Seijin no Hi

‘Seijin no Hi’ or the ‘Coming of Age day’ is celebrated on 15th January every year in Japan. This is a national holiday for people who have turned 20 years of age anytime between 2nd April of last year to 1st April of the ongoing year. It officially started in the year 1946, in the city of Warabi city, formerly known as Saitama.

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Every area in the city holds the ceremony in the local city halls. The people residing in the area who are registered to be turned 20 between the period of 2nd April to 1st April are invited to local city hall of that area. Speeches are given by the adults of the area, generally by important city hall figures and the people who have turned 20 are given souvenirs as a token of their memory of becoming an adult. The ceremony may be followed by a party, small scale parties are held for the new adults to welcome them into their adulthood in many areas. Families celebrate this event together.

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Now lets talk about the clothing. Both the boys and girls wear traditional clothing. Girls wear ‘Furisode’ which is kimono with really long sleeves that is worn by unmarried women. As for boys, they wear traditional clothing which is called ‘Hakama’. A Hakama is worn over a kimono and is tied down at the waist and falls approximately to the ankles. But recently boys have started wearing western style clothing as it is more comfortable to these events. Girl’s start preparing for this event months ago. During this period many salons start advertising to style girls for this day. many photo studios also provide them with special photo options to make this day even more memorable.

Do Vampires exist?

You probably have seen in movies and shows about these supernatural creatures such as Vampires, Werewolves, Witches, Wizards, etc. But did you ever thought from where did we got these idea? Do the supernatural creatures really exist. Let’s learn about vampires first.

Think about the features that a vampire have. What’s the first thing you thought? Shape teeths to suck blood may be? Glowing eyes? What if I tell you some people with these features exist.

There is a Vampire Disorder in which people suffering from this condition frequently have pointed teeth like carnivore animals. This disorders also has a difficult scientific name Hypohydrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia. Therefore, they look similar to the legendary blood feeding creatures from movies.

Symptoms

People with more prominent symptoms of this illness are

  1. Extremely thin and pale
  2. Eyes are outlined with dark circles
  3. Teeths are typically pointed
  4. Hair is absent
  5. Also they don’t like stakes not actually the beef kind

Problems

The biggest problem for such patients is not mistaken for considered as vampire but something else.

  1. They always have to check their temperature.
  2. Have to stay away from the sunlight
  3. Have to strictly avoid hot weather

They don’t have sweat glands and as you know these glands serve as a thermal regulating mechanism of our body. Imagine what could happen if it is broken. And above all this is the most typical syndrome of this disorder.

For example, Actor Michael Berryman, who suffered from this disease made a career playing horror movie characters.

So now you’ve probably figured out vampires exist or not.

Classic Treasure (Part-1)

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A classic is a book that has never finished saying what it has to say.

-Italo calvino

Books are man’s best friends. Among these amicable companions are books that are deemed intimidating and difficult to go through. The classics. These books being old, require a little more exertion to get familiar with. These books are composed of excellent plots, intriguing characters and amazing themes. These books, rather than being taken as a burdensome chore should be approached with certainty and enthusiasm. These masterpieces are sure to be worth your time!

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Curated below is a list of n timeless classics to sweep you off the mundane into the magical.

1.Pride & Prejudice:

Image result for pride and prejudice book

Pride & Prejudice is English novelist Jane Austen’s brilliantly woven satirical romance that touches upon some of the most familiar socio-economic issues, manners etc. A must for people beginning to traipse into classics.

“If a woman is partial to a man, and does not endeavour to conceal it, he must find it out.”

Jane Austen, Pride & Prejudice

2. Jane Eyre:

Image result for jane eyre book

Charlotte Bronte’s Jane Eyre, a book with a cracking plot and diverse themes of love and longing. The situations the character feels in this story, are realistic and relatable making the book almost lifelike and timeless. A must read in the classic genera.

“I could not unlove him now, merely because I found that he had ceased to notice me.”

Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre

3. Little Women:

‘Little Women’ is Louisa My Alcott’s most popular book that draws up a picture of American life in the early nineteenth century. The March family based in the story is the author’s own family. The book highlights themes such as love, principles, ambition, poverty and femininity brilliantly.

“Women have minds and souls as well as just hearts, and they’ve got ambition and talent as well as just beauty. And I’m sick of people saying love is all a woman is fit for.”

Louisa M. Alcott, Little Women

4.Wuthering Heights:

Emily Bronte’s acutely fashioned English classic, Wuthering Heights tells the tale of two families Earnshaws and Lintons and their relationship with Earnshaws’ adopted son Heathcliff. The most striking themes in the book are love, suffering, revenge, jealousy, the supernatural, society, race and class. An absolute must read.

“I have not broken your heart – you have broken it; and in breaking it, you have broken mine.”

Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights

5. Emma:

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Jane Austen’s yet another masterpiece weaves the story of a woman named Emma who is an inopportune matchmaker Emma who sets out a series of debacles in her quest to make the perfect matches. The book mainly revolves around courtship, marriage, matchmaking, social standing etc. A joy to read in classics.

“I lay it down as a general rule, Harriet, that if a woman doubts as to whether she should accept a man or not, she certainly ought to refuse him.”

Jane Austen, Emma

Attitude is a little thing that makes all the difference

“Whether you think you can, or you think you can’t—you’re right.”

—Henry Ford

When confronted with a challenge or problem, do you tackle it, or do you run the other way? Your attitude can go a long way toward determining how successful you are at meeting a challenge. You can choose to avoid it, find ways around it, or dig in and accept it, taking pleasure in accomplishing something difficult—or seemingly impossible.

But, there are few steps we can take to carve our attitude:

Adopt A Growth Mind-set. Some people have a fixed mind-set. They believe that talent and innate ability are set at birth and don’t change. If they fail, it’s because they just aren’t talented enough. And they often retreat from challenges to avoid failure.

Other people have a growth mind-set. They believe that the brain acts like a muscle, growing stronger with use. They are not afraid of challenges or hard work, which they believe will improve their skills and abilities. They often embrace seemingly impossible projects and view them as opportunities to grow, and they believe that, with practice, they can get better at anything.

Have a strong and positive outlook

Start With Success. At the beginning of a project, find a way to achieve a small victory. Is there a piece of the project that you already know how to do or can accomplish quickly? Starting off with a small success will put you in a positive frame of mind and give you the momentum to tackle the entire project.

Tell Yourself You Can. In any project, assume that your objective is possible, and work from there. Define your goal, and work backward to determine what you need to do to achieve it. If you can’t find a clear path forward, you can redefine some of the parameters or challenge some assumptions. As a last resort, you may need to redefine success. What are the crucial aspects of success, what would be nice to have, and what trade-offs are you willing to accept?

Act In A Way That Lends Itself To Growth. Learn to view your efforts as a path to mastery, not failure. Focus on how much you are learning and how much you are improving. Remember that if you don’t try, you will automatically fail, so anything you do is better than doing nothing. Celebrate your efforts and hard work, not your innate abilities. Enjoy and learn from the journey while remaining focused on the final destination.

Never give up attitude

Learn From Your Setbacks. Sometimes, things don’t turn out as planned. Unexpected consequences shouldn’t be thought of as mistakes but as interesting learning experiences. Figure out what happened, what you didn’t know, or what changed to cause the unexpected results. Then use that knowledge to better define the problem, develop an alternative theory, or determine what you need to learn next in order to continue on your road to a solution.

Remember, the problem is not the problem—it’s your attitude toward the problem.

SOURCES

https://cen.acs.org/articles/93/i35/Attitude-Makes-Difference.html

Best 10 Exciting Travel Movies of All Time.

“I love waking up in the morning not knowing what’s gonna happen or who I’m gonna meet” – Jack Dawson, Titanic.  The thrill of traveling, the way of life, the enjoyment you get from that is something a few movies portray beautifully. Now, in this period, we can enjoy that through the travel movies. You could be traveling for a variety of reasons, but these movies show that more often than not, it’s not the destination but the journey that matters. And when you have your friends or loved ones by your side, it becomes all the more beautiful.

Movies about traveling portray a lot of emotions and values in a span of 2 or three hours and always leave us asking for more. In the end, they leave you with a smile and a dream – to forget your worries and lead the lives of the protagonists of the movie. However, there are plenty of such movies out there, only a few stand out in terms of plot, dialogue, story and screenplay.

We have come up with a list of Best travel movies of all time for you. The list includes Best travel movies on Netflix, Best travel movies Hindi, Best travel movies on Netflix India and Best travel movies on amazon prime. So, read on and find out the best travel movies to watch.

1. Zindagi na Milegi Dobara

A beautiful classic movie starring Hritik Roshan, Farhan Akhtar, Abhay Deol, and Katrina Kaif, this movie is about a group of best friends who travel to Spain for a vacation – possibly their last as bachelors since one of them is all set to get married soon. The movie shows beautifully the bond between friends, their experiences, fears and problems and how during the course of their trip they all rediscover themselves. No wonder this tops the list of Best travel movies of all time.

