Top 10 Open Libraries Online.

Looking for resources to read eBooks during this lock down period? Here are some great open libraries you can find online for free books to read.

Reading is definitely one of the greatest pleasures of life. Online libraries are currently attracting a lot of eyes, especially with most of the countries under lock down because of a massive outbreak of a deadly virus, which is affecting more and more people with each passing day. Ever wondered how these online libraries work? It is pretty simple and not so different from traditional libraries. These online libraries have a collection of books and reading materials from different publications in electronic formats, which can be accessed easily. Most of these open online libraries require you to sign up, look for the desired book or source or material and lets you download it or read it online.

To help you curb your boredom and get access to books from the comforts of your home, during this lock down period, we have a list of our top picks for online libraries that you can access with a simple click.

Project Gutenburg

A volunteer effort to preserve and archive important cultural works and digitize them for being available online, Project Gutenburg works for encouraging the preservation, creation and also, distribution of eBooks on an online platform. Majority of the sources that you will find here in the collection are complete texts from public domain books. Now offering more than 59,000 eBooks online for free, Project Gutenburg can be used and accessed from any of your devices.


Questia is a great source of research and paper writing projects which is available online. It has helped many students with citation from high standard scholarly articles and research paper to use for their own research. You can find a wide of range of papers on subjects related to humanities and social sciences and it provides you with the complete sources and resources you need to fulfill your coursework or project.

Read Print

Read Print is another online open library which provides thousands of eBooks archives for reading enthusiasts, students, teachers and everyone else. It enables the readers and users to choose from a collection of over 8000 books and also lets the readers make their own bookshelves with their personal ratings and reviews and also form reading groups with people having interests similar to theirs. It was also on the list of TIME Magazine’s 50 best websites in the year 2010.

Open Library

Open Library is an online project that intends to create a web page for every book that was ever published, giving the readers access to several public domains and many out of print books. Their main aim is to let people have access to all the published works of people available to anyone and everyone around the world. It is an initiative by Internet Archive, a non profit organization, which is also #7 on our list of top open libraries online.

Classic Reader

From Shakespeare to Austen and Dickens to Edgar Allen Poe, Classic Reader online library offers you with a wide range of thousands of classics of literature including poems, plays, dramas and short stories. You can not only find and read your favourite classics and short stories, but also you can add your own annotations to the books available online on

The Literature Network

The Literature Network, as the name suggests, provides students as well as other reading enthusiasts with a range of 3500 literature books available online. To start finding the piece of literature you want, you can begin to search through the author index. They also have a large collection of short stories at your disposal, a quiz system featuring more than 300 quizzes and database of quotes and quotations which has about 9000 quote available. You can also join Literature forums and ask questions, which can be answered by anyone from the thousands of members who are part of this network.

Internet Archive

Internet Archive is a non profit organization, which is available for free of cost and provides the readers and users with an extensive range of much more beyond just books. You can find music, movies, sources, websites, software and much more. It provides people with access to a massive database of free information that is available online by catering to millions of people every day and is also considered to be one of the top 300 websites around the world.

The Online Books Page

The Online Books Page, as the name, is a website that gives the readers access to a variety of books that are available to be read freely, on the internet. It focuses on developing eBooks and online reading resources for the benefit of all people. Their long list of available resources and books is completely free and can be used for non commercial purposes. It has a collection of over 2 million sources and works, available to the readers in various media formats.

Classic Bookshelf

With a simple web page format and a reading app, Classic Bookshelf brings to you a collection of hundreds of classics and timeless wonders of literature across decades, available online with easy access. You can also take reference from its ratings and reviews to find the most popular books at regular intervals.

Chest of Books

The Chest of Books website has put in great effort in converting texts into eBooks and carefully proofreading and scanning them for the benefit and pleasure of the readers and the website users. It presents you with a variety of online books available from different fields or topics such as Art, Finance, Health, Business and many more.

We hope that this list of our top picks come handy to all reading enthusiasts and help their life in this lock down a little better. Do let us know if we missed out any online libraries from the list, or if you would like to review any of these that you may have used before!


Global Minimum Corporate Tax

What does this mean? What are its implications? How its going to affect India among other nations?

If you’re a firm that makes tremendous profits year after year by moving money to low-tax jurisdictions, you’re in for some unpleasant news.

Gone are the days when you could produce a lot of money from both tangible and intangible sources, move your money from high-tax countries to low- or no-tax countries, and enjoy the numerous delights of money.

The finance ministers of the world’s seven richest and most affluent countries met in London to continue their ongoing conversation about the global problem of multinational firms evading taxes. The meeting resulted in the ministers agreeing to a minimum global company tax rate of at least 15% at the same table. “After years of discussion,G7 Finance Ministers have reached a historic agreement to reform the global tax system to make it for global digital age”. British finance minister Rishi Sunak told reporters when asked about the same. He expressed gratitude to all of his G7 counterparts for finally being able to reach a historic landmark agreement that would tackle the issue of profit shifting by various firms.

The idea of a global minimum corporate tax isn’t new; there have been discussions about it before, but it has only recently gained traction as one of the world’s major leaders, the United States of America, has been attempting to deal with massive amounts of tax evasion by large American corporations such as Facebook and Amazon,and in same context, US Secretary of the treasury Jane Yellen reiterated the positive implications of having this minimum corporate tax accepted globally. Furthermore, the Biden administration has increased the corporate tax rate from 21% to 28%, and with such high tax rates, multinational firms will seek to open headquarters in nations where they will have to spend much less, resulting in a significant revenue loss for the US.

What does it mean?

As the name implies, the global minimum corporate tax (GMCT) is a tax that will be imposed on businesses and corporations all over the world; no country will be able to keep its corporate tax rates below the suggested minimum of 15%. This is the bare minimum that all governments must adhere to; there is no upper limit to such levies.

Why is it being proposed?

Corporate taxes account for a significant portion of a country’s total revenue. A nation must ensure the social welfare of its residents, which necessitates the expenditure of funds to invest in infrastructure, which will in turn provide jobs for its citizens. It can raise the funds it requires through a variety of methods, including borrowing from international financial institutions and borrowing from the general public. The revenue obtained by the first two methods creates an obligation for the country, but there is no such responsibility in the case of taxes. It is for this reason that taxes are essential for any country to meet its obligations.

Big businesses earn a lot of money and are continually looking for methods to avoid paying higher taxes. If the countries in which they primarily operate impose greater taxes, they attempt to shift their profits to low-tax jurisdictions such as Ireland (12.5 percent tax rate), the Bahamas (0% tax rate), and so on. As a result, their home countries receive less money, while lower tax jurisdictions receive more. According to the Tax Justice Network, the US Treasury loses roughly $50 billion each year as a result of the massive amount of Base Erosion Shifting System. Germany and France are also among the top losers, according to the same analysis.

This concept of a global minimum corporate tax rate was proposed in order to force multinational corporations to pay taxes in the countries where their businesses operate. Having a global minimum tax will ensure that these large corporations do not engage in profit shifting and tax evasion strategies, as well as that they do not compromise on innovation and the use of newly created technologies.

How will it be implemented?

Assume there is a country A with a 15% effective corporate tax rate, i.e. the GMCT, and another country B with a 5% effective corporate tax rate. For a corporation operating in nation A, a tax rate of only 5% would be an appealing force, and it would strive to discover ways to shift its profits to country B in order to avoid paying higher taxes. Opening subsidiaries in another country is one technique for a country to move its earnings to another country. As a result, firm A will establish a subsidiary in Country B and transfer a significant portion of its profit from activities in Country A to Country B. Now, if the subsidiary makes a profit of 100 crores, it will only have to pay taxes of 5%, that is, 5 crores. Following the implementation of the worldwide minimum corporation tax rate, country A can reduce 5 percent (tax in country B) from 15 percent (tax in country A) and require the firm to pay the resulting tax at the rate of 15-5=10% to the home country.

What are its implications?

The proposed global minimum business tax has both favorable and unfavorable consequences.
The following are some of the advantages:

  • Increased accountability of the global corporations.
  • Transparency in the system.
  • Increased employment opportunities in the traditional country.
  • Increased capital formation in the home country.
  •  Reduced liabilities for a nation, liabilities created by internal and external borrowings.
  • Negative Implications:-

    • The investments made my these big multinational companies in lower tax countries are the major source of revenue of those nations. Implementing minimum tax rate would take away a major part of their revenue.

  • A number of employment opportunities are created by companies in poor countries, implementation of new tax regime will devoid them of such opportunities.
  • Foreign direct Investment(FDI) to poor countries will reduce, making it difficult for them to fulfill their import needs.
  • The problem of avoiding the payment of taxes by rampant exploitation of loopholes will still remain.
  • Tax collection is a sovereign right of any nation, that makes it more difficult for making all the nations agree on this
  • proposal.

    What are the challenges in its implementation?

    As already mentioned above, the profits that MNCs shift to lower tax jurisdictions result in creation of newer employment opportunities in such countries and this in turn ensure the welfare of its citizens. A number of poor countries don’t have enough resources to raise money for infrastructure development, the investments made by global companies provide them money to develop required infrastructure and to ensure the fulfillment of other requirements. Considering the importance of such investments in poor countries, its challenging to get them on board.

    Countries such as Ireland, Bahamas, Bermuda and Caribbean nations have benefited to a large extent from the ongoing profit shifting system and its not easy to make all of them agree on foregoing a large amount of money.

    Another global power apart from USA, i.e., China would also pose difficulty in its implementation as Hong-Kong is one of the major tax havens and generates money through foreign direct investments. Also, there is major trade war going on between China and USA and China would not so easily bend down to something proposed by US.

    How it is going to affect India?

    India too isn’t immune to the huge loss caused by the tax evasions of its corporations. According to Tax Justice Network, based in U.K., India loses $10.3 annually to the global tax abuse by multinational corporations. So, the implementation of proposed tax system would mean increased revenue for the government of India and reduction in huge borrowings done by the government.

    According to a report brought out by Press Trust of India, the experts in tax domain believe that India will be most likely benefiting from the GMCT as the effective corporate tax rate in India is 22%, much less than the proposed minimum tax rate of 15% and so India will keep attracting the global companies to come and invest in the country. Also, according to Rakesh Nangia, the chairman of Nangia Andersen India, the major points of attraction in India for Big MNCs are its large internal market, quality labor at cheap rates, strategic locations for exports and a prospering private sector. So, overall, India won’t be much affected even if the implementation of global corporate minimum tax comes into force.

    On the other hand, there are prevailing concerns in India that a lot of companies such as e-commerce ones have a “significant presence in India” but still do not pay taxes to the country. And for this only. the country advocated the idea of implementing ” equalization levy” in 2016. Post 2016, this concept of equalization levy has been extended to e-commerce companies as well. The levy aimed at taxing the income earned by such multinational companies who don’t have any permanent physical presence in India but generate huge amount of income from the country. 

    India has also signed a pact with US for the exchange of country by country report(cbc), through which if there is any US company operating in India through its subsidiaries, it would provide reports about its total revenue to US administration and US will in turn, provide the same to India so that India can tax the generated income according to its tax rates.

    India has also implemented the Multilateral Convention to implement Tax Treaty related measures to prevent Base Erosion profit shifting and ratified the same.

    India already has implemented above discussed reforms in order to ensure the payment of required taxes from global companies. Considering this, India need to be careful of not driving these companies away from India because of a large number of already existing regulations.

    The landmark deal will be discussed once again in the presence of all the countries constituting the group of 20 (G-20) and based on those discussions, further implementation challenges will be worked upon.

    Top 10 Places to Visit in Asia.

    With its vast array of islands, mountains and mega metropolises, one can simply not pick out 10 top places to visit in Asia. However, we’ve done our best to curate a list that caters to your needs, bringing you the best places in Asia to enjoy your vacation to the fullest. Pack your bags, pick your destination, follow this guide and find out the miracle that Asia is!

    The best time to visit Asian countries is between November and March, when the temperature is moderate in most countries and festivals and carnivals are ongoing in most. This time period is mostly ideal for Southeast Asian countries, including Maldives and Thailand.

    1. Maldives

    Maldives tops the list of the ten best places to visit in Asia, for its picturesque location, scenic beauty and variety of fun activities available make it absolutely irresistible. The beauty of Maldives is unbelievable; we’ve all come across it and wondered how something so astonishing be real. With its breath-taking sunsets and sunrises, white sand beaches and striking blue water and coral reefs, Maldives in itself is the complete package.

    Maldives is divided into several islands, some of which remain public while some others have been converted into private islands. While the former are somewhat budget-friendly, the latter home heavily expensive activities and the world-famous Water Villas, which open right into the endless ocean. After getting down at the Velana International Airport in Male (the Capital city), one can either take a speedboat to one of the islands or a sea plane to one of the private islands.

    The island nation of Maldives is especially a favourite amongst honeymooners, as the seclusion and gorgeous location provide a beautiful background to a romantic trip. Adventurers are also sure to have a ton of fun, with activities like Jet-skiing, Scuba Diving, Rafting, and especially Snorkelling readily available.

    Best Time to Visit Maldives

    The best time to visit Maldives is between April and November, when there is little precipitation and warm temperature.

    Best Hotels in Maldives

    1. Vivanta by Taj Coral Reef, Maldives
    2. PER AQUUM Huaven Fushi
    3. Taj Exotica Resort and Spa
    4. Adaaran Prestige Water Villas
    5. Anantara Veli Maldives Resort

     Top Things to do in Maldives

    1. Relax at the white sandy Maldivian beaches
    2. Tour the capital city of Male, including sites like Republic Square, the National Museum and Sultan Park
    3. Enjoy adventure activities like Snorkelling, Scuba Diving, and Parasailing
    4. Visit the Male fish market to get a glimpse of Maldives’ daily life
    5. Book a spa treatment at one of the many glamourous Spa Centres.

