variety of life on earth. It includes all the varieties present from the ecosystem, species-level to the genetic level.

Photo by Engin Akyurt on

If we take an example of a forest, it may seem like it is a permanent fixture, but it may be likely to collapse if only one type of species tends to thrive in there. In order to maintain stability, there need to be diverse species, as one species is dependent on another for survival.



Photo by Jacob Colvin on

Sunlight plays a major key role in this system. The leaves of the plants and trees need sunlight for the process of photosynthesis to create oxygen and energy in the form of sugar. This energy is stored in various parts of the plant, and when the herbivores being the primary consumer, consume the leaves, the energy is passed on to them. Followed by the secondary consumers, the energy is passed on to them and so on. This is the ENERGY FLOW. It follows the 10% law, where only 10% energy will be passed on from source to consumers.

Another key factor is the presence of a hot and humid climate. As the humid climate is very much needed to add another essential to rich diversity i.e water.


Photo by Frans Van Heerden on

The size of a habit plays an important role in greater diversity. As the area increases, the niche increases, which is now able to support a greater variety of species.

Soil also being the key factor, has its own biodiversity. Soil biodiversity includes all the bacteria, fungi, earthworms, and termites, etc. A tablespoon of topsoil can contain a wide range of different species and up to 6 billion microorganisms.

The agricultural sector and environment, both need the proper maintenance of soil biodiversity.

  • Soil is the most biologically diverse matter on Earth, essential for plant growth and its nutrient
  • Soil contains a large variety of organisms, which is essential for global cycles, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
  • Soil is the habitat for millions of micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, as well as insects, and other organisms.


Photo by Francesco Ungaro on

In the case of a larger ecosystem, like the Rain forest, all the species are interdependent for survival. If any one of the minor species is eliminated, it may not as much affect the whole stability of the ecosystem, because of the rich volume of species and genetic diversity causing rich biodiversity.

It need not be true in all cases. Consider the Coral Reel Ecosystem. Because of the diversity of life found in the habitats created by corals, reefs are often called the “rainforests of the sea.” Many organisms in the reef are dependent on the coral, as it provides, habitat as well as the breeding ground for thousands of species of fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. It also forms a symbiotic relationship with the alga. This makes corals the keystone organism. So what if, due to extensive fishing, pollution, or ocean acidification cause the loss of corals? All the species that were dependent on the corals face the same loss, causing the destruction of that entire ecosystem.


Ecosystem, Species, and Genetic diversity are intertwined to give us the biodiversity that is vital for the survival of organisms on Earth. We, humans, are also a part of this system, if few strands of this link are removed, our own survival is threatened, cut off too many of them, may cause destruction of our own ecosystems. Biodiversity is the Earth’s own safety net, an insurance policy for the survival of us all.


One hundred years later women found suffrage2 — and with a growing number of women in the workforce, holding elected positions, and striving for the presidency — a period of constitutional amendment that clearly guarantees equal rights without sex is out of date.3 Alice Paul, Crystal Eastman, and others in 1923 and later revised, the proposed Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) states: “Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or restricted by the United States or any other state on the basis of sexual orientation. “Nascent’s efforts to pass the ERA have grown with the realization that the commitment to equality enshrined in the US Constitution could not be fully realized without a clear, meaningful commitment to equality regardless of gender. Now, as women and people of all genders increasingly face increasing attacks on their rights and independence, the current repression of the ERA is a constant reminder that empty speeches and measures that they want to support and empower are completely insufficient.

At the time of the writing of the ERA, the status of women in American society was often viewed as inferior to that of men. Legal restrictions – such as a ban on voting and property ownership – combined with long-held views on women’s roles meant that women were demoted to certain positions and could not be considered full citizens. In particular, many women of color were also hampered by the cold effects of racial, ethnic, and gender-based discrimination, and strengthened the social position in which they were degraded compared to white women. Although the ERA remains unconstitutional, many of the attitudes and practices that promoted its first proposal have long been rejected. The broader impetus for gender equality has gained momentum over the decades, and, apart from the ERA, women and people in all gender sectors have made great efforts to uplift their status, protect vital legal protection, and access opportunities in society as a whole. But there is still work to be done to ensure that women and people in all sexes are treated equally and have the power to live their lives the way they want. The absence of a clear prohibition against gender discrimination in the Constitution remains one of the main obstacles to the fight for gender equality and the advancement of women in general – and the ERA is an important tool in achieving this progress.



     Interpersonal skills are the soft skills that you rely on to communicate or interact with others. These skills are essential for communication between people. Effective interpersonal skills can get you a good job and have a bright light on your career advancement. Some of the interpersonal skills include leadership, teamwork, active listening, responsibility, dependability, motivation, flexibility, patience, and empathy. In the workplace, strong interpersonal skills are an asset to you that helps you to be confident. 


     Strong interpersonal skills help you during the interview for your jobs since interviewers will always expect a person who can easily interact with others. This will also help you to succeed in your job by helping you with understanding others and adjust according to them to work effectively. These skills are essential for communicating and working in groups in your personal and professional life. People with strong intercommunication skills can always maintain a good relationship with friends, families, and colleagues. Other benefits include good problem-solving techniques and decision-making skills. 


      You can improve your interpersonal skills by following the tips listed below:

  1. FIND WHAT YOU NEED TO IMPROVE: Identify the areas of interpersonal skills that you are weak. You can find it by asking for feedback from your friends, teachers, or family members since they know you well. After getting feedback from them, work on that area to improve your skills.
  2. LEARN FROM OTHERS: Learning is a great habit to improve yourself. Learning happens everywhere. Even a small kid can teach something that will be useful for you and others around you. Learn from your colleagues, friends, and leaders who inspire you. Note their tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions. Apply those skills to improve your communication skills.
  3. TRAIN YOURSELF: Put yourself in a position where you can use your interpersonal skills. For example, you can join the social events and clubs of the company/college where you can get a chance to interact with others.
  4. AVOID DISTRACTIONS: Put your mobile aside when you are communicating with others. Give full attention to what they are saying so that you can understand them and respond to them more effectively.
  5. ENROLL IN COURSES: Enroll yourself in courses to learn and improve your skills. Different apps like BYJUs, Coursera, Udemy, etc., provide various courses for developing your interpersonal skills. You can also see a lot of videos posted on YouTube regarding interpersonal skills and practice in daily life.
  6. RECORD YOURSELF: Record your speaking on your phone or recorder and then listen to it. Then identify the areas where you are mistaken. Note things that you would like to change or develop such as grammatical errors, tenses, tone of voice, speed of talking, or body language. Record periodically to assess your progress. Also, speak in front of mirrors so that you can see your body language and expression.
  7. BE CONFIDENT: Teach yourself to be positive and confident by reminding the good things you have accomplished earlier. Try to see the positive things in every work you are assigned so that you do not need to be stressed or depressed.
  8. BE ASSERTIVE: Assertiveness is when you confidently express your ideas fairly and honestly considering the views of other people. People are more likely to like and respect you if you are assertive. 
  9. AVOID TALKING OVER OTHERS: Always practice the habit of listening to others. Good listeners will always possess strong communication skills. Wait until the opposite person ends their conversation and then convey your ideas on that.
  10. THINK BEFORE YOU SPEAK: Consider your words while you are communicating with others. Don’t use harsh words while speaking. You must be calm, honest, and also respectful.


Often confused between electrical ,electronics study and their devices? then this post is for you.

These two studies are actually different and seems to overlap each other. Both devices works with electricity .


Electric energy is produced by the flow of electrons. Electrical device converts electrical energy to another form of energy as heat, light etc. It is concerned with the large-scale production and distribution of electrical power.

Examples :

1)electrical energy->  ->light energy

2)electrical energy->-> mechanical energy

Circuit mostly consist of connecting wires,switches,fuse,transformer…


Electronic devices has the capability of controlling the flow of electrons to do certain task, like water heater with auto cut off features etc. As they controls the flow of electricity to process information and to control systems.


Here are few differences described,

here current conducted threw metals like copper,aluminium.they use semiconductor material to conduct.
They use Alternating current. eg : generatoruse direct current
works on high voltage,consume more powerworks on low voltage,less power consumption
do not manipulate dataelectronic devices are used to manipulate data
large require more spacesmall compact,require less space .so used in Integrated chips.
Examples : fan,transformer,generator,motor.Examples: transistors, microcontrollers

Circuits -Basic components:


In digital world ,we all want things to happen automatically,wish to control everything from our place within seconds. These wishes’ fulfilled by combining electrical device with electronic circuits, due to electronic circuit’s small size,control,processing capability . So it is used in most of the electrical devices,home applicants. electronics circuits used for display,remote control,auto open,close,level checker such many features in lot of home applicants,industry,etc..

