Have you ever been in that awkward situation with someone where you couldn’t get past the short talks? Starts with the greetings and then a complete full stop? The root cause of all these problems is improper communication skills!


Well, the textbook may define it as ” the act of giving, receiving, and sharing information “ But it is much more than that, and when put into simple words, it’s basically exchanging ideas and thoughts, being open-minded about each other’s perspective and being a little vulnerable enough to trust the person that you speak to.


Some people may face issues when they need to start up the talk, they are usually blank in the beginning, don’t know how to start the conversation, but once they get into it and open up, they find no issues in continuing the conversation.

  • Have some ‘deep’ conversation starters on hand : 

You can’t expect topics to simply click in your mind, so maybe it is better to prepare yourself beforehand. In order to do that, you must first need to assume that, the person you are talking to also matches the same enthusiasm as yours. Even when unsure, take the initiative, it may end up blowing your mind!

  • Ask questions about topics the other person is interested in :

One of the best ways to continue the conservation is speaking on the topics the other person is interested in, so in order to do that, you must at the least know somethings about him/her, which can either be done a small background check, if the person you are speaking to has direct influence over you, then it is better to know things about him/her in order to impress. Else you can pick up by their body language as to where their interests may lie.

  • Don’t push people to see your perspective :

All of us are unique in our own way, also mindsets vary from person to person. When you are talking about a certain topic make sure you are just pointing out your thoughts and opinions but not pushing them. They will have their own perspective, listen to it, not all of our facts need to be correct as sometimes when you go deeper into the subject you may realize that there is a possibility to look into the matter differently too! So instead of pushing your thoughts, keep the conversation light and end with “What are your opinions about it?”

  • Avoid talking about the weather : 

The topic of weather simply means that you are either not interested in the conversation or don’t know what else to speak about. So I suggest you not take up this topic.

  • Don’t stick to a script :

You may have planned on how to carry on the conversation, but sometimes it may not go so accordingly. The more natural the better, just go with the flow! It doesn’t matter unless your conversation is interesting!

  • Reveal something slightly personal about yourself :

Instead of directly jumping to the point, you can talk about your own experience as to why you have the opinion that you have. When you tell them more about yourself they get a clear idea too! Instead of asking them questions and expecting answers, you can ask for their stories, instead of asking questions like, “How was your weekend?” or, “What’s up?” try asking “What was the best part of your weekend?” or “What are you looking forward to this week?”

Three hands hold up signs reading “Take the initiative” against a sky-blue background with copy space.

Never back down, feeling you may make mistakes or that you speaking or that your accent isn’t good enough. You need to make mistakes in order to learn! Take the initiative and go with the flow!


FRIENDS: Our Chosen Family

Friendship is one of the purest forms of relationship. It’s a connection built on affection, love, and trust in each other. True friends are those who stay with you in your toughest times and show empathy to you no matter what. It is evident that when you are in any problem, the first thought that arises in your mind is FRIENDS. You also never miss a chance to share your happiness with them. If you are happy, your friends are, and vice-versa.

Always value your friends, their love, and their trust. Such people are rare who take care of you and ask about you as to how you are. Friendship can mold a person to his/her best version. They correct you when you go wrong and appreciate you when you are correct. Friends bring happiness and joy to our lives. Friends can have a great impact on your mental and physical health. When we are sad, they are always there as stressbusters.

From those crazy night stays to sleeping the whole day, we have had lots of fun. We plan to go out for movies, having yummy pizzas and burgers, enjoying fresh air by the beachside. Friends never fail to tease each other and be mischievous. They find reasons to irritate each other till the other person is tired of it. So, it’s always amazing to be surrounded by crazy friends.

Everything doesn’t always go peaceful. There are ups and downs in friendship too. If there are any misunderstandings or arguments, try to clear them out calmly. Never let go of the matter easily because genuine friendships are never that weak to break easily.

True friends are those-

  • Who accept you the way you are.
  • How big the matter maybe, they will not leave you to suffer alone. 
  • Who don’t hesitate to stay open with you.
  • Who cares for you feelings and love you the most.

Why are friends needed in life?

  • Emotional support: Friends are the ones who can completely relate to you in all situations because they have also undergone the same phase that you are. You have a belief that you possess friends who are available for you anytime you need them. They support you even when you don’t ask for it.
  • Stressbusters: If you are upset or sad, run to your friends for a bag filled with laughter. When you realize you have amazing friends around you who know your likes and dislikes, then they use those to make you happy.
  • Encourage you: It doesn’t matter if you don’t succeed in the task you have tackled. You have friends who motivate you to your fullest whenever you need them.
  • Building your confidence: When you lose your self-esteem, friends are there who don’t let it break at any cost. They build up your confidence by praising you for how amazing you are.

Finding friends with the same disorder is a blessing !

Always aim at strengthening your friendship. Don’t stop yourself from sharing your problems or feelings with them assuming they would think bad about you. Spend time with them, try to understand their feelings, mingle with them whenever you have a chance.

Don’t make fake friendships. You are indeed using that person for your work to be done. And don’t encourage it too. They remember you when their work should be done and then forget you. Friends aren’t those who forget you, isn’t it?

True friends are the ones you stay with you till the end of your lives. Friends are the most precious gems of our lives. Always look after them whenever they need you, lock them in your hearts and support each other throughout your lives.

Best Gaming Laptops Under 60,000 INR.

Are you an aspiring gamer and you believe that you can beat anyone who tries to compete with you? You got the skills, ideas and the tactics to win any match but you are not able to because of your lagging computer? Or maybe a tight budget to get a gaming laptop? We know that it can be really frustrating while facing sudden lags in between a match and so we bring you the best gaming laptop that will help you win all those matches and won’t make a big hole in your pockets. So, here is our list of top 10 best gaming laptops that you can buy in just or under 60,000 INR.

10. Lenovo Ideapad L340



Processor: 2.4 GHz Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 1 TB HDD

GPU: 3GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050

Display: 15.6-inch FHD (1920×1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 9 hours

Lenovo Ideapad L340 is one of the most astonishingly beautiful laptop. With its clean and simple finish it is still stylish. The laptop however displays a blue shade that’s not so visible but neither hidden.

The laptop has thin bezels on both sides, it gives out the most for an amazing visual experience.  However, the chin looks a bit too thick. The hinge is 180 degrees, so it can go all the way to its back or in some other words, turn straight. The resolution of the screen is 1920×1080 pixels which are a great pleasure for all the gamers as it resolves all the minute details.

The blue back-lit keyboard is a total creativity. We suggest you to turn it on while playing games as it will increase the gaming experience for sure. However, it’s a bit disappointing that the WASD keys are not highlighted.

The laptop has the 9th Intel Core i5-9300H processor that runs at a speed of 2.4 Ghz. On turbo mode it can run at the speed of 4.1 GHz, which is its upper limit. For storage, the L340 offers 8GB DDR4 RAM and 1 TB hard disk drive space which is pretty good for not just only gaming but other works and entertainment.

The graphics coprocessor of the laptop is Nvidia GeForce 1050. It has a video memory of 3GB, so we suggest you to play the games but in a little low resolution to avoid lags and other problems.

With a weight of 2.2 KG, it is a very light laptop compared to other laptops and that what makes it so easy to carry around. The price of this laptop is 60,760 INR which makes it a budget friendly, yet powerful gaming laptop.

9. HP Pavilion Gaming 15 EC0026AX



Processor: 2.1 GHz AMD Ryzen 5-3550H

Storage: 256GB SSD + 1TB HDD

GPU: 3GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050

Display: 115.6-inch FHD (1920×1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: U to 5.5 hours

HP Pavilion Gaming 15 EC0026AX is a complete package to fill all the wants for a gamer. With superior built quality, amazing colours and top-notch specifications it is one of its kind.

The design of the laptop is very unusual, specially with the space left around its hinge that gives it a futuristic look. We are sure that you will not find a laptop this stylish at this price range.

The display of the laptop is 15.6-inch full HD with a refresh rate of 60 Hz and a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels making the smallest of details clear. So, if you are targeting at an enemy that is far from you, it will surely help you to hit the enemy.

The specs of the laptop are, 8GB DDR4 RAM, AMD Radeon Ryzen R5-3550H processor, and 1 TB @7200RPM + 256 GB SSD storage. Now, looking at the storage speed and processor you can say that it is indeed on of the fastest gaming laptop under 60,000 INR. Apart from that, everyday tasks such as watching a video, web browsing, coding etc. will work as spreading warm butter on top of a bread.

The laptop stands at a price point of around 57,000 INR making it best gaming laptop under 60,000 in India, 2020.

8. HP Pavilion BC504TX


Processor: Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 1TB HDD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050

Display: 15.6-inch Full HD (1920×1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 5 hours

HP Pavilion BC504TX is indeed the most budget friendly gaming laptop in India right now. Compared to other HP Pavilion Notebooks, it’s quite similar except that the specs are higher and a sleek and amazing design. The price is around 56,000 INR and makes it the best gaming laptop with 4 GB graphics card under 60,000 INR.

The design of the laptop is quite similar as the HP 15 except its green lit keyboard. The bezels are thick and doesn’t give much of a gaming laptop look. So, if you are looking for looks then this might be the best option for you.

However, the specs are fabulous. The BC504TX provides a 4GB DDR4 RAM, 1TB HDD storage, Intel Core i5 processor and 4 GB Nvidia GeForce 1050 graphics card. So, if you are playing any high end came like Assassin’s Creed, Far Cry or COD, it can handle it all.

The laptop can also be upgrade with its additional M.2 slot for dual storage that you can run SSD and HDD side by side.

7. Acer Nitro 7



Processor: Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 256GB SSD + 1TB HDD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650

Display: 15.6-inch Full HD (1920×1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 7 hours

We can call the Acer Nitro 7 as the upgrade of Acer Nitro 5. Though it looks similar to the Nitro 5, the specs are much higher and better. So, if you were planning to get the Nitro 5 then you must have a look at this one.

The laptop showcases a trapezoidal cut design which is indeed the trend, isn’t it? The body is completely black except the keyboard and the outline of the touchpad which is red giving it a minimal yet great looks. The WASD keys are highlighted which is a plus for gamers.

The specs are quite outstanding. With its 8 GB of RAM that can be upgraded to a maximum of 32 GB, Intel Core i5-9300H processor which has a base speed of 2.40 GHz, and a turbo speed of 4.10 GHz. For storage, you get two options. Either you can use the 256 GB SSD storage, which is super-fast, or you can use the traditional 5400 RPM hard disk drive that has a space of 1 TB. Moreover, you can upgrade it to 2 TB if you ever run out of space. There is a lot of room inside this machine.

The laptop also offers one of the best graphics-card at this price point. The Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 that has a video RAM of 4GB. Though you won’t need the full power, but it feels good to have it. Acer Cool Boost technology ensures that your laptop remains cool. The best thing is that you don’t have to worry about the constant humming of fans making it not only the best gaming laptop with 4GB graphics-card but also the best gaming laptop with SSD storage.

6. Asus ROG Strix



Processor: 2.4GHz Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 512GB SSD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050

Display: 15.6-inch FHD (1920 x 1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 6 hours

If you don’t know what ROG means then it stands for Republic of Gamers and in the past two or three years it has gained a lot of popularity. Ask any gamer and you’ll realize that they’re a fan of these machines. However, the best part of the ROG Strix is that it is the least expensive compared to its other family members. Standing at a price point of around 50,000 INR we bet you won’t find a better deal.

The design is from the future and the company has made no exceptions in a making it one of the most eye-catching laptops at this price point. The thin bezels which everyone fancies is just a point to be added in its looks.

Though the laptop is of 15.6-inch but it doesn’t provide the number pad which might be a disappointment for some people. However, it has the RGB lighting which might just make up for it.  So, you can set each part of the keyboard with different lights.

The specs of the laptop are comparatively same as other Asus laptops in this price range. You get 8 GB of RAM, 512 GB SSD, Intel Core i5-9300H, and 4 GB of video memory. The graphics card is Nvidia GTX 1050. You will be able to play all the games in Full HD without any lags.

This laptop does not have a traditional design and is perfect for people that are looking for something different. Though the weight is bit too much at 2.4 Kg but we assure you that it is the best gaming laptop with SSD in 2020.

5. Asus TUF Gaming FX505DT



Processor: 2.1GHz AMD Ryzen 5-3550H

Storage: 256GB SSD + 1TB HDD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650

Display: 15.6-inch FHD (1920 x 1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 5 hours

We are sure that the moment you see this piece of art, you will fall in love with it. The trapezoidal cuts on its body, the keyboard, and the highlighted WASD keys are a pleasure to the eye for any gamer.

The display of this laptop is indeed the best that you can find in the market. With 120 Hz, 15.6-inch screen and a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels you can see what others can’t.

Unlike the ROG Strix, the TUF Gaming FX505DT comes with a full-sized keyboard which means that now you get the missing number pad. Similar to the ROG, it also has the RGB lighting. So, you can set the lights in your keyboard the way you want. Also, the arrow keys are isolated making it more comfortable for gaming.

The laptop has 8 GB DDR4 RAM, AMD Ryzen 5-3550H processor, and Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 4 GB graphics memory. So, now you can play all the games that you were not able to play earlier due to a weak processor or video memory.

Understanding the storage however becomes crucial for this machine. The OS is installed in the SSD so it can boost up faster and you can also use it for your ongoing games. On the other side, you can use the HDD for storing your data and other files.

We are sure that this laptop is already luring you and why wouldn’t it? Afterall we won’t mind claiming it as the best gaming laptop with SDD with a price range around 60,000 INR.

4. Dell Gaming-G3 3579



Processor: 2.2GHz Intel Core i5-8300H

Storage: 512GB SSD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 Ti

Display: 15.6-inch full HD (1920 x 1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 10 hours

Wondering why Dell didn’t showed up in the list yet? Well, because it holds the position at quite top of the chart.

The laptop showcases similar body to the Dell Inspiron series but with just some new touches. Though the built quality is great but the design is not that stylish. The chin and the bezels are thick and the only things that stands out compared to the other laptops at a much lower price range is the blue Dell logo and the blue outline at the touchpad. Honestly, not the best one if you are looking for looks.

In the Gaming G3, you will get 8 GB DDR4 RAM, 512 GB SSD storage, and Intel Core i5-8300H processor which make it the best gaming laptop under 60000 INR making it fast and smooth. Thanks to SSD storage for reducing the booting time.

The graphics-card is so powerful that it can smoothly run the heaviest of games. Also, the Intel i5-8300H overclocks to 4.0 GHz on turbo boost and reduces some of the stress on the graphics card making it the best gaming laptop with i5 processor.

Now comes the time that you all have been waiting for. It was really tough for us to decide the top 10 gaming laptop in India under 60,000 INR but it was even more tough to decide who will sit at the top 3 positions but everything finds its way and so we did as well. Here is the list of our top 3 gaming laptops that you can buy under the price point of 60,000 INR in India, 2020.

3. Lenovo Legion Y540



Processor: 2.4GHz Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 512GB SSD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650

Display: 15.6-inch full HD (1920 x 1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 6 hours

Looking for the ultimate gaming laptop? Lenovo Legion Y540 is the answer. Name it looks, specs, graphics-card, this machine has it all. However, it is a bit higher then the 60,000 budget but then its worth the price.

The built quality of the laptop is top-notch. Though it doesn’t look much of a gaming laptop but more of a stylish laptop. It has some sharp corners but not like the ones that look something similar to outer space.

The display is a Full HD 60 Hz with a resolution of 1960×1080 pixels. The screen is very bright as the brightness can go up to 250 nits. The colours are amazing, vivid and lively. Also, let’s not forget the very thin bezels that make the viewing experience so amazing that you will not want to take your eyes off.

The laptop has 9th Gen Intel Core i5-9300H processor and Nvidia GeForce GTX 1650 4 GB Graphics card which is one of the best chipsets making it possible to play all the games in the highest of graphics settings without any trouble.

Also, thanks to the Lenovo Cold Front that will save you from the heating effect. So, playing games for hours or working on your project overnight won’t be a matter to this machine.

2. Acer Nitro 5



Processor: 2.3GHz Intel Core i5-8300H

Storage: 256GB SSD + 1TB HDD

GPU: 15.6-inch full HD (1920 x 1080)

Display: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 Ti

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 7 hours

As we talked about the Nitro 7 in this list previously, here comes the Nitro 5.

The laptop has a Full HD 15.6-inch display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels. Also, it is very bright and has the proper colour accuracy. The bezels are large but if you are more of a safety person then stylish one then this will not be a problem to you.

With its red and black combination, it has the appealing look for gamers. The distance between the keys are accurate making it very comfortable for gaming or typing.

Specifications of this laptop are, 8 GB of RAM, 256 GB SSD + 1 TB storage, 8th Gen Intel Core i5-8300H processor, and 4 GB Nvidia GTX GeForce graphics card. Exactly the specs that one expects from a good gaming laptop under 60000 INR.

During the intense gaming or editing schedule Acer Cool-boost ensures that the laptop remains cool. When working on full power the dual fan helps to reduce the temperature of the GPU and CPU by 11%.

The claimed battery life is around 7 hours. However, while gaming it only lasts for around 4-5 hours. So, we suggest you to keep the charger connected while playing games.

More or less, Acer Nitro 5 is a true gamers laptop. With ample storage space, you can store as many games you want and also make it the best laptop under 60,000 price point.

1 . MSI Gaming GL63



Processor: Intel Core i5-9300H

Storage: 512GB SSD

GPU: 4GB Nvidia GeForce GTX 1050 Ti

Display: 15.6-inch full HD (1920 x 1080)

OS: Windows 10 Home

Battery Life: Up to 7 hours

If you are a gamer and you haven’t heard of MSI then we doubt what you claim to be cause, who doesn’t know and cherishes the beast of laptops?

The specs are luring at this price point but first, let us have a look at the display and built quality.

The built quality of the laptop is sure to cross the expectations you have from a laptop of this price range. The hinges are small yet secure. It has a 120 Hz display panel, 15.6-inch Full HD screen with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels making the smallest of details clear to you. So, now you don’t have to lean over the screen to find your enemy or adjust that .1 editing effect.

The key specs of the laptop are, 8 GB RAM, 512 GB SSD storage, and 9th Intel Core i5-9330H processor. The CPU can be overclocked to a high speed of 4 GHz. So throw whatever you want and it will be able to handle it.

With its 120 Hz display and 4 GB of Nvidia GeForce 1050 Ti graphics memory, you will be hitting 80-90 frames per second in the highest of settings bringing the best gaming experience one can have.