    2. Tokyo

    Crazy about anime, the city of Tokyo looks like it has been made out of a cartoon book itself. This mega city in Japan is constantly buzzing with movement, be it people or vehicles. The museums and historical sites located in Tokyo are world-class- one can take photos and enjoy sushi, or find a superb backdrop against the Cherry Blossom trees in the right season!

    An extremely safe city, one can travel around Tokyo and enjoy how life is always in motion through its subway. However, there are very high chances that one may be tempted to enjoy the hustle and bustle of the city on foot!

    Best Time to Visit Tokyo

    Tokyo can be best enjoyed in the months of March, April, September and November. Autumn is the best time for experiencing the full potential of Tokyo, as the city is at its best in terms of colour and comfort.

    Best Hotels in Tokyo

    1. Comfort Hotel Tokyo Kanda
    2. Comfort Hotel Tokyo Higashi Nihombashi
    3. Hotel Rose Garden Shinjuku
    4. Conrad Tokyo
    5. Four Seasons Hotel Tokyo at Marunouchi

    Top Things to do in Tokyo:

    1. Visit the Tokyo National Museum to learn about Japanese history
    2. Check out the unique architecture at the Meiji Shrine
    3. Visit the Sensoji Temple, the oldest religious site in Tokyo
    4. Spend time at Odaiba, the mini-island located at Tokyo Bay; a hub of entertainment
    5. Catch the exciting interactive displays available at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation

    3. Phuket

    Not just home to a varied landscape comprising of beaches, aquamarine waters and limestone cliffs, Phuket also boasts of a flavourful cuisine and its rich culture. This island is one of the most budget-friendly options for spending your vacations, requiring only moderate charges for everything, be it boat rides, accommodation or spa treatments.

    Surrounded by the Andaman Sea, Phuket is located only an hour away from Bangkok. Remembering the tsunami that hit the beautiful island back in 2004, Phuket remembers everything with memorials and a stricter protection system.

    Best Time to Visit Phuket

    The months between November and April are ideal for travelling to Phuket and enjoying water activities like boating and swimming. While the low prices during the monsoon months (May to October) might be tempting, the water conditions during this time can be dangerous.

    Best Hotels in Phuket:

    1. Andara Resort Villas
    2. Trisara Villas and Residences Phuket
    3.  Jasmine House
    4. Ibis Phuket Kata
    5. Metropole Hotel Phuket

    Top Things to do in Phuket:

    1. Catch an amazing view of the Andaman Sea from Phuket’s southernmost point, Promthep Cape
    2. Enjoy a bird-eye view of the Kata Bay, Karon Strand and Chalong Bay from the giant Big Buddha statue
    3. Feast at the authentic collection of restaurants near the Nai Harn Beach, the southernmost strip of sand in Phuket
    4. Spend time with furry buddies at the Soi Dog Foundation, an innovative rescue shelter for cats and dogs.
    5. Go snorkelling and boating on the Phuket Boat Tours

    4. Bali

    Bali is the perfect definition of heaven on earth. Accommodating every traveller, from one travelling on budget to one travelling in luxury, Bali manages to make one feel at home even though they are far away from it. Those interested in its vast history are keen to travel to its many temples, while the adventurers find themselves en route the active volcano in Kintamani. The town of Kuta, on the other hand, provides a perfect setting for enjoying the Bali nightlife.

    Best Time to Visit Bali

    The island’s dry season i.e. the months between April and October are most comfortable for those willing to enjoy the beaches.

    Best Hotels in Bali

    1. Capella Ubud
    2. Four Seasons Resort Bali at Sayan
    3. Ida Hotel
    4. AlamKulKul Boutique Resort, Kuta
    5. Mercure Resort, Sanur

    Top Things to do in Bali

    1. Offer prayers at the active prayer temple, Tirta Empul Temple
    2. Rave about the stunning cliffside locale, beautiful architecture and the sound of waves down below the Uluwatu Temple
    3. Enjoy the sunset from Tanah Lot Temple, also a stunning religious complex
    4. Feast on the succulent seafood and relax on the sandy shoreline of Jimbaran, one of Bali’s most luxurious destinations
    5. Explore through Kuta, Bali’s most popular beach town, for a variety of brilliant restaurants, bars, stores, spas and water parks.

    5. Hong Kong

    Hong Kong boasts of a vibrant, multifaceted culture and stunning cityscape. This British-Chinese hybrid sees both dense skyscrapers and lush landscapes. As a world-class metropolis, Hong Kong has numerous urban divisions, like culinary hot spots and museums. It also offers both sandy beaches and rugby pitches to all its visitors.

    Best Time to Visit Hong Kong

    The period between October and December offers comfortable temperatures along with reasonable room rates. Post New Year’s, visiting Hong Kong gets significantly pricey.

    Best Hotels in Hong Kong

    1. Rambler Oasis Hotel
    2. Silka Far East Hotel
    3. Regal Riverside Hotel
    4. Cordis Hong Kong at Langham Place
    5. Mandarin Oriental

    Top Things to Do in Hong Kong

    1. Enjoy the scenic route around the city by travelling in the Star Ferry
    2. View the entire city from its highest point, the Victoria Peak
    3. Go on a shopping spree at the Street Markets
    4. Gamble (legally!) at the Happy Valley Racecourse
    5. Watch the majestic Hong Kong line without obstructions from the Tsim Sha Tsui Promenade

    6. Kyoto

    Kyoto provides tourists with a snapshot of Imperial Japan; right from its cherry blossom trees to a pair of elegantly dressed geisha flitting between wooden tea houses. However, it’s not just a dainty old town- Kyoto has its own fair share of glimpses of a newer Japan. Be it century old Shinto shrines or the headquarters of companies like Nintendo and Kyocera, Kyoto stands out as a combination of ancient and contemporary, and shines vibrantly, that has certainly moved on from its predecessor.

    Best Time to Visit Kyoto

    The months between March and May, along with between September and November, make up the best time to visit Kyoto, since the weather is at its mildest. However, this time also draws tourists in huge crowds, most of who visit in anticipation of the blooming cherry blossoms.

    Best Hotels in Kyoto

    1. Four Seasons Hotel
    2. Suiran- A Luxury Collection Hotel
    3. The Ritz-Carlton
    4. Hotel Granvia
    5. Hyatt Regency

    Top Things to do in Kyoto

    1. Witness the 10,000 red and orange lacquered torii gates at the Fushimi Inari Shrine
    2. Enjoy the natural scenery from the Kiyomizu Temple
    3. Experience the historic features (tea houses, willow-lined roads etc.) of the Gion neighbourhood
    4. Admire the cherry blossom trees from the quaint Arashiyama neighbourhood
    5. Shop for traditional Japanese cuisine at the Nishiki Market

    7. Singapore

    This modern Asian metropolis maintains a balance of green belts and skyscrapers. In addition to this, it has also managed to sustain substantial ethnic enclaves like Chinatown and Little India. However, Singapore, in spite of being modern in its approach, has managed to preserve large wetlands.

    Best Time to Visit Singapore

    The best time to visit Singapore is anytime, as the island nation experiences a warm, tropical climate year-round. However, one must beware that it rains all throughout the year.

    Best Hotels in Singapore

    1. The Fullerton Bay Hotels
    2. Ascott Raffles Place
    3. Capella
    4. Conrad Centennial
    5. Crowne Plaza Changi Airport

    Top Things to do in Singapore

    1. Skip the trek and enjoy the urban jungle of Gardens by the Bay
    2. Entertain yourself at numerous points of interest like the Art & Science Museum and the Float at Marina Bay.
    3. Enjoy nature at the Singapore Botanic Gardens
    4. Witness the indoor waterfall at Cloud Forest
    5. Eat out at the various eateries and food stalls in Chinatown

    8. Bangkok

    Bangkok is one city with a dynamic environment; the contrast in its settings is quite chaotic. Most people visiting Bangkok for the first time feel like it is trapped between the past and the present, with both ancient temples and modern shopping malls lining up the streets of Thailand’s capital.

    The exhilarating city of Bangkok is sure to take a toll on its visitors; the hot weather is consistent and the city is full of crowds. However, the grass is greener on the other side, and in this case, it is in the form of numerous attractions sure to leave you flabbergasted- the world’s largest open-air market, a world-class aquarium built inside an eight-level shopping mall and a 150-feet golden Buddha statue, to name a few. Bangkok has a certain ‘delightful incongruity’ to offer, so stay ready for surprises!

    Best Time to Visit Bangkok

    The best time to visit Bangkok, weather-wise, is between November and March because heat and humidity at this time are at their lowest. However, a trip between April and October, in spite of being the hottest time with heavy rainfall, can offer you wonderful deals on airfare and hotels. An added advantage is less footfall, so one can be saved from excessive crowding.

    Best Hotels in Bangkok

    1. New Empire Hotel
    2. Rembrandt Towers Serviced Apartments
    3. Grand Inn Hotel
    4. The Okura Prestige
    5. The Siam

    Top Things to do in Bangkok

    1. Behold the Wat Arun Temple at dawn or sunset
    2. Witness the infamous ‘reclining Buddha’ at the Wat Pho Temple
    3. Shop for a multitude of goods at the mammoth Chatuchak Weekend Market
    4. Visit the beautiful Grand Palace, which has been home to numerous Thai Kings
    5. Enjoy the contemporary architecture found at the Bangkok Art and Culture Centre

    9. Seoul

    The city of Seoul, characterized by stunning architecture, vibrant culture and a thriving economy, is resilient in nature. Congruent to its flag which represents ‘balance’, Seoul seems to be moving fast into the future; however, it has also managed to maintain ties with its rich history. One can find relics of Seoul’s past tucked between the vast shopping districts and lively nightlife zones.

    Seoul offers a playful blend of the past and the present- the two do not overlap, rather complement each other. It boasts of   the oldest and largest of the five Joseon Dynasty palaces in the city, Gyeongbok Palace. On the other hand, Seoul is also home to Buckon Village, which comprises of one-story wooden homes surrounded by high-rises. This provides a clear picture of the varied architecture present in Seoul.

    Best Time to Visit Seoul

    The best time to visit Seoul includes the months between March and May, and between September and November. The weather in these months is mild, and travel expenses are not very high. Those in search of a snowy vacation can also choose to visit between December and February.

    Best Hotels in Seoul

    1. JW Marriott Hotel
    2. Banyan Tree Club and Spa
    3. Grand Intercontinental Seoul Parnas
    4. Grand Walkerhill
    5. Mayfield Hotel and Resort

    Top Things to do in Seoul

    1. Visit the Namsan Park and N Seoul Tower for a panoramic view of Seoul
    2. Take a stroll through the traditional Korean homes known as hanoks at the Bukchon Hanok Village
    3. Hike to the mountainous Bukhansan National Park
    4. Witness the youth culture of Seoul at Hongdae, through its plethora of bars, clubs, restaurants and cafes
    5. Shop for hanbok (traditional Indian clothing), herbal teas and calligraphy supplies from the Insadong neighbourhood

    10. Shanghai

    The city of Shanghai is in a state of constant change; thus, get ready to say goodbye to monotony! Celebrating its prosperity with monumental industries like that of the Oriental Pearl TV Tower, Shanghai can be defined as China’s most dynamic metropolis.

    However, one may find themselves getting lost in this city full of towering skyscrapers and bustling traffic. To prevent the place from feeling inaccessible and impersonal, one must do things that curtail to the ‘real’ Shanghai natives. Discover dining gems at the convoluted Zhujiajiao, find a calm spot at the Bund and reflect at the beautiful Jade Buddha Temple. To enjoy the vibrancy of Shanghai, create your own!

    Best Time to Visit Shanghai

    The months of October-November are ideal for visiting Shanghai. These short autumn months provide for the comfortable weather and minimal crowds. It also allows one to escape the crowds and rain showers generally witnessed during summer, which is the peak season. Weekend stays at hotels are comparatively cheaper, since Shanghai is a business-centric city.

    Best Hotels in Shanghai:

    1. Fairmont Peace Hotel
    2. Grand Kempinski Hotel
    3. Kerry Hotel Pudong
    4. Pudong Shangri-La East Shanghai
    5. The Langham, Shanghai, Xintiandi

    Top Things to do in Shanghai:

    1. Take beautiful pictures against the classic Shanghai skyline and water front at the infamous Bund
    2. Witness the distinct architecture of the Shanghai Museum
    3. Enjoy a boat ride and eat at tiny cafes located in the ancient water town of Zhujajiao
    4. Catch a bird-eye view of the entire city from one of the tallest buildings in the world, the Shanghai World Financial Centre
    5. Visit the oldest and largest religious complex of Shanghai, the Longhua Temple

    Here are the top 10 places to visit in Asia. Each one of these places have a wonderful aura and charm about themselves, and must be enjoyed to the fullest. So, pack your bags, pick up this tour guide, and plan a vacation for yourself, your friends and your family to make a bucketful of memories!

    Learn to say “no”

    You can save yourself from lots of problems if you learn just one thing which is “a way to say no”. Yeah, I am not asking you to be harsh by saying a hard no but if you can be honest with people about how you feel about something and tell them you can’t do something, it will save you a lot of time and energy.

    We often tend to accept anything that people tell us because for us it may be hard to say no to their face or we don’t know how to be honest with them. This one simple thing will change your life. We don’t have to please people every time, in fact it is impossible to satisfy everyone around us and make them happy. Sometimes we have to stand for ourselves and think about our own good and peace.

    I want you to pause here and think about the times when people said “no” to you. Why did they not hesitate to say “no”? Did you feel awfully bad when they don’t say yes to you? No, right? You are not hurting others by saying no, you are just looking after yourself when you do that. So there is absolutely no reason to feel bad about saying no.

    Nobody can be nice all the time and you are simply hurting yourself by attempting to be one. You are not always responsible for others well being and happiness. I have caught myself saying yes when I was so not interested in doing something or even when I was busy I refused to say no.