Consider these cases:

  • An electric chair
  • An electronic chair

The first is a chair which predominantly features electricity. The second is a chair which has some feature made of a complex circuit (for example, the seats in cars which are automatically-adjusting).

  • An electric toaster
  • An electronic toaster

The first is a run of the mill toaster. The second is a toaster that lets you program in an image to burn into the toast, and which sends you an email when the toast is done

Electrical and electronic engineering careers and opportunities:

  • Cybersecurity consultant
  • Design engineer
  • Electrical engineer
  • Electronics field engineer
  • Energy engineering consultant
  • Nuclear controls engineer
  • Software engineer
  • System engineer
  • Technology analyst 

core subjects for electrical & electronics engineering:

  • Communication Electronics
  • Digital System Engineering
  • Electrical Circuits and Networks
  • Electronic Devices and Circuits

Electronics is a sub field of electrical engineering, so it’s safe to say something is electric when we don’t know if electronics is actually used in the design. When we say a device is electronic, this is because we know or we assume the circuit contains electronic components.

The distinction electric / electronic is not based on the purpose or the function of the circuit, e.g. dealing with power vs dealing with signal, as stated in other answers.

From all we can come to an end in one line that


Interpersonal skills including communication skills

Strong interpersonal skills are important for employers because most jobs require you to effectively interact with other people. These skills are now vital for success in the workplace.

Interpersonal communication is the process of sharing ideas and emotions verbally and nonverbally with another person. It allows us to interact with and understand others in our personal and professional lives. In the workplace, hiring managers often look for employees with strong interpersonal skills who will collaborate and communicate well with their colleagues. In this article, we will describe the importance of interpersonal skills in your career.

In this article, we discuss different types of interpersonal communication skills.

What are interpersonal skills ?

Interpersonal skills—also known as people skills—are the soft skills you use to communicate with and understand others. You use these skills daily when interacting with people face-to-face .

Key interpersonal communication skills?

Effective interpersonal communication skills are required to form connections and establish relationships. There are many different types – we have described eleven of the most important skills:

Active listening

Active listening is listening beyond the words being spoken – understanding the message being communicated. During conversations, a lot of the time the “listener” is thinking about how they’re going to respond rather than concentrating on what the speaker is saying.By really listening you can provide a more thoughtful answer that takes the speaker’s thoughts and opinions into account. This will help people around you understand that you value and appreciate them.

Body language

Your posture, expression and gestures can say just as much as your words. When communicating with coworkers and managers, practice open body language to encourage trust and positivity. Open body language includes nodding, maintaining eye contact, smiling and being relaxed. Avoid closed body language such as crossed arms, restless behavior and shifting your eyes.

Conflict resolution

It’s likely that you’ll need to resolve a conflict at some point. Active listening and problem-solving are useful for this as you’ll need to hear from all sides objectively and you’ll need to come to a positive resolution.Resolving conflict is not always a negative experience – it can be very constructive and provide you with an understanding of underlying problems, for example, perhaps a team member is having difficulties at home which is making them more irritable.By forming a plan with those involved, you can help them move forward and manage their difficulties. They may have never experienced this constructive help before your mediation.


Working collaboratively allows teams to work productively and deliver positive outcomes for clients and the business.Successful collaboration requires the ability to cooperate and respect each other.Employers often seek applicants who have a proven track record working successfully within a team and candidates who are willing to compromise and cooperate to deliver exceptional work.

Team work

For a business to function effectively people must work well together in order to achieve a common goal. Some people struggle with teamwork because they believe that they know how to do the job better than anyone else and they do not trust others to do their roles. This can create conflict and hurt the overall effectiveness of the team.If this is something you find difficult assist your colleagues whenever you can and ask your colleagues for their opinions and ideas – be enthusiastic when colleagues offer their own ideas.

Positive attitude

People want to be around others that are friendly and have a positive outlook even when the company may be in a difficult situation. You don’t have to be incredibly sociable but you must develop some type of positive rapport with your team so that the workplace is pleasant for everybody.


To be empathetic means that you are able to identify and understand others’ emotions i.e. imagining yourself in someone else’s position. Being empathetic shows your team that you care. For example, if a manager reacts angrily after finding out that an employee has been arriving to work late because their child is unwell, the team is likely to react negatively towards the manager.

It would be more favourable for the manager to be understanding and agree on a plan of action with the employee, such as, the employee starting work earlier and finishing later. Employees and colleagues will respect and trust you more if you empathise with them and express compassion.

Also, understanding how people feel will help you communicate your thoughts and ideas in a way that makes sense to others and it helps you understand others when they communicate.

Why interpersonal skills are important ?

Interpersonal skills are important for communicating and working with groups and individuals in your personal and professional life. People with strong interpersonal skills tend to build good relationships and can work well with others. They understand family, friends, coworkers and clients well. People often enjoy working with colleagues who have good interpersonal skills.

Other benefits of interpersonal skills include the ability to solve problems and make good decisions. You can use interpersonal communication skills and the ability to understand others to come to the best solution or make the best decision for everyone involved.

Many employers try to hire staff with strong interpersonal skills because these individuals often work well on teams and collaborate with their colleagues effectively. People with interpersonal skills also tend to make good leaders because of their ability to communicate with and motivate those around them.

In summary

Your job performance will improve if you develop your interpersonal skills because you will be more of a cohesive member of the company. It’s also likely that your job satisfaction will increase because you will form stronger relationships with your colleagues.By becoming more aware of how you interact with others and by practicing you can improve your interpersonal communication skills.

Impact of Covid 19 on Indian Economy

It has been more than a year and a half and the world is still struggling with a novel coronavirus pandemic. The nation went into strict lockdown for the first time in March 2020, which brought the urban economy to a standstill in the first quarter of FY 2020-21. A slow recovery was seen from the second quarter. The resurgence of demand in festival season and bumper agricultural output provided some support to the Indian economy and GDP in FY21 contracted by 7.3%.

With the development of vaccines and a lower number of cases, it was estimated at the beginning of FY22, that India will grow around 12% this financial year but the second wave of the pandemic, made things take turn for the worse. While there was no nationwide lockdown this year, local restrictions in major states impacted various sectors of the economy.

Sector wise impact

AGRICULTURE – With the second wave, the virus also penetrated rural India and this is a matter of concern as last time, GDP contraction was limited to some extent, due to support from the rural economy. In the second wave, stricter restrictions were placed in rural regions. Mandis stayed closed. Farmers could not sell their output and crops were rotting in the field. This also impacted the vegetable vendors and processing industries.

MANUFACTURING – The manufacturing sector was also impacted in both waves. Factories had to work with reduced workers. Due to fear of lockdown, many casual laborers went to their homes. The supply chain was also disrupted due to varied lockdowns in different states. This pushed the cost of the products and ultimately lead to inflation in the country. 

SERVICE – The service sector also provided relief and helped in recovering the economy. Thanks to the digital revolution, the majority of the businesses in the service sector shifted online. Employees could work from home and this helped the economy going on even during lockdowns. However, those businesses which require physical contact, like spas, salons, cinemas, etc. had to suffer during the pandemic.

AVIATION – This is the sector that is most hit by the pandemic. Flights get banned as soon as several positive cases begin to soar. People are avoiding unnecessary travel and tourism and the number of footfalls in airports is reducing. 

UNEMPLOYMENT – Unemployment in the country also increased during the pandemic. Companies were working at low capacity. To reduce costs, employees were laid off. Casual laborers went home, which put pressure on rural jobs, especially jobs under MGNREGA. In July, the unemployment rate is around 7.68% in India.

INFLATION – Due to increased prices of crude oil abroad, low supply of casual laborers, and restrictions in transportation, lead to an inflation of prices of goods. To boost liquidity, RBI is also increasing the money supply, which is also leading to an increase in the prices of goods and services. CPI Inflation in the country is around 6.2%, which is more than RBI’s commitment to tame inflation under 6% under the monetary policy agreement.


So overall, all macroeconomic variables are showing negative signs during the pandemic. Some online businesses like Zomato, OTT platforms have benefited from people staying home. But most of the businesses have suffered due to pandemics. Both government and the central bank are trying to control the impact of the coronavirus on the economy. Both the health and economy of the nation are important. Let’s hope that due to stricter compliances and widespread vaccination programs, India can avoid the impact of the third wave, as another wave will further weaken the economy.