Moreover, there is an additional software called Killer Control Center, which will stabilize your ping, so that you do not lose your online games due to poor connectivity. In simpler terms, this machine will make sure that you win all your matches. If you are looking for the ultimate gaming laptop under 60,000 rupees then this is the best option for you.

It comes with a 2-year warranty so we don’t have to say more about it.

So, that was our list of Top 10 Gaming Laptops under 60,000 INR. Though the market has more to offer but that might just make a bigger hole in your pocket. I hope this article helped you in making the right choice for your gaming experience. So, keep playing!

Neolithic Age

Neolithic age witness a drastic change into the subsistence strategies of humans from hunting and gathering to agriculture. Which lead to an evident change in dietary habits people back then. The post Pleistocene climatic conditions were much warmer climate and environmental change meant now societies subsiding could not produce food the way they used to earlier. Certain animal species like reindeers were now scarce.. The large proportion of earths water which was frozen now melted raising the sea and ocean levels. Frozen rivers and streams could now be exploited easily and enriched people with vast varieties of sea food and river fishes were being consumed. Forests saw dense growth and several areas which had earlier been dry became open grasslands. New enivironment couldnot survive Magdalenian economy. In most parts of Europe hunting and food gathering economy continued at the beginning of the post Pleistocene epoch and post glacial cultures seem inferior as compared of Magdalenian and for long time prehistorian saw this as a period of all-round decline. They used the term Mesolithic for European cultures of this period. The term Mesolithic was used specifically for the hunting and food gathering cultures of Europe in early post glacial times.

Invasion of Afghanistan

We all know that Afghanistan globally is going through a tough phase, it has been invaded by the Taliban regime and the prime minister Ashraf Ghani fled from the country. On Sunday, the Taliban captured at least seven capital cities, including Jalalabad, the capital of Nangarhar province before surrounding the capital city of Kabul. The US president Joe Biden refuses to help Afghanistan at the time of crises justifying his statement by saying that the Afghan leaders should fight for their own self. Taliban insurgents are now controlling 65% of the whole territory in the country. The U.S. president said he does not regret his decision to withdraw, noting that Washington has spent more than $1 trillion over 20 years and lost thousands of troops. He said the United States continues to provide significant air support, food, equipment and salaries to Afghan forces. Taliban insurgents released Al Qaeda, ISIS and terrorist.The United States invaded Afghanistan in late 2001 with the goal of destroying al-Qaida and its Taliban hosts group and,supposedly, establishing a typical Afghan state and helping Afghan women and children.
Twenty years later, the U.S. and its coalition of 40 or so allies have shuttered their bases and withdrawn, with few exceptions, their last troops.
The Taliban have taken over most of the country, including its capital, Kabul. More than 5,000 American soldiers and contractor were killed over that time. Another 1200 coalition soldiers also died. Al-Qaida is not defeated; it’s still in Afghanistan and overall has considerably more members and operate many more territories in around the world than it did in 2001. A careful reading of the February 2020 peace agreement between the Trump administration and the Taliban, an agreement that the Biden administration is apparently adhering to, reveals that the Taliban made almost no concessions in return for the U.S. withdrawal. As a long time researchers of Afghanistan conflict, I have observed how Afghans’ lives and livelihoods have been affected by the failed 20-year Western occupation
of their country.

Importance of music and art

Music has been describe by many people in many ways but evident fact about these two is that they are present around us in a priceless manner working as a source of entertainment. Music and art very easily and gracefully define any emotion and depict the beauty of the scenario. Music and art have been used since early times by the people. Art was the only medium of communication in the early paleolithic age when the residing humans did not have active vocal chords. Music from the time of rulers have been designated as a form of entertainment and a skill which is difficult to hold on. The classical music and musicians in the court of rulers back then were given huge respect and the name itself suggests that the classical music was used by elites only as it was considered as a skill that is precious and classic. The best example of it is Tansen the legendary musician who was termed one of the ratan in the court of Akbar. If we connect it to the emotional aspect they help in the expression of thoughs, feeling and emotions and it keep us close to our history, certainly we get to know about the culture and tradition of early times through art and music. They keep us close and aware about out tradition so the inculcation of music and art is an essential in schools. If we see the psychological aspect of it then we get to know even more perks about these two skills the psychologists use music and art therapy to treat the unstable people who are suffering from anxiety and depression. They give mental peace, focus and works just like mediation to the mind of person pressuring them giving them mental maturity. Music has even been seen to treat very severe diseases like cancer. They are an essential in the schooling of a child because they encourages creativity and engagement in a different way bring in more confidence and focus. They make education more interesting and playful. Thinking outside the box and having good interpersonal skills are some factors on which art and music works efficiently. They also work as a stress buster for a lot of people after a long and tiring day. They give children just not a study based on facts but also practical and real life education. It also works on motor skills specifically in young children. It enhances the spectrum of thinking in a child but also fosters group learning making them more comprehensive and making them conscious about the importance of team work and how to culminate even ones ideas together. They can become self-learners through them,constantly challenging themselves, and become more focused on achieving their goals, making them responsible and accountable.

Unemployment – The biggest challenge in India

Increase in unemployment in India

The Coronavirus has caused havoc all over the world and its impact is so painful that so many people have died in the whole world till now.The Impact of Coronavirus was also seen in India, due to which the lockdown was announced along with all the countries.

The direct effect of this lockdown was seen on those who are unemployed. Already, there was a tension of lack of jobs and now they have fallen bad due to lockdown. Due to the lock-down, people’s accumulated capital and savings have also come to an end, and due to lack of jobs, people are unable to even eat. Where people already had a tough situation to get a job, now companies are starting to remove their employees. Meaning “Garibi Mein Aata Geela”. Even the problem of unemployment is that more than 10,000 people are applying for a single job position, and companies are also taking full advantage of this situation. Even if a job call comes from a company by mistake, then the hiring executive cut the call by asking only 2-3 things and says that “we will call you later”. And, that feedback call never comes again. In the end, I hope that the government to pay more attention to this issue of unemployment instead of ignoring it.

Is Education Important In Our Life?

by Yogiraj Sadaphal.

“Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to those who prepare for it today.”

— Malcolm X

Most of us have been taught the value of education since we were children. But, why is education so crucial? Most of us thought that getting education is just for the sake of getting a job with a handsome salary. To be honest, education is about so much more than just getting a job and pleasing your parents. It is, in fact, one of the most effective tool in the world.

What Exactly Is Education?

Education entails studying in order to gain a deeper understanding and knowledge of a variety of subjects that may be applied in everyday life. Education isn’t just about memorizing facts from books; it may also be gained through practical experiences outside of the classroom.

Importance of Education in Today’s World

The value of education in today’s society cannot be underestimated. There are so many different influences coming at us from all sides, and knowledge can help us figure out what we should believe and what we should ignore. People can be transformed into useful members of society with the appropriate values through education.


A productive society requires education. Our population is only growing, and as a result, our requirements are growing as well. To offer us with the services we require on a daily basis, we require a strong and efficient staff of educated individuals.

Reasons: Why Is Education Important?

1. Provides Financial Security:

Education, in addition to providing stability, it provides financial security, which is extremely important in today’s culture. An excellent education will usually lead to a higher-paying career as well as the necessary abilities to get there.

2. Make Your Dreams Come True:

You can achieve everything you set your mind to. A good education is the most effective weapon you can have, and it can help you achieve all of your goals. Of course, depending on your goals, there are certain exceptions, but in general, an education will get you as far as you’re willing to go.

3. A Safer World:

Education is important not just on a personal level, but also on a global level, because it maintains our world secure and makes it a more peaceful environment. Education teaches people the distinction between right and wrong, which can help them avoid dangerous circumstances.

4. Confidence:

Being self-confident is an important aspect of achieving success in life. What better way to achieve that self-assurance than via education? Your educational background is frequently used to showcase your knowledge, and it can give you the courage to express yourself and voice your thoughts.

5. Economic Growth on a National Level:

Economic growth requires a well-educated society. In order to stay innovative, we need employees to continue to learn and investigate. Higher literacy rates are associated with improved economic conditions. More job options open up as the people becomes more educated.

6. Provides Stability:

Education gives you a sense of security in life that no one can ever take away from you. You boost your possibilities of greater professional options and open new doors for yourself by being well-educated and obtaining a college degree.

Who was the First Plastic Surgeon?

Plastic surgery – the name implies an artificial substance – but it is derived from the Greek word “Plastikos” which means to mold or to give form. An important specialty has been taking shape, one that reshapes the lives of patients. So who was the first plastic surgeon?

John Staige Davis was the first plastic surgeon. He played an important role not only at his council group in Hopkins but also in the United States in the plastic surgery. He limited his practice in the field of plastic surgery in those times. He was the only plastic surgeon who was there when World War I took place.

Dr. John Staige Davis

In 1991, Dr. Davis published the first English language textbook of plastic surgery and it is still used today. He sends copies to medical school founder, doctors and at that time no one acknowledged receiving it. And though plastic surgery at Hopkins would not gain the standard they deserved until the next century, Dr. Davis was helping to build the foundation for the entire discipline of plastic surgery in America.

He used to pioneer the transferring tissue techniques known as “Z- plasty” and the use of small deep grafts to heal chronic wounds. He was the founding member of The American Board of Surgery and The American Board of Plastic surgery. Dr. Davis’s work and reputation starts Hopkins on its way to becoming a crossroad and destination for the country’s best plastic surgeons.

In 1942, John Staige Davis was part-time faculty member and was running a plastic clinic even though he was in his 70s by then and beyond his retirement age, two years from then a forth year medical student at Hopkins had the chance observe the master surgeon doing a cleft lip repair.

His successor Dr. Edgerton graduates and proceeds to work by joining the army and was serving at Valley Forge General Hospital in Pennsylvania. He was one of the few surgeon treating thousands of men coming back from combat with disfiguring wounds and burns needing plastic surgery. This horrendous war injuries united skill surgeon in their desire to heal wounded soldiers. This dynamic gave raise to a new and important speciality in medicine.

Dr. Edgerton

With the scientific foundation and tissue regeneration, transplantation, and stem cell biology plastic surgery is uniquely poised to make the next major advance in medicine. By regenerating or replacing missing body parts, plastic surgery can transform patients life in ways that could not have been imagined only recently.

John Staige Davis didn’t lived to see plastic surgery receive the recognition and support if required and deserved in the world. But his path-breaking work and clear vision allowed a greater dream to be realized.

Basic queries related to feminism. Part-1

Q1) What is feminism and when did it start?                                             

Feminism, one of the most influential ideologies, seeks to analyze the social position of women and lays the foundations for the reform and advancement of women in all areas of society.

This struggle for power, like class and race struggles, is potentially revolutionary. In fact, it is the oldest power struggle, the least public in its manifestations of conflict, and the most fundamental in its impact on society. In the Middle Ages or even ancient times, it makes more sense to start our studies at the end of the 18th century and the French Revolution. The Enlightenment and Revolution influenced women in France and other parts of Europe with the prospect of freedom and revolution. Mary Wollstonecraft is a leading early “feminist” writer and in her book “An Indication of the Rights of Woman (1792)”she says that women should have the same legal rights as men on the basis of equality of humanity, moral worth, rationality and freedom; It was wrong that women were defined by gender as denying their educational, legal, economic and political rights. She declared that there will be a beneficial revolution in the relationship between men and women.

As sensitive as these views appear today, they challenged the male-dominated power structures that ruled all levels of society in the 19th century. With men being liberated, women hoped their interests could be promoted through voting and parliament.

Three “waves” of feminism can be seen: the first between 1830 and 1930, focused mainly on legal and political rights; The second, in the 1960s and 1970s, focused on much more basic personal and relationship issues. The third over the past decade has also been essentially a reflection and re-evaluation of what has been accomplished.

Q1) Do you believe that only certain groups of people should be allowed to have an access to certain opportunities and rights? if no then why do we see this discrimination being practiced and why should anybody decide that?

Before answering the question, let’s deeply understand what equality of opportunity means.

Peter Westen, a renowned philosopher shows that an opportunity is a ternary relationship between a person, some obstacles, and the desired goal; however, a person only has an opportunity if he has a probability to achieve that goal. When you encounter insurmountable obstacles, you will have no chance. This makes it impossible to achieve a goal. For instance, one cannot have an opportunity to become the president of India if he is not a natural-born citizen. Many people, therefore, have no opportunity to become president of India. A person can have an opportunity even in the face of many, quite critical and severe, obstacles. So, a natural-born Indian citizen has the opportunity to become president, but he faces serious obstacles, such as accumulating the relevant number and distribution of votes, social obstructions, and gender obstructions.

For the opportunities to be equivalent within a group, each member of that group must confront obstacles that are not insurmountable. In our example, all Indian-born citizens have equal opportunities, when alterable obstacles such as race, gender, and religion are removed and when main barriers remain, such as getting democratically elected. One exception to alterable obstacles is that of biology. One can put a limit on sociological factors like racism, sexism, and casteism but not on the biological ones. Biology is the reason why men are preferred over women to form an army. The same reason goes for women as nurses are mostly women. You still can give equal opportunity to women to apply in the army but you can’t guarantee the equal outcome as a woman biologically has less stamina, power, and aggression than a man which are imperative to be a part of an army.

Now coming back to the question. No, I do not believe that only certain groups of people should be allowed to have an access to certain opportunities and rights. The real evaluation should be on the main obstacle. We should ultimately try to contain the alterable obstacles like racism, sexism, casteism etcetera. If we are able to minimize these obstacles, it will bring us quite close to achieve equality for opportunity.

The reason why discrimination is being practiced is because the alterable obstacles aren’t getting minimized as the sociological impact of flawed mentality taken from the society and the liberal provisions in the country are letting the young minds get corrupted.

They are taught from starting that, girls are only for household purposes and girls aren’t capable work outside the house.

They are also told that one cast is higher than another or one race is greater than another or one religion is purer than another. This impact does make the upcoming generation susceptible to becoming sexist and racist.


Hi! Today we will be talking about an interesting topic. Mythology. I always am ready to listen to folklore, myths and tales. Simply because find Myths to be striking. Mythologies are a collection of myths of particular cultures and religions. Myths we’re recorded as human beings started to have manuscripts.

Myths and legends were created as humans mastered the way of writing. Myths mostly discuss the relationship between God and humans. It dealt with questions like who are deities? How the world was created? The righteousness and the unethical aspects.

Hindu Mythology is also cited as Hindu Mythology. Indian mythology includes Buddhist, Sikhism, Jainism, etc… Mythology plays an important role as it is the core of culture and religion. Another reason is the battle of good and evil, which helps us to learn, discover and comprehend the way of living.

When we discuss Hindu Mythology, the popular tales are of Ramayana and Mahabaratha. Apart from that, we have tons of myths. Hindus worship numerous deities. Authors are retelling the myths in a fascinating, thought-provoking way.

Top Indian Authors who write with Modern Ingredients

  • Kavita Kane
  • Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni
  • Amish Tripathi
  • Dr Devdutt Pattanaik
  • Aditi Banerjee

Top 5 Indian Mythology Books to Read


“You know you are very beautiful.”
‘But where is my achievement in that?’ Ahalya asked, with genuine puzzlement. “It’s not my talent; it’s God’s gift.”

Kavita Kane is known for her modern twist. Ahalya is a character in the epic Ramayana, we don’t get to see much about her. A sheltered princess then a loving wife of Rishi Gautam. Her tale is the play of destiny and fate. It retells the patriarchal society which exist even today.



“A leader must love his country more than he loves his own soul.

Amish Tripathi is famous for his remarkable detailing of characters in his book. The characteristics of his works are written from outstanding perspectives. Sita was known to be a woman who suffered in silence but here she is portrayed as fierce, strong administrator and warrior.

The light has been shed on Ravana too. In his work, he gives voice to Ravana’s aspect. He is someone who will kill without guilt. Is he a villain?



I couldn’t control what was done to me. But my response to it was in my control.”

I would say it’s a masterpiece and a must-read. We get to know Sita’s POV, it’s a delightful piece of work. Sita is stated to be the epitome of values and a warrior. The cover looks stunning!

The values of Ramayana are infused in our lives. This book will mould our perspective.



“Refusal to accept the flow of the world is the root of all misery.”

A compelling retelling of the epic Mahabharata. The doorkeeper of Vaikuntha is a twin Jaya and Vijaya. The difference between them is what we need to solve the mystery of the epic. The tale is said with simplicity and clarity.



The book is a retelling of Gandhari’s fate. We get to see the tale through Gandhari’s eyes. It is a fascinating story about how she shaped the epic. Her dedication towards her vow is striking. After being married to a blind prince, she stayed blindfolded for life. Most stories haven’t described her in detail, unlike this one.


These are the books I would say one must read to re-shape their perspectives if required. The stories are captivating. Let me know in the comments if you have any recommendations.

World’s Richest Failures

Failure! The devastating word in the dictionary. Our society only respects those who are successful. We don’t have an option for failure. From childhood to old, if we fail in something, the people of our surrounding criticizes us. It is not only applicable for outsiders only, someday it belongs to our family members too. Failure is the word, which is responsible for many suicide and death. At the same time, failure is the key to success for many ones. But it is also indirectly connected to the people in our society and their frivolous mentality.

Every person who is never criticized and failed in their life cannot be successful. According to them, the test of failure is so sweet. We see, in this universe, a successful person was the biggest failure also. It is better to be treated as a fighter rather than a loser. In this world, among many failures, let us discuss some richest failures.

1.Michale Jordan

He is the greatest basketball player ever in history. He was failed to be a part of his school’s basketball team and was out from his team. This failure will turn this guy into a legend, and today’s world is well known about this Hall of Famer athlete and treated as The God Of Basketball.

“I have missed more than 9,000 shots in my career. I have lost almost 300 games. On 26 occasions I have been entrusted to take the game-winning shot, and I missed. I have failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”

2.Steve Jobs

Steve was fired from his own company Apple. After that, he founded and started two anther companies Lisa Computer and NeXT Computer, but unfortunately, he again failed. He was never ashamed about what he did in his life and never demotivated by others’ opinions. One day, Apple requested Steve to rejoin his company. And after that, he never looks back and made Apple is the leading and most profitable IT company in the US.

“Don’t let the noise of others’ opinions drown out your own inner voice.”

3.Elon Musk

One of the mad geniuses of all time. He is a workaholic person. His failure list is too long from being debearded from Paypal while on a honeymoon, cut from his company Zip2, not selected for a job in Netscape, Russian rejected his request to sell him rockets,3times rocket lunch and failed missions, bankrupt due to SpaceX and Tesla and many more. Apart from all this, he is the top-five richest person in the world.