2. Into the Wild

Into the Wild is the real story of Christopher McCandless, a young college graduate who gives his life savings and hitchhikes to Alaska. He encounters all sorts of people along the way, each with their own stories. To Canada, he’s going off into the wilderness to survive on his own. His life is full of crazy encounters and interactions as he’s on his way to “The Last Frontier”.

This film embodies the true meaning of travel. Encounters, positive and bad, make you who you are. And long-term travel is a multitude of new experiences. The trick is not to get absolutely over your head (as Christopher did). This is one of the Best travel movies on Netflix.

3. The Motorcycle Diaries

The dramatization of the Che Guevara Motorcycle Road Trip in his youth taught him his life’s calling. The awe-inspiring film is based on the memoirs of Che Guevara, a decade before he was an influential Latin American activist. Guevara (Gael Bernal) and his pal Alberto “Mial” Granado (Rodrigo De la Serna, Guevara’s real-life second cousin) mount a bicycle and race through South America for eight months and over 14,000 kilometers. That journey influenced the remainder of Guevara’s remarkable career. The film will encourage you to learn more about the remarkably beautiful continent.

4. Queen

This film brings Paris and Amsterdam to the protagonist and to our imagination. She figures out her own personality and discovers that you don’t really need a partner in your life to have fun. She doesn’t let her honeymoon tickets go waste so she wants to take the journey alone and this experience will forever change her life. She gets a new outlook on her own terms of living life.

5. Dil Chahta Hai

The film has set travel goals for a decade. Although the movie is known for many other things, the premise of friends traveling to hang out on Goa’s beaches is made up of stuff holiday goals! This was the film’s influence, and Goa became the young generation’s national holiday spot and remains so.

The movie is all about love, live, travel and is sure to leave you with sweet memories and desires to enjoy the same with your group of best friends. The musical score of the film is also worth mentioning – it is said that Shankar Mahadevan created the tune of the title song while sitting in a toilet!

6. Delhi In a Day

This is a Netflix original film and considered one of the Best travel movies on Netflix. From the aerial intro shots to the moment-by-moment depiction of how servants are being served in India, “Delhi in a Day” is a mirror kept in the capital city of India. Cultural variations between the young British man, Jasper (Lee Williams), and his Indian host family can be humorous and often awkward. Partly in the subtitles, the film tells the story of the slaves, families, and visitors.

Street views from Jasper’s morning drive through the capital include sights that make us yearn for the next flight: bikes swaying through traffic, elephants and handlers wandering along the sides of the street, and new constructions popping up all over the place. Gorgeous scenery and believable travel scenes will make you watch this movie more than once.

7. Amélia

This film is French and can be found on Netflix with English subtitles. And if you’ve seen this movie, it’s worth seeing again. This cute French film chronicles Amélie (pronounced by AH-May-Lee) in her everyday life in this surreal glimpse at life in Paris. “Amélie” is one of the most popular French movies because of its focus on this sweet, innocent girl (Audrey Tautou) who wishes to find love.

A completely subtitled film stays intriguing due to scenes like the mischievous pranks that Amélie performs on the mean-spirited grocery store or the gnome pictures she sends her father from across the globe. A visit to her French apartment, the open-air markets, and the café where Amélie works is sure to make everyone dream of Paris.

8. Yeh Jawani Hai Dewaani

“Main Daudna Chahta hu, Udna Chahta, Girna Bhi Chahta hu, bas rukna nahi chahta” –  who can forget this dialogue? This film is all about the love of traveling that Bunny (Ranbir Kapoor) has. Bordered by thick forests and shining in their white beauty, the snow-covered peaks of Gulmarg are majestic. Even though Gulmarg had passed away as Manali in the film, the film encouraged the bag-packers to leave everything aside and go on a trek with friends in this area.

The second half of the film captures the majestic palaces and temples of Rajasthan. And who can forget the theme wedding at Udaipur? And to think some people still say Rajasthan is all about the deserts!

9. Jab We Met

“Main Apni favorite hu” – another gem dialogue that Bollywood has given us. The film starts off with a train journey from Mumbai and makes some interesting stops at Ratlam, Kota, Bhatinda, Manali and Simla. Each city acts as a stop-over for the characters and the story of the film. This film surely made train journeys look really cool!

10. The Way

Once a young man dies on his walk along the El Camino de Santiago trail in France after a storm, his runaway father arrives to pick up his remains and take up the road where his son left off. Tom (Martin Sheen) is an aspiring hiker who encounters others along the trail and is seeking to discover more about his son and himself in the process. This is not only a journey of thrill but one filled with emotions, realizations and a lot of life-changing experiences. To every child and father reading this, it is a must-watch for you.

That wraps up the list of Best travel movies of all time. The list was cumulated to include Best travel movies Hindi, Best travel movies on amazon prime, Best travel movies on Netflix India, and Best travel movies of Bollywood. If your favorite is missing from the list or you wanna share your review about some of these movies you may have watched, let us know in the comments section!

LEARN TO APPRECIATE

Hi everyone,
Today I came up with an amazing content.
And my today’s topic is “LEARN TO APPRECIATE”.

Appreciation is a ‘wonderful word and a great motivation, which helps a person to move strongly and positively and happily’..

But Are we appreciating others or appreciating our own self??
And most of our answer will be ‘NO’. We do not appreciate our own self neither appreciating others. Instead, we are blaming and criticizing (not all but most of us).

Have we ever appreciated, *Our Mother for cooking us a delicious food, for keeping yourself healthy, for taking care of us.

Have we ever appreciated,
*Our father for guiding us, for supporting us financially, for boosting us.

Have we ever appreciated,
*our own sister for helping us.

Have we ever appreciated,
*A person who giving his/her best.

At least, have we ever appreciated our own self, for giving our best. No. We are not. Appreciation is necessary, we should appreciate.

Let’s us learn to appreciate each other.
Let’s us learn to appreciate small things.
Let’s us learn to appreciate everyone’s small efforts.
Let’s us do it.

But at the end of the day, it’s up to you whether you gonna appreciate or not.

The decision is left to you.

Choose wisely.

Have a wonderful day.

Keep smiling ❣️

5 tips to improve your communication skills

Communication skills are important as it helps us to receive and give messages and informations. Communication skills are vital in communicating ideas and feelings.

Types of Communication skills

  • Verbal communication.
  • Non-verbal communication.
  • Written, and
  • Visual communication.

Verbal communication involves the usage of words. Whereas non-verbal communication uses facial expressions, eye contact, gestures and body language.

Written communication is the interactions using written words. For example, letters, email, telegrams, postcards etc… Conveying ideas through visual elements is Visual communication.

Why communication is important?

I believe that the most important life skill is to be able to convey ideas effectively. Communication is the root to transfer messages from one person or place to another.

SOURCE: GOOGLE.
  • With communication skills, we will be able to get better responses.
  • Create an impressive professional image.
  • Strong business.
  • Networking will be simple.
  • Better control.
  • Confident.

Tips to improve communication

  1. Tv shows & Movies
  2. Books
  3. Listen to native speakers
  4. Practice public speaking
  5. Conversation fillers

Believe it or not, series and movies are an amazing way to improve communication skills. This way you get your dose of entertainment while learning. I used this technique to enhance my skills. I will come up with recommendations, do look out for it.

Books are valuable if used wisely one could learn a lot from them. There are plenty of genres to get us started with. When in doubt pick a genre of which movie you will be interested in. Here’s an example, I love thriller movies so when it comes to books I choose thriller and murder mystery.

We have apps, YouTube videos and classes to help us listen to native speakers. In that way, we will get to improve our listening skills too. Native speaker’s tone, way of speaking, body language and usage of words will mould our way of speaking.

Public speaking is an art. It can be mastered with little effort from our side. In today’s world, we have technology by our side if used effectively, one can master any language.

Try to avoid conversation gaps, instead use fillers such as “I mean”, ” you know”, “alright”, ” basically“, etc. The most common fillers are hmm and ah. When we use these fillers the flow of the conversation will be smooth.

Tips for effective communication

“The most important thing in communication is to hear what isn’t being said.”

– Peter F. Drucker

When it comes to communication, non-verbal communication is important too.

Deliver simple yet clear messages

Can you listen to someone who uses Shakespeare’s style of language while talking about a pitch meeting? No. It will be tiresome. While communicating one must remember to keep the language simple and efficient. The message should be clear and concise.

Take time to respond

Taking some time to respond doesn’t mean you are in doubt. We can’t be spontaneous in every situation. There might be a heavy and important responsibility if we answer without forethought, it might put things out of order.

Body language is like salt to our food

Too much salt and less of the same is not satisfactory. Body language should be overdone. People tend to notice body language it should show warmth and add a filter to the conversation. “Action speaks louder than words.”

Maintain eye contact

Trying to uphold the eye contact game. But remember, too much of anything is not good. Try not to stare at the person instead maintain healthy, non-creepy eye contact. It will create an impression and acts as a signal that you are indeed interested in the conversation.

Understand their needs and values

People like those who can understand and value them. We all have feelings, bad days and battling our battles. It is better to recognize their side of the story. Try to be more of a listener than speaker.