Top 10 Interesting Psychological Facts in 2020

Humans are the most advanced creatures on the planet because they are born with ideas and thinking capabilities that are store in an organ called to mind. However, there are some interesting Psychological Facts which even the mind can boggle. The mind is the most critical and essential part of humans through which they are distinguished from all other living beings. The scientific study to know the behaviour and nature of the thinking capacity of the mind are called psychology.

Psychology tracks the activities human minds like how we think, what we think in a particular situation, how we learn, how we feel attract or negative about something, there are a lot of things that are going on in our minds. Through several surveys, researches, practical studying of human minds, many psychologists working in different parts of the world, listed out the enormous interesting psychological facts, describing unknown sides of human behaviour.

The American Association of Psychological Association considers that facts are invisible and inaudible but are the basis of human cooperation and thinking. So the psychological facts reveal many aspects and responses of the human mind.

Some of interesting Psychological Facts 

Many psychologists are involved in taking out all the aspects of human behaviour but tracking all over human nature is impossible but many types of research and studies have taken out several interesting facts of the human mind. Every year American based psychologists, as well as another psychiatrist of the world, is bringing many new psychological facts, some of the most interesting psychological facts of 2020 area as follows:

  • The person who always keeps on advising others is himself dealing with many troubles of life.
  • Communication has the power to either ruin our mood or makes us happy. Good communication helps to reduce stress.
  • The people who quickly recognised their mistakes and feel guilty, they quickly understand other person’s feelings.
  • Music is the best stress reliever and listening to happy songs in a high volume gives a feeling of joyousness.
  • Trying those things that scare the people most gives a feeling of happiness and relaxation.
  • If a person is happy enough then sleeping much in not essential to give rest to the body. Happiness has the power to relax the body.
  • Travelling is the best medicine of stress and reduces the risk of heart problems.
  • Sometimes people easily write those things which they can’t speak. They prefer chatting instead of speaking with others.
  • People who expose their success goals, there are fewer chances of fulfilling them as the person lose motivation.
  • The smarter the person is, the sloppier will be his handwriting and he becomes more selective.

These psychological facts reveal many aspects of human behaviour and mind that come into existence after various researches and deep analysis.

Psychological facts about Love

Psychology studies the behaviour of human minds, loving others is also one of the critical aspects of our minds. The mystery of love is still not known as it is very complicated and difficult to explain in words. But with close analysis, the feeling of love is incorporated by many psychologists into some interesting facts. Some of the important psychological facts about love are as follows-

  • Psychologists prove that humans take just 4 minutes to fall in love.
  • The person cannot remain angry on their love partners for more than 3 days and if he remains angry for more than this period than there is no love between them.
  • If the ‘I LOVE YOU’ is said in the left ear than it causes a huge emotional impact on the mind of the person.
  • Even if two lovers remain in contact as a friend than it means that either they are still in love or they were never in love with each other.
  • Love partners who spend at least happy ten minutes of the day together then they will likely to remain together for a long time.
  • These wonderful psychological facts about love reveal that love is a very complicated feeling in humans

Psychological facts about Hot Shower

Every small thing has a big impact on our mind. Even taking a shower affects our mind. The time we spend taking the shower and the type of water we use for bathing reveals many aspects of our mind and behaviour. There are some interesting psychological facts about hot shower-

  • If a person spends a long time taking the shower with hot water reveals that he lonely from inside.
  • Taking a hot shower for a long time gives the person the feeling of togetherness that he is searching for in real life.
  • It reveals that taking a long shower with warm water helps to avoid loneliness.
  • The warm shower increases the body temperature which gives a feeling of togetherness and impact positively on various body parts.
  • The lonely person usually takes a long hot shower.

Thus, these are some of the most believable psychological facts about hot shower that is revealed by many renowned psychologists of the world.

Psychological facts about Dreams

One of the important and mysterious thinking capacity of the mind is dreaming. Dreams reveal many aspects of the human mind thinking and some of the interesting psychological facts about dreams are as follows-

  • 90 per cent of the dreams that we see during sleeping got deleted from our mind. Within just 5 minutes of waking up, we forget the dream.
  • People think that as people who don’t see, they can’t even able to see dreams. But it is not true even blinds to have the capacity to see dreams.
  • It is revealed that even people with sight see uncoloured or black and white dreams.
  • Emotions and dreams have a direct relationship if we are anxious and negative thoughts overlapped our mind than we usually see bad dreams.
  • Even animals too can see dreams while sleeping.
  • Whatever we were thinking before we start sleeping, then there are high chances that those things we see in our dreams. 

These are some of the interesting psychological facts about dreams that come after close analysis and surveying of the various people.


The human mind is a very complicated and critical thing to understand. Many psychologists all around the world are focusing on and analysing the people of different age groups, nature, profession, preferences to take out the possible facts about humans. Although many psychological facts have already revealed many are still unknown as human behaviour and thinking keeps on changing with time and space.

Many psychologists are working to bring everything that how the human mind thinks, reacts, response, and gets alert when a change happens in his surroundings. The human is very complicated to understand but many psychologists reveal these cognitive actions into psychological facts that reveals many aspects of the human mind.


By Megha sharma

Posted in Internship

Science and Technology-A boon in pandemic

“The science of today is technology of tomorrow”

~Edward Teller

Ever thought that science and technology would have become so important to us in 21st century that the people could become habitual of virtual world than the physical one? The answer to this question maybe yes or maybe no.

The ongoing pandemic has itself made science and technology as a ‘war without smoke’ .It has united people to overcome difficulties together and choose an online mode as a new normal therefore a way to neither get stuck at home being jobless but move ahead and earn by sitting in front of electronic devices and earn their living.

What is difference between science and technology?

Science focuses upon knowledge through experimentation and observation while technology is an applied science and all about processes. In simple words ,it means that science is a study of natural world in terms of observation while technology is all about applying it in a practical manner.

Development of science and technology in everyday life


If we discuss about the education sector the old techniques of studying through blackboard, chalk and duster have been replaced by smart class system and within the ongoing pandemic it has been replaced to mobile phones and laptops. Students can attend online classes in remote areas as well.


The essence of science and technology that is contributed to society is the foundation of new knowledge further when this knowledge is utilised successfully and deals with great issues in society. Earlier the disease which were incurable have now been cured using various instruments an medicines. For example, Cancer which caused many deaths in the past years are now cured through various medicines.


Communication too has evolved over the years. Earlier the source of communication was only through simple text messages or calls but now internet is playing a crucial role in the field of communication which has enabled whats app calls and video calls.Many such sectors too have evolved over the years which has enhanced productivity as well as suitability for the coming generation.

Application of science and technology

The following points address how science and technology is applies in our daily lives:-

  • Technology facilitates communication between co-workers and consumers
  • There are many software programs that help to achieve accuracy in financial transactions.
  • If we talk about the soaps which are used for various purposes at home are nothing but the creation of science!
  • The house in which we live in is too a product of science!

Technology has become almost a part of life.In the times of pandemic people have Almost tried to prefer online mode in all the aspects which has affected many lives it has become a new normal and one of the alternative for the a large scale businesses as well as for various sectors of economy.


~Christian Lous Lange

Crisis in the Telecom Sector

You must have read in the news about the plight of the Vodafone-Idea company. None of us could have ever thought, the companies which were so successful in their fields, would have to face such miserable days. If I had asked you 4 to 5 years back, which mobile telecom operator you use. Your answer could have varied between Airtel, Aircel, Vodafone, Docomo, Idea, Reliance, BSNL, Videocon, and even more. But if ask you the same question today. You would not have any answer other than Airtel, VI, or Jio. The Telecom sector now has a trioka system operating in it. (or Rule of 3). Don’t be very surprised if there is a duopoly in the near future as lenders of VI are considering taking the company to insolvency firms to get back their dues. So why this happened? Why is an industry that used to be so dynamic and competitive, is left only with two major players, and every other company is wiped out? We will find out in this article.