“If something is important enough, even if the odds are against you, you should still do it.” 

4.J.k. Rowling

 Her first book Harry Potter was rejected by many publishers the first book. She was bankrupt and divorced at that time. One publisher said to her that she has to focus on finding a job rather than published her book about the children’s stories. She is one of the leading writers later. Rowling books not only sold millions copy also turns into Hollywood movies. 

“But it is impossible to live without failing at something unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all—in which case, you fail by default.”

5.Sylvester Stallone

With his droopy left eyelid, he always wanted to be an actor. After many struggles, he approached many producers with his own written story in which he wanted him as the lead character as an underdog boxer Rocky Balboa. But all are refused. He was not disappointed and never give up on that. Finally, the film won the best picture. He is the director of the four sequels among seven sequels later. He is one of the highest-paid actors in Hollywood nowadays.

“Every time I’ve failed, people had me out for the count, but I always come back.”

Do not ever frustrate by someone’s opinion about you, do your work which you will be passionate about, whatever the situation comes in front of you, never threatened, believe in yourself, and work insane towards that. Failure is a path, not destiny.

Importance of time

We don’t realize the importance of time when we are passing it. It all strikes only when everything becomes the past. This article is to make you realize that every single second matters and sometimes it feels okay to waste our time and do nothing but it is us who will regret it later. Let us not do that mistake anymore. Things will come into place when we start realizing that time is the most important thing in anyone’s life!

Reasons why time is precious

  • Time is precious because we cannot get it back. Once it is gone, nothing can be done.
  • If you keep running at the same pace of time, you will feel a lot better. Of course you can take small breaks, but never let time outrun you. Make use of every second in improving yourself and nourishing yourself.
  • Time is precious because it has the power to make you a better person if you use it.
  • The best proverb that says perfectly about time is “Time and tide wait for none“.

What can I do to not waste time?

You can do literally anything instead of wasting time. I sometimes find myself doing useless things like simply scrolling Instagram feed with no motivation. I could have done a lot more in that time right? It is okay to take breaks but if you find yourself taking that break very often, you need to come back on feet.

If you are a student, it all feels right when we sit and do nothing but believe me, we will regret it in future. For students, time management is very importance and if we don’t realize and act accordingly, it tends to lead to failure. So instead you can do SOMETHING. You can watch a useful video. You can do something that you love. You can even watch series or movies! as long as it has something to teach you of course. You can even play for sometime to develop your gaming skills.

In a day, if you want to make the best use of the next 24 hours, plan your day first thing in the morning and go with that flow. It will help you get your work done, will make you productive, will make you feel good about yourself. What else do we want?

When we have the good health and better energy, it is best if we use it right now. When we become old even if we want to go out and play it will eventually become difficult. Work on improving yourself.

Time is the biggest gift of all, try to spend time with your family and friends too! We don’t know what the next sec is going to bring us so instead of wondering about it we can live in the present and spend our time happily.


I am not insisting you to spend time on learning or improving alone, but of course to make yourself happy. Spend every sec of your life happily. After all, time spent on enjoying is not a waste.


Mariana Trench is the deepest underwater trench on Earth , and is located in the western pacific ocean .It is about 36,037 feet deep , and its deepest point is called the challenger deep. The dept of this trench makes it mysterious , scary and alluring as well . The deeper you dive in this trench , the more you are surrounded by darkness . This trench is home to unique and creepy species , that will surely terrify you .

DEEP SEA ANGLER FISH – The sight of this fish is enough to terrorise humans . The angler fish is carnivorous in nature and has an evidently large head , and have sharp – razorlike teeth that are angled inward for grabbing their prey . But these fishes aren’t big , their lengths vary between 2-18 cm . Creatures that reside in dark regions of the oceans evolve in unique ways to help them catch their prey and survive , so does the angler fish . They have a protrusion from their forehead , a luminescent organ that allures their prey .

DUMBO OCTOPUS – They might look adorable , but don’t let their appearance fool you . It is the only species of octopus that resides in the deepest part of the ocean , and is a very rare species . The dumbo octopus was named after Disney’ s cartoon character – Dumbo the elephant . They are umbrella octopuses , and have webbed tentacles that make them look like umbrellas . They do not have any ink sacs like other octopuses and instead of chewing and grinding their food , they swallow their prey completely .

GOBLIN SHARK – Goblin sharks are a rare species of deep sea sharks . They have a protruding snout that looks like a sword , and makes this shark look really creepy . They are also called living fossil , have a droopy body and small fins and are usually inactive in nature . Goblin sharks have a whitish – pink skin colour due to their translucent skin , which makes the blood in their body visible .

BENTHOCODON – Benthocodon is a unique and unusual type of jellyfish , and can be found near the sea floor in the Pacific ocean . They are really small in size , just upto 2 cm and have a rounded top which is called the bell . Their “bell” is opaque and red in colour .

The Birth of Pentium

Computer hardware engineers design, develop, test, and assist in the manufacture of computer components, products, and systems, such as chips and device controllers. Computer hardware engineers often work together with software engineers, since both are often connected to the development of certain products. For example, developing a mobile phone requires both hardware and software engineering skills.

They plan the systems concepts and the hardware needs for a particular computer product by analyzing the market requirement and prepare a forecast which defines specification, the technology to be used, and the method by which the product could be made economical and market-friendly. They fabricate and test theoretical models of computer products and build working prototypes of the computer equipment.

The Indian brain behind the Pentium Processor

Vinod Dham is known as ‘Father of the Pentium Chip’ for his contribution to the development of Intel’s Pentium micro-processor.

Vinod Dham

After his bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the Delhi College of Engineering in 1971, Dham wanted to go abroad and study microelectronics. However, his parents wanted him to be with them in Delhi.

At that time he was not career-minded so he took up a job in Delhi. Yet, he was lucky to be 10 minutes away from a forward-looking entrepreneur, Gurpreet Singh of Continental Devices, who wanted to run a world-class semiconductor company in the outskirts of Delhi. It was he who introduced Dham to conductors.

Dham was fascinated and wanted to know what went on inside the devices. He decided to go abroad and learn more. And so, after a lot of convincing, his parents agreed and he went to Cincinnati in 1975 to do an MSEE in Solid-State Sciences.

He was working in EPROMs (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory). He was asked by his college to present his work at an IEEE conference in Monterrey, California. The Intel people were also there presenting their work and they asked him to join them.

He had read about Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, the co-founder of Intel but it wasn’t easy at the interview as they were asking questions like “how Ph. Ds would run a business”. Of course, they absorbed him as a lowly engineer.

He worked on EPROMS for seven years. However, Dham wanted more action and started looking around for more projects. He soon found one to beat the 486 processor.

His task was not simple as he had thought it would be. His team was frustrated as it was consuming a lot of time and errors kept on occurring.

As the deadline was nearing, Dham decided to set things right. He and his team worked day and night trying to figure out ways and means to beat the predecessor. They experimented and tried several permutations and combinations. Finally, they decided to use a new type of memory system and it worked wonderfully. He built a new type of processor and when it came to be named they couldn’t use 586, as numbers couldn’t be patented on technology products. So, they called it Pentium.


The sweet and fleshy product of a tree or other plant that contains seed and can be eaten as food.

A fruit is the part of a plant that has seeds and flesh (edible covering). A fruit is normally sweet (or sometimes sour) and can be eaten in its raw (uncooked) state. Fruit are the way plants disseminate their seeds.


There are two criteria for the classification of fruits:

* Whether the carpels present in gynoecium are free or in a fused state.
* One or more flower takes part in the formation of fruit.



Simple fruits

These fruits develop from the monocarpellary ovary or multicarpellary syncarpous ovary. Only one fruit is formed by the gynoecium. Simple fruits are of two types

• Fleshy Fruits: In fleshy fruits, the fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp. These fruits develop from superior or inferior syncarpous gynoecium.
• Dry Fruits: The pericarp of simple dry fruits is usually quite dry and hard. It is not differentiated into the three layers of epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. In some dry fruits, this pericarp is broken down and the seeds are scattered or dispersed. These fruits are dehiscent fruits.

In some fruits, the pericarp is further arranged into one or more seeded segments. Such fruits are schizocarpic fruits. In some fruits, the pericarp is not observed to be dehisced even after maturing/ripening. Such fruits are indehiscent Fruits.

Aggregate fruits

These are the fruits that develop from the multicarpellary apocarpous ovary. It becomes a fruitlet because each carpel is separated from one another in the apocarpous ovary. These fruits make a bunch of fruitlets which is known as etaerio.

* Etaerio of follicles: Each fruit or etaerio is a follicle. Eg. Calotropis, Catharanthus, Magnolia -e. In calotropis, the stigma is fused or joined in carpellary ovary and ovaries of ovules are separated. It means only two follicles are present in etaerio.

* Etaerio of achenes: In this aggregate fruit, each fruit is an achene. Eg. Ranunculus, Strawberry, Rose, Lotus. In lotus, the thalamus becomes spongy and some achenes are embedded in it. In strawberry, the thalamus is fleshy and we can find small achenes on its surface.

* Etaerio of berries: It is an aggregate of small berries. Eg. Polyalthia, Annona squamosa (Custard-apple). In the etaerio of Annona, all the berries are arranged densely on the thalamus.

* Etaerio of drupes: In this type of fruit, many small drupes develop from different carpels. Eg. Raspberry. In this type carpel of apocarpous ovary form drupe fruit.

Composite fruits

All composite fruits are false fruits. In these fruits, generally, there are many ovaries and other floral parts combining to form the fruit. These are of two types:

*Sorosis: These fruits develop from spike, spadix or catkin inflorescence. Examples inJackfruit fruit, Kevda (screwpine). In jackfruit (Kathal) pistillate flowers are developed around the peduncle. In fruit formation, the pericarp becomes spongy and fused.
*Sycosis: These fruits develop from hypanthodium inflorescence. Receptacle becomes hollow and has a pore. Numerous small scales surround the pore. Eg. Ficus species Peepal


* Most fruits are naturally low in fat, sodium, and calories. …
* Fruits are sources of many essential nutrients that many people don’t get enough of, including potassium, dietary fiber, vitamin C, and folate.
* Diets rich in potassium may help to maintain healthy blood pressure.


Education is very important for the betterment of everyone’s life and as such, we all should understand the importance of education in our lives. It enables us and prepares us for all aspects of life.

Even after several educational awareness campaigns by the government in underdeveloped areas of the country, where the education system is still weak.

People living in these areas are very poor and spend their entire day just to meet some basic needs.

Therefore, extensive efforts of all are needed to create the possibilities of a proper education system in all corners of the country.


We need the active participation of all to promote the level of the education system in our country.

School and college authorities must set some main objectives for education, to raise interest and curiosity in their students for education.

The fee structure should also be discussed at a wider level because of the high fees, many students are not able to continue their education which leads people to inequality in every aspect of life.

Education is the major and compulsory right of man, so everyone must get equality in education.


Knowledge is the best wealth. All happiness is attained by learning, by virtue, by mercy, by merit, by wealth and by religion.

Our intelligence is also sharpened by the knowledge gained from learning.

We have to balance the convenience of education for all, to bring equality between people and equal personal development across the country.

Education helps everyone in society to transform themselves into positive things by interfering with the things around them.

It promotes the necessary advancement in the technology of education besides maintaining balance in our body, mind and inner body.


Home is the first place in our lives and parents are the first teachers of their children.

Every child learns to speak to his mother tongue first. Parents are the ones who teach us the right importance of education.

We study slowly and climb the steps one by one to complete our studies until the tenth. But to get more knowledge and technical knowledge in life, it is very important to get a higher education.

Educated girls have made a positive impact on Indian society by contributing to various fields like medicine, defence services, science and technology.

Today’s girls have also contributed well to the field of business and have handled both their home and office very well. Also, read an essay on education conclusion.


People living in backward areas are not receiving the proper benefits of a good education because they lack funds and other means.

However, some new and effective strategies have been planned and implemented by the government to solve this problem in these areas.

Education has improved the mental state and changed the way people think. It brings confidence to transform and achieve success and experience and transforms thinking into action.

Without education, life becomes goalless and difficult. Therefore we should understand the importance of education and its necessity in daily life.

We should encourage it, by telling people about the importance of education in backward areas.

Disabled and poor persons also have the same need for education and equal rights to achieve global development like rich and ordinary people.

All of us should do our best to be educated at the highest level, as well as to make it possible for everyone to have access to education.

In which all poor and disabled persons can participate on a global basis.

Some people live very sad lives by remaining completely illiterate due to lack of knowledge and skills.

Specific people are educated but due to lack of a proper education system in backward areas, they are not skilled enough in earning for their daily work.

Thus, we should try to give equal opportunities for everyone to get a good education system, whether it is poor or rich.


A country cannot develop without individual development and growth of citizens.

Thus, the comprehensive development of a country depends on the prevailing education system available to citizens in that country.

The common goal of providing a good and proper education system to the citizens in every region in the country should be set.

Effort should be made to make the path of education easy and accessible because only by this our country may lead to all-round development.

Ways to motivate students to love the Subject

Lack of interest can be caused by difficultly concentrating, family problems, emotional difficulties, learning disabilities, and many other factors. Sometimes it’s just plain boredom – not everything is about fun all the time. Even the bubbling hormones running through the teenagers’ bodies can cause difficulty to concentrate on anything other than the schoolmate in the nearest chair.


1. Develop A Reading Atmosphere:

It is often observed that students who have a keen interest in reading, develop a love for learning too because they are want to explore endless possibilities and opportunities. Reading not only helps them to develop a rich vocabulary, but it also helps them to process formal communication and concepts. Reading to the child frequently and having them read aloud will create an atmosphere for reading at home as well as in school. Let children pick their own book and make it fun for them instead of compulsion.

2. Encourage Different Types Of Learning Styles:

Every child has a different style of learning and there is no right or wrong style. Whichever technique the child is comfortable in learning should be encouraged. There are seven fundamental styles of learning, such as Visual, Audio, Verbal, Physical, Mathematical, Social and Solitary.

3. Share Your Enthusiasm For Learning:

When it comes to learning new things, enthusiasm definitely rubs off. Children definitely get inspired by you and if he/she sees that parents/teachers are enthusiastic about learning, they follow the same trait. Always tell the child that learning is a journey of exciting new discoveries. Take every opportunity and discover new information and see the child follow your footsteps.

4. Game-Based Learning Is The Key:

Game-based learning provides opportunities for deeper learning and development of cognitive skills. It motivates the children to learn more. When a child is engaged in a game, their mind experiences the pleasure of learning something new. This is the biggest factor in team-based learning. We often see the competitive spirit of the child come out in games and them wat to win it for themselves or the team. They want to perform at a higher level and outshine everyone. It’s a great way to introduce new ideas, concepts, and knowledge which motivates the children to learn.

5. Stay Organized:

Helping the child to remain organized will definitely go a long way in making him feel motivated to learn. Children at a young age are a bit disorganized which leads to being frustrated and worried when they cannot finish their assignment or project on time. When a child is organized, they feel in control, less overwhelmed and are motivated to learn.

6. Celebrate Achievements:

Celebrating and recognizing their achievements, no matter if they are big or small goes a long way in boosting their morale. It builds a positive environment and keeps them motivated to learn and challenge themselves to do better. It could be as small as getting ice cream or appreciating them in front of the whole class.

7. Make Every Day A Learning Day:

Turning every day into a learning day will help the child develop the internal motivation to learn something new(no matter how small or simple) in the classroom, at home or wherever he may be.


So try these simple but effective ways to engage the Student in their learning process and make it a pleasant experience for them too. Student who take charge of their learning, become responsible and are driven to learn and explore new things.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream

A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a comedy written by William Shakespeare c. 1595 or 1596. The play is set in Athens, and consists of several subplots that revolve around the marriage of Theseus and Hippolyta. One subplot involves a conflict between four Athenian lovers. Another follows a group of six amateur actors rehearsing the play which they are to perform before the wedding. Both groups find themselves in a forest inhabited by fairies who manipulate the humans and are engaged in their own domestic intrigue. The play is one of Shakespeare’s most popular and is widely performed.

A Midsummer Night’s Dream


The play consists of five interconnecting plots, connected by a celebration of the wedding of Duke Theseus of Athens and the Amazon queen, Hippolyta, which are set simultaneously in the woodland and in the realm of Fairyland, under the light of the moon.

The play opens with Hermia who is in love with Lysander, resistant to her father Egeus’s demand that she wed Demetrius, whom he has arranged for her to marry. Helena, Hermia’s best friend, pines unrequitedly for Demetrius, who broke up with her to be with Hermia. Enraged, Egeus invokes an ancient Athenian law before Duke Theseus, whereby a daughter needs to marry a suitor chosen by her father, or else face death.

Peter Quince and his fellow players Nick Bottom, Francis Flute, Robin Starveling, Tom Snout and Snug plan to put on a play for the wedding of the Duke and the Queen, “the most lamentable comedy and most cruel death of Pyramus and Thisbe”. lion is “nothing but roaring.” Quince then ends the meeting telling his actors “at the Duke’s oak we meet”.

In a parallel plot line, Oberon, king of the fairies, and Titania, his queen, have come to the forest outside Athens. Titania tells Oberon that she plans to stay there until she has attended Theseus and Hippolyta’s wedding. Oberon and Titania are estranged because Titania refuses to give her Indian changeling to Oberon. Oberon seeks to punish Titania’s disobedience. He calls upon Robin “Puck” , to help him concoct a magical juice derived from a flower called “love-in-idleness”. When the concoction is applied to the eyelids of a sleeping person, that person, upon waking, falls in love with the first living thing they perceive.

Hermia and Lysander have escaped to the same forest in hopes of running away from Theseus. Helena, desperate to reclaim Demetrius’s love, tells Demetrius about the plan and he follows them in hopes of finding Hermia. Puck mistakes Lysander for Demetrius, not having actually seen either before, and administers the juice to the sleeping Lysander. Helena, coming across him, wakes him while attempting to determine whether he is dead or asleep. Upon this happening, Lysander immediately falls in love with Helena.

Helena, thinking Lysander is playing a trick on her, runs away with Lysander following her. Oberon sends Puck to get Helena while he charms Demetrius’ eyes. Upon waking up, he sees Helena. Now, both men are in love with Helena. Hermia accuses Helena of stealing Lysander away from her .Lysander and Demetrius decide to seek a place to duel to prove whose love for Helena is the greater. Oberon orders Puck to keep Lysander and Demetrius from catching up with one another and to remove the charm from Lysander so Lysander can return to love Hermia, while Demetrius continues to love Helena with none of them having any memory of what happened, as if it were a dream.