“The art of communication is the language of leadership.”

– James Humes

Next time you think of communicating with either your teammates or any professional individual. Try to follow these points. Hope you found it informative. Thank you!

Hina Matsuri

Hina matsuri or doll festival or girl’s day, is a festival for girls which is held on 3rd March every year. It is also called ‘Joshi no Sekku, ‘Momo no Sekku’ or ‘Sangatsu Sekku’. This day is also known as ‘Momo no Sekku’ as the peach flowers start to bloom around this period. On this day, the members of the family pray for the health, happiness and prosperity of girls of the family. Now this has become a tradition to dispaly Hina-Ningyo or the Hina dolls on this day. This festivity dates back to the Edo era when these dolls were specifically used to ward off evil spirits back in those days.

Photo by Satoshi Hirayama on Pexels.com

Hina-Ningyo dolls consists of around 15 dolls that are seated on red cloth underneath them with a Heian period setting. They generally have a 5-7 tier setting with the bottom or the 7th tier displaying the items that the emperor and the empress use while they are away from the comforts of the palace; on the 6th tier, items that are used in the palace are displayed; on the 5th tier, dolls of helpers of the palace are displayed; on the 4th tier, dolls of ministers are displayed; on the 3rd tier, dolls of male musicians are displayed; on the 2nd tier, dolls of ladies of the court are displayed; and on the top or the 1st tier, imperial dolls or the dolls of the emperor and the empress are displayed.

Photo by Evgeny Tchebotarev on Pexels.com

Families celebrate it by having a meal together, eating ‘Hishimochi’ or ‘diamond shaped rice cakes’ and drink ‘Shirozake’, that is made of rice malt and sake. Although the customs differ slightly from region to region, the main gist of celebrating this festival remains the same.

Gender and Socialization

Children learn early on that there are different expectations of boys and girls. Cross-cultural studies show that children get aware of gender roles by the age of two or three. By four or five years of age, most children are firmly embedded in the culturally appropriate gender roles. Children acquire these roles through socialization, a process in which people learn to behave in certain ways dictated by society’s values, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, society often views motorcycling as a male activity and therefore sees it as a part of the male gender role. Attitudes like this are usually based on stereotypes, oversimplified ideas about group members. Gender stereotypes involve an over-generalization of the attitudes, characteristics, or behavior patterns of women or men. For example, women may be thought of as too timid or weak to ride a motorcycle.

Gender stereotypes form the basis of sexism; Sexism refers to biased beliefs that place one gender over another; varies in severity; In parts of the world where women are severely undervalued, girls may not have equal access to food. They will also grow up believing that they deserve to be treated differently from boys. While it is illegal as discrimination in the United States, inequality of women continues to permeate social life. It should be noted that gender discrimination occurs at both micro and macro levels. Many sociologists focus on the discrimination that is built into the social fabric. This type of discrimination is known as institutional discrimination. Gender socialization occurs through four main agents in socialization: family, education, peers, and media. Each agent reinforces gender roles by creating and maintaining normative expectations for gender-specific behavior. Exposure also comes from secondary agents such as religion and the workplace. Repeated exposure to these agents over time leads men and women to mislead them into thinking that they are acting naturally rather than following a socially constructed role.

Family is the first agent of socialization. There is considerable evidence that parents socialize sons and daughters differently. Generally speaking, girls are given more latitude to step outside of their prescribed gender role. However, differential socialization typically results in greater privileges afforded to sons. For instance, boys are allowed more autonomy and independence at an earlier age than daughters. They may be given fewer restrictions on appropriate clothing, dating habits, or curfew. Sons are also often free from performing domestic duties such as cleaning or cooking and other household tasks that are considered feminine. Daughters are limited by their expectation to be passive and nurturing, generally obedient, and to assume many of the domestic responsibilities.

The strengthening of gender roles and stereotypes will continue till the child has reached school age. Until recently, schools made an explicit effort to stratify boys and girls. The first step in stratification was segregation. The girls were encouraged to take courses in home economics or the humanities. Studies suggest that gender socialization in schools is still happening today, possibly in a less overt way. Teachers may not even realize that they are acting to reproduce separated gender behavioral patterns. Ask students to arrange their seats or to align by gender, teachers may indicate that boys and girls should be treated differently.

Imitating the actions of other important people is the first step in developing separate sense of self. Like adults, children become agents who actively promote normative gender expectations and apply them to their surroundings. When children do not conform to the appropriate gender role, they may face negative sanctions such as being criticized or marginalized by their peers. Though many of these sanctions are informal, they can be quite severe. For example, a girl who wishes to take karate lessons instead of dance lessons may be referred to as a “tomboy” and has difficulty gaining acceptance from male and female peer groups. Children in particular are severely ridiculed because of gender mismatches.

Mass media serves as another significant agent of gender socialization. In television and films, women tend to play a less important role and are often portrayed as wives or mothers. When women are given a lead role, it often falls at one of the two extremes: a healthy and holy figure or a malicious hypersexual figure. The same inequality is widespread in children’s films.

THINGS NOT TO DO WHILE STUDYING

In student life, studying plays a critical role. The method of studying differs from student to student. Also, some students can learn in a short time and can even memorize new things at the last minute before exams. 

Studying
Studying

The only thing needed during studies is “FOCUS”.

 Here are some tips for what NOT to do while studying.

 1. Put down the highlighters

Yes, using too many highlighters might distract your focus. So, use a maximum of two highlighters. Never use highlighters before re-reading the text. Avoid using it as a way not to take notes. Taking handwritten notes is highly recommended and using a highlighter in handwritten notes is the best way to study.

Taking notes is essential
Taking notes is essential

2. Avoid re-reading too much

Re-reading the entirety of the same text you read for initial learning doesn’t appear to work. Remember, this is re-reading for studying, not initial learning. During initial learning, it will likely take two (or more) readings of the material.

3.Use your bed for sleeping

Lying down in your bed while studying is not a great idea. Researches show that our mind is less likely to work on studying in bed. Everyone has preferences for places to study.

Don't lie on bed while studying.
Don’t lie on bed while studying.

Some people like large, crowded spaces, while other like isolated silence. Look for a study place that: 

  • Good lighting
  • near your stationery supplies and books
  • Calm background
  • isn’t too hot or cold
  • a comfortable seat

4.No music while studying

Never listen to music while studying. Researches show that listening to music while studying can activate the wrong part of the brain to store. So, listen to all music before studying. If you still want to listen to music, then turn on some light classic melodies in the background, which is preferable. 

5.Not a marathon

If you plan on studying for a long time, then stick to a schedule with regular breaks. Don’t do a marathon on studying, which has high chances of making your brain tired and tendency to store more.

Gaming – pros and cons

All of us at some point of our life have played some game, at least candy crush. So why not we know what the pros and cons are. We see Indian parents being against gaming and thinking it as a sin or something but is it really that bad? I have seen streamers play for 25 hours for their 25th birthday, is it that good for health?

Pros of gaming

  • Gaming is not actually that bad. There is good as well as a bad side for everything in this world just like gaming. Gaming improves our logical thinking and reflexes. As a gamer myself I can say that I have seen improving in the particular game by learning all tactics and stuff. So it is not a waste of time.

  • Social skills – Gamers can easily develop their social skills. If it is a multiplayer game, you need to communicate with your teammates. You will be communicating with people from various places and over time you will find yourself making a bunch of gamer friends online.

  • I am not sure about physical health but it does improve your mental health. My go-to mood changes is always gaming. It is like you sunk into the virtual world, so obviously you forget your life problems and have a good game. You will be inside the virtual world thinking how to kill this guy, how to win this match etc. and that would be your major problem at that time.

  • Increases brain function. You give your brain exercise by thinking deeply about how to win this match or something. Video games gives us a reason to implement reasoning and logical ability.

Cons of gaming

  • Health issues – I am not a doctor to find out what exactly it does to our eyes or health but I do know it is not good for our eyes to sit and play for more than 3 hours. For me 3 hours is the maximum, if I play beyond that I tend to get headaches. Obviously screen time should be reduced as everything now is done online. So it is better if we start playing outdoor games.

  • Too much of anything is good for nothing. Addiction is bad no matter what is it. That too addiction towards gaming is going to affect you mentally and physically as well. You can play games daily for a limited time but you can’t play the whole day.

  • The amount of negativity in the gaming community is more than negativity in any other place. I encounter with toxic players everyday. It is just easy for them to be toxic and hurt you as they are hiding behind a fake identity “game name”.

  • Not concentrating on other works. Going into the virtual world and never coming back to the real world is another problem. Again we need to know our limits of when to stop gaming. Anything in limit is not harmful according to me.

Conclusion

The only reason why parents are against gaming is that we tend to play for hours and hours and spoil our health which our parents obviously don’t like. So let them know that few hours of gaming is good and not going to affect anyone and have fun!