Fall of Telecom Companies – Role of Jio

In 2016, Reliance Industries limited made an ambitious announcement. They were ready to enter the telecom sector and promised to provide lucrative offers to everyone. Unlimited internet, Unlimited messaging, Unlimited voice calls. And all this at the cost of nothing. When Jio was launched, crores of Indians came to get the sim of Jio. Who knew, that this new player in the telecom industry will change the fate of all the existing players. Existing companies were not aware that their future was not left for years now and they were going to end soon. As soon as people started shifting to Jio, it became even difficult for then market leader Airtel to compete with Jio. Companies that had less than 10% share simply could not survive and they simply had to exit.
This is known as a predatory pricing marketing strategy. Basically, if you have huge cash to burn, then burn it to such an extent, keep your cost low, and once the competitors are out of business, you start making your profit. Customers who were now habituated to free internet and free calling, cannot agree to less than that. Therefore, if other companies had to stay in business, they have to agree to the demands of customers. Companies like Airtel and Idea, which once used to charge Rs 200 for 1 GB of data for 1 month of internet, now had to start taking losses to compete with the Jio.

Crisis in Telecom Sector

But wait, if you think Jio was the sole reason for the plight of all the telecom companies. Then, you are wrong. In fact, the major reason for today’s crisis is not Jio but policymakers, the government. Government demands huge regulatory fees from the telecom companies, for their operation and spectrum usage. Government charges up to 15% of the Adjusted Gross Revenue(AGR) as regulatory fees. While, in no major economy, it’s more than 3%. In fact, the majority of the dues of VI are AGR dues that are owed to the government.


Preview(opens in a new tab)

So this is the overall scenario of VI. There were already huge costs, telecom companies had to bear by paying regulatory fees to the government. By the entry of Jio, they further had to cut down their price. Since they lost their customers to Jio, which now has the largest market share, they also lost their revenue to pay dues and finding it difficult to honor the debt commitments. Their fate is now left at the mercy of the government. They can only survive if the government decides to bail out the company. As per estimates, VI needs a minimum of Rs 70,000 crores to survive further.

Man of Comedy and Tragedy

What is history without literature? What is art with the words of an author? When we think of words, poems, stories, of plays, the only name that comes as a flashcard in our head is Shakespeare. William Shakespeare, a magnificent author, poet, known for his famous plays all over the world but what do we know of his life? 

William Shakespeare was born in the year 1564, in the Elizabethan era, to John Shakespeare and Mary Arden Shakespeare and was the third child out of his eight siblings. Seeing the proof of his extraordinary work, Shakespeare was an enthusiast for reading, writing, and even acting. Literature had played an important role in his life, from the very first of his learnings. Latin was the language that used to go around in those times and William being a curious student learned Latin and hence most of his texts, plays and other writings are in Latin and then have been translated into English. Eventually, he started writing in English as he was fluent in the historic native English that he spoke in his everyday life. 

William Shakespeare got married when he was 18 years old to Anne Hathaway who was 26-year-old at that time. Soon after they were blessed with a daughter named Susanna in 1583. After another two years, Anne Hathaway gave birth to twins, Hamnet and Judith. Unfortunately, Shakespeare’s son Hamnet died when he was 11 years old due to an unknown illness. 

William Shakespeare lived a life filled with astonishing wordplay and interesting theories about life in a tragedy which he depicted in his writing, leaving a trace for upcoming authors, writers, poets to continue a dramatic course of literature around the world. His work was indeed a work of art. Writing plays about kings and queens, about betrayal, about revenge were his best works till today. Writing plays like Romeo and Juliet, which became a world classic story of romance in the Elizabethan era, made him the most astounding writer globally. 

Hamlet, one of his longest plays, has been his most famous after Romeo and Juliet. William Shakespeare found humor in most of his writings. He wrote plays like Twelfth Night and A Midsummer Night’s Dream to imbibe the role of tragic comedy in society giving a new view and perspective to the world and encouraging by implying that there is nothing wrong in finding humor in difficult times, just like in his plays. 

William Shakespeare was an inspiration for many forthcoming writers and even today he has been inspiring young authors and poets to write something that is out of this world. Shakespeare gave words meaning and gave people hope to write imaginary stories and make a new world of fiction through words, whether fantasy or just politically strong made-up scenarios. To all the book lovers, to all the blooming writers, to all the daydreamers, there is a place that can make you feel like the main character and that place is not a place but it is in the plays written by William Shakespeare. As T.S. Elliot rightfully said, “The purpose of literature is to turn blood into ink”



Kiran Bedi

Bedi was born on 9 June 1949 in Amritsar, in a well-to-do Punjabi business family.

She is the second child of Prakash Lal Peshawaria and Prem Lata . She has three sisters: Shashi, Reeta, and Anu. Her great-great-grandfather Lala Hargobind had migrated from Peshawar to Amritsar, where he set up a business.

Bedi’s upbringing was not very religious, but she was brought up in both Hindu and Sikh traditions (her grandmother was a Sikh).

Bedi started her formal studies in 1954, at the Sacred Heart Convent School in Amritsar. She participated in National Cadet Corps (NCC), among other extra-curricular activities. At that time, Sacred Heart did not offer science; instead, it had a subject called “household”, which was aimed at grooming girls into good housewives.

Bedi graduated in 1968, with a BA (Honours) in English, from Government College for Women at Amritsar. The same year, she won the NCC Cadet Officer Award. In 1970, she obtained a master’s degree in political science from Panjab University, Chandigarh.

From 1970 to 1972, Bedi taught as a lecturer at Khalsa College for Women in Amritsar. She taught courses related to political science. Later, during her career in the Indian Police Service, she also earned a law degree from Faculty of Law, University of Delhi in 1988 and a Ph.D. from IIT Delhi’s Department of Social Sciences in 1993.


On 16 July 1972, Bedi started her police training at the National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie. She was the only woman in a batch of 80 men, and became the first woman IPS officer.

United Nations Medal, 2004
Ramon Magsaysay Award, 1994
President’s Police Medal, 1979


Lok Sabha passes Bill to re-establish states’ controls over OBC list

Lok Sabha on August 10 passed the Constitution (127th Amendment) Bill that targets re-establishing forces of states and Union Territories to inform their own rundown of in reverse classes.

The Bill was gone through a division vote. Every one of the 385 individuals who were available in the House casted a ballot for the enactment.

The House saw conversation in a systematic way, dissimilar to recent long stretches of Monsoon Session when the procedures of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha were upset because of the Opposition’s fights over Pegasus Project report, ranch change laws and value rise.

The Bill got support from all Opposition parties who participated in the discussion that went on for more than five-and-a-half hours before the division casting a ballot to pass the enactment occurred. However, before long the Bill was passed, the Opposition chiefs continued their dissent.

Association Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Dr Virendra Kumar presented the Bill in the Lok Sabha on August 9. He moved the “memorable enactment” for thought at 12: 15 pm on August 10 which was trailed by comments by heads of both decision and Opposition parties till 5:45 pm.

“The Bill would profit 671 stations in the country. It will re-establish the states’ privileges to set up their own arrangements of OBCs so different networks can be given social and monetary equity,” he said.

Head of Congress in Lok Sabha, Adhir Ranjan Chowdhary said that when the first Constitution alteration was gotten 2018, Opposition had cautioned the public authority that it will remove privileges of state yet the public authority didn’t listen then, at that point. He said that the Congress party was being a party in question by helping out the public authority on the Constituent Amendment Bill.

“At the point when states began dissenting, individuals began dissenting and with an eye on political race, you (Centre) brought this Bill now. However, we additionally request that 50% roof be taken out,” Chowdhary said. No less than 30 individuals from parliament participated in the conversation on the Bill.

The Bill has political ramifications as restoring powers of the states to identify backward classes has been a demand by many regional parties and even the ruling BJP’s OBC leaders. The BJP, and the Opposition parties, including the Congress, want to get the support among the OBC communities in the poll-bound states, especially in the politically crucial Uttar Pradesh, sources said.

That is precisely why all Opposition parties are on the same page on the importance of the Bill, they said. The Congress, they said, paused the protest and participated in the discussion to prevent the government from projecting it as a party that is opposing a key legislation related to OBCs.

The new Bill, coming ahead of crucial elections in five states early next year, will effectively bypass the Supreme Court’s May 2021 decision, which triggered protests by state governments and other backward caste (OBC) groups.

On May 5, while scrapping the quota for Marathas in Maharashtra, the apex court had ruled that after the 102nd amendment to the Constitution made in 2018, only the Centre can notify socially and educationally backward classes, not the states.

During the discussion in Lok Sabha, most of the Opposition leaders who supported the Bill, including SP’s Akhilesh Yadav and AIMIM’s Asaduddin Owaisi, demanded to remove the 50 percent limit. Opposition support to pass the bill was significant as a constitutional amendment requires two-thirds majority of lawmakers who are present during the proceedings, with at least 50 percent in attendance.