    This is actually a serious problem, when you put your mental health at risk and accept everyone’s request around you, it will definitely make you feel bad and sometimes people won’t even consider your efforts or in what position you are when you accept their requests so I would say anything that costs your mental health is not worth it.

    The bottom line is, if you don’t want it, don’t do it. Being nice will allow some toxic people to get advantage on you. They will think “he/she will never say no so we can use them to complete the work”. I am sure you don’t want to be treated this way. For that, you should learn to put your priorities first before pleasing others. Learning this will benefit you in lot of ways by hurting no one. But every time you say yes, you are hurting yourself. “Saying no is one of the best forms of self-care we can engage in” Washington says. When you say no, you let people know that you are strong enough to put your thoughts first and that you are not there to please anyone. Also you are not hurting the other person. Most times the person is going to understand your situation.

    How to say no?

    It is not as simple as it sounds but once you start doing it. you will feel really good about yourself.

    Imagine, someone comes to you and asks for some help. But you are busy at the moment and you have lot other works. You really want to help that person but you can’t. You can tell the person, “I really wish I could help but sorry I can’t, I have to do another work”. Saying this simply makes it all easier than saying yes to anything that comes to you.

    Practice it every time when you really want to say “no” to save yourself from any big responsibilities.

    Happy day!

    Independent India🇮🇳


    Sports and India are like the two sides of a coin that can change the angle but can never depart. The nation has always tried to encourage young buds for athletics and games. Cricketers like Sachin Tendulkar, Boxers like Mary Kom, and athletes like Milkha Singh are known for their fury and fervor. However, there is only one winner and after several years of dedication and wait, India finally found its champion.

    It was all unplanned

    The date of 7th August 2021 will always be memorized for the first win of the Olympic Gold Medal in Athletics. It was no other than Neeraj Chopra who mesmerized the entire stadium with his outstanding throw in Javelin held in Tokyo. Born on 24th December in the house of a farmer at Panipat is now known for his 87.58m throw. He was not a passionate kid who was practicing hard to enter sports. Rather, his heavyweight forced his father to send him stadium for running. This lead to the advent of his inquisitiveness in the field of athletics. After attempting several games, he finally discovered his strength. The more he practiced, the more he loved. Since then, his journey of medals began in Javelin and he made several records at various events.

    I made it!!

    Record is broken

    Neeraj underwent elbow surgery before the game and it was told that he will not be playing. It was that time when his hand was bandaged and it is now when he is holding the gold medal in that same hand. This was a very proud moment for every Indian and the curiousness turned into wishes from renowned personalities and interviews which revealed multiple secrets of his life. The lazy kid has grown into a responsible citizen who wants to work hard for the dignity of the country. His words, “For now I want to focus on my career, marriage will happen at the right time” truly proves that. Like others, he also overcame numerous challenges and gained success. Joining camp was the turning point of his life which gave him the facilities to become the man he is today!

    Inspiration of Today

    Everything is changing except thinking. Parents have always been skeptical about sending their children into this field where success does not come to everyone. Regardless, experiencing the achievement of a player whose journey was an incident and not a plan will motivate all fresh minds to take a step forward. On this Independence Day let’s celebrate the victory of not only those who gave their beats to save our hearts but also the ones who made their lives black and white to demonstrate India’s flag colorful.

    Every passion has a destiny.

    Happy I𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗽𝗲𝗻𝗱𝗲𝗻𝗰𝗲 𝗱𝗮𝘆

    When the clocks strikes 12 on August 15, the unforgettable day in the minds of Indians. The day we broke the shackles of colonialism and breathe the air of freedom. The occasion to celebrate the countless sacrifices,sweat and blood of our freedom fighters.
    Let the idea of India be a timeless, tricolor dream. Let’s hoist the flag of dedication to that dream.

    Let’s salute our great nation on its Independence Day! I hope you all feel grateful for the freedom you have and are proud of the nation you were born to.
    “Jai Hind!”

    Be Here’s to the future full of understanding, appreciation and gratitude.
    Today let us take some time to value our nation and never forget the sacrifices from those who gave us freedom.
    May your spirits rise with the flag today! Happy Independence Day!

    Quotes for tribute of 15th August.

      “Sare Jahan Se Achha Hindustan Hamara” – Muhammad Iqbal

    “Vande Mataram” – Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
    “Swaraj mera janamsiddh adhikar hai, aur mai ise lekar rahuga” – Bal Gangadhar Tilak
    “Satyameva Jayate” – Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya
    “Khoon se khelenge Holi gar Vatan mushkil main hai” – Ashfaqullah Khan

    The 7 basic tools of quality

    1. Stratification:

    Stratification analysis is a quality assurance tool used to sort data, object, and people into separate and distinct group.

    2. Histogram:

    quality professional are often tasked with analyzing and interpreting the behavior of different group of data in an effort to manage quality.

    this is where quality control tools like the histogram come into play.

    3. Check sheet:

    check sheets can be used to collect quantitative or qualitative data. When used to collect quantitative data, they can be called a tally sheet.

    4 cause-and-effect diagram:

    Introduced by karoru Ishikawa, the fishbone diagram helps users identify the various factors leading to an effect, usually depicted as a problem to be solved.

    5 Pareto chart:

    As a quality control tool, the Pareto chart operates accounting to the 80-20rule.

    This rule assume that in any process, 80% of a process’s or system’ s problem ate caused by 20% of major factor, often referred to as the ” Vital few”.

    6. Scatter diagram:

    out of the seven quality tools, the scatter diagram is most useful in depicting the relationship between two variable which is ideal for quality assurance professional Trying to identify cause and effect relationship.

    7. Control charts:

    The control chart is a graph used to study how a central a process change over time,. Data are plotted on time.

    A control chart always has a central line for the average charts, an upper line for the upper control limit, and lower line for the lower control limit. Control chart for variable data are used in pairs.

    The most nutrition dense food

    There is only a limited amount of food you can eat in a single day.

    1. Salman:

    Not all fish is created equal.

    salmon and the other fatty type of fish contain the greatest amount of omega fatty acids.

    although salmon is mainly prized for its beneficial composition of fatty acids, it is also packs a massive amount of other nutrition.

    2. Kale:

    Of all the healthy leafy greens, kale is the king.

    A 100- gram portion of kale contains (9).

    vitamin C: 200%of the RDI

    vitamin A: 300% of the RDI

    vitamin K1: 1000% of the RDI

    large amount of vitamin B6, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese.

    3. Blue berries:

    when it comes to the nutrition value of fruit, blueberries are in a league of their own.

    Although not a high calories for calories in vitamin and mineral as vegetables, they packed with antioxidant.


    Human and our remote ancestors have been eating animals for million of years.

    however, the modern western died had priorities muscle meat over organ meats.

    5. Potatoes:

    A single large potato is high In potassium, manganese. It also contains vitamin C and B vitamin (27).

    they contain a little bit of almost every nutrition you need.


    not only can it turns all sorts of bland dishes delicious, it is also very nutrition.

    it is high I’m vitamin c, B1 and B6, calcium, potassium, copper, manganese and selenium.

    7. Seaweed:

    The sea has more than just fish. It also contains massive amounts of vegetation.

    There are thousands if different plant sotin the ocean, some of which are very nutrition.



    * A tree is a tall plant with woody tissue. Trees gather light for photosynthesis through their leaves; this process creates “food” for the tree.

    * Most of a tree trunk is dead tissue and serves only to support the weight of the tree crown. The outside layers of the tree trunk are the only living portion. The cambium produces new wood and new bark.

    * The band of tissue outside of the cambium is the phloem. Phloem transports new materials (the sugars created from photosynthesis) from the crown to the roots. Dead phloem tissue becomes the bark of a tree.

    * The band of tissue just inside of the cambium is the xylem, which transports water from the roots to the crown. Dead xylem tissue forms the heartwood, or the wood we use for many different purposes.

    *Every year, trees grow two annual rings. In the spring, usually a wider and thinner-walled layer called springwood forms. In the summer, a thicker-walled layer, called summerwood, develops. Annual rings are typical in temperate forest trees.


    * Leaves – broadleaf or needles; primary location for photosynthesis and production of hormones and other chemicals.
    * Twigs and Branches – support structures for leaves, flowers and fruits.
    * Crown – the upper part of the tree composed of leaves, twigs, branches, flowers and fruit.
    * Flowers – the site of reproduction. Trees can be male, female or both. Conifers, however, do not have petals and typical flower structures.
    * Fruits and Seeds – all trees have seeds, most are inside of the fruit.
    * Trunk – generally a single “stem,” but can be multiple-stemmed. Main functions are materials transport and support.
    * Bark – main function is to protect the living tissue called cambium from damage.
    * Roots – two main functions: (1) collect nutrients and water and (2) anchor the tree


    * At the twig tips (apical meristem)
    * At the root tips (root apical meristem)
    * At the cambium (old xylem cells become heartwood, old phloem cells become bark)


    • Trees for food

    • Lumber and paper

    • Fire wood

    • Shade

    • Beauty and interest

    • Wind break, sound barrier and privacy

    • Medicine and cooking

    The Power of Consistency

    Consistency is an art and the one who masters it is an artist. I believe that once you learn this art or start practising this art you can win like anything. Victory is guaranteed. This art is difficult because many people make it complex. Whereas, the nature of the art truly is extremely simple. YOU JUST HAVE TO DO IT.

    Here are five benefits or reasons why consistency is an important habit to have. Knowing these reasons can be the motivation you need to give more attention to it.

    1. It develops discipline and self-control

    Forming a new habit can be challenging because it’s easier to go back to what you’re comfortable with. Your ability to be consistent requires self-control, which means you don’t allow yourself to get off track while staying focused on incremental improvement. This will help you develop the discipline required to keep going.

    2. It builds a higher level of trust 

    The level of trust you have with yourself shows up in the level of trust others have with you. Being consistent will help build momentum. This means you’ll also feel good about what you’re working towards.

    3. It can fast track your improvement or development in any area

    Consistency will lead to progress, which can speed up the achievement of what you want. This will build your self-confidence, which will help you set bigger and more challenging goals.

    4. It will create accountability

    Your results will reveal if you’re consistent or not. If you know you’re not on track, you can hold yourself accountable. This means you can adjust your actions or behaviour and keep progressing towards what you want.

    5. It will help you stand out or be noticed

    Small actions carried out repeatedly will amount to big results over time. When you do something for a long period, you will differentiate yourself from those who aren’t consistent. This can help you attract new opportunities that may not have been possible if you hadn’t been consistent.

    How to be Consistent

    Here are a few things to consider if you want to be consistent and become a more successful person.

    1. Have goals you want to achieve.
    2. Allocate time every week to the things that matter to you.
    3. Notice your triggers and what motivates you.
    4. Review your progress and ask for feedback regularly.
    5. Celebrate any successes you’ve achieved to maintain momentum and stay motivated.


    You can accomplish anything you want in life if you have the right strategies and take the right actions consistently. When you accept consistency is an important habit, you can use it to your advantage, which will improve how you feel and the results you create.

    ACID Properties of Transaction

    Database Transaction is a logical unit of processing in a DBMS which entails one or more database access operation. It is a sequence of operations that form a single unit of work.

    A transaction is often initiated by an application program

    • Begin a transaction


    • Ends a transaction

    COMMIT (if successful) or ROLLBACK (if errors)

    A transaction T transforms one consistent database state into another consistent database state. During the execution of T, the database may be temporarily inconsistent.

    Either the whole transaction must be succeed or the effect of all operations has to be undone (rollback).

    There are two main transaction issues

    • concurrent execution of multiple transactions
    • recovery after hardware failures and system crashes

    DBMS is the management of data that should remain integrated when any changes are done in it. It is because if the integrity of data is affected, whole data will get distributed and corrupt. Therefore, to maintain integrity of the data, there are four properties which are known as ACID properties.

    Operations in Transaction

    Following are the two main operations in a transaction:

    • Read operation
    • Write operation

    Read Operation:This operation transfers the data item from the database and then stores it in a buffer in main memory.

    Write Operation:This operation writes the updated data value back to the database from the buffer.

    For example: Let T be a transaction that transfer Rs50 from X account to Y account. This transaction can be defined as:

    T : read(X);
    X := X – 50;
    Y := Y + 50;

    Assume that the value of both X and Y before starting of the transaction T is 100.

    • The first operation read the value of X (100) from the database and stores it in a buffer. The second operation will decrease X value by 50. So buffer will contain 50. The third operation will write the value of the buffer to the database. So the final value of X will be 50.
    • The fourth operation read the value of Y (100) from the database and stores it in a buffer. The fifth operation will add X value by 50. So buffer will contain 150. The sixth operation will write the value of buffer to the database. So the final value of Y will be 150.

    ACID properties are used for maintaining the integrity of database during transaction processing. ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability.

    • Atomicity

    A transaction is a single unit of operation. You either execute it entirely or do not execute it at all.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the atomicity property ensures that, if a debit is made successfully from one account, the corresponding credit is made to the other account.

    • Consistency

    Once the transaction is executed, it should move from one consistent state to another.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the consistency property ensures that the total value of funds in both the accounts is the same at the start and end of each transaction.

    • Isolation

    Even though transactions are executing concurrently, they should appear to be executed in isolation – that is, their final effect should be as if each transaction was executed in isolation from start to finish.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the isolation property ensures that another transaction sees the transferred funds in one account or the other, but not in both, nor in neither.

    • Durability

    Once a transaction is committed, its changes (writes) applied to the database must never be lost because of subsequent failure.

    For example, in an application that transfers funds from one account to another, the durability property ensures that the changes made to each account will not be reversed.


    Hi all,
    Today I am going to share about the weird laws that being practiced in other countries.