5 Tips on How to be Successful in Life

This article inspires, motivates, encourages and draws you closer to your success by discussing 55 simple tips on how to be successful in life.You can apply these tips to help you navigate the stormy oceans of life towards the island of success.Success is reaching a predetermined goal and accomplishing something that is of value or important to you or others which you had set out to do in the past.Success is the desire, aspiration and drive to do something meaningful, important, significant, valuable or substantial that has an impact on your life and other people.You are the only person who intimately knows what you want to accomplish in life and what kind of achievement will have the greatest meaning, fulfillment and impact in your life.Success is not easy. You already knew that, but what does it take to be successful in life? What does success mean? How can you be successful? How will you know when you become successful?

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  1. Define Success on Your Own Terms
  2. Have a Big Dream
  3. Take Action
  4. Start Small/Make Regular Small Steps
  5. Aim to Make a Difference

Define Success on Your Own Terms

Different people have different definitions of success. What success means to one person could be totally different from another person.

The first step in your journey to success is to have your own clear definition of what success means to you.This is an exercise similar to determining your destination before you embark on your journey.Once you know your destination, there are many ways you can follow to get to your endpoint. Even when you get off track, it is easy to get back on the road.

The most challenging thing is when you do not have a clear destination. In this case you would be wandering around without a clear objective or purpose.You have to fight for your success.

It will not be handed to you.Prepare to go to the battlefield of success with a made up mind full of focus with images of winning the battle firmly imprinted on your mind.Your definition of success should be a source of motivation and energize you to get started and keep working on your success journey.

Have a Big Dream

How big are your dreams? What is the greatest thing that you want to achieve in your life?Challenge yourself to dream bigger. Decide that you want more fulfillment for yourself.Your dream is the destination of where you want to be in the future.When you are dreaming, do not worry about how you will achieve the dream, for now just focus on seeing the big dream in your mind as clearly as you can.

The goal of dreaming big is to create a better life for yourself and others. Imagine endless possibilities for your life, your career, your family and the world.

A big dream is a substantial wish or an aspiration for something, of which when we attain it; we believe it would fulfill or satisfy an inner longing or desire.

Visualize the outcomes that you want in your life. Zoom in on a few big ideas or one specific big idea that has the greatest meaning for you.By daring to dream big and going forward to reach for your dreams you in turn inspire others to dare to dream big and aim to attain the highest purpose of their life.

Take Action

The simple truth is that dreams, visions and goals are achieved and accomplished only through action.Taking the first step is usually the hardest part of the journey. Start at the level where you are then grow and increase your skill level and output over time.

Action increases your confidence and leads to more action. Taking action gives birth to momentum.Simply put, by taking action you get things done.Action strengthens you.

It grows you, makes you smarter, you learn more, you self-correct as you move along, you improve and become better.By taking action you get things done.However, it won’t be all smooth sailing, you will stumble and make missteps along the way but firmly picture the end result on your mind as you keep pushing forward and making focused progress towards your success.

Start Small/Make Regular Small Steps

Are you feeling overwhelmed about starting? Don’t worry many people do. They feel fearful, confused, paralyzed, overwhelmed, anxious and apprehensive when it comes time to start.

Do not be discouraged by how many times you have to start to gain your balance, once you gain your balance take a few easy steps and then a few more.You don’t have to do it all at once, this is a common misconception, you need to take one bite at a time.

One positive aspect of starting small is you discover what works and what doesn’t.Perhaps you had assumptions that looked good in theory but when you applied them they did not work out as you had thought.

This gives you an opportunity to evolve and discover new ways of achieving your objectives. Your plans and ideas could expand into ways and areas that you had not imagined before.

You could gain more insights about the goal you are pursuing and you will learn more about yourself. Your level of confidence will also increase as you persist by moving forward.When starting small you can focus on every detail that needs your attention.

You can also experiment and test new ideas.Starting small and taking small steps helps you to test the waters before diving in.

The key to growth and progress is to do a bit more each new day than you did the previous day and make small improvements as you move along.

Aim to Make a Difference

There are two main ways to make a difference in life, one way is to make a difference in yourself and the second is to make a difference in others’ lives.Success stems from living a life where you truly gave it your all and worked on attaining the greatest good for yourself and other people.Making a difference in your life begins by taking an inventory of your current life situation.

The inventory includes analyzing where you are emotionally, physically and mentally.Are you happy with where you are right now? Are you living your life to the fullest? Are you putting your skills, talents and abilities to the best possible use?It becomes significantly easier to help others and make a difference in their lives when we have taken care of our lives or are actively taking steps and action to be where we want to be in our lives.Add value in everything that you do. Think of how your dreams and ideas could help solve the problems of other people.

Your solution could be your business opportunity that could make a difference in both your life and others.

Unity In Diversity

India is a great country where people of different religions and cultures live in different regions. They live in harmony. It is known as Unity in Diversity. 

The Unity in diversity was coined by Late. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, leader of the Indian national congress and Prime minister of India. Main 5 examples of unity in diversity have given.

How does unity in diversity represent India: Indian people can speak any language and can believe in any religion. Nobody is allowed to interfere in their affairs.

India does not have one but many great traditions. Although, the Hindu religion is the oldest religion. Yet, the other religions also enjoy full freedom and respect. 

People of all religions live united. Sometimes they take part in one another’s festivals. For example, Diwali, Holi, and Id have become common festivals that explain about what are the main reasons for unity in diversity in Indian society.

India has been ruled by the Mughals and the English for centuries.  But even the foreign rulers have not been able to destroy the Indian traditions and cultures. 

Indian culture is so old and vast that it can absorb the good things of any other culture. No doubt, some states of India have been carved out on the basis of language but it is only a political division. 

In the new states, people of all languages and religions are living normally as they used to live before. 

The English ruled over India with the policy of Divide and Rule’ but it could not completely change the mindset of thinking of the people. 

The unity of the country has been attacked many times but it is sound as ever.

There has been Unity in Diversity in India for hundreds of years. It is now for the younger generation to keep it intact.

Importance of Unity in Diversity in India points 

India is a land of different languages and different religions. The population of the country also lives in different states. 

People of every state speak their own language and the other languages also. They celebrate their local festivals along with the national festivals. 

(1) Customs and traditions: They do not interfere in the customs and traditions of others. Everyone is free to go to any place of worship. 

There is no restriction in the celebration of marriage rites, etc. Thus, there is Unity in Diversity in India. It is not a new concept but this tradition is in vogue since time immemorial.

People of many religions like Islam, Jainism, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Hinduism live in India. Every religion has its own principles. 

(2) All religions: Some religions are further divided into sects. In the past, sometimes religions have been a great dividing force of the Indian community. 

But on the whole, people of all sects had been living in unity and harmony. All the religions have enriched the civilization of India.

Indian society has seen many ups and downs in the ancient past. In those days, the missionaries of every religion tried to persuade the people of other religions to join their religion. 

This conversion of religion has not stopped even in the modern age. The Muslim invaders and the English also tried to make a dent in the Indian culture. 

(3) Different living styles in Indian culture: No doubt, some of the Indian people have adopted some customs and traditions of the Muslims and the English. But they have not totally given up on the Indian way of life and the Indian culture.

They still live with one another like human beings. Without interfering in the customs and traditions of the other sect, all are living in unity.

It is true that the problem of diversity in Indian traditions and cultures has a great impact on the process of unity of the civilization. 

This unity can be observed at several levels. Traveling mendicants, traders, storytellers, craftsmen, and artists in traditional India established cultural bridges of unity between regions and cultural traditions. 

The institution of pilgrimage, fairs, and festivals provided yet another nodal point for communication and for cultural unity in the framework of its diversity.

(4) Importance to secularism: However, we had to see the ugly face of religion when the partition of India took place. Later on, the Constitution of India gave paramount importance to secularism. 

The constitution guarantees each individual the freedom to profess, practice, and propagate any religion and assures strict impartiality towards all religions. 

It clearly shows that India is a secular state. The prime ministers and presidents of India have been persons belonging to different religions. 

In spite of this, certain anti-national forces and external forces try to disrupt the unity of the country by encouraging communal feelings. For some time, they do succeed in their mission but ultimately they fail.

(5) Civilization and Culture: The Indian Civilization and Culture are based on religious and moral values. These are the strength of India’s unity. Cultural unity and diversity of faiths go side by side in India. 

There may be some clashes off and on between the people of the two communities. But these unfortunate occurrences are forgotten like a bad dream. 

If you visit some parts of the country, you will find the people of all communities living in harmony. A common thread of unity binds them all. 

This is because that the Indian culture has preserved its fundamental character through the ages.

We have passed through many revolutionary changes in the economic and political field in recent times. But we have not discarded our past. 

(6) Rich cultural heritage: Our rich cultural heritage and its values have permanently remained with us. They pass from one generation to another. 

Indian civilization has evolved through many stages providing a network of ideologies and institutions which offer unity in plurality. 

These institutions and guiding principles reflect the cultural-religious traditions of Hinduism. But they also emerge as a composite system of values.

During the reign of the English in India, the British followed a contradictory policy in pursuit of their colonial objectives. 

With their policy of divide and rule’, they disintegrated India into various castes, creeds, tribes, religions, and language groups with no sense of unity. 