Meanwhile, the protests continued in Rajya Sabha and the House was adjourned for the day.

Salient Features of Representation of People’s Act

The ballot is stronger than the bullet.”

Abraham Lincoln

With the same thoughts of providing certain provisions relating to elections, The Parliament of India on 17th July 1951 enacted an act called The Representation of People Act, 1951 which governs the election. The election which is governed is on two levels – on the central level it governs the election of House of Parliament and on the state level it governs the election of House of legislature of respective states. Under the ambit of the act various titles fall such as the qualification and disqualification of member, whether the members are using any corrupt practice or not, etc. With the aforementioned act, the election is governed on different levels in order to keep the elections fair and proper for the citizens of the country.


The constituent assemble which was set up for the formation of the constitution framed the constitution which came into force on 26 January 1950. The first general election was to be conducted on 25 October 1951, and right before the first election, the Representation of People’s Act was enacted under Article 327 of the Constitution. It was introduced in the Parliament by the father of the constitution – Dr B R Ambedkar.

Timeline of the Act

1950 – The government introduced Representation of People Act 1950 to regulate and govern the elections which would be held in the country. The act had provisions for the qualification of the voters, the seat allocation in Lok Sabha, whether one candidate be enrolled for more than one constituency, etc.  

1951 – In the same manner, the Act of 1951 governs the elections to be held in the country. The addition in the act was that it also had provisions for illegal activities relating to election, dispute redressal in any matter related to elections and what are the qualifications for the member of parliament and member of legislative assembly.

1988 – The year saw the first amendment for the Representation of People Act. The Amendment added the provision for revocation of polling because of electronic voting machines.

2002 – This particular Amendment added Section 33A which is the provision for the right to information. With this provision the voters have the right to be aware of the antecedents of the candidates.

2010 – The Amendment Bill of 2010 conferred voting rights to Indians who were non resident Indians. The right given was of voting rights and not of contesting elections for the NRIs.

2013 – The bill was passed by both the houses of the Parliament which stated that a person who is in police custody or jail can file for nomination in election provided their name should be entered in the electoral roll.

2017 – Lok Sabha passed this bill which provided for proxy voting of non-resident Indians.

Representation of People Act 1950 –

The Representation of People Act 1950 had 32 sections which were divided in 8 parts for ease of understanding. The four schedules of the act laid down the following things in the respective order – allocation of seats in Lok Sabha, the total number of seats in Legislative assembly, total number of seat in Legislative Council and the local authorities responsible for the election of legislative council. 

Salient Features of Representation of People Act 1950 –

  1. Qualification of the voters – the RPA 1950 provided that for a person to be qualified as a voter, the person would have to be a permanent resident of India and above the age of 18 years.
  2. Allocation of seat – allocation of seats for Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies and councils was necessary in order to maintain transparency as to how many elected members are needed. This is mentioned in Part II of the act.
  3. Preparation of electoral roll – this step helps in eliminating any duplicate voters from the voting list to ensure free and fair elections for all the citizens. Preparation of electoral roll for Parliamentary constituencies is mentioned in Part IIB, electoral roll for assembly constituencies is mentioned in Part III and electoral roll for council constituencies is mentioned in Part IV.
  4. Delimitation of constituencies – the provision for delimitation of constituencies help in drawing and redrawing the boundary for a certain constituencies for which they can be elected and can stand up for in the election. Along with drawing of boundary, the act also ensures the adjustment of seats according to the boundary.  The provision is mentioned in Part II of the Act.

Salient Features of Representation of People Act 1951

  1. Qualification of elected representatives – the qualification of elected representatives in the Parliament as well as respective state assembly and council helps in ensuring the citizens that the members which are being elected and qualified for standing up in the election. In the act, from Section 3 to 5 provides for the provisions relating to qualification.
  2. Disqualification of elected representatives for membership – the act lays down certain provisions for the disqualification of a member from the Parliament or the state legislature. Disqualification of a member can happen on multiple grounds such as under Section 8 a member can be disqualified for certain offences for which they can be convicted, Section 8A – member who opts to use corrupt practices to win an election or influence the voters by using corrupt practices can be disqualified, etc. There are various other grounds discussed in Section 9 to 11B.
  3. Administrative machinery – the act provides certain provisions pertaining to the administrative machinery relating to the conduct of elections. This was a much-needed step in order to establish a supervisory head for the elected members. Under the act, for the purpose of administrative machinery, the general duties of the Chief electoral officer and other concerned authorities has been laid down.
  4. Registration of Political party – for any political party to contest in an election or to avail any feature of the act need to register themselves with the election commission. The necessary information which needs to be mentioned by the political party while registering are provided under Section 29A of the act.
  5. Conduct of elections – the act has laid down numerous sections which fall under the ambit of conduct of elections. The act enumerates the duty of the election commission and its authorities, the publication of the list of contesting candidates, how can a candidate withdraw their candidature, etc.
  6. Right to information – with the amendment, the act introduced a new provision which gives the right to information to the voter where the candidate will be required to furnish necessary information and whether they have been convicted for any offence or not in their nomination paper. This is laid down in Section 33A of the act which lets the voter know who their candidate is with necessary information before casting their vote.
  7. Capping of expenditure – the act provides a ceiling in terms of expenditure for the elections. For the Lok Sabha elections the total amount of expenditure should not cross 70 lakhs and for the state assembly elections, the total amount of expenditure should be of maximum 28 lakhs. This helps in keeping a check of the money spent in conducting the elections.

References –

  1. Representation of People Act, 1951


Bacteria, Microbiology, Organism

In general, microbes are known to cause harm to plants, animals, and humans, and so on. In particular, bacteria have caused a lot of problems in humans like tuberculosis, anthrax, cholera, etc. but not all bacteria are pathogenic (disease-causing) in nature. The particular bacteria discussed here is friendly to humans and is completely trustable.

The ruminococcus genus of bacteria falls under the class clostridia. These bacteria are round-shaped, anaerobic (do not need oxygen for survival), and are gram-positive. These bacteria are gut-friendly. More than one type of these bacteria is present in the human’s gut helping in the process of digestion.

The gut of the human which primarily includes the intestines is known as the bacterial fermentation chamber. Most of these bacteria help the human and have a symbiotic relationship.

The symbiotic relationship is a relationship between two organisms in which both of the organisms get benefitted. A suitable example of this is the lichens.

The lichen is a symbiotic association between fungi and algae. The shape of the lichen is purely based on the fungus which is dominant and the green color is due to the presence of algae. The role of the algae is to produce food and the role of the fungi is to provide water from the tree it is in. So the fungus gets food in return for the water it gives to the algae. The lichen is not harmful and it gets converted into the organic matter once dead.

A similar relationship is seen in the intestine of the human. The bacteria help the human in digestion and in return get food. We all know that the human digestive system has HCl acid accompanied by a lot of other digestive enzymes and juices. There is a fact that the stomach acid is able to digest even a bar of steel. So in that case why are there some bacteria helping us out with indigestion?

Monkey, Mammal, Animal, Gorilla
gorilla- a perfect example for an omnivore

The reason is that we humans are omnivorous. So we eat meat and vegetables. There is no problem in digesting the meat. But there is a small concern when digesting the vegetables. The problem is that the cell wall of most of the plants contains a substance called cellulose which is lacking in the animal cell walls.

The enzyme which is used to digest cellulose is known as cellulase. This enzyme is not present in the human but is present in the ruminococcus species. Hence these bacteria present in the gut provide this enzyme in return for the food we give to them. Hence there is a mutualistic behavior seen in the gut. Also, there is an added advantage.

There fecal and genital routes are the most important routes for the transmission of several infectious and deadly diseases and most of these are caused by bacteria. There is a fact that the presence of one species/genus does not allow the presence of other species/genus. So the healthy bacteria present in the gut prevent some deadly infections.

Based on these facts, I think it is appropriate to say that this is a human-friendly bacterium and can be completely trusted.


World Lion Day: August 10

• World Lion Day is observed globally on August 10 every year.

• World Lion Day is marked to raise awareness about the king of beasts and the efforts undertaken for their conservation.

• Owing to their courage, intelligence, strength, and magnificence, lions often feature on national flags, and royal symbols and emblems to represent command, power or authority across cultures.

• World Lion Day was launched in 2013.

Lions are one of Africa’s most recognisable animals and for good reason: more than any other animal in the African wilderness, lions signify courage, strength, and power. Spending up to 20 hours of the day sleeping or resting, lions.