    Penalty: Up to 3 months in prison or $1,000 fine
    According to Singapore Statutes Online, singing, reciting or uttering any obscene song (especially if they contain swear words) in public is illegal.
    Penalty: Up to 3 years in prison and/or $10,000 fine.
    Using another person’s wifi is defined as hacking in Singapore.
    Penalty: $150 – 1,000 fine
    Smoking is banned in public places and vehicles.
    Penalty: $100,000 – 2 years in jail
    The sale of chewing gum is illegal, bringing it into the country is an offence and spitting it is even worse.

    paying for purchases with a lot of coins is prohibited. According to the Canadian government, you are allowed to use only 25 loonies (a Canadian one-dollar coin) and 5 coins of 25 cents each.
    If you remove the bandage somewhere in public, including parks or sidewalks, you can consider yourself a criminal.
    According to the Canadian government, it’s illegal to scare a sick person or child to death.

    Metabo Law, introduced in 2008 (read more about this here) enforces mandatory waist measurements for citizens between the ages of 40 and 74. If you are found to be above the recommended measurements, your company or local authority could be forced to pay a fine on your behalf.
    Homebrewing anything over 1% potency is illegal in Japan – but equipment for home brewing is sold openly and is readily available.
    you can’t smoke on the sidewalks in Japan, you will find numerous designated smoking areas in public outdoor areas that you can use to satisfy your cravings.

    1.1.Women are not allowed to drive a motor vehicle while wearing a houseboat.
    2.2.In Blythe, you are only permitted to wear cowboy boots if you own at least two cows.
    3.3.Unless it is for amusement or drama, it is illegal for men and boys to dress as females in Walnut without a permit from the sheriff.
    4.Flying a kite higher than 10 feet off the ground is also prohibited in Walnut.

    Have a nice day

    Keep smiling ❣️


    The Sabyasachi X H&M collection – H&M Launches Collaboration “Wanderlust” With Iconic Indian Designer Sabyasachi

    East meets west with this global collaboration between high street style giant H&M and India’s biggest name in fashion Sabyasachi Mukherjee.The collaboration is also hugely symbolic in another way, it’s a platforming of Indian design on a global scale.

    H&M is a Swedish multinational clothing-retail company known for its fast growing fashion clothing for men, women and children. As of November 2019, H&M operates in 74 countries with over 5,000 stores under the various company brands. It is the second-largest global clothing retailer, behind Spain-based  Inditex  (parent company of Zara).The company makes its online shopping available in 33 countries.

    Sabyasachi Mukherjee is an Indian fashion designer, jewellery designer, retailer and couturier from Kolkata, India. Since 1999. For over two decades, “Sabyasachi” has been a household name in the realms of high fashion with his signature extravagant Indian bridal wear that have been worn by the riches of India’s high society to Bollywood superstars such as Deepika Padukone, Priyanka Chopra, and Anushka Sharma.

    It is a truly proud moment for Indian fashion, for the first-time ever fashion giant H&M collaborates with an Indian label to create a capsule collection for its customers across the globe. The Sabyasachi H&M collaboration-themed “Wanderlust” will present rich textiles in modern as well as classic Indian silhouettes that resonate with the modern global nomad mindset. “I’ve done many collaborations and each one is diverse, but what I try to do with every collaboration is further the India story, take it forward; if I cannot have an Indian narrative, I don’t want to do it. With H&M it was such a proud moment, it’s like a lifetime achievement award when it comes to recognition of one’s work. It’s only when your label has a strong voice that it can traverse the mind space of many countries,” says the designer.

    Designer Sabyasachi Mukherjee says “What you seek is seeking you” for his latest collaboration with H&M. The international fashion giant was looking for a partner to carry their voice in India and carry the Indian sensibility internationally, who better than the iconic label Sabyasachi to take the India narrative forward.

    H&M, we are thrilled to be able to announce the new date for our collaboration with iconic Indian designer Sabyasachi. At a time like this, we believe people value the use of homegrown crafts and textiles more than ever and that’s something no one can do better than Sabyasachi. We look forward to taking this stunning collection to as many people across the global as we can,” states Maria Gemzell, Head of New Development, H&M.

    The Sabyasachi H&M collection will offer a complete fashion wardrobe for both ladies and men, including accessories, jewelry, footwear, sunglasses all at accessible price points. Some highlight pieces include long flowy dresses, tunics, blouses, breezy shirts, wide pants and more. It will also offer a first of its kind collaboration saree which is exclusively designed for customers in India The collection is amazing, and it really shows the aesthetics of Sabyasachi– its electric, fluid, decorated; it has all the elements all fashion lovers across the globe love.

    H&M has always collaborated with the biggest names across the globe, so it should come as no surprise then that Sabyasachi was their pick, as Gemzell adds, “H&M’s iconic collaborations cater to a global audience. We want to collaborate with partners who share are values and progress. Fashion is not only about clothes, but also about giving dreams and hopes to people, and so we choose talent and values which resonate this. It’s important to give something more to our customers all over the world and that’s why this collaboration was important to us.” “Collaborations create emotions and fashion is both global and local at the same time. India is a super important market for H&M and it’s a privilege to work with a talent and creative designer like Sabysachi,” asserts Gemzell.

    Music can change you

    These days we hear music all the time, it wakes us up, motivates our workouts, keeps us company on our commutes. It doesn’t matter what kind of music it is, it itself has the ability to affect our moods and our bodies in all sorts of ways. It can give us chills even can make us cry.

    Effects on Brain

    Music activates every area of the brain that scientists have mapped so far. In fact, there is no area of the brain that music doesn’t touching some ways.

    25 years ago there was an idea which said that language is in left side of the brain and music is in right side of the brain but now with better quality tools, higher resolution, neuroimaging and better experimental methods, it is discovered that thats not at all right so how does it effects our brain?

    When music enters and then gets shuttled off to different parts of the brain:-

    1. It stops at specialise processing units in auditory cortex, they track loudness, pitch, rhythm, etc.
    2. The visual cortex activates when you’re reading notes as a musician or watching music.
    3. Motor cortex activates when you move or dance or tap your feet, snap fingers, clapping your hands.
    4. The Cerebellum activates and immediate the emotional responses.
    5. The memory system in the Hippocampus will activate and will help you to recognise any familiar music or lines that you listen

    Hence, music is going on in both halves of the brain, left and right, the front, back, the inside, and the outside.

    How playing Instruments helps?

    We can start learning to play instrument at any age. Picking up an instrument can provide some huge benefits for Intelligence, Physical well-being, Brain.

    Playing an instrument requires:-

    • Auditory motor
    • Sensory
    • Visual system to work together

    This inner system cooperation has some incredible outcomes that can affect many areas of life.

    Different intensities of training produce different outcomes, even the most minimal practice can make a difference. Starting to play an instrument just one hour a week for few months can cause growth and increased activity in the parts of the brain responsible for memory, hearing, and motor. Researchers have found that this kind of activities can even increase IQ by 7 point or more.

    Its also known that people who play musical instrument are better at other practical things too such as:-

    • Practical emotions
    • Learning new things/tasks
    • Creative problem solving

    Musicians brain have better communication between left and right hemisphere which allows for more cooperation and out of the box thinking. Playing an instrument can also has benefits for brain and body.

    • boosting immune system function
    • Increase in resilience to hearing lose
    • Helps stroke patients regain motor skills

    It’s been found that just listening to music can prompt the repair and regeneration of damage nerves in the brain.

    Music is so much more than notes on a page, it can change the way we think, speak and feel. Music making and listen is really complex it’s not demystified till now it’s more mysterious than ever.

    Must Read Female Authors

    I would venture to guess that Anon, who wrote so many poems without signing them, was often a woman.

    Virginia Woolf

    In the vast spectrum of literature, women have bestowed eminently, despite earlier, being often left out of the said spectrum and forced to put on a veil of anonymity and nom de plumes.

    Female authors have time and again braved all odds and given us some of the most cherished literary jewels of all time.

    See the source image

    Today as female authors write and thrive we look at 5 of the some of the must read female authors of all time.

    1. Jane Austen (1775-1817)

    Image result for jane austen

    One of the most cherished authors of all time, Jane Austen was born December 16, 1775 at Steventon, Hampshire, England and published 4 novels during her lifetime, some of her other works were later published posthumously.

    Pride and Prejudice is notably regarded as her best novel. Her other novels including Mansfield park, Sense and Sensibility, Emma, The Northanger Abbey and Persuasion are also extremely popular.

    See the source image

    Austen’s novels are seen as a close representation of her own self, though not married Austen’s novels highlighted the themes of marriage, love , courting and the life of women with enticing wit.

    she passed away at the age of 41 on July 18, 1817 and was buried in Winchester Cathedral. She left a legacy of great literature behind.

    “The person, be it gentleman or lady, who has not pleasure in a good novel, must be intolerably stupid.”

     Jane Austen, Northanger Abbey

    2. Mary Shelly (1797-1851)

    See the source image

    English novelist Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly was born August 30, 1797, in London, England and is best known for her horror novel “Frankenstein, or the Modern Prometheus.” Married to poet Percy Bysshe Shelly, she was regarded as the mother of science fiction.

    The main themes she highlighted in Frankenstein included nature, man’s quest for power and other intense emotions.

    See the source image

    She wrote several other books, including Valperga (1823), The Last Man (1826), the autobiographical Lodore (1835) and the posthumously published Mathilde

    Shelley died of brain cancer on February 1, 1851, at age 53, in London, England. She was buried at St. Peter’s Church in Bournemouth.

    “The very winds whispered in soothing accents, and maternal Nature bade me weep no more.”

    Mary Shelly

    3. Charlotte Bronte(1816-1855)

    See the source image

    Charlotte Brontë was an English 19th-century novelist born on April 21, 1816, in Thornton, Yorkshire, England. Brontë published her first novel, Jane Eyre, in 1847 under the manly alias Currer Bell.  She followed it with Shirley in 1848 and then Villette in 1853.

    She highlighted themes like death, religion, grief, search for meaning and a sense of belonging.

    She died during her pregnancy, on March 31, 1855, in Yorkshire, England. 

    “I am no bird; and no net ensnares me: I am a free human being with an independent will.”

    Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre

    4. Emily Bronte (1818-1848)

    See the source image

    Emily Brontë famous author of the novel ‘Wuthering Heights’ was born on July 30, 1818, in Thornton, Yorkshire, England and was the sister of Charlotte and Anne Brontë.

     Publishing under the alias Ellis Bell, Brontë published her defining work, Wuthering Heights, in December 1847.

    Wuthering heights was weaved around the themes of family, revenge, betrayal, society and class and had a supernatural tinge to it as well.

    See the source image

    She died of tuberculosis on December 19, 1848.

    “If all else perished, and he remained, I should still continue to be; and if all else remained, and he were annihilated, the universe would turn to a mighty stranger.”

    Emily Jane Brontë Wuthering Heights

    5. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941)

    See the source image

    English author Virginia Woolf was born in an influential English household on January 25, 1882.

    She wrote feminist centred classics like ‘Mrs. Dalloway’, ‘To the Lighthouse,’ as well as , ‘A Room of One’s Own’ and ‘Three Guineas’.

    Her works explored the themes of flawed marriages, ambition, success, failure, children etc.

    See the source image

    She suffered from constant bouts of depression and fell prey to it on March 28, 1941 when she committed suicide by drowning herself into the River Ouse.

    “As a woman I have no country. As a woman I want no country. As a woman, my country is the whole world.”

    Virginia Woolf





    India’s struggle for independence started in 1857 with the Indian Mutiny in Meerut and it gained momentum when the first war . In twentieth century, below the leadership of Gandhi , the Indian National Congress (INC) and different political organisations launched a state independence movement and revolt against the oppressive British rule.During the Second war in 1942, the Bharatn Congress launched the Quit India Movement strict AN finish to British rule that prompted colonial rulers detaining several campaigners, nationalists, and ministers together with Gandhi.During the partition of Bharat in 1947, violent riots, mass casualties, and displacement of nearly fifteen million individuals happened amid non secular violence.

    “Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high,where knowledge is free”-Rabindranath Tagore


    India gained independence from British rule on Assumption , 1947. As India freed herself from the clutches of British Empire , the entire country roared in happiness, marking the reign of an independent and free land, faraway from the fear rule of the 200-year British rule.Fearless Patriots led the liberty struggle which went on to be written within the deep trenches of history. On the occasion of this patriotic day, let’s know more about the history, significance, facts, and therefore the way today is widely known in India and across the earth .Jawahar lal Nehru declared India’s independence on Assumption , 1947, and swore in because the 1st Indian Prime Minister. British House of Commons passed the Indian Independence Bill on Independence Day , 1947, and it had been passed within a fortnight. This was a significant a neighborhood of the tactic that led India to her victory. Freedom fighters and patriots like Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Rani Lakshmi Bai, and far of more lead the parents with their belief and determination to win independence.

    Mahatma Gandhi


    This day may be a remembrance and dedication to all or any those people that gave their lives, mind, body, and soul to free India. Countless lives were lost and lots of were tortured but with immense determination and faith, Indian rose as a free country. On today , India’s tricolour flag was hoisted above the Lahori Gate of Red Fort in Delhi on Assumption , 1947. to the present day, per annum the Prime Minister hoists the flag and commemorates the occasion by a standard ceremony in Delhi, India’s capital. After the Prime Minister addresses the state , a military parade is held that’s broadcasted everywhere the country. The President also delivers a speech.

    Today India completed 74 years of independence and we are celebrating 75th independence which has brought real change in India in this so many years. At last I want to quote DR. B.R.Ambedkar’s famous quote;-

    Freedom of mind is the real freedom. A person whose mind is not free though he may not be in chains, is a slave, not a free man. One whose mind is not free, though he may not be in prison, is a prisoner and not a free man. One whose mind is not free though alive, is no better than dead. Freedom of mind is the proof of one’s existence.”-B.R.AMBEDKAR


    We all have big dreams , big aims and we all are working hard to achieve it . But if we are unable to do so , and somebody else does it before us , we are consumed with jealousy . It is definitely not a positive emotion , and can be harmful if it exceeds a limit , but a proportionate amount of jealousy can be your teacher , here’s how ,

    JEALOUSY HELPS US UNDERSTAND OUR WANTS – When we get jealous of something someone has achieved, it actually helps to understand our true wants and desires that we are unaware of , or we are trying to suppress . Jealousy acts as an indicator to help us understand what we want . So next time you get slightly jealous of someone getting a promotion or a new job , try asking yourself is that what you desire ? Jealousy and fear come from the same place , and you can overcome that by trying to understand your jealousies .