They propagated, esp. through their toadies, that we were never a nation. They further said that India was never a united nation. 

They did their utmost to make us fight with one another. But India and its people made it clear that they are one and will remain one.

In order to maintain our unity in diversity, we shall have to take some solid steps. 

(7) Constitution: The Constitution of India, which was framed after Independence, reflects and incorporates the dualism of territory, religion, language, caste, and tribe, etc. 

Then it also propounds the foundations of a civic society based on secularism, rationalism, freedom, and equality. 

At the same time, it also recognizes the special rights and privileges of those sections of the Indian society which were exploited for centuries. 

They still feel insecure due to their minority status in society. We should take along all the sections of the unprivileged classes to maintain unity in diversity. 

Religion, regionalism, and language issues raise their ugly head at the time and people are divided into these lines. 

But these diversities are short-lived and good sense prevails on the people sooner or later. People again begin to live in unity. 

This unity has been witnessed during Chinese aggression and during wars with Pakistan in 1965 and 1971. 

During the undeclared war with Pakistan in the Kargil sector, the whole country rose up in unison and demonstrated the true national spirit of unity.

Conclusion of unity in diversity

How can we promote national unity in diversity: The Indian government has always made keen efforts to create cultural awakening among the people of all categories. 

It has tried to promote national integration and national unity by organizing big cultural events. It has also set up some regional cultural centers in different parts of the country. 

All these steps will promote strengthening the common bond of unity among the people. In spite of the diversity in the people’s beliefs and religions, there is no danger to India’s unity.

Aryabhata

Aryabhatta (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His works include the Aryabhattya (499 CE, when he was 23 years old) and the Arya-siddhanta. 

Time and place of birth

Aryabhatta mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476.

Aryabhatta provides no information about his place of birth. The only information comes from Bhaskara I, who describes Aryabhatta as asmakiya, “one belonging to the Asmaka country.” During the Buddha’s time, a branch of the Asmaka people settled in the region between the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India; Aryabhatta is believed to have been born there.

Education


Education


It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhaskara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as Pa?aliputra, modern Patna. A verse mentions that Aryabhatta was the head of an institution (kulapa) at Kusumapura, and, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhatta might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well.Aryabhatta is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar

Works


Aryabhatta is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, some of which are lost. His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry, and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, and a table of sines.

VEHICLES

Vehicles a means of carrying or transporting something

BICYCLE

A bicycle, also called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered or motor-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist.

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe, and by the early 21st century, more than 1 billion were in existence. These numbers far exceed the number of cars, both in total and ranked by the number of individual models produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as children’s toys, general fitness, military and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing, and bicycle stunts.

MOTOR VEHICLES

A motor vehicle, also known as motorized vehicle or automotive vehicle, is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails (such as trains or trams) and is used for the transportation of people or cargo.

The vehicle propulsion is provided by an engine or motor, usually an internal combustion engine or an electric motor, or some combination of the two, such as hybrid electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids.

As of 2011, there were more than one billion motor vehicles in use in the world, excluding off-road vehicles and heavy construction equipment.[3][4][5] The US publisher Ward’s estimates that as of 2019, there were 1.4 billion motor vehicles in use in the world.

RAILED VEHICLES

A road–rail vehicle is a dual-mode vehicle which can operate both on rail tracks and a conventional road. They are also called hi-rail, from highway and railway, or variations such as high-rail, HiRail, Hy-rail, etc.

They are often converted road vehicles, keeping their normal wheels with rubber tires, but fitted with additional flanged steel wheels for running on rails. Propulsion is typically through the conventional tires, the flanged wheels being free-rolling; the rail wheels are raised and lowered as needed. Purpose-built road–rail vehicles also exist.

WATERCRAFT

Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles used in and on water, including boats, ships, hovercraft, and submarines. Watercraft usually have a propulsive capability (whether by sail, oar, paddle, or engine) and hence are distinct from a simple device that merely floats, such as a log raft.

AIRCRAFT

An aircraft is a vehicle or machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil,[2] or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, helicopters, airships (including blimps), gliders, paramotors, and hot air balloons.

The human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion, usage and others.

Social Media and Its Impact on Mental Health

by Yogiraj Sadaphal.

The majority of people use at least one major social media platform, yet they are unaware of the impact that everyday social media use can have. It’s fun to scroll through memes, images, and life updates from individuals you’ve met along the way, but we frequently overlook how social media affects how we act and think.

The Impact of Social Media on Mental Health:

Humans are social creatures by nature. To succeed in life, we require the company of others, and the strength of our bonds has a significant impact on our mental health and happiness. Being socially linked to people can help you cope with stress, worry, and depression, increase your self-esteem, bring comfort and joy, prevent loneliness, and even add years to your life. On the other hand, a lack of strong social relationships can put your mental and emotional health at risk.

Many of us use social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, YouTube, and Instagram to locate and communicate with one another in today’s society. While each has its own set of advantages, it’s important to remember that social media will never be a substitute for real human interaction.

Benefits of Social Media:

While virtual interaction on social media does not have the same psychological benefits as face-to-face contact, it can nevertheless help you stay connected and improve your wellbeing in a variety of ways.

1. Stay in touch and updated with family and friends all across the world.

2. During difficult circumstances, seek or provide emotional assistance.

3. If you live in a remote area, have limited independence, social anxiety, or are a member of a marginalized group, find a critical social connection.

4. Find a reliable sources of useful information and education.

5. One of the biggest advantages of social media is that making friends has never been easier. It was difficult to connect with people just a few decades ago, unless you were the overly extroverted sort who could strike up a discussion with anybody and everyone at an event.

6. Social media can be utilized for a variety of good reasons, such as social welfare and the promotion of non-profit organizations (NGOs). Not only that, but it also aids in the transformation of people’s lifestyles. It raises awareness and assists individuals in discovering new ideas that can help them improve their life.

The Negative Aspects of Social Media:

Social networking is such a new technology, little research has been done to determine its long-term effects, both positive and negative. Multiple studies, however, have linked heavy social media use to an increased risk of depression, anxiety, loneliness, self-harm, and even suicide ideation and some are as follow.

1. Isolation.

According to a study conducted at the University of Pennsylvania, frequent use of Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram increases rather than lowers loneliness. Reduced social media usage, on the other hand, can help you feel less lonely and isolated, as well as increase your general wellbeing, according to the study.

2. Depression and Anxiety.

To be mentally healthy, humans require face-to-face contact. Eye-to-eye contact with someone who cares about you relieves stress and improves your mood faster and more efficiently than anything else. You’re more likely to acquire or develop mood disorders like anxiety and depression if you prefer social media activity over in-person relationships.

3. Cyberbullying.

Around 10% of teenagers say they’ve been bullied on social media, and many others have received nasty comments. Twitter and other social media platforms can be hotbeds for spreading harmful rumors, lies, and abuse that can leave emotional scars.

4. Feelings of Incompetence in your life or Appearance.

Even if you are aware that the photographs you see on social media have been edited, they can still make you feel anxious about how you appear or what is going on in your life. Similarly, we’re all aware that others only discuss the great aspects of their lives, rarely the sad points that everyone goes through.

Spending more Time on Social Media than with Friends in Real Life.

Many of your offline social interactions have been replaced by using social media. Even when you’re out with friends, you feel compelled to check social media on a regular basis, frequently motivated by the fear that others are having more fun than you.

Milestones in India’s science and technological development

The fashionable age is the age of science, technology and knowledge in which all of these are interrelated and are different aspects of the same thing. Explosion of knowledge and data , supported breathtaking advancement within the world of science and technology, has bestowed on man powers enviable even for gods. it’s helped man conquer space and time. Now one has unraveled many mysteries of nature and life and is ready to face new challenges and move forward within the realm of the unknown and thus the undiscovered. In India there has been an extended and distinct tradition of scientific research and technological advancement since the past .

Since independence, India has accelerated it’s speed and efforts in this field and have established many research laboratories, institutions of upper learning and technical education. The results would make anybody’s heart swell with pride , confidence and fulfillment. The best, however, is yet to return . The central and state governments, various public and private sector establishments are engaged in scientific research and technological development to require the state on the trail of rapid development, growth and prosperity. There are about 200 research laboratories spread everywhere in the country. The institutions of upper learning, and universities, the fashionable temples of learning, are all committed to need the country forward. they’re well equipped and staffed to secure for the people of the state all the blessings and benefits which can accrue from the acquisition and application of knowledge and technology. But there is no room for complacency, for during this field only the sky’s the limit and that we are yet a developing country.

Our technology policy is comprehensive and well thought out. It aims at developing indigenous technology to ensure efficient absorption and adoption of imported technology suitable to national priorities and availability of resources. Its main objective is attainment of technical competence and self- reliance, leading to reduction in vulnerability in strategic and important areas.

With a view to strengthening our economy and industrial development, our government has introduced many structural reforms through adoption of a replacement industrial policy which features an important pertaining to the programmes of development concerning science and technology. Consequently, technology has become our mainstay enterprise and now we’ve built a robust and reliable infrastructure for research, training and development in science and technology. Within the field of agriculture, our scientific and technological researches have enabled us to be self-reliant and self-sufficient in food grains.