Dr. Natalia Borrego works with lion whisperer Kevin Richardson to carry out lion IQ tests. She believes that they are the smartest of all the cats. … A lion must work out how to open a door, then reach her head inside to get a reward.

Lions do hugs humans.. that’s what you see… But remember it’s a lion . Years of animal behaviour training can make this possible. Lions can be affectionate towards their loving trainer/owner. But doesn’t mean it’s perfectly safe.

Facts of lion :

  • Lions plays a key role in the food chain by helping to control the herbivore population.The lions have a reputation of being the ‘chief’ predator of their habitat as they are known to even kill large herbivores such as elephants and giraffes. Disease Control. Lions prey mainly on herd animals.
  • The lion has forever been a symbol of strength, power and ferocity. During WWF tours to Africa, seeing the majestic species up-close is sure to be a spine-tingling experience.
  • 10 African lions are the most social of all big cats and live together in groups or “prides.” A pride consists of about 15 lions.
  • Lions are the only cats that live in groups. A group, or pride, can be up to 30 lions, depending on how much food and water is available.
  • Female lions are the main hunters. While they’re out looking for food, the males guard the pride’s territory and their young.

Which animal kills lion ?

Hippopotamus: This animal could easily defend itself from a lion and even a group of lions. The hippo has an enormous teeth that can crush a lion with a bite. Hippos are very strong and fast to attack a lion.

Bamboo trees


of all grasses, bamboo is the largest and the only one that can diversify into forest. Although bamboo is a grass, many of the larger woody bamboo species are very true like in appearance and are often called “bamboo trees”.

bamboo lacks a vascular cambium lauer and meristem cells at the top of the culm.

how to take:

To da this you need to dig up bamboo shoots, which are buried around bamboo, take theses bamboo shoots back to your island and, just like you would with a fruit tree, plant’s them in the same conditions as trees.

Types of bamboo trees:

* clumper bamboo : under that

  1. Fargesia
  2. Bamboo
  3. Guadua
  4. Giant bamboo
  5. Chilea.

*Runner bamboo: under that

  1. Arrow bamboo
  2. Dwarf green
  3. Bamboo
  4. River cane
  5. Black bamboo
  6. Stripe bamboo.

Bamboo trees for sale:

. Fast growing trees:

  1. Multiple bamboo-starting at $99.95
  2. Rufa bamboo planet starting at $109.95
  3. Black bamboo-starting at $119.95

. Brighter blooms:

  1. Bamboo hedge multiplex- starting at $99.99
  2. Golden bamboo plant – starting at $99.9
  3. Black bamboo planet starting at $ 119.9

How to plant bamboo:

  1. plant your bamboo where it will get full to partial sun, in good soil that slightly acidic ans not overly damp.
  2. Bamboo is a grass and should grow well anywhere that grass can grow.
  3. Space your plants anywhere from two to eight feet aparts, depending on the variety you’re growing.
  4. Dog a hole twice as wide as the root ball of your clump and just as deep.
  5. Tease out any of the bamboo’ s roots that are encircling the root ball, as these can girdle the plant and eventually kill it.
  6. Place the bamboo in the hole so the top of the root ball as just under the ground.

Deal with Toxic People – 5 Smart Ways to Help you out!

A toxic person is someone who is abusive, emotionally unhealthy, and unsupportive. It is not easy to spot the toxic person. The danger lies in their subtlety – and the way they use that classic response, ‘It is not their fault, it’s mine.’ They will have you questioning your ‘oversensitivity,’ your ‘over-reactiveness,’ and your ‘tendency to misinterpret.’ If you are the one who’s always getting hurt or continuously adjusting your own acts and behavior to avoid them being ‘attacked,’ chances are that it is not really your fault – it is very much theirs. Being able to recognize their harmful behavior is taking the first step to minimizing the damage they can create in your life. You will not be able to change how they act, but you can surely change how you react to it. There are many things a toxic person does to manipulate other people to his or her advantage. Here are 12 of them. Knowing them will help you to avoid falling under the influence:

Signs Of A Toxic Person

Toxicity in a person can show up in a lot of ways. You may already have a toxic friend and not even know it yet. Here are a few signs that your friend is a toxic person –

  • They are judgmental and condescending.
  • They complain about their life endlessly.
  • They never forgive and forget.
  • They are never satisfied with how you behave with them and will always find it disrespectful.
  • They fail to contribute anything positive to any relationship.
  • They never apologize.
  • They are always distrustful of others.
  • They are unnecessarily negative towards others.
  • They are always cynical and bring you down.
  • They make you feel drained emotionally.
  • You are always walking on eggshells around them because you are afraid to say the wrong things.
  • They make you feel smaller and less important… et cetera.

Smarter Ways To Get Rid Of Toxic People

  • Speak up! Some toxic people may use anger as a way of influencing you, or they may not respond to you when you’re trying to communicate, or interrupt you and suddenly start speaking negatively about something dear to you.  If ever you dare to speak up and respond adversely to their moody behavior, they may be surprised, or even outraged, that you’ve trespassed onto their behavioral territory. Stand up for yourself. Some people can do anything for their personal gain at the expense of others – take your money and property, pass guilt, cut in line, bully and belittle others, etc. Do not accept this kind of behavior. These people know what they are doing is wrong. They will back down considerably quickly when confronted. In most social settings, people tend to be quiet until one person speaks up. So, speak up!
  • Don’t Take The Toxic Behavior Personally It is them, not you. You need to know this. Toxic people will always try to imply that it is you who has done something wrong. And because the “guilt” button is installed into most of our brains, even the implication that we are the one who has done something wrong can unsettle our resolve and hurt our confidence. Do NOT let this happen. Remember that there is an exhilarating sense of freedom that comes to you when you decide to take nothing personally. Most people who are toxic behave negatively towards not only you but with everyone they interact with. Even when you feel that the situation has gotten personal – even if you feel insulted directly – it has got nothing to do with you. Their opinions are based completely on their self-reflection.
  • Stop Accepting Their Toxic Behavior – Toxic people often use their moody and loud behavior to get preferential treatment. You may find it easier to quiet them down by giving in to their demands than listen to their nagging. Don’t be fooled into doing this. Short-term comfort will equal long-term headache for you in a situation like this. Toxic people won’t change if they get rewarded for not changing. Don’t be influenced or affected by their behavior. Stop making special pardons for their continued misbehavior or tiptoeing around them. Constant negativity and drama are never worth putting up with.
  • Move On Without Them – If you know a friend who always destructively dictates the emotional atmosphere, be sure of this – they are toxic. If you are suffering because of a person’s attitude, and your patience, advice, compassion, and attentiveness do not seem to help them, and they don’t seem to care a bit, ask yourself, “Do I really need this human in my life?” When you remove toxic people from your life, it becomes way easier to breathe.
  • Stop pretending their toxic behavior is OK. – If you’re not careful, toxic people can use their moody behavior to get preferential treatment, because… well… it just seems easier to quiet them down than to listen to their grouchy rhetoric.  Don’t be fooled.  Short-term ease equals long-term pain for you in a situation like this.  Toxic people don’t change if they are being rewarded for not changing.  Decide this minute not to be influenced by their behavior.  Stop tiptoeing around them or making special pardons for their continued belligerence. Constant drama and negativity is never worth putting up with.  If someone over the age 21 can’t be a reasonable, reliable adult on a regular basis, it’s time to…

WANDERLUST: An exquisite malady

Have you caught the travelling bug yet? Today, we explore the symptoms of the exquisite malady of wanderlust and ways to get rid of it.

Not all who wander are lost

~j.r.r tOLkien
See the source image

As the word suggests, wanderlust is lust or desire for wandering. This is the ague that makes people itch to travel, to explore the vastness of the earth, to bask in the diversity of the world, quite philosophical actually!

Almost everyone suffers from wanderlust, some people choose to be vociferous about it others conceal it in the hearts of their heart.

Extreme cases of wanderlust have known to make people do crazy things with desire; some people have worked as many as five jobs just to travel around the world.

Wanderlust may last a lifetime. Sadly, travelling for a brief period may not stop you from lusting over it for a long, long time, probably your entire life.

Have you caught the bug?

There are a series of feelings and changes that help you to understand whether you have caught the notorious bug for wanderlust or not.

Noticeable among the emotions are sudden pangs of longing. These, sudden bursts may leave you heaving multiple despondent sighs.