    JEALOUSY HELPS US UNDERSTAND OUR TRIGGER POINTS – We all have certain trigger points that really upset us but jealousy , helps us identify these trigger points . Your trigger points are caused due to your insecurities , beliefs and self doubts , and jealousy helps you identify them . If you are able to understand your trigger points , you are one step close to self awareness and self discovery which helps you become a better version of yourself .

    JEALOUSY HELPS US IN FOCUSING ON OUR PATH- When we are jealous , we completely loose focus on our life and path , and expend all our energies focusing on what other have and what others have achieved . Jealousy can actually help you be focus on our path again . When ever you get jealous think about all the energy you are wasting by not focusing on your path and your life .

    JEALOUSY ASSURES US ABOUT SUCCESS – Now , when others are succeeding and you still have an impending success you might feel jealous ,and all bitter , but if you look around and see so many people succeeding, it actually gives you an assurance and a proof that world is abundant and that there is room for everyone to succeed, we just need to be patient .

    JEALOUSY CAN MOTIVATE US- When you start to feel the sting of jealousy in yourself , it can actually push you to work harder and help you find what efforts might be lacking . In stead of letting jealousy make you feel bitter , use it to work harder .

    Nine Unique Pools Around the World

    1.Deep Dive Dubai- United Arab

    This pool is the world’s deepest indoor diving pool. It is 196 feet(60 meters) deep. It has an underwater city and a film studio. In it, there are parked cars, graffiti-laden walls, giant trees, and libraries stacked with bookshelves.

    Watch the video here:

    Deep Dive Dubai
    Deep Dive Dubai

    2.Crocosaurus cove- Australia

    You can swim with the world’s largest saltwater crocodiles here. A transparent cage protects the swimmers from the crocodiles. They are saltwater crocodiles, meaning, they stay just below the water surface to grab their prey, and getting close to one, is too close for comfort no matter how brave you are.

    Watch the video here:

      Crocosaurus cove
    Crocosaurus cove

    3.Hotel Hubertus Suspended Pool- Italy

    This pool is suspended 40 feet(12 meters) above ground. The 82 feet long pool has a glass bottom. The pool overlooks the rolling mountains of Italy’s South Tyrol.

    Watch the video here:

    Hotel Hubertus Suspended Pool
    Hotel Hubertus Suspended Pool

    4.San Alfonso del Mar pool- Chile

    The pool is large enough for a boat to sail in. It’s 3323 feet (1012 meters) long and spans 20 acres. The pool holds a staggering 250 million liters (66 million gallons) of water and is the equivalent of about 6,000 8-meter long pools.

    Watch the video here:

    San Alfonso del Mar pool
    San Alfonso del Mar pool

    5.Surf lakes- Chile

    This pool generates five different types of waves. It can generate over 2000 waves per hour.

    Watch the video here:

    Surf lakes
    Surf lakes

    6.Aqua Dome- Austria

    This basin pool enables winter swimming in the Alps. The pool’s water is heated to 36 degrees Celcius.

    Watch the video here:

    Aqua Dome
    Aqua Dome

    7.SkyPool Houston- USA

    This rooftop infinity hotel has a glass bottom. It hangs 500 feet(152 meters) above the ground.

    Watch the video here:

    SkyPool Houston
    SkyPool Houston

    8.To Sua Ocean Trench- Samoa

    This pool was formed during an ancient lava eruption. It is accessible via a long ladder.

    Watch the video here:

    To Sua Ocean Trench
    To Sua Ocean Trench

    9.Hotel Villa Honegg Pool- Switzerland

    This Outdoor infinity pool has a whirlpool area. It offers a panoramic view of the valleys and lake below.

    Watch the video here:

    Hotel Villa Honegg Pool
    Hotel Villa Honegg Pool


    If you could go back in time and change one thing, what would you like to change?

    I wouldn’t change a thing, because all the choices I made in the past, made me the person I am today. I am still a work in progress and have much to learn and grow. Who doesn’t? Therefore I’m no better than any of you. It’s when you fall is when you learn!

    You mess up sometimes and that’s ok! you can learn from that mistake. You may hurt people unintentionally or intentionally and you let yourself get hurt too in the process, just so you know how it feels when you fall, and avoid it happening again. You wake up to mornings that succeeded a night you would rather forget. You wake up to mornings that succeeded a night you wish you could remember. You say words you wish you could take back after you start regretting. You wish you had said words you’ll never get the chance to say again.

    Being here, in the present, you don’t want to stop believing in yourself.
    You think it was worth it, right? Hey, it probably was. It’s OKAY if things don’t go as planned! It’s OKAY to cry and move on!

    But is being young and stupid a good enough excuse?

    So now, I would like to share an experience of my own, It was during the 12th when I and my best friend decided to go to the same college, away from home, so we became hostelites. But it was during that time, we had a minor argument and misunderstanding, so we both stopped speaking to each other. I had a really bad mental breakdown, It was during that time my dad spoke, saying I was always too dependent on your friends, and I need to let things go and live on! After all, everything happens for a good reason! but people change, when time changes and they grow. But if even after all of those misunderstandings, the person still manages to come back into your life, then he was meant to stay. Now, I and my friend laugh, thinking back as it was such an inane situation.

    It was after that time, I realized I needed to be more self-dependent. I also realized communication is the key to solve most of the misunderstandings.

    I have met different kinds of people who taught me lessons that changed my perspective.

    Here’s a small part from,

    “The Little Boy and the Old Man” by Shel Silverstein

    Said the little boy, “Sometimes I drop my spoon.” Said the old man, “I do that too.” The little boy whispered, “I wet my pants.” “I do that too,” laughed the old man. Said the little boy, “I often cry.” The old man nodded, “So do I.

    We probably behave stupidly because we don’t think, period. And maybe those who turn out to be wise were always full of the wisdom that we weren’t. Sounds philosophical, it’s not.

    I’m a big believer in learning from mistakes. I do reflect on my past experiences that carved me into the person I am today.

    ANTIBODIES – Our Body’s Military Force!


    These are the foreign bodies that have the capability to bind with the immunogen and also induce an immune response from our body.
    The majority of antigens are made up of protein. But some can also be made of carbohydrates, lipids, or nucleic acid.


    An antibody is a protein molecule that is generated in the living being by the plasma membrane of the cell. The majority of antibodies are produced in the blood, hence the name immunoglobulins.
    Each antibody consists of four polypeptides– two heavy chains and two light chains joined to form a “Y” shaped molecule.
    The amino acid sequence in the tips of the “Y” varies greatly among different antibodies. This variable region, composed of 110-130 amino acids, gives the antibody its specificity for binding antigen.

    Antibodies are divided into five major classes, IgM, IgG, Iga, IgD, and IgE, based on their constant region structure and immune functions.

    IgG antibody function :

    IgG provides long-term protection because it persists for months and years after the presence of the antigen that has triggered their production. IgG protects against bacteria, viruses, neutralizes bacterial toxins, triggers complement protein systems, and binds antigens to enhance the effectiveness of phagocytosis.

    IgM antibody function :

    IgM is involved in the ABO blood group antigens on the surface of RBCs. IgM enhances ingestions of cells by phagocytosis.

    IgA antibody function :

    The main function of IgA is to bind antigens on microbes before they invade tissues. It aggregates the antigens and keeps them in the secretions so when the secretion is expelled, so is the antigen. IgA is also the first defense for mucosal surfaces such as the intestines, nose, and lungs.

    IgE antibody function :

    IgE bind to mast cells and basophils which participate in the immune response. Some scientists think that IgE’s purpose is to stop parasites.

    IgD antibody function :

    IgD plays a role in the induction of antibody production.


    The main role of the immune system is to recognize the pathogen, respond to the foreign antigens, and memorize them.


    These are the organs where the maturation and proliferation of lymphocytes take place.
    These are further divided into two types:

    1. Primary lymphoid organs: This comprises of bone marrow and thymus, where T-lymphocytes and the B-lymphocytes mature and acquire their antigen-specific receptors.
    2. Secondary lymphoid organs: It comprises of lymph nodes, spleen, and Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT). After maturation of the T- lymphocyte and the B-lymphocyte, they migrate here via blood vascular and lymphatic system, where they undergo differentiation.


    A vaccine is generally a half-killed or weakened disease-causing pathogen that is then given to the healthy individual through injection or drops, which has the ability to generate an immune response but not cause any disease or doesn’t have the ability to spread in the body. This causes acquired immunity against the disease-causing pathogen. This is called as vaccinisation or immunisation.
    The concept of vaccinisation is based on the ‘memory’ of the immune system. Our immune system has the ability to recognize the pathogen if it has once been already spotted and antibodies have been created by our body.
    So when the same pathogen enters our body, it is immediately spotted by the lymphocytes, and the antibodies are produced almost instantly given a quick response.


    It is the process of replacement of diseased tissue with healthier ones. Various factors are involved in transplanting an organ from a donor to a recipient such as tissue matching, immunosuppression, the immune response generated in the recipient. T-cells play a major role in the process of rejection.


    Antigens are the substance majority made of protein that has the capability to stimulate the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein molecule that inactivates the antigen. They are also called immunoglobulins. Lymphoid organs are the place where the maturation of lymphocytes takes place. Vaccine is introduced into our body to prepare antibodies against certain pathogens. While organ transplant has its own pros and cons.

    The Dawn of Taliban in Afghanistan

    Afghanistan is on the precipice and the nation’s security forces have all but collapsed after being battered by a offensive Taliban they were unable to halt

    To add to its woes, Washington has announced plans to evacuate its nationals in Kabul, a symbolic and shambolic end of the US presence after nearly two decades of conflict.

    With the Taliban controlling the vast majority of the country’s cities and rural areas, and Afghan security forces largely defeated, here follows some questions and answers that may help explain the current situation.

    Kandahar province, Afghanistan

    What’s the Taliban’s strategy?

    The Taliban have never shied away from saying what they want — the complete resurrection of their Islamic emirate that ruled from 1996 to 2001.

    A lot of analysis and head-scratching was devoted to how exactly they would achieve their goal — through talks, brute force, or a mixture of both.

    In the end, their military strategy proved sufficient: overwhelm government forces with multi-pronged attacks on targets throughout the country.

    To do that, they first had to get American boots off the ground — which they did by securing a deal with war-weary Washington and pledging not to hit US targets in exchange for their withdrawal.

    Part of the deal also meant Washington pressuring the Afghan government into releasing thousands of Taliban prisoners — most of whom immediately rejoined the fray.

    With such breathtaking successes in the last eight days, the Taliban may now have the confidence to offer the government the chance of unconditional surrender.

    If Kabul baulks, expect the Taliban to push for the capital with force.

    Herat, Afghanistan’s third biggest city

    What happened to the Afghan military?

    No doubt books will be published and lectures will be given for years, if not decades, on this subject — what exactly went wrong with the Afghan security forces? Corruption, the lack of a will to fight, and the vacuum created by the US exit likely all played a part in the Afghan military’s ultimate demise.

    For years, the US government issued reports detailing the vast amounts of corruption within the Afghan security forces.

    Commanders routinely pocketed money meant for their troops, sold weapons on the black market and lied about the number of soldiers in their ranks.

    Afghan Military

    The Afghan forces were also entirely dependent on US airpower — from logistics to strikes, along with maintenance.

    And to make matters all the worse, the security forces never had much in the way of effective leadership.

    They were micromanaged by civilians in the presidential palace with little military experience, or ignored by ageing generals who appeared more involved in petty political fights than the larger war at hand.

    The US-trained commando units were the hope, but in the end they were not enough to shoulder the entire fight.

    How does it end?

    The Taliban have the upper hand across the board.

    Taliban fighters

    The government now controls just three major cities and is unlikely to have the logistical manpower left to marshal a successful defence of the capital.

    The Taliban are moving rapidly towards Kabul with reports suggesting their fighters are making progress on the northern and southern flanks of the capital.

    The US and international community are most likely piling pressure on the Taliban and Afghan government to reach some kind of deal.

    But the Taliban ultimately hold all the cards.

    Afghan government negotiators in Qatar have offered the Taliban a power-sharing deal in return for an end to fighting in the country. But only time will tell what the future holds.



    In the modern era, people frequently deny performing certain things that might be either good or bad. Sensible decisions should be carried out as to when a NO should be uttered. A small scope of denial can cause you to pay a hefty price. You assist others presuming that what if you turn them down. But that’s not the case. You love to help others because you love to. Lending a helping hand always can cost you a lot too. Think wisely as to where you want to invest your time. It’s not at all bad to think for yourself.

    Never feel ashamed to adamantly deny. If that one word NO is being beneficial to you, then don’t hesitate to do so. It’s impossible to say YES to everything. Prioritize the decisions you make as to whom you have to tell a YES and to whom a NO. This world is filled with greedy people too who wholly want their work to be done. They remember you when they need a favor, else you are like a non-existing creature. People who genuinely care for you and need your help will ask for it, respect it and convey they will always be available for you. Never overlook such people in your life.

    It is important to know some things related to denial-

    1. Once a NO is not a NO forever :
    • You deny once doesn’t announce you are denying forever.
    • There might seem to be reasons for your denial. Maybe you are busy with your own work, or are not in a mood to help anyone. 