Today, India withstand droughts and natural calamities with much greater confidence than ever before. Now, we are at an edge to export food grains, etc. and are on the sting of white and blue revolutions. Our agricultural scientists and farmers, who are always ready to imbibe new technologies, our country has many kinds of hybrid seeds, crop- protection technologies, balanced farming practices and better water and irrigation management techniques. Similarly within the sector of economic research, we’ve achieved many milestones and India is emerging as a significant industrial power of the earth .

The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), which has its network of research laboratories and institutions, has been chiefly instrumental in our major achievements in scientific and industrial research. We’ve now joined the exclusive club of six advanced nations by developing our own supercomputer at the Centre for Development of Advance Computing (C- CAD) at Pune. Our Atomic Research Commission, acknowledged in 1948, is engaged in valuable nuclear research for peaceful purposes. The chief agency for implementing atomic energy programmes is the Department of atomic energy . The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, near Mumbai is the most important single scientific establishment within the country, directing nuclear research. Now, we’ve five research reactors, including Cyrus, Dhruua, Zerina and Purnima. We’ve administered two underground nuclear tests at Pokhran in Rajasthan.

This is often an interesting achievement by our nuclear scientists, which has enabled us to become one of the chosen few countries on earth to have done it. India is additionally the first developing country, and one of the seven countries of the earth to master fast breeding technology. Research in breeder technology is currently happening at Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research at Kalpakkam, Chennai. The successful launching of the Polar Space Launching Vehicle (PSLV- D-2), in October 1994, marked India’s entry into the league of the world’s major space powers. Within the INSAT-2 series of satellites, launched first in 1992, India has shown its ability to fabricate complex systems like anything made anywhere within the earth . Our previous launches of the SLV-3 and thus the SLV were merely stepping stones to what’s going to be the workhorses of the business, the PSLV, which can launch one tone satellite into orbit of up to 1000 km, and therefore the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle, which can take 2.5 tonne satellite to orbits 36,000 km away. India’s space programme rocketed to greater heights with the successful launch of the second Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D2) in May, 2003. As has been rightly observed, the challenge before Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is to take care of the momentum of the programme by integrating it with other missions. The foremost obvious ones are related to military communication and reconnaissance.India’s first space mission to specialize in an extraterrestrial landing, Chandrayaan-2, would have commenced by the time you read this. It’s a symbol achievement for India’s technological capability, in areas ranging from propulsion , signals and communications, materials, robotics, remote guidance and even AI , to let the lunar lander navigate on its own on the far side of the moon. If successful on all targeted fronts, it’d also increase humankind’s understanding of cosmology and thus the origins of the planet , because the moon probably could also be a piece of this planet that got thrown out at a stage when it had been mostly molten matter. And, of course, it’d cause greater understanding of the moon itself, its chemistry and composition. America landed men on the moon essentially to demonstrate that it had overcome the Sputnik scare — the shock realisation that the Soviet Union was before it in space science and technology which its own education system had to repair for greater specialize in science and maths — and had beaten the Soviet Union therein lone area of human achievement during which the Communist nation had been ahead.

Achievements in space still have a component of demonstration of technological capability, apart from their intrinsic utility. So, becoming the fourth nation within the world, behind the US, the previous Soviet Union and China, to land a mobile explorer on the moon, tells the earth of India’s capability altogether the intricate technologies that are marshalled and harmonised to carry out Chandrayaan-2, its predecessor having orbited the moon with a proximity of 100km. The mission, conceived in 2008, has taken 11years to end . The mission director and thus the project director are both women, to boot. The Indian Space Research Organisation is standing testimony to the overall public sector’s capacity to deliver outstanding results, when given autonomy and resources. There’s a case for similar public sector initiatives in cyber security, telecom systems and AI . What it lacks is political vision and commitment. Our success on Antarctica speaks volumes of our scientific genius and technological wisdom within the world . So far, 13 scientific expeditions by our oceanographers,scientists and technicians are to Antarctica where we’ve two permanent stations on the icy continent. within the field of defence also our achievements are quite laudable.

The successful production of such missiles as Prithvi and Nag testify to the high capabilities and achievements of our scientists. we’ve also been successful in producing opt-electronic preparation and night-vision devices required for our indigenous tanks. The HAL at Bangalore has already produced the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH). Obviously, technology has been used effectively as a tool and instrument of national development and yet much remains to be achieved so that its benefits reach the masses. Scientists within the country will strive hard to bring technological developments to people’s doorsteps.

Therefore, they can not rest on their laurels, but should remember the famous and galvanizing lines of the poet Robert Frost: The woods are lovely, dark and deep, But I even have promises to stay, And miles to travel before I sleep……

Dear Exams|Please be nice.

Introduction

“Exams and grades are temporary, but education is permanent.” Education is an important medium for the development of any country. India being a part of it is moving forward towards globalization, which has proved to have a positive effect on the education system, in a way making it simpler and easier. The advent of technology has steadily digitized all services and offerings, taking them to the online platform and examination has been no exception. Is it better to test it on bamboo paper or a digital page?  In my opinion, the benefits of e-examinations exceed their drawbacks.

It’s all about Exams…!!!

Why is it beneficial?

The traditional pen-and-paper exams not only affect the surroundings but also come at a high cost as far as institutions are concerned. The climate change crisis being the foremost priority forces an individual to make efforts for the reduction of natural resources. The adverse environmental impact of mercilessly cutting down trees for paper is evident. However, as far as administrative costs are concerned, it proves to be an economical way to conduct examinations on a large scale. For instance, there is no need to have spacious classrooms to fit in students, the flexibility of time and checking without glitches impels efficiency for examiners as well as examinees. Altogether, it helps education centers to go paper-free and eliminate expensive processes.

 

Don’t strive for high grades,

But always for higher learning.

Motivation hard work always leads to success.

A secured, simple, and auto-graded system has been possible, due to the advancements in technology. It has enhanced the privacy of students, reducing the risk of any malicious activities such as cheating or paper leaks. Further, the ease of setting up questionnaires, procedures, and access proves it to be reliable. Also, the automatic scoring by computers mandates flawless marking, decreases teacher’s burden, saves time, and ensures fairness. According to a survey was done by A.P Barkley, the potential for student learning is growing because of frequent assessment and reduced plagiarism. Overall, it builds mutual trust between the two, providing transparency and bias-free results. 

Let’s look at it’s demerits

When looking at the other side of the coin, we come across a few disadvantages as well. Firstly, poor internet connection can hamper the student’s possibility to attempt the examination and in turn the grades. Secondly, it does not accommodate all exam modes like long answers, letters, essays, etc. Teachers have to stick to either multiple choice or short answer questions. On the whole, two of them have to compromise their comforts. 

In conclusion, online exams have it’s own strengths and flaws, meanwhile, the pros outshine the cons. In an ever-changing world, online tests and e-assessment are at the center of it. It can be a powerful tool to educate students from diverse backgrounds and places. 

Note: students often get nervous and it, in turn, affects their results. Here are some tips to remember before appearing a test.

  • Have a thorough revision of the syllabus.
  • Take a five-minute break in between every hour and refresh yourself with some fun activity.
  • A healthy diet and sleep are necessary one day before an examination. It helps maintain the metabolism.
  • The last day should not be stressful but carefree.
  • Recheck the materials before going to the assessment hall.
  • Last but not least, believe in yourself and tick the answers in God’s name!!

Why Introverts make great make leaders

Many people assume that extroverts are the ones who make great leaders. However, this is not always the case. It’s no secret that extroverted people are known for being outspoken, loud, talkative, highly social, and outgoing. They are excellent public speakers, make connections, and are quick decision makers.

Reasons

1. Introverts are Humble

Humility is not a quality you will find in many leaders. But it is what has pushed many introverts up the chain of authority. It helps them in managing people and makes them want to serve other people no matter their level.

It is this trait that makes introverts quietly confident. And they don’t boast about their accomplishments.

2. Introverts Are Great Problem Solvers

When faced with a problem, an introvert will persist until they get a solution. After all, the ability to solve problems is a bonus trait for any entrepreneur. Albert Einstein stated that his ability to stay with a problem longer is what made him seem smart. If you can solve problems in your business, employees will always remain productive.

3. They don’t get easily distracted.

Introverts aren’t exactly disconnected from other people and their environment, but they are better able to tune out the noise and concentrate. They draw their energy from within, and therefore they can easily focus on the task at hand without being distracted by loud conversations or other office noise.

The ability to concentrate amid distraction further enhances the qualities that make introverts great leaders to begin with. Their motivation for quality and productivity is easier to maintain, and they can focus on the needs of their team members without being sidetracked by other tasks or demands.

4. They’re Great Listeners

Because they are naturally very observant and thoughtful, introverts are also excellent listeners. Great leaders don’t just talk, they listen intently — to their employees, consumers, and anyone else around them. They’re vocal about their ideas but are also open to feedback and change. They take their employees’ ideas into consideration and really listen when they’re upset about something.