If you unsuspectingly, keep on googling things like ‘100 best places to travel before you die’ or ‘How can I travel the world’, know that wanderlust is at its incipient stage, It’s also the most common symptom so far.

If you have travelling quotes stuck around your room, in your diary or saved prodigiously in your phone , you are getting there!

Finally, if you have curated a proper travel-bucket list for yourself and keep on checking travel packages online. you are beyond the point of saving.

How to cure Wanderlust?

The most effective remedy in the book is, to throw caution to the wind, and set out to douse your desire for travelling ,by doing exactly that- travel! Step out of reality and go chasing after the cure of your malady, till you are worn out bone-deep because:

The brave may not live forever,

but the cautious do not live at all.

~ Meg Cabot

Another seemingly effective cure for people who cannot travel due to diverse reasons, to cure their Wanderlust is, to turn it into an active incentive to work towards achieving their goals or go about milling with their daily chores with a greater goal in mind.

Also, people with Wanderlust who are the crossroads of their careers can research and try getting into jobs or careers that facilitates their wandering desire.

For people who cannot leave their home, their wanderlust can be cured by:

  • Learning more about a new culture, language or cuisine
  • Travelling more locally
See the source image
  • Getting online virtual tours of places they want to visit
  • Taking a pen pal
  • Coursing out a proper travel map for future
See the source image
  • Read travel books and blogs
  • Experience the marvels of nature: watch sunsets and sunrises, get drenched in rain, play around in mud
  • Work on a polaroid book or a scrap book for memories

All in all, Wanderlust is more than just an urge to travel, it is a passion like no other which leads to adventures like no other and hence its a blessing to have.

“The symbol of today is travel.

There is a Wanderlust that infects the blood.”

-Rollin A. Sawyer

What Is Marketing?

Definitions Of Marketing

Marketing refers to the process taken by a company to promote the selling or buying of a product or goods. It is part of business management and commerce. Marketing is the study of attracting consumers by identifying their needs and satisfying them with a good profit for both the company and consumers. 

Marketing is defined by the American Marketing Association (AMA) as “the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large” However, the definition of marketing has evolved over the years. The AMA reviews this definition and its definition for “marketing research” every three years.


Earlier, marketing practice tends to be a creative industry that included advertising, distribution, and selling. Now, many parts of the marketing process (like product design, brand management, advertising, inbound marketing, copywriting) involve the use of creative arts. It also makes extensive use of social sciences, psychology, sociology, mathematics, and economics, the profession is now widely recognized as a science.

Segments Of Marketing

B2B Marketing

B2B (business-to-business) marketing refers to any marketing strategy or content towards a business or organization. Any company that sells products or services to other companies or organizations uses B2B marketing strategies.

B2C Marketing

B2C (business-to-consumer) marketing refers to the strategies by which a company promotes its products and services to individual people.

 Recently, the term B2C refers to the online selling of consumer products.

C2B Marketing

C2B (consumer-to-business) marketing is a business model where the consumers create products and services which are consumed by businesses and organizations. 

C2C Marketing

C2C (customer to customer) marketing represents a market environment where one customer purchases goods from another customer using a third-party business or platform to facilitate the transaction. C2C companies are a new type of model that has emerged with e-commerce technology and the sharing economy.

Marketing Ideas
Marketing ideas

Ps of Marketing

The 4Ps


Product refers to the item or items which the company plans to offer the consumer. The product should fulfill the consumer’s needs and have a unique identity from other similar products in the field.


The price of the product is given, by the demand for the product in the field. Also, the price of the product should be affordable to the consumers and be profitable for the company.


The place which the product is going to be sold is also important.

It can be a storefront product, an online product, or can be both. 


Promotion includes a variety of activities such as advertising, selling, sales promotions, public relations, direct marketing, and sponsorship.

The 4Cs

Consumer (or Client)

The consumer refers to the person or group that will acquire the product. This aspect of the model focuses on fulfilling the wants or needs of the consumer.


Cost refers to what is exchanged in return for the product. It also refers to anything else the consumer must sacrifice to attain the product, such as time or money spent on transportation to acquire the product.


Like “Place” in the 4Ps model, convenience refers to whether the product is available in person or online. The convenience aspect emphasizes making it as easy as possible for the consumer to attain the product, thus making them more likely to do so.


Like “Promotion” in the 4Ps model, communication refers to how consumers find out about a product. 

Marketing Stratergies
Marketing Stratergies

Types Of Marketing

1.Traditional Marketing.

2.Outbound Marketing.

3.Inbound Marketing.

4.Digital Marketing.

5.Search Engine Marketing.

6.Content Marketing.

7.Social Media Marketing.

8.Video Marketing.

9.Voice Marketing.

10.Email Marketing.

11.Conversational Marketing.

12.Influencer Marketing.

13.Buzz Marketing.

14.Acquisition Marketing.

15.Contextual Marketing.

16.Personalized Marketing.

17.Brand Marketing.

18.Stealth Marketing.

19.Guerilla Marketing.

20.Native Marketing.

21.Affiliate Marketing.

22.Partner Marketing.

23.Product Marketing.

24.Account-based Marketing.

25.Customer Marketing.

26.Word-of-mouth Marketing.

27.Relationship Marketing.

28.User-generated Marketing.

29.Campus Marketing.

30.Proximity Marketing.

31.Event Marketing.

32.Experiential Marketing.

33.Interactive Marketing.

34.Global Marketing.

35.Multicultural Marketing.

36.Informative Marketing.


38.Persuasive Marketing.

39.Cause Marketing.

40.Controversial Marketing.

41.Field Marketing.


A detailed description of innate immunity has been provided in the previous article. This article explains in detail the action of innate immunity. As mentioned earlier, innate immunity is a non-specific immunity that acts as the first line of defence. There are six mechanisms backing innate immunity. They are:-

  1. Epithelial surfaces
  2. Antimicrobial products
  3. Microbial antagonism
  4. Cellular factors
  5. Inflammation
  6. Acute phase proteins

These are the six different mechanisms of innate immunity.

Epithelial surfaces

The epithelial surfaces are those which form the outermost layer of the body. It is pretty obvious that the pathogens gain access into the body through the body openings. Hence it is trivial that the immunity is strong at these places. The following are the body openings where the immunity is present:-

  • Eyes
  • Ears
  • Nose
  • Mouth
  • Skin
  • Genital tracts

Eyes– there is a special fluid called the ‘tear’ generated by the lacrimal apparatus. This tear can flush out the microbes by its mechanical action. Also, the enzyme called lysozyme is present in it which is antibacterial in nature. This particular enzyme splits certain polysaccharide molecules from the cell wall of the bacteria without which it cannot sustain. Hence these are processes that confer immunity to the eyes.

Ears– there is a constant production of wax that entraps the foreign microbes. The cells lining the outer surface of the ear membranes secrete the wax for cleaning and protective purposes. The inner ear is filled with phagocytic cells.

Nose– the nose and the respiratory pathway are very important to be protected since they involve the exchange of air and microbes can easily enter. So there is tightened defence provided by several mechanisms:-

  • The anatomy of the nose itself prevents the entry of some microorganisms
  • There is mucus lining the entire respiratory pathway which have hairs that can sweep the microbes back to the air
  • There are mucopolysaccharides which are sticky in nature and hence the microbes get stuck to them
  • The alveoli of the lungs are filled with phagocytic cells

Mouth– the mouth and the digestive system are also as important as the nose. The following defence mechanisms can be seen

  • Saliva which is basic in nature kills some of the pathogens
  • The peristalsis movement can kick away some of the microbes
  • The stomach acid which is low in Ph can destroy most of the microbes
  • The digestive juices and secretions like the bile also provide immunity

Skin- the skin is present all over the body and there are 4 mechanisms

  • Long chain fatty acid
  • Salty nature of the sweat
  • Soaps contribution
  • Oils and sebaceous glands

Genital tract- this is also an important opening to be concerned about as there is a large concentration of microbes found here. The urine itself flushes out any incoming pathogens. In males, the sperm protein spermine and zinc are antibacterial. In females, high acidity can kill the microbes.

Antimicrobial products

There are some anti-microbial products present naturally in the bloodstream and other body fluids.

  • Beta lysine- effective against thermostable bacteris
  • Polypeptides- leukin and plakin
  • Lactic acid- muscles
  • Lactoperoxidase- present in breast milk
  • Interferons- effective against virus

Microbial antagonism

Remember the fact in the first article that the foreign microbe has to find a suitable ‘target site’. The reason is that there are already some microbes present inside us. Don’t worry they won’t hurt us. These microbes constitute the normal flora and are resident. They follow symbiotic relationships with us. A suitable example is an e.coli present in the intestine helping indigestion for food.