    2. NO need not always be direct :

    • Valid reasons can be voiced out for the reason of your denial.
    • Some people think what if he/she feels bad.
    • Telling a NO may surely not hurt until it is conveyed in a positive way.

    3. Happy and Peaceful Environment :

    • When you deny someone, you are reducing the effort and time you are investing there.
    • You have a chance to relax you, not to withstand stress about it.

    4. Constant Connection :

    • As said, once a denial doesn’t always mean denial.
    • Continue to establish a connection with that person after you deny.
    • This attitude will surely make the person feel that you don’t have any problem in helping, but the situation makes you do so.
    • It urges him/her to believe that you don’t have any hard feelings for him/her.

    5. Devote time yourself :

    • Some people go out of the way to help out others that they don’t give time to themselves.
    • No one is stopping that person from helping others. But the fact to understand is giving importance to you and value you.

    Denying for doing something wrong is not at all bad. You should maintain a strong stand and be firm, that the decision that you have taken against the wrong is absolutely correct. Whoever approaches you to change your mind shouldn’t be in a stage to overrule the accurate decisions you have made.

    Situations arise where you are being betrayed. The person who did so will try his/her best to prove himself/herself innocent, you should voice out exclaiming a NO, it’s inappropriate. Never be afraid to tell a NO when you aren’t comfortable in doing so. You shouldn’t be forced to do the favor asked. You aren’t hindered at gunpoint to do the favor asked.

    In present times, you definitely have a price to pay for everything. It’s left up to you to see where your profit lies. NO can be costly when you do something that you aren’t willing to. You help people when they need you, but are they available to you when you need them the most? Give it a thought.

    While there is life, there is hope!

    “When her husband and son entered the room to check-in, they found the bed empty and the window open wide. She finally jumped from the building. It took place around 3:00 am.” How many times we have come across these headlines but carelessly ignore them without giving a second thought what if one of our kin become the victim?

    Suicide doesn’t end the pain, it passes onto someone else.

    Why people self harm?

    According to some, it is a way to control their body, as they can’t control anything else in their living. While others feel less anxious as the emotional pain slowly turns into a physical one. In addition, there are many other reasons for taking up the beautiful life of an innocent.

    Will you cry, if I die?

    I was five-year-old when I saw my mom in the bathroom lying with her hands full of blood. I have a vivid memory of an ambulance taking her to the hospital. Later I came to know that she was suffering from a maniac illness that brings extreme mood swings in sleep, energy, thinking, and behavior; named Bipolar Disorder. I never received the love of my mother, as she used to treat me well in a happy mood while hit me when turned sluggish. And that's how I started seeking love from my girlfriends. The craving was so high that I expected them to behave like a mother and was very obsessive for them. As a result, I was not successful in any of the relationships. I always blamed my father for the condition of my mother, as I was in the illusion that his hitting was the ultimate cause of her sufferings. However, everything changed after her third suicide attempt with a note "Will you cry, If I die?" I was left all alone in shock and despair. Soon, all the truths were revealed. My dad became the best buddy and claimed that he never hit my mom, rather helped her to get better. Since then, I started becoming mode practical and gained control over my emotions. Now I'm happy with the family of 4 members. I miss my mom sometimes, but I know she would be happy somewhere in her new body away from all the miseries!!

    Don’t lose hope. When the sun goes down, the stars shine. You have the power to say,

    “This is not how my story will end.”





    HAPPY 75th


    India is a land of diversity where people of different caste, creeds, religions, cultures, and beliefs live together. India is a country where there is “Unity in Diversity” .The Independence Day of India, which is celebrated religiously throughout the Country on the 15th of August every year, holds tremendous ground in the list of national days, since it reminds every Indian about the dawn of a new beginning, the beginning of an era of deliverance from the clutches of British colonialism of more than 200 years. It was on 15th August 1947 that India was declared independent from British colonialism, and the reins of control were handed over to the leaders of the Country. India’s gaining of independence was a tryst with destiny, as the struggle for freedom was a long and tiresome one, witnessing the sacrifices of many freedom fighters, who laid down their lives on the line.


    British rule in India began in 1757 when, following the British victory at the Battle of Plassey, the English East India Company began exercising control over the country. The East India Company ruled India for 100 years, until it was replaced by direct British rule (British Raj) in the wake of the Indian Mutiny in 1857–58. The Indian independence movement began during WORLD WAR I and was led by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who advocated for a peaceful and nonviolent end to British rule. Freedom fighters like Bhagat Singh, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, etc. made sacrifices of their life to provide freedom to us so each drop of blood shed for our country’s freedom and dignity needs to be valued and honored.


    Independence Day is marked throughout India with flag-raising ceremonies, drills, and the singing of the Indian National Anthem. Additionally, various cultural programs are made available in the state capitals. After the prime minister participates in the flag-raising ceremony at the Red fort historic monument in Old Delhi, a parade ensues with members of the armed forces and police. The prime minister then delivers a televised address to the country, recounting the major accomplishments of India during the previous year and outlining future challenges and goals. Kite flying has also become an Independence Day tradition, with kites of various sizes, shapes, and colours filling the sky.

    This day is celebrated to ignite the feeling of nationalism and patriotism across the country. Every citizen has a different viewpoint of Independence. A youngster takes this day to celebrate the glory and strength of the country while for others it’s a reminder of the long suppression and cruelty that our people suffered. It’s not only a celebration of Independence but also of unity with the diverse culture of the country.


    A day worth celebrating for which our ancestors have shed their blood and have struggled a lot. But are we truly justifying the struggle and hard work of our freedom fighters? We should rethink it and should work towards actual freedom of the people of the country by helping them and making them self-dependent and capable enough to support not only themselves but also the country.

    ‘Jai Hind Jai Bharat’



              Every person should have clear goals in his/her life to lead a healthy and wealthy life. There is a story which has happened 60 years ago, in 1963, a 29 years old professor who is teaching Accountancy in an American university asked his students that how many of them have written their goals in life? Surprisingly only 9 out of 300 students have written their goals of life on a piece of paper. Then after 30 years later. i.e, in 1993, all the students came to visit a college and they visited the same professor who is now 59 years old. He calculated the net worth of each person. It turned out that only 9 people each of whose net worth is greater than the combined net worth of 291 people. And interestingly those 9 people were those who had written their goals 30 years ago. So, it is important to have clear financial goals in your life. There are three important elements in setting up financial goals. They are

    1. SMART IT: Smart stands for Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant and Time. One has to be clear of exactly what he wants to have, how much he has to have, whether it is achievable and relevant, and when he wishes to have that.
    2. TIME IT: Goals can be immediate, short term, medium-term and long term. The task you have to do within 30 days is immediate goals. For example, buying an android phone. The task that takes a year to accomplish is short-term goals. For example, to buy a television. The goals that require up to 3 years come under the medium-term goal. Example: having own bike, travel for vacation. The long-term goals require more than 3 years. This includes, to study in abroad for a high school student.
    3. WRITE IT: It is always better to write your goals in a sheet of diary so that the goals stay long in your mind and you can achieve it.


               There is a thought that compound interest is considered the eighth wonder of the world. Compound interest earns interest on the interest rather than the simple interest which earns interest only on the principal amount. For example, a principal amount of thousand rupees for ten years at a rate of ten percent will earn thousand rupees at simple interest and thousand five hundred and ninety-three rupees in compound interest. So when it comes to investing, compound interest is always better since it allows the fund to grow at a faster rate. So you have to remind these three principles

    1. The longer the time, the more money will grow.
    2. Earlier the investment you made, better you are.
    3. Smaller savings over a long period will earn more amount.


                 Everyone has to maintain proper financial records so that you can know the level of spending and savings from your income. There are several sources of income. For adults, it may be salary from the job, profit through business, and interest on savings. For college students, the source of income may be pocket money from parents, gifts received from relatives, stipends from internships, etc., and expenses may be college fees, mess bills, fuel expenses, mobile recharge bills. So it is always better to write down the financial records to use the money effectively. At the start of every month, do budget planning and save at least twenty percent of your savings. Proper planning and execution will help for the wise usage of money. In between this process, maintain financial records.

    The rise of online learning during the pandemic

    The pandemic has severly affected all the sectors ,and Educational sector was one of them ,but thanks to technology because of that we have an alternative mode of learning.Online or virtual mode of education became asset for the students life in the pandemic situation,but who thought that this online mode of learning would remain with us for such a long duration and still no one knows how long.


    Several arguments are associated with e-learning.

    • Accessibility, affordability, flexibility, learning pedagogy, life-long learning, and policy are a number of the arguments associated with online pedagogy.

    • It is said that online mode of learning is definitely accessible and may even reach to rural and remote areas.

    • Flexibility is another interesting aspect of online learning; a learner can schedule or plan their time for completion of courses available online.

    •Students can learn anytime and anywhere, thereby developing new skills within the process resulting in life-long learning.

    •The government also recognizes the increasing importance of online learning during this dynamic world, as in future online mode of education would be the most helpful and trending part.


    • Personal attention is also a huge issue facing online learning,as no one knows who is paying attention during the classes and who is not.

    •Sometimes, online content is all theoretical and does not let students practice and learn effectively,which is a huge disadvantage of e-learning.

    • A lot of distraction sources are available during the online mode of teaching .

    • A lot of health related problems can be developed in this mode be it mental or physical , continuous learning from electronic gadgets can lead to eye problems as well as mental stress and exhaustion could also be felt , physical movement is negligible in this mode.

    What should be done to get better mode of education in the time of pandemic?

    Combining face-to-face lectures with technology gives rise to blended learning and flipped classrooms; this type of learning environment can increase the training potential of the students.


    It is really easy for facts and myths to get mixed up , especially if we have been listening about it ever since we were kids . Over the years there has been a lot of events, and theories that we believed were facts , but they were either exaggerated or were myths , here are a few of such myths we still believe in.

    BATS – We have read about bats being blind in our textbooks , heard about it , but this is one big myth . Bats are not blind and can see. They have do have small eyes with sensitive vision which helps them see in pitch black conditions . Bats do not have colourful visions like humans , but they can see three times better then us humans .

    SALT AND BOILING WATER – It is believed that if we add salt to water , it boils faster , but this is a complete myth as well . Putting salt in the water will make a negligible difference .

    ALBERT EINSTEIN – It is commonly believed that Albert Einstein was terrible at mathematics and that he failed his grade school maths . Well , this rumour is just a rumour . Einstein himself denied this and said that he did not fail in maths and by age 15 he was at the top of his class .

    CHAMELEON – Most of us believe that chameleon change colours to blend with their surroundings , but this is not true . Yes , they have the ability to change colours , but they do so to regulate their body temperatures and to communicate with other fellow chameleons .

    Customer service

    Customer service is the direct one-on-one interaction between a consumer making a purchase and a representative of the company that is selling it. Most retailers see this direct interaction as a critical factor in ensuring buyer satisfaction and encouraging repeat business. Even today, when much of customer care is handled by automated self-service systems, the option to speak to a human being is seen as necessary to most businesses. It is a key aspect of servent leadership. Customer service is the interaction between the buyer of a product and the company that sells it. Good customer service is critical to business success, ensuring brand loyalty one customer at a time.Recent innovations have focused on automating customer service systems but the human element is, in some cases, indispensable.

    The evolution of customer service

    Customer service has evolved from the early days of rotary phones and call centers, when the phone was the only communication channel to the omni-channel world of today. Consumers can contact support via phone, live chat, WhatsApp, social media and even Amazon’s Alexa. Nevertheless, only a few companies leverage all the available technology to serve customers.

    Why customer service is important?

    Offering amazing customer service is important if you want to retain customers and grow your business. … Customer support is more than just providing answers; it’s an important part of the promise your brand makes to its customers. Positive reputation leads to higher growth. Reputation goes a long way in a business. It attracts customers, investors, partnerships, and employees. When seeking to improve reputation, start with excellent customer service. When everyone at a company has the same end-goal, the entire workflow becomes streamlined. Place the ultimate emphasis on your customer, then move through each department to align them behind customer service. Customer service is one of the most under-valued assets in business. If you can prove its worth, and get your team on board to harness its power, its success impacts every level of your organization.

    How to improve customer service

    1.   Practice Active Listening : Behind every customer service call is a real human who has a question or concern that needs to be answered. The person needs to feel understood, heard, and served. Active listening is a key skill set you can develop by practicing daily on your co-workers and family. First, you should approach each conversation with the goal to learn something and focus on the speaker. After the customer is finished speaking, ask clarifying questions to make sure you understand what they’re actually saying. Finally, finish the conversation with a quick summary to ensure everyone is on the same page. By practicing active listening, you’re not only going to possess the ability to become a truly exceptional customer service agent, but you’ll also improve your relationships outside of the office.

    2. Learn to Empathise With Your Customers : Empathy is the ability to understand how the customer is feeling and where they’re coming from. While some people seem like they’re born with this trait, it’s a skill that can be acquired. When listening to the customer, try to see the problem through his eyes and imagine how it makes him feel. This is important in customer service because the customer will be more receptive if they feel understood by you. It can also de-escalate a conflict and create a more enjoyable interaction with your company.

    3. Use Positive Language : When attending to customers’ problems, using positive language takes the stress away from the situation. Words are powerful and they can create trusting relationships with your customers. Verbs should be used positively. For example, instead of saying “don’t hit the red button” say “the green button is the best option.” Future tense is also positive as it doesn’t dwell on the customer’s past issues. Phrases like “Great question, I’ll find that out for you!” and “I’d love to understand more about …” can keep the customer in the present moment. Also, remember when speaking to customers to make sure you’re authentic, positive, memorable, and to stay calm and positive, even if the customer is angry.

    4. Improve Your Technical Skills ; Customers may come to you with all types of problems and they want their questions answers fast. If you don’t know how to properly implement a service ticket, you’ll be wasting their valuable time. Before interacting with customers, you should fully understand how to use your live chat and ticketing system and learn to type fast.