Titania, having received the love-potion, is awakened by Bottom’s singing and immediately falls in love with him. She lavishes him with the attention of her and her fairies, and while she is in this state of devotion, Oberon takes the changeling boy. Having achieved his goals, Oberon releases Titania, orders Puck to remove the donkey’s head from Bottom, and arranges everything so Helena, Hermia, Demetrius and Lysander will all believe they have been dreaming when they awaken. Puck distracts them and eventually all four find themselves separately falling asleep in the glade.

The fairies then disappear, and Theseus and Hippolyta arrive on the scene, during an early morning hunt. They wake up the lovers and, since Demetrius no longer loves Hermia, Theseus over-rules Egeus’s demands . The lovers decide that the night’s events must have been a dream. After they exit, Bottom awakes, and he too decides that he must have experienced a dream “past the wit of man”.

In Athens, Theseus, Hippolyta and the lovers watch the six workmen perform Pyramus and Thisbe. The performers are so terrible playing their roles that the guests laugh as if it were meant to be a comedy, and everyone retires to bed. After all the other characters leave, Puck “restores amends” and suggests that what the audience experienced might just be a dream.


Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Rani Gaidinliu

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Rani Gaidinliu

Rani Gaidinliu(1915-1993) was a Naga tribal and political leader who organized a rebellion to overthrow British from Manipur.

At the age of 13 she joined her cousin, Haipou Jadonang, who had led the Heraka Movement. This movement was for the revival of the Naga Tribal religion. She led this movement when she was 17, which resulted in her arrest. She was then sent for a fourteen year long imprisonment.

Her forces had started to engage in armed rebellion against the British in Cachar Hills(February 1932) and the Hangrum village(March 1932).

Known for the armed resistance against the British Raj, she was given the title “Rani of Nagas”.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Pritilata Waddedar

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Pritilata Waddedar

Pritilata Waddedar(1911-1932) was a Bengali revolutionary nationalist who was influential in the Indian independence movement.

After completing her education in Chittagong and Dhaka, she attended Bethune College in Kolkata. She graduated in philosophy with a distinction and became a school teacher.

During the Chittagong Armory Raid of 1930, 20 year-old Waddedar, along with Surya Sen, Ganesh Ghosh, Lokenath Bal, Ambika Chakrabarty, among others in a group of at least 65 people, devised plans to raid the armory of the British forces.

She is known for leading fifteen revolutionaries in 1932 armed attack on the Pahartali European Club, during which one was killed and eleven others injured. The revolutionaries torched the club and were later caught by the police. In those circumstances, she consumed potassium cyanide to evade arrest and ended her life. Waddedar was only 21.

Indian Diet Chart for 7 days to Loss Weight.

India is a land of many religions and cultures, each one known for its unique living style, culinary habitat, folklore, etc. What India is also known for is the 1000 types of sweets and junk food and roadside snacks that you will rarely find in another country, especially outside Asia. With these foods is also a matter of grave concern – the quality and composition of these foods, coupled with the sedentary lifestyle of individuals poses a high risk of obesity.

Given the situation, we are here to guide you with a diet plan for weight loss. This Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is customized to suit a typical Indian’s need and is based on the Indian diet chart for weight loss.


Science Behind Weight Loss

Before we go through the essentials of the diet plan for weight loss, we must understand the science behind weight loss. The loss and gain of weight are directly proportional to the intake of your calories in the diet. Logically speaking, when you shed more calories than you eat every day, your body balances it by shedding calories. Calories are nothing but carbs – layers of fat.

So, calories burnt is equal to weight shed. However, a diet plan for weight loss cannot help if you stop consuming calories altogether – your body needs its nutrition, and this nutrition must be all around with a proper ratio of carbohydrates, proteins and starch.

So, in order to make the diet plan for weight loss success, one must also focus on burning calories through exercises like walking, running, jogging, swimming, etc. Now that it is clear that we must reduce calorie intake as well as burn calories, let us delve into the Indian diet chart for weight loss. This chart is cumulated with a lot of effort and research to make sure that it can be the best Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days.

Sample Diet Plan for Beginners

Please note that the following plan, the Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days is done through research and must be followed only under the supervision of a registered nutritionist or dietician.

Day 1:

Breakfast – 2 brown rice idlis with sambar

Lunch – Consume only vegetables and meals cooked from olive oil. 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.

Snacks – 1/2 bowl of berries

Dinner – Jowar roti with low-fat paneer sabzi (max 2 Rotis)

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.


Day 2:

Breakfast – Paneer sandwich with mint chutney (made using wheat bread)

Lunch – Chickpea curry with brown rice (For non-vegetarians) / Brown rice with dal (for vegetarians)

Snacks – 1 glass masala buttermilk

Dinner – 2 bowls of brown rice with dal and non-green vegetables.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 3:

Breakfast – ½ bowl of sliced muskmelon, 4 pieces of non-salted cashew nuts.

Lunch – Whole-grain rotis (2) with any green leafy vegetable of your choice.

Snacks – 1 cup of watermelon/few assorted berries

Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from bananas the entire day.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 4:

Breakfast – Oats with milk (No added sugar or any other sweetener)

Lunch – 1 Whole-grain roti with vegetable sabzi/ Dal with veg or non-veg sabzi and brown rice

Snacks – 1 banana

Dinner – ½ cup sautéed vegetables with 1 bowl of brown rice

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 5:

Breakfast – 1 pear or guava

Lunch – 2 whole-grain Rotis with mixed-vegetable curry with one dal.

Snacks – 1 banana

Dinner – 2 chapatis with any homecooked pulses

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Day 6:

Breakfast – 2 tomatoes and 1 glass of milk

Lunch – one pear and one apple

Snacks – yogurt with dry fruits

Dinner – brown rice with dal (1 bowl)

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

Give yourself a pat on the back if you’ve followed this for six days, there’s just one more day to go and you will officially be in the dieting regime for a whole week! Moving to the diet plan for weight loss for the last day of the week, now.


Day 7:

Breakfast – one glass of carrot or beetroot juice

Lunch – Milkshake (2 bananas + 1 glass of milk + a dash of cocoa powder)

Snacks – 1 glass buttermilk

Dinner – salad, 2 chapatis with one vegetable. Keep away from rice the entire day.

Eat a bowl of fruits, or yogurt, and dry fruits (1 glass) if you work out and feel de-energized post-workout. Drink a glass of warm lemonade pre-workout to maintain your stamina.

That concludes your diet plan for weight loss. But remember: dieting takes time and dedication; be patient and you will see the results. Do you think this is helpful? Do you think there can be some changes to this Indian diet chart for weight loss in 7 days? If so, do let us know down below in the comments section.


Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Nanibala Devi

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Nanibala Devi

Nanibala Devi(1898-1977) a women from Bengal was an active worker of Jugantar group, an extremist organization from Bengal led by Amarendranath Chattopadhyay.

She was arrested for transporting weapons and ammunition.

She was the first and only woman to be tortured by the police under Regulation III of 1818.

An Unforgettable Love Story

Pyramus And Thisbe

"This is a beautiful story,
of a girl and a boy about to marry,
no less than any tale of the fairy,
and results in the creation of a berry."

Once upon a time, there lived a young couple remembered as Pyramus and Thisbe. Both were deeply beautiful and since childhood adored each other. However, the rivalry among the families restricted them from getting closer.

“The small hands turned to big hearts,
clashes also couldn't keep them apart,
though the distance was their life's part,
to exchange affection they were enough smart.”

They were privileged enough to be neighbors and their homes were separated by a single wall. As the saying goes, “love finds its way” the youngsters discovered a crack in the wall and stood there for hours whispering vows of love between themselves.

“He blames the cruel wall,
for their ultimate love fall,
she consoles him to be grateful for the crack small,
without which all their efforts were null.” 

The couple was aware of the fact that their kin would never permit the union and therefore, they planned to run away to marry each other. The arrangements were made to fulfill the rituals, under a large tree beside a monument at the border of the city. 

“Thisbe being first,
saw the lioness drinking water to quench its thirst,
saving herself was a must,
so she runs but her veil leaves behind in gust.”

The feline curiosity of the lioness interests her to play with the veil using its strong claws. After a while, this inquisitiveness ends and it goes from there. Right after this incident, the Pyramus arrives and encounters the veil with imprints of claws and bloodstains. 

“The young man gets consumed by guilt,  
as it was because of him that this idea was built,
in between the mind and heart's conflict,
he stabs himself with a sword and lets his body split.” 

Thisbe returns from her hidden space and discovers Pyramus dead under the same tree where they decided to meet. Under utter grief, she notices that he was holding the very veil torn by the animal and understands the whole sad scene. Therefore, she threw herself on the same sword that had claimed her lover’s life.

“Although they loved each other deeply,
were able to express their emotions freely,  
had faith in one another completely, 
but the  fate was formulated weakly.”

The couple’s blood was absorbed by the roots of the tree under which the couple perished, resulting in them becoming more delicious. Despite their disagreement, the families of both suspended their hostilities and buried a couple of lovers beside the other. At last, to honor their true love it still grows with sweet and reddish fruits. Today it is prominently sold as Mulberries.

The roots of Greek philosophy adds verisimilitude to the story as well as a funny twist of unconditional love. However, it also serves as a warning as love can be tragic if exceeds the limit.

What can give you smile has the power to take it back as well.

The struggle is real

Every person has it’s own philosophy

What suits you, belongs you


Starting from Darwin’s theory of survival of the fittest proves to be true even today, as everyone is striving to live. An individual tries to apply his consciousness to prepare plans for the future. One wants to move things as he wishes to regardless of the consequences. The never-ending desires keep adding up to the list and lead the being into the vicious cycle. While philosophy is an attempt to satisfy these reasonable desires. It is not an amenity but a necessity. In a broad sense, it means “love of knowledge “and tries to understand things that remotely concern man.

Several fields deal with different questions regarding the universe and man. The two broad branches were divided based on the belief of Vedas. Those who believed in it were termed as orthodox and the others as heterodox. Every book tried to solve the questions in their way. However, Bhagavad Gita made an effort to bring the direction towards an end of desire.

The meaning of Bhagavad Gita is 'Lord's song.' The words which were spoken by Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra later got written down in the form of this pious book. 

It begins with teaching Arjuna regarding the duty of the Prince to fight against evil. It gives a synthesis of the three paths of knowledge, action, and devotion. The fundamental focus is on the path of Nishkaam karma.

A middle way between pravriti and nivriti proves to be the ethical doctrine. Pravriti refers to the actions which one does to get the fruits in return. While, nivriti is the giving up of all the materialistic things and responsibilities to achieve a life of sanyasi. Therefore, nishkaam karma avoids the extremes and accepts the necessities of both the karma. It depicts that one should do work without any expectation of getting the same in return. A sense of detachment and duty should arise.

A person needs to have a mental state of equanimity. The actions should be done either for humanity or the devotion towards God.

Happiness is the only key to live a happy and healthy life. However, it is disrupted by the expectations raise due to the unfulfillment of desires. When a person starts following this journey of Nishkaam karma, it does not only benefit him but also the society. And in turn the struggle becomes saral.

To whom the pleasure and pain are the same, is fit for attaining immortality.

Importance of Voting – Why should we vote!

Importance of Voting in India:

Voting in India is a Constitutional right if one is a citizen over 18 years of age. However, that also makes it optional. It has been a tendency among voters, especially in the urban areas, to treat the voting day as a day of rest. While skipping the vote may not seem to cause any harm,the long-term consequences are disastrous.

What’s the need to vote?

  • We complain that we don’t have proper roads, no regular supply of water, no development, corruption etc. Rather than complaining if we elect a good candidate who will work for the people then that’s what the true power of common man.
  • Voting is not just our RIGHT, it’s also our DUTY.
  • Our country is a republic and its the responsibility of the people to elect the right candidate.
  • A good leader will make sure that the next 5 years will be safe, progressive and pro-development.
  • We should never think that how will it matter if one or two persons don’t vote. Our constitution has given a very important power to us to elect the person who can take forward the country on the right path, so we have to use our power intelligently.
  • We should always remember that we ( as an individual ) should not vote a person based on just caste (thinking that he is of my caste), religion. We should not accept any gifts or monetary benefits from any candidate in exchange for vote.
  • We should check the candidates standing for elections in our constituency and then among them, we have to vote for one candidate.
  • Please take necessary help from the staff in the voting poll centres as the incorrect process will make your vote invalid.
  •  In 2014, the voting percentage of our country was around 66.5%, which can be improved if we all decide to vote and also create awareness of voting among our friends and family.
  • On the voting day it will be a holiday, but don’t go for outing/movie without voting as one day of enjoyment may cost us and our country.
  • Those people who have migrated to different cities due to different reasons and if they have their vote in their native then they need to plan to visit their native and vote as each and every vote matters for electing the right candidate.

It has become a common ritual to talk bitter about any candidate or an elected leader of any legislative assembly or the parliament. The faultfinding then comes down to the ‘System’ and how democracy is not working as it should. However, a very little room has been given to ‘What the people can do’ to strengthen the democratic roots and bring about a change in the system. Just as it is the responsibility of the elected leader to fulfill the well-beings of the voters, the same is the need for the people of India to contribute to choosing the correct leader for their representation.

Democracy has given people a powerful right- that is to VOTE. Voting is the fundamental basis of democracy’s ‘Of the people, for the people, and by the people’ slogan. Therefore, rather than enjoying it as a holiday, one must vote if he truly wants to contribute to the nation-building process and bring about a change. A Citizen should actually not need to find any reason to Vote. It must be done as a compulsive duty although there is no legal obligation to vote.

Every Single Vote Is Significant:

Needless to say, every citizen’s vote is counted in the polling process. If the people are equally divided between two candidates, one single vote can be a game-changer and a decisive factor. We have seen in the past how one vote from an MP can decide the fall of the government. Exactly the same way, a single person’s vote can confirm the win/fall of an aspiring MP or MLA.

Whom to Vote?

  • Check the candidate’s manifesto and his/her background. If he/she is sitting MP then check his/her and his/her party’s work and based on that you can decide.
  •  If you want to vote based on political party’s work then check the party’s last time’s promises and check which all party has fulfilled their promises and compare their work.
  • Think about the country, present and future of our next generations when you vote.

Non-choosers get NOTA:

At times, it is possible that one does not want any single candidate to be elected from all who are contesting. The election commission has made a special provision of NOTA. It stands for None of The Above. Hence if none of the candidates fit into your criteria, just hit the NOTA option and voice the opinion. Introduction of this alternative is believed to play a significant role in the future. In the late future, it may also be possible that the NOTA will decide the re-elections with fresh candidates.

We must honor the right of voting given by the constitution of India. The youngsters are well excited to exercise their right to vote as soon as they turn 18. The feeling after having cast a vote infuses a sense of pride for being a responsible citizen. As can be witnessed from the sharing of the inked finger on social media. The trend is continuing to gain popularity amongst the youngers and the elders as well.

Gone are the days when it was required for people to motivate them to vote. The vote share for the General Election of 2014 was 8% higher than the previous election. Voter turnout in the Lok Sabha Election 2019 was 67%. Voter awareness program has become successful in its mission and the vote share continues to increase till date in many state elections. With this increasing number of voter turnout, we will soon reach the 80-90% golden mark.

“Voting is the expression of our commitment to ourselves, one another, this country, and this world.”

Sharon Salzberg

Android vs. iOS: Which OS is the best?

If you’re buying a new smartphone today, chances are extremely good it will run one of two operating systems: Google’s Android or Apple’s iOS. These two platforms account for virtually all new smartphones shipped in the last couple of years That’s some serious dominance by the two biggest players, and the good news is that both smartphone operating systems are excellent. They have quite a bit in common with each other, but there are some important differences you’ll want to consider when you’re trying to decide between these twin giants. We’re going to pit Android against iOS in several categories here and pick a winner for each one.


Apple has always been at the high-end of the market in terms of pricing, but the iPhone X took things to a whole new level with a starting price of $1,000. Apple’s iPhones haven’t gotten much cheaper since, and the iPhone 12 Pro Max starts at $1,100. They do come a little more affordable, but not by much. The iPhone 12 starts at $800, and the iPhone SE (2020) — the cheapest iPhone Apple sells — starts at $400. Apple continues to expand its offerings, but $400 is as cheap as it gets unless you delve into the secondhand market.

For sheer scale and variety, nothing competes with Android. You can spend a lot if you want to — for example, Samsung’s cutting-edge folding Galaxy Z Fold 2 5G costs $2,000, but there’s also a huge selection of good, low-cost handsets as low as $100, from a wide variety of different manufacturers. The platform has also been deliberately optimized to run on low-end hardware with the introduction of the variant OS Android Go. Finally, Android’s lead in free apps also makes it the natural choice for the budget-conscious.

Apple’s iOS is an exceptional OS, but the high entry point has always been one of its biggest issues. Apple’s iPhone SE and iPhone 12 make that entry point lower, but it’s still not a match for Android’s massive range of affordable devices. Whether you’re looking to spend $100 or $2,000, there’s an Android phone for you. iOS can’t say the same.

Winner: Android


Let’s start with a look at the numbers. This is roughly how many apps you’ll find in the Google Play Store and the Apple App Store:

  • Android apps: 2.7 million
  • iOS apps: 1.82 million

However, numbers aren’t the best metric because most of us only use a handful of apps, and the most popular ones are available on both platforms. Traditionally, iOS has been a more lucrative platform for developers, so there has been a tendency for new apps to appear there first, but that’s changing as Android’s market share continues to grow. In the U.S., iOS still leads the way, but developers elsewhere are increasingly targeting Android first.

Luckily, both operating systems have been taking more precautions when it comes to malicious apps and spyware, making apps safer to download than ever.

The Play Store still has a higher percentage of free apps than the App Store. But the best mobile games still land on iOS first — and they don’t always come to Android, even if Android has plenty of great games. Ultimately, quality beats quantity, and so this is a narrow win for iOS.

Winner: iOS

App Store

It’s difficult to organize millions of apps and games, and neither Google’s Play Store or Apple’s App Store does it perfectly. Overall, we think Apple’s App Store provides a better browsing experience on your phone and does a better job with curated recommendations. The Play Store is easier to search and you can queue and install apps from the web browser on your PC or laptop.