Introverts also know that listening is the key to learning…and learning is the key to growth — both as a leader and an organization.

5. Introvert leaders have deeper connections

Introverts rarely exist on the surface. Introvert leaders are likely to have fewer yet deeper connections with people. When introverts network, they don’t flit from one person to the next. That takes up too much of their energy. They are likely to spend the entire evening in the company of a small group of individuals which results in getting to know them better and forging deeper friendships that last for years. Introverts, by listening well, also build rock-solid connections that are cemented in mutual admiration and respect for each other.

6. Introvert leaders are creative

The ability to think deep helps introverts to be creative too. They observe the nature, people and patterns and apply them to leadership challenges they face and come up with creative solutions.

Conclusion

Introvert leaders tend to be strong planners and motivated by long-term goals rather than immediate rewards. Introvert leaders are also motivated by productivity and seldom by ambition. Introverts are known to be highly creative and as a result, make wonderful creative leaders who see solutions in places where others don’t and provide abstract solutions where others can’t. So, embrace your introvert self and learn to leverage the unique traits that make you a better leader.

Source

https://www.greatplacetowork.ca/en/articles/5-reasons-why-introverts-make-great-leaders

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Kalpana Dutta

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Kalpana Dutta

Kalpana Dutta was born in 1913.

She joined the Bethune College in 1929 and around the same time she also joined Chatri Sangha.

In September of 1932, she joined the group of almost 65 people which also included Pritilata Waddedar. The group torched the European Club. But Kalpana was arrested one week prior to the attack on the European Club.

While she was imprisoned she came to know about Pritilata Waddedar’s death.

Soon she was released from jail. But in the May of 1933 she was arrested again in the Chittagoan Army Raid and sentenced to life. However she was released in 1939.

In 1940, she joined the Communist Party of India and kept engaging in revolutions against the British Raj.

She married a fellow communist leader Joshi in 1943.

Post Independence

Kalpana migrated to India and retired from active politics.

She passed away in 1995.

IMPORTANCE OF PLANTATION

Trees are a fundamental piece of our current circumstance There can be no question about the helpfulness of trees. We need oxygen for living and trees to give us oxygen. Trees cause precipitation and in this way forestall the spread of desert. Trees save our property from disintegration and keep up with the fruitfulness of the dirt. Trees give us conceal. Trees give us food. We get crops and diverse heavenly and succulent organic products from trees. Trees offer sanctuary to numerous creatures, creepy crawlies, and birds. Thusly, trees assist with keeping up with natural equilibrium. We likewise get numerous items like wood, leaves, elastic, gum, aroma nectar and so forth from trees. Paper is produced using Wood and bamboo. We use wood as fuel and furthermore need it for making things like houses, boats, and furniture. Trees make our reality lovely. It is extremely enchanting to take a gander at trees. Yet, the world is losing its trees in enormous sum each year. We cut a great deal of trees and annihilate many woodlands for making new houses and for getting more Wood. In the event that this pattern proceeds, there won’t be sufficient trees for keeping up with biological equilibriums. Numerous nations are now transforming into deserts because of the enormous cutting of trees. Numerous types of birds and creatures have additionally gotten terminated for need of food and natural surroundings after the obliteration of woods. Consequently it has become a crisis to plant more trees. In India, the rainy season is the best an ideal opportunity for the estate of trees. We can plant trees in any open spots, around our homes, places of business, production lines, schools universities, and emergency clinics. We ought to likewise plant trees on one or the other side of the streets and in every single accessible spot.

This college was a little different!

An unforgettable era, which can not be captured on a camera!!

College life is a story captured in a paperistic picta. It is like the save button to a mind’s eye. The black-white days have their beauty of ugly faces but this phase adds color to the journey. Even after living in a world mixed with sour and sweet people, this makes the heart to beat a little faster, the body to feel a little more pleasure, and the soul to rejoice a little longer!!

Every click is perfect with its imperfections. Blurry, abrupt, random, odd, and accidental snaps are what this time is all about. The slideshow from that first unknown hi to the known goodbye outlines the whole adventure of casual wear, crowded canteens, cool teachers, hilarious talks, loud giggles, bunking lectures, graduation, farewells, and the drift.

Every year many silly people graduate the college.

But this year was a little unusual.

This is coming from the one who has never been to college ever before. I have heard stories from everyone around me, saying ‘this is the best moment where you not only explore yourself but also the real world.’ But why does my college feels not the same as theirs? Am I not born lucky? Why do I see the screens instead of blackboards?

It was the day of summer when a deadly virus entered our region and took control of each and everything around it. Since then, the rule of ‘no mobiles in class’ changed to ‘only mobiles and not you.’ Our hands were filled with devices, rooms with assignments, faces with masks, and days with the lockdown. This time it’s not classrooms but google meet, exams but no papers, festivals but no celebrations.

It’s a tough time for both warriors and survivors to sit inside a room for days with taunting parents, not seeing friends for days, missing the old memories, and facing tragic situations have made this age even harder than before. Although, it is good in every mood. Even after all this, we learned many good skills without paying any bills, introspected ourselves without ringing the best friend’s doorbell, and spent time with kin without acting mean.

We take different paths in life, but no matter where we go, we take a little part of each other everywhere.

And you all became simply special.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Aruna Asaf Ali

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Aruna Asaf Ali

Aruna Asaf Ali(1909-1996) was an Indian educator, political activist and publisher who actively participated in Indian Independence Movement.

She was a member of Congress Socialist Party, factions within the Congress Party for activists that had socialist-leaning.

She was jailed for actively engaging in the Salt Satyagraha and remained in jail till 1931. She was imprisoned several times over the course of her lifetime.

Aruna Asaf Ali, popularly known as the ‘Grand Old Lady’ of the Independence Movement, is known for hoisting the Indian flag at Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai during the Quit India Movement.

Post Independence

She served as Delhi’s first Mayor.

Later she left the Congress Socialist Party to join the Communist Party of India(CPI).

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bina Das

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Bina Das

Bina Das(1911-1986) was an Indian revolutionary and nationalist from West Bengal.

She was a member of the Chatri Sangha revolutionary society, a semi-revolutionary organization for the women in Kolkata.

After 1928 session of the Congress, Bina joined a circle of revolutionaries whose leader was Bhupal Bose.

In 1932, she marked herself into history by attempting to shoot the Governor of Bengal, Stanley Jackson, in the Convocation Hall of the University of Calcutta, where she was to receive her degree. She was caught and sentenced to rigorous imprisonment.

After her early release in 1939, Das joined the Congress party.

In 1942, she participated in the Quit India movement and was imprisoned again till 1945.

Later she became the secretary of the South Kolkata Congress Committee.

Post Independence

She won the Padma Shri award in 1960 for her Social work.

Bina wrote two autobiographical accounts in Bengali: Shrinkhal Jhankar and Pitridhan.

All about Networking

Network Engineers design, develop, install, test, and maintain networks that link computers, peripherals (fax machines, printers, modems), communication equipment (telephones, cellular phones), and video equipment (cameras, VCRs) using cabling methods of wireless transmissions and software.

Sharing is the basic reason that networks exist. Through networks, the greatest number of users can access applications, hardware, and information and thereby, attain cost-saving, efficiency, and widened communication.

Ask ten different people what networking is and you may get as many as ten different answers. A person’s definition of networking probably depends upon their use of this important personal and professional activity. However, whether your network is to make new friends, find a new job, develop your current career, explore new career options, obtain referrals or sales leads, or simply broaden your professional horizons, it is important to focus on networking as an exchange of information, contacts or experience.

Computer networks enable communication for every business, entertainment, and research purpose. The internet, online search, email, audio and video sharing, online commerce, live-streaming, and social networks all exist because of computer networks.

Education

Although a 4-year degree in Engineering is the routine educational preparation, it is becoming increasingly necessary for certain certification of network-related competency. Several network hardware and software vendors after certification programs that at least an individual’s basic network knowledge or specialized knowledge of that company’s products.

There are three to four companies well known for their educational courses. Microsoft offers several courses for a network engineer link Microsoft Certified Professional, Microsoft Certified Professional Internet, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer, Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer Internet, or Microsoft Solution Developer.The most highly regarded of them all is CISCO systems.

It offers a course containing three levels, the lowest level of certification is Cisco Certified Network Associate, secondly Cisco Certificate Network Professional, and ultimately, Cisco Certified Interwork Expert Certification.

Identify the Networking Engineering Path You Want

Once you’ve gained entry-level IT experience, you need to identify your career path. Networking engineering careers and positions vary widely depending on the industry, company, and technology.

If you’re just starting, here’s a list of some of the networking jobs available:

  • Network Specialist
  • Network Administrator
  • Network Technician
  • Network Analyst
  • Network Manager
  • Network Engineer
  • Network Solutions Architect

What is a job of a Network Engineer?

The aim is to ensure the integrity of high availability network infrastructure to provide maximum performance for your users.

  • Network engineers enable data to pass between computers in a network to aid communication between users.