    5. Know Your Products and Services ; In order to help the customer, you must have a deep knowledge of your products and the way they work. It’s recommended that each customer service agent spends onboarding time with a seasoned product specialist so he can ask questions and fully understand the ins and out of the product. This way, you’ll be able to help customers when they’re troubleshooting issues, and you’ll know product tips and tricks you can share to make the product easier to use.

    Dealing with angry customer’s

    1. Stay calm ; In some cases, a customer may be visibly distressed or angry. Despite their demeanor, use a smile and body language, such as eye contact and an outreached hand for a handshake, to show that you are open to this interaction and invested in solving their concerns. Even while communicating with clients over the phone, smiling conveys warmth in your voice although they can’t see you. Using a low tone of voice might induce the speaker to also lower their pitch and volume.

    2. Shift your mindset ; It might be natural to think to yourself that the situation is not your fault. However, the success of this interaction hinges largely on you not taking the customer’s anger personally. This can be done by switching from a mindset of finding blame (what or who caused this problem to happen) to a mindset where the goal is to find a solution. Saying something like, “Let’s see how I can help,” is a good way to signal this mindset. It also helps you handle the situation with less stress to yourself.

    3. Acknowledge their distress : The first thing the customer is looking for from you is a recognition that something has happened to upset them. You can acknowledge their feelings without accepting blame by saying something such as, “I can see you’re upset, and I’m so sorry.”

    4. Introduce yourself : Telling the customer your name and learning theirs may naturally place the interaction on a more cordial footing. Ask the customer their name, and then use it throughout and often during your conversation. This makes the interaction more personal and lets the customer know you care specifically about them rather than if you use a formal title such as “sir” or “ma’am.” For example, “Mrs. Walters, I see here that you placed the order on May 5?” or “Let’s see how many items were in your cart, Lester.”

    5. Calm yourself down ;Even if you are in customer relations and interact with irate customers on a regular basis, a state of mental equilibrium will help you refresh your mind and deal with your next customer just as effectively. Speak to a friend, take some calming deep breaths or if time and rules permit, go for a short walk to clear your mind before returning to your duties.


    The previous article was about the acquired immunity. This article is all about the immune cells, the warriors of the human body.

    These cells play a major role in protecting the body from infections. Some of them contribute directly and some contribute indirectly. Despite the methods, all of them are required in optimum amounts so as to live a healthy life.

    All of these cells are derived from a specific type of cell found in the blood. The blood is a freely flowing interstitial fluid that transports oxygen, nutrients, etc. to the cells of the body. There are two components in the blood in which the first one is called plasma. The plasma is the liquid carrying water, salts, enzymes, and proteins. There are three specialized proteins in the plasma-

    Albumin- to maintain water balance

    Globulin- for immunity (it is a part of immunoglobulin)

    Fibrinogen- for clotting

    Hence the plasma also contributes to immunity. This plasma constitutes about 55% of the blood. The rest 45% of the blood is constituted by the formed elements or corpuscles. There are three elements in it namely-

    Erythrocyte or Red Blood Corpuscle- transport of oxygen

    Leucocyte or White Blood Corpuscle- fight infections

    Thrombocyte or platelets- for clotting

    Out of these, the WBC is the one primarily contributing to immunity. A healthy person must have a WBC count from 4000-11000. Count less than 4000 means leukopenia meaning that the immune system is weak. If the count is more than 11000 then it means the condition of autoimmunity known as leucocytosis. There are some further classifications in the WBC which are displayed through the flowchart below.

    There are two types of cells in the WBC namely the granulocytes and agranulocytes.

    The granulocytes, as the name specifies have granules in their cytoplasm. There are three different cells in this.

    The neutrophil constitutes to about 55-70% of the total WBC and they are ones involved in most of the fights against the infections. These defend against bacterial and fungal infections. These cells are mostly found in the epidermal regions and are in the first line of defense.  These cells engulf the pathogens by the process of phagocytosis. These cells have multiple nuclei hence these are also known as PMN (Poly Morpho Neutrophils). Neutrophils help prevent infections by blocking, disabling, and digesting off invading particles and microorganisms. They also communicate with other cells to help them repair cells and mount a proper immune response. The death of these cells often results in the formation of pus (suppuration).


    The eosinophil constitutes about 2-4% of the total WBC. These cells are very little in the body but can increase in the case of allergic reactions, parasite infection, and so on. The functions of the eosinophil include movement to inflamed areas, trapping substances, killing cells, anti-parasitic and bactericidal activity, participating in immediate allergic reactions, and modulating inflammatory responses.


    The basophil is present in the least concentration of all (0.2%) in total WBC. These cells play an important role in allergic reactions in which their count can increase. The basophil contains inflammatory mediators like histamine and heparin. The release of the compounds results in dilation of the blood vessels. Hence these cells regulate the inflammation process.

    The agranulocytes are those which lack granules in their cytoplasm. There are two types in this. The lymphocyte can be called as the memory of the immune system. There are two types of lymphocytes namely T and B lymphocytes. These lymphocytes recognize the incoming pathogens and based on their memory it produces a suitable response in a short amount of time. These cells are involved in the secondary response in the acquired immunity.

    B cells make antibodies that can bind to pathogens, block pathogen invasion, activate the complement system, and enhance pathogen destruction. The T cells mostly known as CD4+ T helper cells produce the cytokines (proteins in cell signaling) and coordinate with the immune system. There is another form called CD8+ cytotoxic T cells which is opposite to the previous type, they help in the destruction of tumors and pathogens.

    The monocyte is the largest of all the cells in WBC. They function similarly to that of the neutrophils (phagocytosis of the pathogens). These cells present the pathogen to the memory cells upon which a response is generated. Once they leave the blood, they turn into macrophages which help in clearing cell debris and killing pathogens. These are known as the vacuum cleaners of immunity.

    Hence all these cells work in different mechanisms and they coordinate together to make sure that we do not fall prey to the disease-causing microorganisms.


    Celebrating 75th Independence Day of India

    by Yogiraj Sadaphal

    “One individual may die for an idea, but that idea will, after his death, incarnate itself in a thousand lives.”

    – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

    On August 15, 2021, India will commemorate the 75th anniversary of its independence from British dominion with the traditional pride. This year, the theme of the celebrations would be ‘Nation First, Always First’. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi headed the Indian independence movement, which began during World War I. India gained independence on August 15, 1947, after nearly 200 years under British rule.

    History of India’s Independence.

    The British East India Company took control of the subcontinent in 1757, marking the beginning of British rule in India. In 1857-58, the firm met its first major resistance from Indians, which is known as India’s first struggle of independence. The East India Company was replaced by direct British Crown rule after nearly a century of rule.

    Later, the Indian freedom movement again transformed into a mass struggle in early 20th century. On July 4, 1947, the Indian Independence Bill was introduced in the British House of Commons and approved in less than a fortnight. It stated that British authority in India would end on August 15, 1947. Following the partition of India and Pakistan, India became a free country.

    Importance of Indian Tricolor Flag.

    Any country’s national flag is not just a representation of the state, but also of its residents’ identities and ambitions. It is unique to the place and its inhabitants, representing the country’s beliefs, hardships, and ideals. The Indian tricolor flag, which has served as a source of motivation and inspiration to Indians both within the country and beyond the world, is also a symbol of patriotism and solidarity amid the country’s different communities and geography. Despite the fact that it inspires a sense of national belonging and pride in every citizen, regardless of caste, creed, sex, or status, the flag is often neglected by the public.

    Significance of India’s Independence Day.

    The significance of India’s Independence Day is that it serves as a reminder of the sacrifices made by numerous freedom fighters in order to achieve independence from British control. It is a national holiday that is traditionally marked with the raising of the tricolor, parades, and cultural events across the country. On August 15, 1947, India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, raised the Indian national flag atop the Red Fort’s Lahori Gate in Delhi. It is a tradition that the current Prime Minister has continued, followed by a speech to the country.

    Rare facts about India’s Independence Day.

    1. Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore‘s song “Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata” was renamed “Jana Gana Mana” and approved by the Constituent Assembly of India as the national anthem on January 24, 1950.

    2. On August 7, 1906, at Parsee Bagan Square in Kolkata, the Indian national flag was raised with three horizontal stripes of red, yellow, and green. In 1921, freedom warrior Pingali Venkayya created the first design of India’s present national flag. On July 22, 1947, the current flag, with saffron, white, and green colors with the Ashok Chakra in the center, was officially adopted and hoisted.

    3. Five other countries celebrate their independence on August 15 along with India. They are Bahrain, North Korea, South Korea and Liechtenstein.

    4. Goa remained a Portuguese colony even after India’s independence. It was only in 1961 that the Indian Army conquered it to India. As a result, Goa was the last state to join India.

    5. The flag shall be rectangular in shape with length to height (width) in the ratio of 3:2.

    Poverty in India

    It has been observed that India is a rich country inhabited by the poor. This paradoxical statement underlines the fact that India is very rich, both in material and human resources, which have not been properly used and exploited so far.

    Poverty amidst plenty seems to be the main problem of India. The majority of our population lives in rural areas. But following the rapid growth in the number of large cities and towns, there has been migration from rural areas to these cities and urban industrial complexes on an unprecedented scale. It has not helped much in the alleviation of the rural poverty. Obviously, unless our efforts and planning are rural-oriented, nothing appreciable can be achieved. ‘Go rural’ should be our watch­word.

    Over 80% of the income of the rural poor is spent on food and the expenditure on shelter is also very high. The urban poor also spend almost the same proportion of their income on these two items. The remainder is too meager to meet their demands of clothing, health, education, and entertainment, etc. The purchasing power of the Indian rural masses is miserably low. They are unable to afford even the basic needs of life. The problem of economic inequality and improper distribution of national income has been a chronic one. Consequently, the rich are becoming richer and the poor more poor. The growth in industry and agriculture in the past few years has further encouraged concentration of wealth and resources in the hands of a few. What is needed are radical changes in our planning and implementation of schemes to remove all these inequalities, distortions and imbalances in the distribution of national income and resources.

    We must ensure land- reforms, self-reliance, quick redressal of the grievances of the weaker and vulnerable sections, like landless labourers, scheduled castes and tribes and the womenfolk. We should ensure that these weaker sections of the society are liberated from the vicious grip of the money-lenders, big farmers and landowners. Effective planning is the only way to eradicate poverty. There should be no faltering and hesitation in the implementation of our planning. Soon after our independence, we launched our Five Year Plans, which have yielded good dividends. Consequently, there has been self-sufficiency in food grains.

    The Indian farmers are now ready to take risks because they are sure of speedier supply of agricultural inputs, modern irrigation facilities, quicker and easier loan and credit facilities by the government. And yet we cannot rest on our laurels. As far as pulses and oil-seeds are concerned, self-sufficiency is still to be achieved. Moreover, our population is growing very fast. The growth rate in food production has barely kept ahead of the growth of our population. The per capita availability of food grains in India has not risen appreciably. As far as fine and superior varieties of grains like wheat and rice are concerned, our achievement^ have been really laudable. But in coarse grains, like maize, barley, bajra, and jowar, etc., there have been no significant achievements; it only means that the interest of the poor masses has not been adequately served. They mostly consume coarse grains as their purchasing power is very low.

    The Community Development Programme, started in 1952, should be further strengthened and expanded. This programme has helped significantly in development of villages. The scheme chiefly aims at providing more employment ,production by the application of latest methods of agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry, and fisheries, etc., and the establish-mend of subsidiary and cottage industries.

    The whole country has been divided into a large number of community development blocks, with each one of these having about a 100 villages under it. Thousands of officials, administrators and gramsevaks have been engaged in the scheme. Consequently, there has been significant improvement but we still have a long way to go.

    In a country like India, with a population of more than a billion people and a population growth rate of about 2.2%, the poverty eradication programme is bound to be arduous and long drawn. Over 35% of our population is estimated to be living below the poverty line, in spite of the fact that the main emphasis of our Five Year Plans has been on poverty eradication, modernisation of the economy and industry and self-reliance. For example, the main objectives of the Seventh Plan, beginning in 1985, were growth in food-grain production, increase in employment opportunities and rise in productivity. Obviously, our plans have to play a greater role as an instrument of growth and development in times to come. And this can be done only by greater and enlarged participation of the masses, especially in villages and small towns.

    One of the main objectives of our Five Year Plans has been the expansion and creation of more employment opportunities in rural India. To achieve this objective, sufficient funds have been allocated under various employment schemes. For example, under the Jawahar Rozgar Yojna, the various states and Union Territories have been given funds in proportion to the number of people living below the line of poverty. Special consideration has been given to such areas as the hills, deserts and the islands under the scheme.

    Further, the devolution of funds to village Panchayats is determined by the proportion of the scheduled castes and tribes and the backwardness of the region. The expenditure under this scheme is to be shared between the Centre and the states, in the ratio of 80: 20. With the involvement of village panchayats in the scheme, wider participation of the rural people is envisaged. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana is the biggest of its kind in the world and a sum of Rs. 2,600 crore was earmarked by the Centre to implement it. The utilization of funds is at the sole discretion of the gram and village panchayats and there will be no state intervention in the matter of selection of projects, etc. Based on decentralised planning, the scheme is bound to help thousands of families living below the poverty line in rural areas. It further shows that democracy is compatible with rural growth and development. In April 1999, a new scheme known as Swaranjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana was launched with a plan outlay of Rs. 1000 crore, to eradicate poverty and unemployment.

    The economic reform process, now gathering momentum, will further help reduce poverty in villages and towns. The government’s liberalisation policy has helped in rural employment because of the various incentives granted to the industries established in the backward and rural areas of the country. With industrial growth picking up, the picture will be still better. In the long term, the economic and industrial growth will increase the income of the poor substantially. Initially, the results of liberalisation and opening of the Indian economy may not be as appreciable as desired, in terms of poverty eradication and increase in employment for rural people, but ultimately it will result in reduction of poverty. It also ensures reduction in inequalities, because it has been found that distribution of national income and assets under a more open economy is less unequal. Privatisation will also help the government to devote its resources in a better manner to its social obligations.