We like the fact that you can buy apps using your fingerprint via Touch ID on iPhones, but you can set up the same thing for the Play Store on Android phones with fingerprint sensors. The Play Store wins points for having a no-quibble refund policy within two hours of purchase. There are some questionable apps in both stores, but Apple is generally stricter about blocking certain types of apps. That can be a good thing for overall quality, but it’s a bad thing if you’re into something like game emulators for classic consoles. The iOS App Store edges the win for usability and curated content.

Winner: iOS


As the newer navigation system, Apple Maps did not have a great start, but it has improved significantly. Key features are similar: You can download maps for offline use, get accurate estimates based on current traffic conditions, and find turn-by-turn directions for driving or walking. Apple has even closed further in on Google Maps by adding cycling directions and more improvements in iOS 14. You’ll also find public transit and ride-booking integration. They all work well and should get you where you’re going.

It used to be that Google Maps would win this category hands-down — and while it’s still generally our map app of choice, Apple has made some huge strides toward parity in the last few years, and Apple Maps is now at the point where it’s a serious competitor. We would still personally download Google Maps, even on an iOS device, but if you chose to go with Apple’s map app over Google’s, then you wouldn’t be getting an inferior product. Right now, Google Maps still has a small advantage due to its larger database of reviews and businesses, but its lead has narrowed a lot, and we expect to see this category fall into being a tie eventually.

Winner: Android

Battery life and charging

As one of the biggest complaints from smartphone owners, battery life is a huge factor. It’s difficult to compare the two platforms because there’s no common hardware. iOS is optimized to squeeze the most out of the battery per mAh rating, but you can buy an Android device with a much bigger battery that will easily outlast the iPhone.

Both Android and iOS allow you to see your battery usage at a glance, broken down by app, but only Android shows an estimate of how much battery life you have left. They both offer power-saving modes that can extend your battery life by limiting performance, connectivity, and other power-sapping features, but precisely how it works is generally more customizable on Android.

For a long time, Android had an advantage in the charging department, because many Android phones offered fast-charging capabilities and wireless charging. However, Apple’s iPhone 11, iPhone X, and even the iPhone SE (2020) adopted wireless charging and fast charging, so they’re not that far behind. It’s worth noting that you have to buy the fast-charging adapter separately for some iPhone models, whereas it’s usually provided in the box with an Android phone. Apple supplied a fast charger with the iPhone 11 Pro, but that was one of the last iPhones to come with any charger. From the iPhone 12 onwards, you’ll have to buy a charger separately, as iPhones now only come with a Lightning-to-USB-C cable.

However, Android fans shouldn’t sneer at iPhone lovers too much, as Samsung is following where Apple has led. The new Galaxy S21 range comes with no charger in the box, and, as with the headphone jack, we’ll probably start to see this change echo across to other manufacturers.

This category is far from clear-cut, but comparing similarly priced Android phones with iPhones, you can find a phone with a larger battery if that’s important to you, and they tend to have fast chargers included in the box (for the moment), so Android gets the win.

Winner: Android

Cloud services

Apple is still lagging when it comes to cloud storage and automatic backups. Google offers 15GB for free and has cross-platform support. You only get 5GB with iCloud, and it only works with Windows, Mac, and iOS.

If you need a lot of additional space, Google One charges $2 per month for 100GB ($20 for the year), while Apple charges $1 per month for 50GB or $3 per month for 200GB. Apple’s price for 2TB jumps up to $10 per month. Google will also give you 2TB for that price, but you can get a discount if you pay for the year, which costs $100 ($8.33 per month).

Android’s cloud storage is easier to use and more effective than iCloud. You can also use Google Drive on an iPhone, whereas iCloud is iOS only.

Winner: Android

Voice assistants

You can do many of the same things with Apple’s Siri as you can with Google Assistant, but Siri is more like a straightforward helper for setting calendar appointments, searching the web, or making calls. Google Assistant has an extra layer. It can preemptively offer useful suggestions, and it has a more conversational side that offers up entertaining games and contextual information based on what you’re doing. It’s smarter and more versatile than Siri.

The addition of Siri Shortcuts in iOS 12, which allows you to set up voice commands to trigger groups of automated tasks, is a big step in the right direction and Siri is also beginning to make more suggestions based on your iPhone usage. For now, however, Google Assistant can do more and seems to be improving at a much faster rate, offering things like call screening and the ability to make reservations for you.

Winner: Android

Rooting, bootloaders, and jailbreaking

We’ve looked at how to root your Android phone or tablet before. It’s not for everyone, but if you want root access and complete control over your device, then rooting is the way to get it. Rooting gives you access to more apps, the latest OS updates without waiting, new software skins to get the aesthetic you want, the chance to get rid of bloatware from carriers and manufacturers, potential tweaks to boost your device’s speed and battery life, and more.

Many Android OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) also offer a way to unlock the bootloader, which determines how the OS loads up on your device. Apple is completely opposed to this kind of thing. Jailbreaking is an option for iOS, which lets you download and install apps from outside the App Store and bypass some other limitations.

Winner: Android


Numerically speaking, Android wins 10 categories and iOS wins seven, but iOS wins in some of the more important categories — we don’t think rooting or alternative app stores are as important for most people as accessibility or security, for example. However, it’s very difficult to compare the two. Because Apple controls both the hardware and the software of their devices, you’ll find iOS offers a more uniform experience across devices.

why english is important now days in india ?

English is not an obsession; it is a door to better opportunities”. One cannot overstate the importance of English language in India. As a student, you might have faced embarrassment due to poor English skills at least once in your lifetime. Hence, you understand how important it is today to have knowledge of English.

However, you’re not the only one here to suffer the consequences of poor English skills! A 2016 survey by a Delhi-based employment solutions company found that barely 7% of engineering graduates were fit for core engineering jobs. Poor English skills were one of the prime reasons. Surprising, yet true! (source)

English in India is taught as the second language at every level of education. We have also accepted it as the main medium of learning and instruction in higher education. But why, despite Hindi being the mother tongue, it is so important for Indians to learn English? What is the importance of English language in India? (source)

Before we delve into the importance of English language in India, let us first take a brief look at the history of English in India.

English India – History

It was not before the 17th century when English traders landed India as ‘The East India Company’ in the lure of trading with Indians. Hence, it’d be apt to say that India’s first brush up with English started with the arrival of the East India Company.

Gradually, the trading company involved themselves in local politics and expanded industries over the next centuries. With the greed to expand their rule in India, they started looking for Indian mediators who could play administrative roles under the reign of British officials. Soon, they turned to high-class Indians, like Brahmins to work for them. The primary agenda of the British was to create a class of Indians who could think and work like the British. This is when they realized the importance of English language in India for the purpose of education. To achieve this, they established several universities based on British models with emphasis on the English language.

English in India – During the 18th Century

It was not just the British. Many Christian missionaries during 1813 also opened several primary schools for Indians to study and learn English. It was after 1857 that English became the first language in Indian education. Many modern leaders of that period also supported English language and considered it to be the key to success. Soon, everybody began considering English as an elite symbol for Indians and divided the entire nation into classes – the Elite class, the middle class and the low or poor class. Ever wondered how a language could divide an entire nation and become a status symbol for people? English had a powerful impact on Indians that it remained the main language of India even after our independence.Today, English has become an integral part of our education system from literature to science and technology, arts and sports.s symbol for people? English had a powerful impact on Indians that it remained the main language of India even after our independence.

Importance of English Language in India Today

While the British motive behind introducing English to Indians was not fair, it has turned out to be a gift for our country. With English as a common language of communication, India has made its way out in the world setting benchmarks in various fields.

Today, English is the only language favoured by different industries including legal and banking systems, defence, industrial houses and trade and commerce. Moreover, it is still the medium of instruction at many post-graduate institutions. It’s a common belief these days that the English language shapes the way people see the world. Having knowledge of more than one language is a gift that makes an individual more efficient and skilful in various ways. It is for this reason that even many Indian freedom fighters adopted English as a language to communicate with masses both inside and outside the country. English also helped in bridging the gap between states and regions when the linguistic diversity in India was extremely sharp. Because of all the roles that English played for the nation, our constitution gave it the status of official language in India.

There is no doubt that English is here to stay for long in the country. Since we truly embrace it along with Hindi and other regional languages, English is sure to hold the future as well. Everybody now understands the importance of English in modern India. Hence, it is necessary to foster English learning among children and youngsters at various levels of education. Further, it is important to safeguard the role of English as a “library language” even where the medium of instruction is a non-English language

Why Spoken English is important in India?

There are several reasons that make English a global language. These reasons play an important role in proving its importance in the advancement of our nation, as well.

.Importance of English language in India

Learning English has never been so important for Indian students. Almost every institute in India has adopted English as the medium of imparting knowledge. From admission forms to textbooks, every resource is available mostly in English these days.

Whatever stream you belong to, you might need the help of research papers during your graduation. Today most of the research and academic papers that were previously written in native languages are also written in English languages. For instance, the ratio of papers written in English to that in Dutch is 40:1.

Indian aspirants who dream of going abroad for jobs or studies must also know English. Getting admission in foreign universities is tough for those who lack communication skills. Since English is a globally accepted language, students must have proficiency in verbal and written English to apply and get selected in their dream institute. Also, many countries ask students to clear an English proficiency test- IELTS, for instance- before applying for a Visa. It helps them know if they are welcoming the right talent to their country. To sum up, it is important to learn English for students, because:

  • Almost all books are available in the English language.
  • The vocabulary and terminology in any field like science, economics, technology, medicine, Space, etc. are available only in English.
  • All competitive exams for higher studies are written in English.
  • English enjoys the status of official language by UNO. (Source)
  • Students who wish to travel abroad for higher studies have

Indian aspirants who dream of going abroad for jobs or studies must also know English. Getting admission in foreign universities is tough for those who lack communication skills. Since English is a globally accepted language, students must have proficiency in verbal and written English to apply and get selected in their dream institute. Also, many countries ask students to clear an English proficiency test- IELTS, for instance- before applying for a Visa. It helps them know if they are welcoming the right talent to their country. To sum up, it is important to learn English for students, because:

Almost all books are available in the English language.
The vocabulary and terminology in any field like science, economics, technology, medicine, Space, etc. are available only in English.
All competitive exams for higher studies are written in English.
English enjoys the status of official language by UNO.
Students who wish to travel abroad for higher studies have to clear competitive exams in the English language.

  • clear competitive exams in the English language.

Importance of English Language In India – The Final Say

There is no denying people have been increasingly realizing the importance of English language in India. By getting mastery over English, one can share their thoughts, knowledge, gather information, etc and grow with the challenging world.

If you too are looking to learn or improve your English communication skills, get in touch with Mindmine Global. We at Mindmine Global understand how important it is to have proficiency in English, especially for the students. Hence, we provide students with the necessary learning to be able to communicate with people and achieve their dreams with confidence.

At Mindmine Global, we use an array of resources and practice materials to help students enhance their learning skills. We also offer IELTS consultancy to students aspiring to travel abroad for higher studies and job opportunities. Contact us and we can help you forge a better career path for you.

Join Mindmine Global for exams preparation 

Our goal is to make you stand out from others in terms of communication skills. We have several courses like Business Communication, Spoken English, Voice and Accent training, and English communication skills to make your English fluent like a native speaker. If you want to study abroad, we can help you gain a good score in various examinations such as IELTS, TOEFL, GMAT, Duolingo, PTE, and OET. More than 2,500 students learned from us, and now they’re studying or working abroad.

Birth and childhood of Gandhi.

In a small, white-washed house in Porbandar, on the coast of Kathiawad in western India, Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869. His parents were Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai. He was small and dark, and looked no different from the millions of other children born in India. Yet this was no ordinary child. He was to fight and overcome a great empire and, without taking to arms, set his country free. He was to be called the Mahatma, the Great Soul. Having led his people to freedom, he was to lay down his life for their sake.Porbandar is an old sea-port, overlooked by the distant Barda Hills. Even in ancient days ships from far off lands went there to trade. It was the ancestral home of the Gandhi’s. The grandfather and father of Mohandas were famous for their ability and for their upright character.Grandfather Uttamchand Gandhi, who belonged to a humble family of merchants, become the Dewan of Porbandar. He was succeeded by his son, Karamchand Gandhi popularly known as a Kaba Gandhi. Karamchand had very little formal education, but his knowledge and experience made him a good administrator. He was brave and generous. He had, however, one fault a bad temper.Putlibai, Karamchand Gandhi’s wife, was deeply religious. Every day she worshipped at the temple. She was a lovable and strong willed woman, widely respected for her wisdom and good sense. People often sought her advice on various matters.Mohandas was the youngest of the six children of Kaba Gandhi. He was the favourite child of the family and was called ‘Moniya’ by his fond parents and their friends. Moniya adored his mother. He loved his father too, but he was a little afraid of him.

As a child, Moniya seldom liked to stay at home. He would go home for his meals and then run away again to play outside. If one of his brothers teased him or playfully pulled his ears he would run home to complain to his mother. ‘Why didn’t you hit him? She would ask.’How can you teach me to hit people, mother? Why should I hit my brother? Why should I hit anyone? ‘Would be Moniya’s prompt reply.Gandhi at the age of 7Mohandas at the age of SevenHis mother wondered where her little son got such ideas. Moniya was just seven years old when father left Porbandar to become the Dewan of Rajkot. Moniya missed Porbandar, and he missed the blue sea and the ships in the harbour.At Rajkot he was sent to a primary school. He was shy and did not mix easily with the other children. Every morning he went to school in time, and ran back home as soon as school was over. His books were his sole companions and he spent all his free time alone reading.He had one friend, however, a boy named Uka. Uka was a sweeper-boy and an untouchable. One day Moniya was given some sweets. He ran at once to Uka to share them with him.’Don’t come near me little master,’ said Uka.’Why not?’ asked Moniya, greatly surprised. ‘Why can’t I come near you?”I am an untouchable master,’ Uka replied.Moniya took hold of Uka’s hands and filed them with sweets. His mother saw this from a window, and she ordered Moniya to comer in at once.’Don’t you know that high caste Hindu should never touch an untouchable? She asked sternly.’But why not, mother?’ asked Moniya.’Because our Hindu custom forbids it,’ she said.’I don’t agree with you, mother. I find nothing wrong in touching Uka. He is not different from me, is he?His mother had no answer. She angrily told him to go and have a bath and say his prayers.Karamchand Gandhi loved all his sons, but he was specially fond of the youngest. He often said to him: ‘You must go to high school and college and take up a profession.’Moniya worked hard, and did his lessons carefully. But he did not learning by heart and was therefore weak in Sanskrit. Geometry he liked best because it involved reasoning.Once Moniya happened to read the story of Shravana. Shravana’s parents were old and blind, and he always carried them with him in two baskets slung on a yoke. Moniya was deeply touched by Shravana’s devotion to his old parents. ‘I must be like Shravana,’ he resolved.At about this time he also saw a play about Harishchandra, a King who was famous for his love of truth.’Why shouldn’t we all be truthful like Harishchandra?’ he constantly asked himself.Mohandas was only thirteen when he was told that he was soon to be married. His parent has already chosen his bride. She lived in Porbandar and her name was kasturbai. She and Mohandas were about the same age.The wedding day approached. Mohandas was dressed in new clothes. Everyone was gaily dressed and the house was decked with flowers and banana leaves. The bridegroom, accompanied by the wedding party, left for Porbandar.In the Bribe’s home it was a day of great celebration. There was singing and dancing and music. At the auspicious hour the bridegroom and party arrived.Kasturbai, dressed in red and wearing elegant jewellery, was shy but attractive. Amidst great rejoicing, Mohandas was married to Kasturbai.The celebrations lasted a whole week and then the bride left her home in Porbandar and went with her husband to Rajkot.Kasturbai was a pretty and lively girl. Mohandas and she often played together. Mohandas and she often played together. Some times Mohandas tried to teach his young wife, but she could never concentrate on books, though she was quick to learn the household work.One day Mohandas met Sheik Mehtab, a friend of his elder brother. Sheik had a bad reputation. Mohandas knew this, yet he was much impressed by Sheik because he was strong and tall.Karamchand Gandhi, father of Mahatma GandhiHis father, Karamchand GandhiSheik was a meat-eater and he often told Mohandas that if he ate meat he would also grow tall and strong.There was also at that time a reform movement for a change in the orthodox ways of life. Mohandas himself had heard that many well-to-do people had started eating meat, so he tried meat. He did not like the taste of meat but as time went on h e started to like meat curries.Whenever Mohandas had a meat meal outside, he had to give his a mother some excuse for not eating his dinner. He knew that his parents would not forgive him if they knew he had eaten meat. He was not against eating meat then, but he was against telling a lie to his mother. This feeling was gnawing at his heart and finally he decided not to touch meat again.Mohandas has also taken to smoking with Sheik, his brother, and another relative. He had to pilfer small amounts of money here and there with which to buy cigarettes.One day, in order to pay off a debt which his brother had incurred, Mohandas stole a piece of gold. Stealing was a great sin. He knew that he had committed a great crime. He resolved never in his life to steal again. He wrote down a confession of his crime and handed the paper to his ailing father.Karamchand Gandhi read the confession. He tore up the paper without saying a word. The bits of paper fell to the floor. He sank back on his bed with a sigh. Mohandas left the room, tears streaming down his face.From that day, Mohandas loved his father more and more. Everyday he hurried home from school to wait on him.

His father’s condition grew worse and at length he died. The house was filled with sorrow.Mohandas was only sixteen when his father died.


India’s history tells right about its agricultural efficiency, excellent climatic conditions, and natural-resource availability. India (that utilises extensive parts of its land for cultivation of wheat, rice, cotton) is also a leading producer of spices, pulses, and milk in the international market.A few decades ago, the agriculture sector added 75% to India’s GDP, which has reduced to 14% (the current). However, India was the second-largest producer ($ 367 billion) after China ($ 1,005 billion) among four more countries that held 42% of the global agricultural output – $ 4,771 billion, According to the World Factbook 2014 of the CIA. SourceIn a nutshell, India is an influential agricultural powerhouse worldwide, having farmers and all related workers as its backbone. Like many other sectors, the agricultural landscape also faces decades-long problems and unexpected challenges that are crucial to rectify. Let’s discuss some of the main issues farmers face in India and the best possible solutions.

Main Problems often faced by Indian Farmers

Insufficient Water Supply

Water availability in India is more than sufficient to irrigate all cultivation areas; the problem is that we still have to find cheap and suitable solutions to utilise such enormous water supplies. Due to several reasons, farmers either don’t receive the appropriate amount of water or don’t get the supply on time; many farmers rely on rainwater for irrigation.