So the presence of one species of organisms do not allow the presence of similar or different species. So these microbes indirectly furnish immunity to the body. So nice of them!

Cellular factors

These are some cells that are specialised in the function of protecting the body by destroying pathogens. It is done by the process of phagocytosis which is the engulfing of substances. The phagocytising cells engulf the foreign particles in response to the chemical mediators (mediators are certain chemicals released by a special type of immune cell known as mast cell).

There is a special defence for viral infections. In this case, the interferons activate the NK cells (Natural Killer) to undergo phagocytosis. This cell can be called the assassin of the immune system.


Inflammation is one of the body’s responses to the invasion of foreign particles. This is an important process in the human body that occurs to drive away from the pathogen. Inflammation is one of the stages seen in healing. This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. Acute stay for a shorter time but produces more vigorous pain whereas chronic stays for a longer time with less vigorous pain. If the causative agent has been driven away then healing occurs either by complete restoration or scar formation. There are chances that the acute inflammation can become chronic which can be worse. It can lead to several diseases and complications.

Acute-phase proteins

These are certain indicator proteins present in the blood whose increase in the level indicates infections. A group of these proteins constitute the acute phase proteins. They are:-

  • C-reactive protein
  • Mannose binding factor
  • Serum P amyloid component
  • Alpha -1-acid antitrypsin

These proteins enhance the defence and host resistance, prevent tissue injury and aid in damage repairs.  

The next article deals in detail with another type of immunity, the acquired immunity.


Pegasus (the Spyware)

What is Spyware?

Spyware is software with malicious behaviour that aims to gather information about a person or organization and send it to another entity in a way that harms the user. For example, by violating their privacy or endangering their device’s security.

Pegasus (Spyware) –

Pegasus is a spyware devoloped by the Israeli cyber arms firm NSO Group that can be covertly installed on mobile phones(and other devices) running most versions of iOS and Android.

How Does Pegasus Spyware Get Into Your Phone?

Pegasus is said to be so sophisticated that it does not require a mobile phone user to click or open a text or visit a web page to get activated. It works very clandestinely without raising any red flags. The malware, experts believe, has been in circulation at least since 2016.

Once it has made its way into your phone, it can turn the device into a 24-hour surveillance system. The malware works on Windows and Mac computers, and also on Android and iOS smartphones. It can be delivered via email, SMS, WhatsApp or using the sophisticated ‘0-day’ vulnerability exploits, which are unknown even to device manufacturers. It can copy texts you send or receive, collect your photos and record your calls.

Who Can Be Infected With The Virus

The simple answer is everyone with a smartphone that’s connected to the Internet. In iPhones, it has been reported, that the malware can gain access to even root or administrative systems, according to a report in The Guardian.

Based on the reportage so far, it can be safely said that it does not matter whether a person uses WhatsApp, Facebook, Telegram or Signal, their phone is vulnerable to Pegasus attack.

Role of civil services in a democracy.

In a democracy, the civil services play an extremely important role in the administration, policy formulation and implementation, and in taking the country forward towards progress and development.

Democracy is an egalitarian principle in which the governed elect the people who govern over them. There are three pillars of modern democracy:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

The civil services form a part of the executive. While the ministers, who are part of the executive, are temporary and are reelected or replaced by the people by their will (through elections), the civil servants are the permanent part of the executive. 

  • The civil servants are accountable to the political executive, the ministers. The civil services are thus, a subdivision under the government. 
  • The officers in the civil services form the permanent staff of the various governmental departments. 
  • They are basically expert administrators. 
  • They are sometimes referred to as the bureaucracy or also the public service. 

Importance of the Civil Services :

  1. The civil service is present all over India and it thus has a strong binding character.
  2. It plays a vital role in effective policy-making and regulation.
  3. It offers non-partisan advice to the political leadership of the country, even in the midst of political instability.
  4. The service gives effective coordination between the various institutions of governance, and also between different departments, bodies, etc.
  5. It offers service delivery and leadership at different levels of administration.

Functions of Civil Services

  • Basis of Government: There can be no government without administrative machinery. 
  • Implementing Laws & Policies: Civil services are responsible for implementing laws and executing policies framed by the government.
  • Policy Formulation: The civil service is chiefly responsible for policy formulation as well. The civil service officers advise ministers in this regard and also provides them with facts and ideas.
  • Stabilising Force: Amidst political instability, the civil service offers stability and permanence. While governments and ministers can come and go, the civil services is a permanent fixture giving the administrative set up a sense of stability and continuity.
  • Instruments of Social Change & Economic Development: Successful policy implementation will lead to positive changes in the lives of ordinary people. It is only when the promised goods and services reach the intended beneficiaries, a government can call any scheme successful. The task of actualising schemes and policies fall with the officers of the civil services.
  • Welfare Services: The services offer a variety of welfare schemes such as providing social security, the welfare of weaker and vulnerable sections of society, old-age pensions, poverty alleviation, etc.
  • Developmental Functions: The services perform a variety of developmental functions like promoting modern techniques in agriculture, promoting the industry, trade, banking functions, bridging the digital divide, etc.
  • Administrative Adjudication: The civil services also perform quasi-judicial services by settling disputes between the State and the citizens, in the form of tribunals, etc.

Accountability of a Civil Servant :

The civil servants are responsible to the ministers of the departments in which they serve. The ministers are accountable to the people through the Parliament or State Legislatures, and the civil servants are accountable to the ministers. They should ideally serve the elected government of the day, as government policies are the functions of the civil services. However, an impartial civil servant is also accountable to the Constitution of India on which he has taken an oath of allegiance.

Problems Affecting Civil Services Today :

  • Lack of professionalism and poor capacity building.
  • An ineffective incentive system that does not reward the meritorious and upright civil servants.
  • Rigid and outmoded rules and procedures that do not allow civil servants to exercise individual judgement and perform efficiently.
  • Lack of accountability and transparency procedure, with no adequate protection for whistle-blowers.
  • Political interference causing arbitrary transfers, and insecurity in tenures.
  • An erosion in ethics and values, which has caused rampant corruption and nepotism.
  • Patrimonialism (a form of governance in which all power flows directly from the leader).
  • Resistance to change from the civil servants themselves.

Key Facts about Democracy in India :

  • Democracy in India federal republic.
  • Democracy in India is headed by the President as the head of the state and Prime Minister as the head of the government.
  • There is a parliamentary form of government at the central level.
  • There is a universal adult franchise.

OTT – The New Cinema?

Image Source : GLAMSHAM

OTT stands for Over The Top. This platform has gained a huge number of audience in recent couple of years. Most of them are teenagers who are now preferring the content on these platform. OTT has many service providers i.e Netflix, Hotstar, HBO, Amazon, Hulu etc.

The services generally include content in form of Movies, Web series and Mini series. But why have the people shifted to these platforms rather that the fact that Cinema had a wide number of Movie content over the years. The reasons could be :-

  • The Covid Pandemic – Since March 2019 the country is observing the Covid 19 cases due to which it was decided to shut down the Cinemas. As the cinemas have very high tendency of people occupancy which could trigger the virus.
  • Availability – The OTT platform is available at homes and on every set-up i.e Computer, Laptop, Mac, Android, IOS, Windows.
  • Accessibility – It requires an Internet connection and any of the above available set-ups.
  • Affordability – Comparing to Cinema, the OTT is more affordable with its periodic subscriptions.

OTT > Cinema

  1. The content on OTT platforms have observed a consistent quality over time which cinema has failed to do.
  2. The entertainers who could not work for the Bollywood industries are now given opportunities to showcase their talents.
  3. OTT platforms show stories more relatable and convincing content to the personal life of a common man.
  4. There are very few projects that require very high budget or expenditure than Bollywood movies.

OTT < Cinema

  1. Movies are generally of 1 to 2 hours of duration but OTTs have a higher duration as it is distributed under episodes. This also results in increased screen time.
  2. The series many a times have different seasons to catch up to, which consumes a lot of time.
  3. We all know that its more fun to watch an action movie in public crowd of cinema rather watching it alone on OTT.
  4. OTTs have more adult/vulgar content as compared to cinema movies.

Both of them has their merits and demerits. Till date OTT has played very important role in substituting Cinema when needed to entertain us during Lockdowns. But I am sure that many of OTT lovers will definitely go to Cinemas to watch the movies after the end of restrictions.