    Therefore, the alleged contradiction between liberalisation, growth and social justice is unfounded. With liberalisation, India is bound to grow rapidly by virtue of its huge natural and human resources. The growth will be marked by improvement in standards of living, removal of poverty to a great extent and emergence of India as a great economic power. Thus, it is clear that eradication of poverty is intimately linked with the raising of productivity and employment, both in agricultural and industrial sectors. As removal of poverty, increase in employment and living standards of the people are our main priorities at this point of time, we shall have to strike a balance between the development of agriculture and industry.

    We cannot think of India without villages and agriculture. At the same time, industries cannot be asked to wait. Sometimes it is asked, should we give priority to agriculture over industry, or should industries get priority over agriculture? Perhaps both should go hand in hand in order to make India poverty-free, and an industrial major in the world. Food and agriculture are like the same sides of the coin while industries are the reverse. In the Indian context, both are ultimately interrelated and important. Items produced in mills and factories will be purchased by the masses only when they have enough money to buy them. And our masses in villages depend on agriculture for their livelihood and improvement in their living standards. Consumerism pre-supposes a sound agriculture base and income.


    When a class is based entirely on heredity, it is called caste. A caste is a group that considers itself different from others. Which has its specialty? In their periphery, they do marital relations, which is a traditional business. 

    Origin of Racism

    It is difficult to tell when casteism originated in Indian society because in ancient times, humans used to do life by forming small groups. Then when this group changed to a caste in that order, it is not possible to find that time. The caste system was based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.

    It was a karma based system; where the caste was determined by the karma of the person. Just like if the child of a Kshatriya were interested in the work of a Vaishya, then the child would get the character of Vaishya, but in the transfer, all this changed and the caste was determined genetically as the children of Kshatriya would be called Kshatriya. Similarly, Children of other varnas will also follow their father’s caste and his deeds.

    Racism at Social Level

    Due to racism or casteism, it is not enough to divide the society into two parts, but its effectiveness started to be ensured when one of these two classes gained power, while the influence of exploitation on the other course started increasing.

    Racism in Politics

    As long as casteism was at the social level, the problems related to it were fixed and limited, but the impact of casteism in politics started dividing the country. The counting of caste-determined votes further split society.

    Racism Signs

    The idea of ​​casteism shows the importance of honesty and dedication of castes and sub-castes. It either does not care or does not care about the interests of other castes. 

    Casteism can only give justice to one side, which is beneficial to its caste, even if it violates any limits of humanity. Racism is a significant obstacle to the creation and progress of any country. Further, it is also contrary to the constitution.

    In racism, the chances of exploitation are greatly increased, in which one caste becomes higher, and one caste becomes lower, and in this way, the caste with less power starts to be exploited.

    For the caste-based classification such as money, lore and karma have been the main reasons till now. In which Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas automatically came to the upper caste and all other castes they started being exploited.

    Reasons for Casteism

    1. Protecting the honor of his caste

    Every person is proud of their caste from birth, so they become so self-absorbed in the devotion to his caste. Here, all the dignity of humanity is forgotten and this class becomes the class of the exploiters while the exploited class wants to stay suppressed forever by living with their given deeds.

    2. Inter-caste marriage

    In any community, this tradition is not to be married out of its group; it gives further strength to casteism. Due to this, it is not only at the social level, but also the gene pool of any caste remains confined, and there is no variation in the genes.

    3. Urbanization

    Due to the lack of employment in the villages, a lot of population started settling in the cities, but due to caste diversity, living and communication started becoming difficult. 

    4. Social distance

    Those castes which considered themselves better than others started to keep a range from other castes, due to which touching and untouchability and social inequality started increasing, and casteism began to prevail not only among these castes but also in that class were hunting.

    5. Illiteracy and lack of opportunities

    The castes who gained power continued to be educated, but the upper castes also persecuted those who lacked resources, they also began to understand the importance of their caste and casteism.

    6. Consequences of Racism

    Racism or Casteism is based on inequality and injustice. It would be wrong to call casteism a part of the system. These are the demons who are swallowing the society. Due to this, democracy has also become a joke. In recent times, there is a strong possibility of enmity in the organization of every caste in India.

    Here, humiliation by one caste to another or looking at it with respect and thus seeing the distance in both communities remain very common. And if we look at the social level, due to casteist ideology, cases of honor-killing have also increased.

    Here couples are killed for marrying outside the caste. If it survives, then the family would face social disdain. 

    How to End Racism?

    When a class is based entirely on heredity, it is called caste. A caste is a group that considers itself different from others. Which has its specialty? In their periphery, they do marital relations, which is a traditional business. 

    Origin of Racism

    It is difficult to tell when casteism originated in Indian society because in ancient times, humans used to do life by forming small groups. Then when this group changed to a caste in that order, it is not possible to find that time. The caste system was based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.

    It was a karma based system; where the caste was determined by the karma of the person. Just like if the child of a Kshatriya were interested in the work of a Vaishya, then the child would get the character of Vaishya, but in the transfer, all this changed and the caste was determined genetically as the children of Kshatriya would be called Kshatriya. Similarly, Children of other varnas will also follow their father’s caste and his deeds

    Racism at Social Level

    Due to racism or casteism, it is not enough to divide the society into two parts, but its effectiveness started to be ensured when one of these two classes gained power, while the influence of exploitation on the other course started increasing. 

    As long as casteism was at the social level, the problems related to it were fixed and limited, but the impact of casteism in politics started dividing the country. The counting of caste-determined votes further split society. 

    Racism Signs

    The idea of ​​casteism shows the importance of honesty and dedication of castes and sub-castes. It either does not care or does not care about the interests of other castes. 

    Casteism can only give justice to one side, which is beneficial to its caste, even if it violates any limits of humanity. Racism is a significant obstacle to the creation and progress of any country. Further, it is also contrary to the constitution.

    In racism, the chances of exploitation are greatly increased, in which one caste becomes higher, and one caste becomes lower, and in this way, the caste with less power starts to be exploited.

    For the caste-based classification such as money, lore and karma have been the main reasons till now. In which Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas automatically came to the upper caste and all other castes they started being exploited.

    Reasons for Casteism

    1. Protecting the honor of his caste

    Every person is proud of their caste from birth, so they become so self-absorbed in the devotion to his caste. Here, all the dignity of humanity is forgotten and this class becomes the class of the exploiters while the exploited class wants to stay suppressed forever by living with their given deeds.

    2. Inter-caste marriage

    In any community, this tradition is not to be married out of its group; it gives further strength to casteism. Due to this, it is not only at the social level, but also the gene pool of any caste remains confined, and there is no variation in the genes.

    3. Urbanization

    Due to the lack of employment in the villages, a lot of population started settling in the cities, but due to caste diversity, living and communication started becoming difficult. 

    4. Social distance

    Those castes which considered themselves better than others started to keep a range from other castes, due to which touching and untouchability and social inequality started increasing, and casteism began to prevail not only among these castes but also in that class were hunting.

    5. Illiteracy and lack of opportunities

    The castes who gained power continued to be educated, but the upper castes also persecuted those who lacked resources, they also began to understand the importance of their caste and casteism.

    6. Consequences of Racism

    Here, humiliation by one caste to another or looking at it with respect and thus seeing the distance in both communities remain very common. And if we look at the social level, due to casteist ideology, cases of honor-killing have also increased.

    Here couples are killed for marrying outside the caste. If it survives, then the family would face social disdain. 

    How to End Racism?

    Given how casteism has disintegrated, destroyed and hindered progress since ancient times, many social reformers and organizations have made various efforts to end casteism from time to time and continue to do so even today. 

    Inter-caste marriages should be encouraged. Organize food function of different castes collectively. Organizations like national volunteers also organize ‘group meals’ in their programs.

    Similarly, there are organizations that also conduct inter-caste marriages. These may be reasonable efforts, but despite them, the mindset of casteism is enshrined in the same people, these efforts do not seem to have any effect in the society, it has all become a mere show-off.

    10 golden lines on Racism

    1. Racism has three pillars – the fame quo, work-based division, and inter-caste marriages.
    2.  The caste gadget is a curse in society. It has divided the community into many parts.
    3. Racism or Casteism is primarily based on inequality and injustice.
    4. The historical caste gadget was once essentially mainly based on four varnas – Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra.
    5. The caste machine needs to quit, and future India needs to be tasteless and classless.
    6. Article 15 of the charter states that the nation has to now not discriminate on the foundation of religion, race, caste, sex, vicinity of birth.
    7.  Due to the conceit of caste superiority, one human stays separate from any other human.
    8. Racism is the most crucial impediment to the improvement of the nation.
    9. The robust will and honesty of political management are indispensable for the removal of racism.
    10.  Inter-caste marriages can assist in removing of racism.


    In conclusion, one can derive some facts that entirely removing racism is necessary to make India a happy and powerful nation. For this, it is required to do anti-caste propaganda through publicity tools like film, literature, press, newspaper, television, etc. Inter-caste marriages should be encouraged.

    Only by erasing this can you imagine this unbroken and powerful India. At this time, there is a huge obstacle and hindrance in the path of all kinds of progress. We should uproot it and do our social work in another way. I hope you liked this Essay on Racism.

    Geographical features of Japan

    Japan is located in the eastern part of Asia and is surrounded by the sea of Japan in the west and the Pacific ocean in the east; stretching from sea of Okhotsk in the north and East China sea in the south.

    Japan is known as the ‘Land of the Rising Sun’, and is an island country which is divided into 47 prefectures, and is further bifurcated into 4 categories; Ke, To, Fu and Dou. Tokyo is the capital of Japan and has a population of around 37 million. 90% of the Japanese population lives in either Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoyo.

    Photo by Bagus Pangestu on

    There are four main islands, namely: Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido and Shikoku. And there are around 6,847 remote islands as well that are located on the southern and eastern part of the main island. Japan is divided into 8 regions from the north to south, namely:

    • Hokkaidou
    • Touhoku region
    • Kantou region
    • Chuubu region
    • Kansai region
    • Chuugoku region
    • Shikoku
    • Kyuushu

    Touhoku region has 6 prefectures in it, Kantou region has 7, Chuubu region has 9 prefectures, Kansai region has 7, Chuugoku region has 5 prefectures, Shikoku has 4 and Kyuushu has 8 prefectures in it.

    Japan is covered with about 66% of forests and is mostly ragged and mountainous. It is located near the ‘Ring of Fire’ which is a Volcanic zone near the Pacific ocean. Ring of Fire is a region around much of the edges of the Pacific ocean which is extremely prone to volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

    Photo by Evgeny Tchebotarev on

    The climate of Japan varies from humid continental in the north and humid subtropical in the south. Hokkaido witnesses long winters and cool summers and the climate on the Pacific coastal area experiences humid climate.

    The population of Japan is 126.3 million and is the 11th most populous country in the world.


    This article deals with some of the concepts related to the progression of osteoarthritis. These statements were given by prominent researchers and resulted in a debate between two prominent groups of researchers against each other. All of these took place actively in the 19th century where the publications of research scholars were opposed to that of the scholars in the other group.

    William Bauer told that mechanical trauma can result in OA directly or indirectly. By the 20th century ideologies were majorly split into two ‘inflammation’ and ‘no inflammation’. Henry Fuller and Robert Todd suggested that OA occurred due to disruption to nutrients required for knee development and doesn’t occur through inflammation. On the other hand, Garrod and others stated that OA is partly degenerative and partly inflammative. Hence the study for OA continued under these two domains and each group of scientists trying to prove the other is false. But this situation can be compared to two sides of a coin where both the situations cannot be neglected. Hence both the domains of OA cannot be neglected.

    Some others say that OA is a neurogenic immune homeostatic disorder. Garrod in 1988 stated that OA is associated with lesions in CNS in a peculiar manner. CNS refers to the central nervous system which constitutes the brain and spinal cord. The brain is the mastermind of the body which generates electrochemical signals to simulate several neurons in the body. The spinal cord is known as a warehouse of reflexes. Reflex is an involuntary (cannot be controlled by conscience) rapid sequence of actions. Reflex can be best explained by several experiments.

    When someone comes to hit you; you will either duck or catch his hand spontaneously and this is known as a reflex and the spinal cord or vertebral column is responsible for this.

    The reflex of the knee is tested by the doctor who takes a rubber mallet and taps it on the knee and what interestingly happens is that the knee starts to retract and the patient can feel the pain. In case of OA or any knee-related diseases, the patient cannot experience any pain and hence the doctor understands that there is some abnormality in the knee. Hence we can understand that there is a connection between the knee’s ability and CNS and an interruption in this connection can lead to knee diseases.

    We have to understand that this is a basic relation and there are other complex associations between them and require more complex methods like electrophysiology and pharmacology to understand them. Later it was proposed that changes in the sympathetic nervous system can also lead to OA.

    The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the autonomic nervous system. This can be correlated to the word ‘increase’. The sympathetic nervous system works in response to stimuli like emotions and increases some parameters of the human body like heart rate, eye dilation, blood sugar, blood pressure, etc. this proposal paved the way for using micro-circuitry to correct it.

    There is also another field on which the world is divided into two namely ‘nociceptive’ and ‘neuropathic’ where nociceptive refers to pain resulted due to receptors. These are present at target and send signals to the brain via the spine more or less like the reflex. On the other hand neuropathic refers to the condition where pain occurs due to nerves. The following table shows the difference between these two. 

    Receptor-mediated painNerve mediated pain
    Doesn’t affect nervesAffects the nerves
    Due to painful stimuliDue to inflammation

    However, some of the debate topics have not been resolved even till now but a lot of research articles about the progression of the disease and its underlying phenomena have been published. This is one of the cases in which a debate has done some good to the field of science!



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