Less Use of Modern Farming Equipment

In most areas, to date, farmers follow primitive cultivation methods; traditionally-used plough and relevant native accessories continue to be farmers’ preference. Despite no shortage of efficient equipment and machinery, there’s very little use of modern equipment, majorly because most farmers don’t have lands huge enough to use advanced instruments, heavy machinery.

Over Dependence on Traditional Crops

Indian farmers are growing rice and wheat for centuries now in several regions. The excessive production of the two grains, many times lead to the storage, sale problems and shortage of other farm products.

“India is heading toward a fourth record wheat harvest and near-record rice production for 2020-21” – the US Department of Agriculture. Source

Many farmers depending upon only these traditional crops indicates a lack of an effective, nation-wide agriculture plan.

Poor Storage Facilities

In rural areas, storage facilities are either insufficient or completely absent. In such a situation, farmers usually have no other option than selling their produce immediately once it’s ready, at market prices that are often very low. They are far away from a legitimate income.


Lack of cheap, efficient means of transportation is a big problem widely seen in the Indian agriculture sector; small farmers still rely on bullock-carts for transporting their produce. Moreover, lakhs of villages are connected with highways and market centres with temporary (kutcha) roads that become muddy and useless in rains. Consequently, farmers cannot deliver their produce to the central market and helplessly sell it in the local market at low costs.

The Taliban: explained

A history of the Taliban

The Taliban, which means “students” in the Pashto language, emerged in 1994 around the southern Afghan city of Kandahar. It was one of the factions fighting a civil war for control of the country following the withdrawal of the Soviet Union and subsequent collapse of the government.

It originally drew members from so-called “mujahideen” fighters who, with support from the United States, repelled Soviet forces in the 1980s.

Within the space of two years, the Taliban had gained sole control over most of the country, proclaiming an Islamic emirate in 1996 with a harsh interpretation of Islamic law. Other mujahideen groups retreated to the north of the country.

Following the Sept 11, 2001 attacks in the United States by Al-Qaeda, US-backed forces in the north swept into Kabul in November under the cover of heavy US airstrikes.Also read |46 years ago, another US exit and fall of Saigon

The Taliban melted away into remote areas, where it began a 20-year-long insurgency against the Afghan government and its Western allies.

The Taliban’s founder and original leader was Mullah Mohammad Omar, who went into hiding after the Taliban was toppled. So secretive were his whereabouts that his death, in 2013, was only confirmed two years later by his son.

What is the Taliban’s ideology?

During its five years in power, the Taliban enforced a strict version of sharia law. Women were predominantly barred from working or studying, and were confined to their homes unless accompanied by a male guardian.Express in Kabul |Hours before fall, women plead: ‘Don’t want to go back to that horrible era’

Public executions and floggings were common, Western films and books were banned, and cultural artefacts seen as blasphemous under Islam were destroyed. Opponents and Western countries accuse the Taliban of wanting to return to this style of governance in the areas it already controls – a claim the group denies.The Taliban flag flies at the Ghazni provincial governor’s house, in Ghazni, southeastern, Afghanistan, Sunday, Aug. 15, 2021. (AP Photo: Gulabuddin Amiri)

The Taliban said earlier this year it wanted a “genuine Islamic system” for Afghanistan that would make provisions for women’s and minority rights, in line with cultural traditions and religious rules.

The Taliban: International recognition

Only four countries, including neighbour Pakistan, recognised the Taliban government when it was in power. The vast majority of other countries, along with the United Nations, instead recognised a group holding provinces to the north of Kabul as the rightful government-in-waiting.

The United States and the United Nations imposed sanctions on the Taliban, and most countries show little sign it will recognise the group diplomatically.

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said earlier this month Afghanistan risks becoming a pariah state if the Taliban takes power and commits atrocities.

Other countries such as China have begun cautiously signalling they may recognise the Taliban as a legitimate regime.

Government Jobs vs Private Jobs

Whether to choose a government job that offers stability or a private job that opens avenues of opportunities is a question that most young graduates ask themselves. Government jobs or the public sector is one of the largest employers in our country with over 17.61 million Indians employed and over 12 million employed in the private sector. In order to help you solve this dilemma, in this blog we bring you the comparison of government jobs against private jobs and enlist various parameters one must consider when looking for a job. So, let’s see which is better in Government Jobs vs Private Jobs.THIS BLOG INCLUDES:

Government Jobs vs Private Jobs: Job security

If you are seeking john security from your work, then government jobs might be the best fit. Government jobs are steady even in the face of market variations. A bad job market can leave industries like textile manufacturing to the ever-popular Indian IT industry in a turmoil leaving the public sector devoid of any casualties. On the contrary, terminations are extremely frequent in private jobs where employees can be laid off for numerous reasons such as bad performance, bad job -markets or even based on gender, race , caste or bad terms with employers.  In case of a government job, it becomes mandatory to show valid cause of conduct violation in order for a termination to be executed and the employers are bound by employee protection.

Government Jobs vs Private Jobs: Job Growth

Even though government jobs have security, they can be notorious when it comes to job growth. Because government jobs are inherently bureaucratic in nature, they can leave very little room for rewarding individual professional initiatives. This could be stunting to the career growth of the employees. In case of government jobs, promotions are time based and dependent on vacancies. Private job on the contrary, provides a vast scope for growth and climbing up the ladder. Even though senior most positions in government jobs can be very powerful, they only  come after years of patience, waiting for people to retire before their seats can be replaced.

Government Jobs vs Private Jobs: Job benefits

Another massive advantage of procuring a government job is the retirement benefits including solid pension plans. Recently the security has been replaced  by the New Pension Scheme where the pension funds are invested in stock markets. However the government contributes an amount in favor of the employee which goes into the National Securities Depository Limited. Private companies on the other hand are not liable to invest in an employee’s pension plans leaving employees to manage their funds all by themselves. Additionally the government employees are also endowed with various kinds of benefits such as loan schemes, travel perks, and also housing allowances that private employees may or may not receive. 

Job Opportunity

There is a general consensus among people that landing a government job is far more difficult than landing a private job. In order to receive a government job, the employees must first appear for a nation-wide entrance test, competing with a large pool of candidates. There are other factors such as age limits, availability etc. in comparison, recruitment for private jobs happen all year long and are filled based on demand. Petitions can also be filled via campus recruitment, referral recruitment, online recruitment and through other streamlined and straightforward processes.

Government Jobs vs Private Jobs: Work-life balance

The work culture in a private job might entail longer working hours, extremely competitive settings, deadlines and a very stressful environment. In a private job, job performance is directly related to growth, the work environment is bound to create competition, to keep the pace. On the contrary government jobs are relaxed and help you maintain a healthy work-life balance. The work environment is extremely laxed however there is a possibility of transfer in government jobs which can be life altering. 

In conclusion, either choice, government or private has its own pros and cons. Therefore your decision to choose a job depends on what aspects are important to you and what you want from it.  We hope you find this blog aids you in making the right choice. For more interesting content subscribe to Leverage Edu.

Decision making and problem solving


It is known that good decision making and problem solving skills are essential for effective managers in today’s competitive environment. As managers make decisions every day, they are responsible for the successful achievement of the major organizational goals. Most managers believe that “to the extent their decisions are rational they contribute directly to the objectives of the organization.”Of course, all managers should take into consideration the fact that it is very important to know appropriate decision making and problem solving strategies which will help to find the right way out of this or that situation and to achieve positive outcomes.

Moreover, it is found that those managers who understand the importance of decision making is business will agree that decision making influences every aspect of business, including the employees’ retention, customers’ satisfaction, the reputation of the company in the market and managerial job security. Decision making process is closely connected with problem solving process; that is why it is the major task of any effective manager to develop good decision making and problem solving skills.

My goal in this paper is to discuss the importance of decision making and problem solving in management. In order to achieve this goal it is necessary to review the appropriate literature which will give an opportunity to analyze the above mentioned issues in a proper way. This topic is an interesting one as it gives an opportunity to understand that it is necessary to develop decision making and problem solving skills in today’s managers. Moreover, this topic is both personally and professionally rewarding and helps to find answers about the problems at work and to provide managers with a vehicle for professional advancement.

The importance of problem solving skills development

Today many managers are aware of the importance of development of problem solving skills to succeed in the competitive market. The development of these skills can be performed through learning process as well as through reflection of certain problems that occur in the development phases of business process. Moreover, problem solving skills can help to identify the most powerful influences on the managers’ perceptions of problems.

Problem solving skills should include intuition to solve some critical problems, learning, or the managers’ ability to improve past mistakes, and emotional response to problem solving. Giroux states that emotions play a significant role in “shaping how each person perceives, approaches and solves a problem.”In addition, it is found that luck and destiny also influence the managers’ ability to successfully deal with critical problems in business. Many respondents who took part in the survey used the words luck and destiny when they described the situations in which they tried to resolve critical problems. One more component of problem solving skills is self-efficacy and determination which can help managers to achieve positive outcomes in complex business situations.

Role of creativity in problem solving

It is known that creativity plays an important role in today’s management. The growth of creativity of human potential leads to successful development of our society and economy. Today companies face different problems including simple and complicated ones, absolutely new and routine ones. In most cases, they lead to “blind and automatic decisions.” The common problems most companies face in today’s business environment include development of new effective policies, implementation of changes in the workplace, creation of new products and services, and improvements of existing ones, development and implementation of more effective advertising concepts and so on. Creativity is one of the most important components in problem solving. According to the research conducted by the Institute of Prospective Technology, about 70-80% of competitiveness of business organizations are always based on new technologies and new knowledge.

Ways to speed decision making process

Today most managers understand the importance of speedy decisions in the workplace. It is known that in many cases, the organization’s decisions are moved through several organizational levels.

In order to speed decision making process, managers should eliminate the need to approve decisions by means of elimination of the layers of management. In many cases, it is very important to eliminate unnecessary paper work. Moreover, it is recommended to simplify decision making process in management because “simplification provides another route to speeding up decision making.”

Healthy decision making process involves not only creating the process and consensus building by means of inclusive discussion and critical thinking model, but also feedback from the staff members who can point out where “the successes and failures have occurred.”


In conclusion, it is necessary to say that decision making and problem solving are important components of managerial functions. I consider that intuitive decision making that is considered to be a bridge between unconscious and conscious decision making can help to see possible changes, identify current and future problems, manage information in a proper, and deal with conflict situations. That is why I recommend developing intuitive skills in management. It is necessary to learn to trust intuition. My personal experience proves the fact that good decision making and problem solving skills can help managers to find appropriate strategies for this or that business environment. Moreover, I am sure that in order to speed decision making process, it is necessary to eliminate unnecessary paper work and approvals, to simplify decision making process and to combine skills and knowledge of operational staff. Special attention should be paid to creativity in problem solving as creative managers are always ready to cope with any difficult situation and to achieve positive outcomes in today’s competitive business environment. I will use the information represented in this research project for both my personal and professional development.

127th Amendment Bill, 2021: The way to comprehensive turn of events

Indian Constitution is well known for the social designing of a conventional society, to change it from the customary progressive request into a cutting-edge libertarian country, where positive segregation in the blessing of least advantaged areas of the general public, is looked as a system for advancement and development. Indeed, Right to Equality cherished in Article 15 and Article 16 plans to appear the longing of Constitution producers of India to carry thorough development to individuals of India. One of the systems to guarantee equity is the possibility of reservation in training in the state-run establishment just as work in the public authority and public area. As to Schedule Castes and Schedule Tribes instance of the booking is quite clear. Be that as it may, the account of reservation has seen many good and bad times on account of the Other Backward Communities.

In India, there has been a background marked by the backwardness of networks outside of the pale of timetable positions and clans. Rank System in our nation is a perplexing snare of social association where standing personalities advise person’s position in the customary social request. Notwithstanding, the issue with the standing framework is that for the sake of societal position it has prompted the double-dealing and inside and out torment of the lower stations throughout the long term, justifying the sear of pioneers like Baba Sahib Ambedkar, Jyotiba Phule and others. It is to guarantee the comprehensive advancement of individuals from the lower positions under the aegis of the Indian government assistance state, reservation is given. Truly, OBCs are those networks which fall in the middle of the least rungs of positions and the higher standings. Their issue is financial backwardness. To survey their backwardness different advisory groups from Kalekar Committee to Mandal Committee were establishes to distinguish the networks which are really in reverse, to bring them under the umbrella of State supported government assistance. It is in this light that the Hundred and Twenty Seventh Constitution Amendment Bill, 2021 should be seen.

127th Constitution Amendment Bill: States right to make Inclusive OBC list

The new revision bill was presented following quite a while of organization of the booking systems for the Obc’s. Starting from the giving the sacred height to the National Commission for the Backward Communities in 2017, the NCBC was made the nodal office to manage the issues in regards to OBCs including a pivotal part of complaint redressal which was being managed by the National Commission for Schedule Castes. The revision gave a solid balance to the OBCs by guaranteeing the institutional component and sacred status. Nonetheless, in ongoing past there have been many issues which have sprung up with respect to consideration/prohibition of networks in the OBC list. One of the significant mixes was brought about by the interest for the OBC status to Maratha people group in Maharashtra. This interest has seen cases and counter cases in different echelons of Judiciary. Yet, the Hon’ble Supreme Court judgment of 2021 completely made Central Government the watchman of OBC list. It put the Center in an off-kilter position since it has been the states which are principally liable for the government assistance of their residence. Additionally through this judgment, by one assessment, around 671 networks were kept out of the ambit of OBC classification, getting them far from the advantages that this booking involves.

The effectivity of 127th Constitution Amendment Bill 2021 should be surveyed against this foundation. The revision has enabled states to add networks to OBC list. It has enabled NCBC to be counseled by states in the matter concerning OBCs. It is a significant revision for different reasons. First and foremost, this change permits state governments to add networks to the OBC records that they consider fit. This proviso is huge in light of the fact that it permits the advantages of OBC reservation to reach to the grassroot level. Also, it unites the situation of NCBC, by ordering states to hold discussion with this established body in all issue identified with OBCs. Besides, this revision should be found in the light of development of the OBC reservation from advertisement hocism of early days to the more noteworthy organization of components that arrangements with the issues of OBCs, going from established status of NCBC to substantial job for states in keeping up with their OBC records. The greater clearness in this regard is a welcome advance as it will just reinforce the government assistance measures for the more vulnerable areas of our general public as embraced in the Constitution of India.

The ramifications of 127th Constitution Amendment Bill are all over. It’s undeniably true that the social design and chains of importance in India have stayed unaltered even get-togethers given to the more vulnerable networks, the synthesis of the elites in our nation is intensely shifted towards the forward positions. Reservation as a device of positive separation can be utilized to modify the social request to the advantage of the individuals who have been taken advantage of at its hands for millenniums. All the more critically, the equity that laws like this will grant will likewise guarantee social correspondence, and in the end might even modify the structure of the elites in our country. Just before 75th commemoration of India’s Independence, a fortunate advance was taken by noteworthy Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi for the advantages of in reverse networks of India. This choice will be an achievement for making another personality of a New India.

Alternately the meaning of this sacred alteration focuses to the more noteworthy need of advancement and development in our general public, a development that would reach to each person of India, so the requirement for reservation will become repetitive. The way that various networks need the front of OBC order is connected with the possibility that there is an immense degree for cultural improvement in India even following 74 years of our autonomy. This is a bleak reality that requirements further reflection and strategy development. Additionally, one worry that ascents from this alteration is the crystallization of rotating entryway strategy as to OBC reservation, as states will be constrained by the neighborhood governmental issues to add more current networks into their individual OBC records. This viewpoint should be remembered, in case we wind up weakening the impacts of this way breaking alteration.

All in all, the Constitution Amendment Bill has acquired sufficient measure of clearness the standard working systems of working of OBC reservation. It additionally has a gigantic potential to enable individuals from in reverse networks, upgrading their societal position through well-rounded schooling and business openings, making ready for comprehensive turn of events. In the hours of COVID-19 and financial difficulties, 127th Constitution Amendment Bill will actually want to connect the broadening bay of dejection and neediness. It will guarantee portrayal and strengthening to the networks that fall in the breaks of advancement talk in our country.

Richest Actors in the World – See where’s your fav actor stand!

Richest Actor In The World? Ever searched on Google? It’s not easy to get the title of the richest actor in the world. It requires sheer hard work and dedication and definitely smartness! Some here are Highest-Paid Actors of All Time from Hollywood and some from Bollywood. It will be fun to know and some names will shock you even!

Actors have been known to make a fortune out of their jobs. The glitz and glam have always caught the eye of the public. And their extravagant lifestyles have added to the fact that they earn enough to afford that. But ‘how much is still a question.

Especially when we talk about celebrities from the world of movies and cinema we know they are one of the highest-paid ones. But what exactly is their net worth and who tops in the list of the richest actors? Let’s dive deep into the statistics to know

#20 Leonardo DiCaprio (USD 260 million)

Leonardo DiCaprio Decorated His Home With 'Titanic' Items

Leonardo DiCaprio is often seen in a biopics and period films who got international attention and fame as a star in the epic romance Titanic (1997). Being the world’s highest-paid actors, his films have earned USD 7.2 billion worldwide. He has been placed 8 times on Forbes’ annual list of highest-paid actors: 2008 and from 2010 to 2016 with respective earnings of USD 45 million, USD 28 million, USD 77 million, USD 37 million, USD 39 million, USD 29 million and USD 27 million.

#19 Akshay Kumar (USD 300 million)

When Akshay Kumar Said There Is No Man Who Is Not Lustful | Anyone Who  Disagrees Is Trying To Hide His Lust - Filmibeat

Akshay Kumar is the only Indians on Forbes list of world’s highest-paid celebrities2020. He is at the 52nd spot with estimated pre-tax earnings of USD 48.5 million during June 2019 to May 2020. Also popularly known as The ‘Khiladi of Bollywood’, he is in the filmy career for more than 29 years now and has appeared in over 100 films. He is also considered as a disciplined and punctual Bollywood celebrity.

#18 Brad Pitt (USD 300 million)

Brad Pitt Cover Story Interview - Brad Pitt Photos and Quotes

Brad Pitt is one of the most powerful and influential people in the American entertainment industry. He was chosen as People’s Sexiest Man Alive and has been nominated at the Oscars 7 times. Reportedly, he is consistently earning a minimum of USD 20 million for major big releases. His primary source of income is huge film releases and production company, Plan B Entertainment.

#17 Michael Douglas (USD 330 million)

Michael Douglas on His Childhood, Family and Career

Michael Douglas, the versatile actor, has been widely appreciated as a talented actor and for performances as a television and motion picture artist. He has received notice for his political activism and humanitarian as well as wide media attention for his marriage to Catherine Zeta-Jones who is a Welsh actress.

#16 Salman Khan (USD 350 million)

COVID-19 effect: Salman Khan postpones events in US, Canada | Celebrities  News – India TV

Salman Khan, The Bhaijaan of the Bollywood registered himself as the most numerous 100-crore club films. He was ranked 82nd with earnings of USD 37.7 million, according to the Forbes Top-Paid 100 Celebrity Entertainers 2018 list in the world. He is in the filmy career for more than 30 years now and has gifted Bollywood with his successful action films. He is popularly known as a host of Bigg Boss, reality show since 2010.

#15 Dwayne Johnson (USD 350 million)

The Rock for president? I'll run if the people want it, says Dwayne Johnson  | US politics | The Guardian

Dwayne Johnson is not only an actor but also a retired professional wrestler, known by his ring name The Rock. Being the highest-grossing richest actor In the world of all time, his films have grossed over USD 3.5 billion in North America and over USD 10.5 billion worldwide. Central Intelligence and the HBO series Ballers has just wowed audiences with his fabulous appearances.

#14 Robert Downey Jr. (USD 350 million)

Robert Downey Jr. announces venture funds to save the planet, invests $10  million of own money | Totally Vegan Buzz

Robert Downey Jr. has made his presence in the entertainment industry at the age of five and is popularly known for his roles in Marvel/Iron Man/Avengers franchise in Hollywood.  He is one of the versatile American actors and was named among the 100 most influential people in the world by Time magazine. His films have grossed over USD 14.4 billion worldwide and are listed as Hollywood’s highest-paid actor by Forbes from 2013-2015.

#13 Keanu Reeves (USD 360 million)

Keanu Reeves' profound take on life and death leaves internet speechless.  'He could easily pick up Mjolnir,' say fans | Hollywood - Hindustan Times

Keanu Reeves has gained international fame, especially in action film genres and science fiction. He was given the title “Hollywood’s ultimate introvert” by Lev Grossman in a 2005 article for Time magazine. He is the highest-paid richest actor In the world, earning over USD 250 million from The Matrix franchise. He is also a Musician! His John Wick franchise has generated more than USD 500 million at the box office.

#12 Will Smith (USD 390 million)

The 14 Best Will Smith Movies Ranked

Will Smith ranked as the most bankable star worldwide by Forbes with eleven consecutive films gross over USD 150 million internationally and USD 100 million in the domestic box office. He achieved modest fame under the name The Fresh Prince as a rapper. His popularity increased on an NBC television series The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air which successfully ran for six seasons. He is the actor with small budgeted films earns the highest.

#11 Tom Hanks (USD 400 million)

Tom Hanks' 'Bios' Release Date Changed - Variety

Tom Hanks is known for both his comedic and dramatic roles. He is widely regarded as an American cultural icon and his films have grossed over more than USD 9.96 billion worldwide. Also been frequently regarded to as “America’s Dad”.

#10 Sylvester Stallone (USD 400 million)

Sylvester Stallone turns 75 and shares new family photo

Sylvester Stallone is also a screenwriter, director, producer and artist. He had a struggling life at the beginning but gradually rose to prominence with films like Daylight earning over USD 17.5 million, USD 20 million for “Driven” and another USD 20 million for “Eye See You”.

#9 Arnold Schwarzenegger (USD 400 million)

Arnold Schwarzenegger's Insane 3 AM Workout | Ladder

Arnold Schwarzenegger is also an Austrian-American bodybuilder, businessman, model, and politician. According to sources, he earns USD 20-30 million per movie and also has a variety of investments, notably real estate under his hat. He is the most recent Republican governor of California as of 2020. People also know him as “the Austrian Oak,” “Terminator” “The Governator”.

#8 Johnny Depp (USD 450 million)

Johnny Depp seeks appeal in UK wife beater libel case | Entertainment  News,The Indian Express

Johnny Depp is the tenth highest-grossing actor worldwide as his films have grossed over USD 10 billion worldwide and USD 3.7 billion at the United States. Also, his name is written on the Guinness World Records as the world’s highest-paid actor, with earnings of USD 75 million.

#7 Amitabh Bachchan (USD 450 million)

Amitabh Bachchan thanks fans as he battles Covid-19, says their love took  away the 'darkness of my loneliness' | Bollywood - Hindustan Times

Amitabh Bachchan, also known as “Big – B” is one of the most influential actors and was widely known as a “One Man Industry” in the 1970s and 1980s. He became famous from his roles as the “angry young man” at the start of his career in the 70s in Hindi cinema. He even hosted several seasons of the popular game show Kaun Banega Crorepati which is a brand success.

#6 Jack Nicholson (USD 480 million)

How One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest Is Different From The Book

Jack Nicholson whose career spanned more than 60 years has done a variety of role including comedy, darkly comic portrayals of anti-heroes, romance, and villainous characters. He is one of the most-award-nominated actors and wealthiest in American history. He has USD 100 million real estate portfolio under his hat and USD 150 million art collection.

#5 Adam Sandler (USD 500 million)

Adam Sandler to make four new films for Netflix | Entertainment News,The  Indian Express

Adam Sandler is best known for his comedic roles and is the highest-paid entertainer in the world. He easily earns around USD 50 -60 million per year from his projects. Before making the jump to Hollywood, he got immense attention as a cast member on Saturday Night Live. He has also written and produced many films.

#4 Mel Gibson (USD 520 million)

Mel Gibson's Career Has Survived Controversy After Controversy, But How? -  Variety

Mel Gibson is known for his action hero roles. He has his own production company, Icon Entertainment. He got the reputation as a serious, versatile actor from a role in World War I drama Gallipoli (1981). Also a filmmaker, he directed and produced the film The Passion of the Christ, a biblical drama that was financially successful and has highly contributed to his net worth.

#3 George Clooney (USD 550 million)

George Clooney's life and career in pictures: Photo flashback | Gallery |

George Clooney is the recipient of two Academy Awards and three Golden Globe Awards. He earned USD 40,000 per appearance for the 19 episodes of Sisters and USD 100,000 per episode of ER. He was listed as the “Most Influential People in the World” in Time’s annual Time 100 and served (since January 31, 2008) as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace.

#2 Tom Cruise (USD 650 million)

Tom Cruise Turns 59: How Much is the 'Mission: Impossible' Actor Worth?

Tom Cruise is the highest-paid richest actor In the world in the world with his films grossed over USD 10.1 billion worldwide and USD 4 billion in North America. Being the heartthrob of around the world, he is a three-time Golden Globe Award winner. Mission Impossible Series has helped him to build an impressive net worth including high profile projects and endorsements.

#1 Shah Rukh Khan (USD 800 million)

Pathan' Shah Rukh Khan Is Ready To Rule The Box Office Only If He Avoids  One Red Flag, Predicts A Celebrity Astrologer

Shah Rukh Khan also is known as The Badshah of the Bollywood or King Khan has been making waves globally as an actor, television presenter, and stage performer. He is the most stylish and influential people in Indian culture and has a significant following in Asia and the Indian diaspora worldwide. According to a popularity survey, 3.2 billion people know Shah Rukh Khan around the world, more than who know Tom Cruise.

Give Yourself a Hug

See the source image

“Society taught me that no matter what size I am, I will never be good enough. I’ll always be too skinny, too fat, too short, too tall. Too this, too that.”

– Unknown

People from all walks of life, battle different forms of insecurities every second of the day. Insecurities basically sprout when all the broken fragments of society i.e. us, force other people to adhere to the so called norms of the society to ‘fit in’.

See the source image

One of the biggest insecurity people encounter is with regard to their body and looks. The fact that beauty is absolutely subjective, seems to escape our minds while establishing the perfect body type , nose and lip shapes.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is woman-ideal-bodies-looking-herself-mirror-feel-insecure-fat-cartoon-hand-drawn-style-flat-vector-design-human-177767081.jpg

Body Image

Body image refers to the subjective idea that a person has of his own body, it may or may not be actually the way he/she appears. According to Psychology Today, “Body image is subject to all kinds of distortions from the attitudes of one’s parents, other early experiences, internal elements like emotions or moods, and other factors.”

Negative body image may start forming when you notice, say, a minor flaw in your body and then overthink it out of proportions, so much so that it leaves an indelible impression on your mind.

See the source image

Body image of a person influences his/her social interactions and some level of mental functioning. Negative aspects of body image can lead to severe social and behavioural distortions.

See the source image

Also quoted from Psychology Today, “Thoughts and opinions about one’s body can start forming as early as 3 years of age. Often this is a direct result of a parent’s relationship with their own bodies. How a parent sees herself is influential and can mould a child’s ideas about their body.

See the source image

Although its as hard to be Ken as it is Barbie but the negatives of body image have been largely found in women. The statistics of men are found to be lower in this context.


According to statistics about 80% women and 34% men are insecure of and dissatisfied with their body. Body insecurities cause people to break down.

See the source image
See the source image

These insecurities stem mainly from the desire to look a certain way and fit a certain beauty standard. Teenagers feel the need to be perfectly thin or perfectly proportionate and muscular, lack of which could lead to a state extreme mental trauma.

See the source image

Also, people instead of focusing on their own physical and mental growth, divest a large portion of their time in useless comparisons with other people, which leads to them cornering their mental selves even further instead of something positive coming out of it.

See the source image

Give Yourself a Hug

Everyone in this world is insecure of one thing or the other. Body insecurity is a serious peril that people need to overcome, in order to enjoy this limited life to the fullest. Body insecurity and the negativity that it gives rise to prevents people from seeking joy in their life, it constantly looms like a dark cloud over their head.

See the source image

People dealing with such issues need to look for the silver lining in this dark cloud. People need to stop striving for perfection sand embrace themselves, flaws and everything.

See the source image

People suffering from insecurity need to strengthen their will and imbibe and assimilate the fact that,’ All bodies are beautiful’, completely.

See the source image

Every circle of darkness in life is followed by an impending circle of light. We must have a firm belief in the goodness of things and have a strong self confidence.

Wound your arms tightly around yourself and let your love heal you. Give yourself a tight hug!

See the source image

”Healing may not be so much about getting better, as about letting go of everything that isn’t you – all of the expectations, all of the beliefs – and becoming who you are.”

Rachel Naomi Remen




Water is an essential component of our daily life. We drink water every day. More than 50% of the human body is made up of water. Not only humans, but all living organisms starting macro-organisms from plants, animals, reptiles, mushrooms to microorganisms also need water for the survival of life. Water is a chemical compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen. It is made up of several million molecules. About 71% of the earth’s surface is made up of water. And the remaining 29% is continents and islands. 97% of water is salty and only 3% of water is freshwater. An in this 3%, only 1.2% of water is drinkable and the remaining is in the form of glaciers, ice caps, and snow mountains. Water is also known as a universal component because it has the power of dissolving more substances than other liquids. But many people in today’s world are wasting fresh water. This leads to the water scarcity problem.


Water scarcity is defined as the insufficient amount of water to meet the demands of water usage within a region. A shortage occurs when there is a rise in demand and not enough supply to meet the demand. Water scarcity occurs because of both natural and human causes. We all know that water is not equally distributed on the earth’s surface, so water scarcity does not occur at the global level but some places are shortage of water. Some of the major causes for water scarcity are listed below:

  1. INCREASE IN POPULATION: The increase in population increases the water demand. Nowadays people are wasting water without knowing the effects that may cause in future generations.
  2. POLLUTION OF WATER: Water pollution is another major cause of water scarcity. Many industries release their wastewater into lakes which are the sources of freshwater. The release of harmful chemicals into the water may have several disadvantages include new diseases, loss of habitat for aquatic animals, etc.,
  3. GLOBAL WARMING: The rise in the earth’s temperature causes global warming. Due to this monsoon failure occurs in some places and those areas suffer from drought which leads to a shortage of water.
  4. GROUNDWATER POLLUTION: Unwanted usage of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture may cause groundwater pollution. This makes the groundwater polluted and unable to consume it.
  5. DEFORESTATION: The cutting of trees over a large area is known as deforestation. We all know that rainwater is the source of water. Deforestation leads to monsoon failure in some places which in turn causes water scarcity in that area.


It is everyone’s responsibility to save water for the present and future generations. Here are some tips to save water:

  • Recycle the water. Use the domestic wastage of water for watering the plants. This reduces water scarcity.
  • Create awareness programs among people to understand the importance of fresh water and the ways to save it for the present and future generations.
  • Improve the irrigation practices in agriculture. Use sprinkler irrigation to reduce the wastage of water wherever possible.
  • Use organic manure in agricultural lands rather than pesticides and chemical fertilizers. This will not affect the groundwater and hence no water scarcity.
  • Limit your usage of water in the house. Turn off your water while brushing. Check for the leakage of taps. Avoid usage of the shower.
  • Practicing rainwater harvesting is the most efficient way to save water. It increases the groundwater level and thus no water shortage.
  • Solar desalination and smart irrigation system help in sustainable water management.
  • Invest in new water-conserving technologies in the areas of water scarcity.

Telephone conversation

web enquiries, email, social media and live chat facility have their place, but the telephone is still the preferred communication tool of choice for na you when it comes to business.

for some reason, phone calls in English are much more difficult than talking to people fave to face. May be it’s because you can’t read the person’s expression or gets cues about their meaning from their gesture.

or may be it’s because you’re already nervous before the call starts. Preparing in advance for a phone call in English is one of the best way to overcome these difficulties. Finally, don’t worry about asking people to repeat themselves or to speak more slowly when you’re on the phone in English.

with this in mind, here are a few tips on telephone conversation.

  1. Answer the call quickly
  2. Answering the phone’ with a smile on your face’
  3. Speak clearly and use professional language
  4. When taking a message check the information your are nothing.
  5. Even if you have no idea what they are talking about remain positive and professional by using’ let me find that out for you and come back to you’re rather then ‘I don’t know’ as it shoes interest and a willingness to help.

If possible give the caller an idea when they can expect a call back. Of your colleagues is in s meeting or out of the office for the afternoon explain it may be the following day that they response and check if some else can help them.

If you have to put people on hold make sure you ho back to update them every few seconds or so and remember to keep offering to have them called back.

ex: Answering the phone;

. Hellow? (Informal)

.thank you for calling speaking. How can I help you?

India’s First Indigenous COVID-19 Vaccine – COVAXIN

A vaccine based on whole inactivated coronavirus has an efficacy rate of 77.8% against symptomatic COVID-19 infections, phase 3 trial data suggest.

Covaxin, also known as BBV152, was authorised for emergency 

COVAXIN, Indias indigenous COVID-19 vaccine by Bharat Biotech is developed in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) – National Institute of Virology (NIV).

The indigenous, inactivated vaccine is developed and manufactured in Bharat Biotech’s BSL-3 (Bio-Safety Level 3) high containment facility.

The vaccine is developed using Whole-Virion Inactivated Vero Cell derived platform technology. Inactivated vaccines do not replicate and are therefore unlikely to revert and cause pathological effects. They contain dead virus, incapable of infecting people but still able to instruct the immune system to mount a defensive reaction against an infection

Covaxin COVID-19 Vaccine To Be Available In First Quarter Of Next Year,  Says Bharat Biotech


Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin has demonstrated 77.8 per cent effectiveness against symptomatic Covid and 65.2 per cent protection against the new Delta variant.

The company on Saturday said it concluded the final analysis of Covaxin efficacy from Phase 3 trials.

The efficacy analysis demonstrates Covaxin to be 93.4 per cent effective against severe symptomatic Covid cases while safety analysis shows adverse events reported were similar to placebo, with 12 per cent of subjects experiencing commonly known side-effects and less than 0.5 per cent feeling serious adverse events.

The efficacy data demonstrates 63.6 per cent protection against asymptomatic Covid, a release from the city-based vaccine maker said.

Phase 3 clinical trials of the vaccine was an event-driven analysis of 130 symptomatic Covid cases, reported at least two weeks after the second dose, conducted at 25 sites across India.

The whole virion inactivated vaccine against SARS-CoV2, was developed in partnership with Indian Council of Medical Research and National Institute of Virology in Pune.

Krishna Ella, Chairman and Managing Director of Bharat Biotech, said, “The successful safety and efficacy readouts of Covaxin as a result of conducting the largest ever Covid vaccine’s trials in India establishes the ability of India and developing world countries to focus towards innovation and novel product development. We are proud to state that Innovation from India will now be available to protect global populations.”    


The Phase 3 trial involved 25,800 participants in India aged 18 to 98. Of these, 2,433 were over 60 years old, and 4,500 had pre-existing medical conditions (co-morbidities) such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes or obesity.

The study found that Covaxin had an efficacy of 93.4% against severe COVID-19 disease, and an overall vaccine efficacy of 77.8% against symptomatic infections confirmed by PCR tests. Against asymptomatic COVID-19, the efficacy was 63.6%. The vaccine also conferred 65.2% protection against symptomatic infection with the Delta variant, at least two weeks after the second dose.

As a rough comparison, recent figures from Public Health Scotland suggested that at least two weeks after the second dose, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was 79% effective against the Delta variant, while the Oxford-AstraZeneca was 60% effective. However, different trial methodologies make it impossible to directly compare the relative efficacies of the various vaccines.

The main side effects from Covaxin were pain at the injection site, followed by headache, fatigue and fever. No severe or life-threatening adverse events were reported.

Mahatma Gandhi

When talking about India as the nation, the freedom, the existence, the history, the
independence, the very first thing that comes to our mind is Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi is the most recognized name around the world. Gandhi Ji, whose full name is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a born-on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. His Father’s name was Karamchand Gandhi who worked as a dewan in Rajkot. Mother, Putlibai was a religious lady who divided her time mostly between the temple and household work. Gandhi Ji got married at the age of thirteen to Kasturba Gandhi. He was a lawyer, a politician and an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule. Also known as Bapu in India and Gandhi Ji worldwide was a writer as well. Talking about Gandhi Ji’s Educational qualification, he was a very shy and mediocre student. Gandhi Ji was interested in becoming a doctor, but his father wanted him to follow the family legacy of working as a high official in the states of Gujrat.
Gandhi Ji who was not very happy with studying at Sambaldas College agreed to take the law as his profession. That would mean jumping from India to England. He too faced a lot of difficulties with language as the main barrier. From Gujarati to the English language was not an easy task, but his determination was what won. He had to struggle with the transition to Western Culture.

Gandhi Ji was not able to find work in India; he signed a one-year contract to perform legal
services in South Africa. Once he reached South Africa, he was welcomed by a world full of
racism and discrimination by the British. Gandhi Ji was asked to open his turban on the very
first day in the Durban Courtroom, which he refused to do and left instead.
Gandhiji’s life took a turn when a white man objected his presence in the first-class railway
compartment, in spite of Gandhi Ji having his ticket. When he did not agree to move back of
the train, he was forcibly thrown off the train at a station in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
This incident provoked in him a sense of determination to fight against racism and
discrimination. From that time onwards, he stood up to fight for the civil rights. Gandhi Ji
formed the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 to fight against discrimination.
When Gandhi Ji was planning to return to India, he got to know at his farewell that Indians
would be deprived of the right to vote. The immigrants then convinced Gandhi Ji to stay and
take up the issue and fight against the legislation. Gandhi Ji was not able to succeed in
preventing the law passage but definitely drew international attention to the injustice that
was being done. He also fought for the right to citizenship in the British Empire.
In the year 1906 the first mass civil disobedience campaign was organized which was called
“Satyagraha”. Since the South African Government was refusing to recognize Hindu
marriages its campaign was carried out. After years of protest, hundreds of Indians were
imprisoned, including Gandhi Ji in 1913. The South African government had to compromise,
they negotiated and accepted a compromise that gave recognition of Hindu marriages and the abolition of poll tax for Indians. Gandhi Ji then sailed from South Africa to London in the year 1914.

India was still under the British control in the year 1919, Gandhi Jihad called for a satyagraha
campaign of protest and strikes in a peaceful manner as the British authorities were
imprisoning people without trial of sedation. However, the reverse happened, and violence
broke out on April 13th, 1919 in Amritsar. Also known as “The Jallianwala Bagh”, where the
British fired machine guns into a crowd of unarmed people and killed nearly four hundred of

Gandhi Ji was not able to take it longer, so he returned all the medals he had received from
the military service in South Africa and opposed Britain’s mandatory military draft of Indians
to serve in World War 1. He had called in for a mass boycott. He urged people to stop
working for the British; he asked students not to attend a government school. Soldiers were
asked to leave their post and all citizens to stop paying taxes and refrain from purchasing
British goods. He made people realize the value of “Charkha” that is the spinning wheel. He
used the portable spinning wheel to produce his own cloth, and soon the spinning wheel
became the symbol of Indian Independence. Gandhi Ji was the leader of the Indian National
Congress.  Gandhi Ji returned to active politics in the year 1930 to protest against the British Salt Act.

This Act prohibited Indians from collecting or selling salt, but it imposed a heavy tax. A Dandi March was planned that entailed a 390-kilometer march to the Arabian Sea. There Gandhi Ji
would collect salt as a symbol of defense of the government’s monopoly. Wearing a white
shawl and sandals and carrying a walking stick, he set out from his religious retreat in
Sabarmati on March 12, 1930, with some followers. He reached the coastal town of Dandi
after 24 days and broke the law by making salt from evaporated sea water. Gandhi Ji was
again imprisoned for the same.

In August 1934, Gandhi Ji left the Indian National Congress, and the leadership was passed
on to Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi Ji launched a Quit India movement in the year 1942, asking
the British to leave the country immediately. Again, he was arrested and put behind bars
along with his wife and other leaders. With his health going down Gandhi Ji was released
after nineteen months. The negotiations began for an independent India; however, it leads
to the partition on Hindus being India and Muslims being Pakistan. Violence had already
roared before the Independence. Finally, India became Independent on 15th August 1947.
Gandhi Ji still pleaded people to maintain peace and nonviolence.

Weakened from the continuous hunger strikes, the 78-year-old Gandhi with his two
grandnieces led from his living quarters in Delhi’s Birla House to a prayer meeting. Where an
Activist Named Nathuram Godse was upset with Gandhi Ji over his tolerance with the
Muslims shot him three times with a semiautomatic pistol. This act took the life of a
nonviolence preacher. Godse and his fellow co-Ordinator was hanged in the year 1949, and
the rest of the conspirators were sentenced to life imprisonment.

Gandhi Ji always believed in Simple living. Making his own clothes, to eating vegetarian
diets. Keeping fast for self-purification, all these facts show how great a man he was.
Satyagraha remains one of his most important philosophy.

How to build self-confidence

Self confidence is an attitude about your skill and abilities. It means you accept and trust yourself and have a sense of control in your life.

steps to build self -confidence:

  1. Look at which you’ve already achieved:

Its easy to lose confidence if you believe you have’ve achieved anything. Make a list, of all the things you’re proud of in your life, whether it’s getting a good mark on an example or learning to surf.

2. Think of thing you’re good at:

everyone has strength and talents. What are yours? Recognising what you’re good at, and trying to build on those things, will help you to build confidence in your own abilities.

3. Set some goals:

set some goals and set out the steps you need to take to achieve them. They don’t have to be big goals, they can even be things like baking a cake or planning a night out with friends. Just aim for some small achievement that you can tick off a list to help you gain confidence in your ability to get stuff done.

4. Talks yourself up:

you’ve never going to feel confidence if you have negative commentary running through your mind telling you that you no good.

5. Get a hobby:

try to find something that you’re really passionate about. It could be photography sport, knitting or anything else! When you’re worked out you passion, commit yourself to giving it a go.

If you’re not feeling better:

sometimes the quick fixes don’t help in the long term. If you’re feeling and things just don’t seem to be improving its is worth talking to someone who knows how to help.professional such as counsellor and psychologists can help you build up your confidence.

Types of diet to follow

There are thousands of diets. Some are for losing weight, while others are for gaining weight, lowering cholesterol, living a long and healthful life, and many other reasons.

A diet is best described as a fixed plan of eating and drinking where the type and amount of food are planned out in order to achieve weight loss or follow a particular lifestyle.

This MNT Knowledge Center article provides details on the most popular diets according to three criteria: the number of articles that cover them, how popular they seem to be, and how often we receive feedback on them.

1). Atkins diet

woman looking at vegetables

The Atkins  diet, or Atkins nutritional approach, focuses on controlling the levels of insulin  in the body through a low-carbohydrate diet. If people consume large amounts of refined carbohydrates, their insulin levels rise and fall rapidly. Rising insulin levels trigger the body to store energy from the food that is consumed, making it less likely that the body will use stored fat as a source of energy. Therefore, people on the Atkins diet avoid carbohydrates but can eat as much protein and fat as they like. Although popular for some time, the Atkins Diet comes with certain risks. Individuals considering the Atkins Diet should speak with their doctor. A detailed look at the Atkins diet  here.

2).The Zone Diet

The Zone diet aims for a nutritional balance of 40 percent carbohydrates, 30 percent fats, and 30 percent protein in each meal. The focus is also on controlling insulin levels, which may result in more successful weight loss and body weight control than other approaches. The Zone diet encourages the consumption of high-quality carbohydrates – unrefined carbohydrates, and fats, such as olive oil, avocado, and nuts. A detailed look at Zone diet here.

3). Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet has been used for decades as a treatment for epilepsy and is also being explored for other uses. It involves reducing carbohydrate intake and upping fat intake. It sounds contrary to common sense, but it allows the body to burn fat as a fuel, rather than carbohydrates. Healthy fats, such as those in avocados, coconuts, Brazil nuts, seeds, oily fish, and olive oil are liberally added to the diet to maintain an overall emphasis on fat. The diet causes the break down of fat deposits for fuel and creates substances called ketones through a process called ketosis. This diet has risks including ketoacidosis for people with type 1 diabeties, however, and may result in diabetic coma and death. Although most studies are 2 years or less, there is some promising research in relation to diabetes management, metabolic health, weight loss, and body composition change.A detailed look at the Ketogenic Diet here.

4). Vegetarian Diet

Many people choose a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons, as well as health.

Many people choose a vegetarian diet for ethical reasons, as well as health. There are various types of vegetarian: lacto-vegetarian, fruitarian vegetarian, lacto-ovo vegetarian, living food diet vegetarian, ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, and semi-vegetarian. The majority of vegetarians are lacto-ovo vegetarians, in other words, they do not eat animal-based foods, except for eggs, dairy, and honey. Studies over the last few years have shown that vegetarians have a lower body weight, suffer less from diseases, and typically have a longer life expectancy than people who eat meat. A detailed look at vegetarianism here.

5).Vegan Diet

Veganism is more of a way of life and a philosophy than a diet. A vegan does not eat anything that is animal-based, including eggs, dairy, and honey. Vegans do not usually adopt veganism just for health reasons, but also for environmental, ethical, and compassionate reasons. Vegans believe that modern intensive farming methods are bad for our environment and unsustainable in the long-term. If everybody ate plant-based food, the environment would benefit, animals would suffer less, more food would be produced, and people would generally enjoy better physical and mental health, vegans say.A detailed look at veganism here.

6). Weight watchers diet

Weight Watchers focuses on losing weight through diet, exercise, and a support network. Weight Watchers Inc. was started in the 1960s by a homemaker who had lost some weight and was concerned she might put it back on. So, she created a network of friends. Weight Watchers is a huge company, with branches all over the world. Dieters can join either physically and attend regular meetings, or online. In both cases, there is lots of support and education available for the dieter.

7). South Beach Diet

The south beach diet  was started by a cardiologist, Dr. Agatston, and a nutritionist, Marie Almon. It focuses on the control of insulin levels, and the benefits of unrefined slow carbohydrates versus fast carbohydrates. Dr. Agatston devised the South Beach diet during the 1990s because he was disappointed with the low-fat, high-carb diet backed by the American Heart Association. He believed that low-fat regimes were not effective over the long-term. A detailed look at South beach diet  here.

8). Raw food diet

The raw food diet, or raw foodism, involves consuming foods and drinks that are not processed, are completely plant-based, and ideally organic. Raw foodists believe that at least three-quarters of a person’s food intake should consist of uncooked food. A significant number of raw foodists are also vegans and do not eat or drink anything that is animal based.There are four main types of raw foodists: raw vegetarians, raw vegans, raw omnivores, and raw carnivores. A detailed look at the raw food diet here.

9). Mediterranean Diet

The Mediterranean Southern European, and more specifically focuses on the nutritional habits of the people of Crete, Greece, and southern Italy. Nowadays, Spain, southern France, and Portugal are also included, even though Portugal does not touch the Mediterranean Sea.The emphasis is on lots of plant foods, fresh fruits as dessert, beans, nuts, whole grains, seeds, olive oil as the main source of dietary fats. Cheese and yogurts are the main dairy foods. The diet also includes moderate amounts of fish and poultry, up to about four eggs per week, small amounts of red meat, and low to moderate amounts of wine. Up to one-third of the Mediterranean diet consists of fat, with saturated fats not exceeding 8 percent of calorie intake. The Mediterranean diet is the most extensively studied diet to date, with reliable research supporting its use for improving a person’s quality of life and lowering disease risk . A detailed look at the Mediterranean diet here.

Western diet : Risks

Doctor Tasnime Akbaraly from Montpellier, France, and team carried out a study that found that the Western style diet, which is high in sweet and fried foods, raises a person’s risk of dying early. They published their findings in the American Journal of Medicine. Akbaraly said “The impact of diet on specific age-related diseases has been studied extensively, but few investigations have adopted a more holistic approach to determine the association of diet with overall health at older ages. We examined whether diet, assessed in midlife, using dietary patterns and adherence to the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), is associated with aging phenotypes, identified after a mean 16-year follow-up.” The team found that study participants who strayed from the “Alternative Healthy Eating Index” had a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death.


The previous article was all about the process of inflammation. This article is about vaccines.

The vaccines fall under the type of artificial active acquired immunity. This is artificial because we are giving the vaccine externally and this is active because the body is generating the antibodies/response and it is acquired because we are getting the immunity and it is not present by birth. You must have known what immunity is at least by now.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins (antigens). So these vaccines are nothing but the pathogen itself but it cannot cause any disease, instead, it triggers the immune system.

This is a quick recap of the principle of working on vaccines. The vaccine contains the pathogens as a whole or the surface antigens only. These antigens stimulate the immune system. If the immune system had a memory about this antigen, then it would immediately produce an antibody, and phagocytosis of the antigen occurs by the macrophage aided by the antibody. In this scenario, the antigen is new and there is no memory, therefore the immune system struggles and takes time to produce the antibody.

So the antigen reign over the body and this can lead to inflammation. As a result, some of the symptoms of inflammation like fever, heat, pain in the area of application, and swelling may appear. The chances of them are rare and also severity is less (last for a few hours/days) since the pathogen is attenuated.

Once the immune system produces the correct antibody, phagocytosis of the antigen occurs and hence the causative agent is eliminated from the body (primary response). So if the same or similar pathogen which has disease-causing ability enters into the body, the memory triggers the immune system to produce the correct antibody. So a heightened and rapid response is generated in order to kick away the pathogen quickly (secondary response).

There are three types of vaccines:-

Live- infection is caused without any harm – measles & polio

Dead- doesn’t last long, requires booster dose- cholera

Microbial products- involves non-infectious pathogen, capsule and toxoid- anthrax, diptheria

Hence using the vaccine as a stimulus, the body is able to generate a response that is stored and can be useful for preventing the disease caused by the pathogen.

There might be an idea to generate vaccines for all diseases so that all humans are protected. But there are some difficulties in this which are listed below:-

There are new microbes being discovered every day and no one knows which microbe can cause disease. There can be multiple microbes causing the same or similar disease. So being immune to one microbe doesn’t mean being immune to the disease

The disease-causing microbe can undergo mutation meaning that there can be changes in the genetic material and hence the antigen can change. In this case, the antibody which was stimulated by the vaccine won’t work. A suitable example is a common cold, it is impossible to produce a vaccine that covers all mutants of viruses

The pathogen has to be genetically modified so as to remove its disease-causing ability which is easy to say but difficult to implement

Also, it is important that the antigen chose for the vaccine must be close to that of the original causative agent of the disease. If the original pathogen is not so close to that of the vaccine, then it will not work

Hence all these above points explain the difficulties in producing a vaccine. Despite these many research organizations in many countries have produced vaccines especially for the pandemic and dreadful diseases like the COVID-19, hepatitis, polio, etc. in which some vaccines provide lifetime immunity to some of the diseases. We must take a minute to appreciate those who have done immense work and their contribution is stopping some of the dreadful diseases.

With this, we come to the end of the series. I hope that all the concepts explained in this were simple and clear and also would have inculcated an interest in immunology. By now, it would be clear how the immune system protects us from several microbes and diseases.



The previous article dealt with the types and functions of immunoglobulin. This article provides a complete explanation of the process of inflammation.

Inflammation is the process of protection which was seen as one of the six mechanisms of innate immunity.

Inflammation is one of the body’s responses to the invasion of foreign particles. This is an important process in the human body that occurs to drive away from the pathogen. Inflammation is one of the stages seen in healing. Some of the changes that can be seen in the target site are:-

  • Changes in blood flow (mostly blood loss)
  • Increase in platelets (to plug the damaged vessel)
  • Increase in immune cells
  • Supply of nutrients

The word inflammation refers to a burning sensation. Hence there are five cardinal signs in inflammation namely:-

  • Rubor (redness)
  • Tumor (swelling)
  • Calor (heat)
  • Dolor (pain)
  • Functioleasia (loss of function)

These cardinal signs as well as the changes occur due to some mediators which are basically chemicals and also due to the action of various immune cells.

Mediator nameIt’s effect
Bradykinin, histamine, serotoninIncrease permeability
ProstaglandinDecreases blood pressure
CytokinesProduce fever
Toxic metabolitesDamage tissue

This inflammation can be either acute or chronic. As seen earlier, acute stays for a shorter time but produces more vigorous pain whereas chronic stays for a longer time with less vigorous pain. If the causative agent has been driven away then healing occurs either by complete restoration or scar formation. There are chances that the acute inflammation can become chronic which can be worse. It can lead to several diseases and complications.

The pathogen in order to establish its supremacy in the human body, it has to pass through the epidermis which is the outermost layer of the human body. This is known as SALT skin-associated lymphoid tissues. Hence T and B lymphocytes are prominent in the skin. Most of the pathogens get destroyed in this stage. Let us assume that our pathogen is strong and it had passed through it. The next layer it encounters is the dermis. As we go deep inside the skin, more and more immune cells get involved. In the dermis the following immune cells are seen:-

immunity in the skin
  • Macrophage
  • NK cells
  • Mast cell – produce histamine and serotonin
  • T helper cells – it provides help to other immune cells

The next stage is the hypodermis which has a large number of macrophages and neutrophils that phagocytosis the pathogen. Hence these following processes help in defending against the pathogens.

When a particular pathogen say a virus enters the cell, the immune system will get alerted through signals and they immediately send the correct immune cell to the target site. This occurs since either the immune system gets information naturally or artificially through previous infection or vaccine. This leads to the classification of immunity in humans.

So now we will consider a new and strong pathogen that has not been recognized by the immune system and has dodged those barriers and has entered inside the skin. Now it multiplies at a rapid rate and colonizes that particular area. Hence the cells in that area start to die and they release several signals like TNF, cytokines, interleukins. This gets combined with other signals like histamine, serotonin released from immune cells. Some of these signals produce direct effects on the target site as seen in the table.

An array of these signals triggers the immune system and it, in turn, starts the inflammation process and the cardinal signs are observed. This process lasts for some time and as it occurs; the pathogens decrease in number through phagocytosis and subsequently vanishes from the body. This can be observed by a decrease in the signs. After this process, the targeted site starts to heal and the immune system learns how to defend the pathogen when it enters the next time.

Now the damage caused by the pathogen has to be repaired by the process of healing.

  1. Haemostasis
  2. Inflammation
  3. Proliferation
  4. Maturation/Remodelling

The pathogen will rupture and damage the outer layer of blood vessels known as endothelium resulting in blood loss. Hence the blood vessels start to contract to prevent further loss. Also, a plug is formed at the site of leakage by the platelets. Then the process of inflammation occurs; clearing out the dead cells and the pathogen. In the proliferative stage, new blood cells are formed by a process known as neovascularisation and the new epithelium is formed. In the last phase, the newly formed cells become stronger and flexible. Hence the combination of these steps brings the affected area back to normal.

Hence the inflammation is an essential process in the immune system and it has to occur to prevent the conspiracy of the microbes. The next article is about vaccines and their principle of working.