  • Consult with key users/customers concerning the design and maintenance of their networks.

  • Monitoring the daily performance of the network infrastructure including cable lines, hubs, servers, and satellites/towers.

  • Resolve hardware and software problems, bugs and deficiencies, and customer router and circuit outages.

  • Report network operational status by gathering and prioritizing information and managing projects.

  • Maximize network performance by monitoring performance, troubleshooting network problems and outages, scheduling upgrades, and collaborating with network architects on network optimization.

  • Undertake data network fault investigations in local and wide-area environments using information from multiple sources.

  • Secure network systems by establishing and enforcing policies, and defining and monitoring access.

  • Support and administer firewall environments in line with IT security policy.

iPhone vs. Android: Which is better for you?

The iPhone vs. Android debate rages on, especially as Apple and Google prepare for another big annual release with iOS 15 and Android 12, respectively. While you can turn to a number of companies to buy one of the best phones, whatever you get is guaranteed to be running one of the two prominent mobile OSs: iOS (if you pick an iPhone) or Android (if you opt for anything else).

Both platforms are quite mature at this stage, having existed for more than a decade. That means both have amassed comprehensive feature sets, and there’s very little one can do that the other cannot. Still, however, each has its advantages, and there are reasons you might want to choose one over the other.

iPhone vs Android: Why iPhone is better 

This might seem like a shallow reason, but Apple obviously makes a wide breadth of tech products, and if you already own a Mac, iPad or Apple Watch, getting an iPhone makes a lot of sense.

Apple has designed a multitude of continuity features that allow you to carry over work and data from one of its devices to another, and these features can certainly save you time. Take Handoff, for example, where calls on your iPhone and web pages in Safari can move seamlessly between iOS and macOS. Universal Clipboard makes text copied on one platform usable on the other. Another one of our favorites is Continuity Camera, which allows you to take pictures and scan documents using your iPhone’s camera, and then view and edit them on your Mac. You can even complete purchases on your Mac by using biometric authentication features on your iPhone via Apple Pay.

Only a handful of Android phone makers have hardware ecosystems that approach Apple’s, and even for some that come close, like Samsung, you won’t get the depth of integration possible between the iPhone and other Apple-built devices. Microsoft is helping Google close the gap somewhat with its new Your Phone app for Windows, which allows Android users to respond to texts and notifications on their PCs, though the experience is a little clunky and there is still work to be done.

There are many other great examples of continuity across iOS, iPadOS, watchOS and macOS — and the iPhone is a critical component in that puzzle, especially now that iPhone apps can be seamlessly ported to macOS. Power users already immersed in Apple’s ecosystem can stand to gain a lot by adding an iPhone to their repertoire. And that’s to say nothing of friends and family members who prefer to use iMessage and FaceTime to keep in touch.

Additionally, Apple has added yet another opportunity for lock-in with the new iPhone 12 and iPhone 12 Pro: MagSafe accessories. These magnet-based chargers, cases and products will work only with the latest iPhones, so if you invest in the platform, it’s going to cause some friction should you try to leave. 

The third-party apps are just better.

This one is definitely down to personal preference, but as someone who has jumped back and forth between iOS and Android as long as both platforms have existed, I’ve been consistently blown away by the quality of apps built by iOS developers, and mostly disappointed in their Android counterparts.

Don’t get me wrong — there’s great software and developers on Android, but they’re harder to find, in my experience. One of our favorite Twitter apps, Tweetbot 5, is an iOS exclusive, for example; by contrast, one of the best third-party Twitter apps we’ve encountered on Android, Fenix 2, strongly pales in comparison. One of our staff members, Henry T. Casey, loves using Bear to compose blog posts on his Mac and iPhone, but we’ve struggled to find a note-taking app on Android as comprehensive and slick. However, I have a markdown editor on Android that I prefer to anything on iOS.

You may even find that apps from established companies, ranging from banks to airlines, are a bit smoother and cleaner on iOS than Android, with better integration with the phone’s core services, like Wallet. (Google Pay is only now starting to catch on with many airlines.) And don’t even get me started on how slow and buggy Snapchat is on Android.

There’s a bigger selection of accessories.

Walk into any Best Buy or Target, and you’ll find aisles of cases for every iPhone that Apple makes — something that certainly cannot be said for the Android contingent outside of flagship devices from the biggest companies. Once you get past the semi-healthy selection of products made for the latest Galaxy S device, you’re out of luck. Don’t bother expecting a choice of accessories for your new Pixel or LG handset at any brick-and-mortar retailer. Sure, you could go online and snag a $4 case off of Amazon, but then you’re guaranteed to get what you pay for.

The selection and availability of iPhone cases, screen protectors, car mounts and other goodies is simply far greater than you’ll find for any other phone, and that’s more important than most people realize. Recently, I used a Pixel 3 and then Pixel 4 as my daily driver. As someone who likes to regularly switch up my phone’s case to keep it feeling fresh, I’ve been extremely disappointed with the lack of options for Google’s handsets. iPhone owners will never have that problem.

how covid effected student ‘s life

Education and student life at Semmelweis University during the coronavirus pandemic

Reactions to the novel coronavirus/COVID-19 have caused a great many changes to daily life in recent days.  One group particularly affected by these changes is high school students.  They are facing challenges this year that have never happened before on this scale.

HOW HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ARE AFFECTED BY SCHOOL CLOSURES

School provides structure and routine to the lives of students. Following the routine of getting up at a certain time, going to classes at specific times and coming home at a certain time provides a sense of normalcy in their lives. The predictability of knowing that third period math class follows second period history class allows students’ brains to focus on academic content. Expectations for behavior and academic performance are known and familiar. When schools closed earlier this month students lost this structure and routine. Many were sent home with packets of assignments to complete but it is up to them to decide when and in what order they will do the assignments. At first, this greater amount of freedom and choice feels good – “Finally I get to decide what I want to do!” In short time though, it is easy to fall behind, to be distracted by other more desirable options (Netflix, video games, social media), or to become bored.For most students school isn’t just about academics, it is also about social interactions. Many friendships started by sitting next to each other in class. The highlight of a student’s day might be walking down a certain hallway between fifth and sixth period because that’s when she can reliably expect to see the person she has a crush on. Groups of friends eat lunch together every day. Through their interactions with teachers and other school personnel young people learn to interact with non-family authority figures. In the hallways and classrooms of their school, young people are exposed to a variety of different cultures, perspectives and ways of living that may be different than their own.Extracurricular activities were also affected by school closures. Many students enjoy participating in sports, music, school plays, robotics and a variety of other activities. Participation in these activities helps students to be more attractive applicants to colleges, universities and future employers. More importantly though, participation in these activities is an important part of students’ identities. They provide a “tribe” of others with whom a common interest and skill set is shared.

Coronavirus Impacts on Students and Online Learning

College students continue to grapple with the educational fallout of the pandemic.School closures exacerbate issues of digital access and other inequities.More and more students report feeling stressed and anxious due to COVID-19.Students on and off campus will navigate colleges’ shifting plans well into 2021.

College students continue to grapple with the educational fallout of the pandemic.

School closures exacerbate issues of digital access and other inequities.

More and more students report feeling stressed and anxious due to COVID-19.

Students on and off campus will navigate colleges’ shifting plans well into 2021.

With the pandemic, schools rushed to fill gaps in their online infrastructures. Finding the money and experts to make those upgrades presented a hurdle, though. According to Melissa Venable, an online education advisor for BestColleges, “There aren’t enough instructional designers and other learning support specialists to go around right now. These offices have not been a priority at all colleges and universities.”

If ad hoc digital solutions don’t work for students and teachers, the experience could stymie online education’s future growth. “This quick and mandatory shift may reinforce the most challenging aspects, leading some instructors to be less likely to adopt online education in the future,” Venable said.

Ramping up online education under present circumstances may not be ideal, but as Venable notes, “The focus is not about experimenting with technology, but an emergency response.” The digital systems that colleges build to support students now will outlast the coronavirus and inform the digital approach to higher education going forward. Successes could even galvanize colleges to expand online offerings.

Dozens of colleges have already announced a marked change for spring 2021: no spring break.

Ways to Relieve Stress in these Unprecedented TimesI

mprove Your Diet:

  • Eat low carb diets.
  • Consume vegetables regularly (broccoli & spinach are good options to build resilience against infections).
  • Intake fruits rich in beta carotene, ascorbic acid & other essential vitamins.
  • Consume herbs like garlic, Basel leaves and black cumin as it helps in boosting immunity.
  • Munch on nuts and seeds like flaxseed, pumpkin seeds and melon seeds as they are excellent sources of protein and vitamin E.
  • Intake probiotics like Yoghurt, Butter Milk, Yakult and other fermented food.

Exercise Regularly

  • A good diet should be followed by a good exercise of 30 to 45 minutes. The best way to make exercising fun is to pair it with music
    .

Take a Good Sleep

  • Research by the National Sleep Foundation says that teenagers need 8-10 hours of sleep a night to stay fresh and healthy.

Stay Positive

  • One can stay positive by identifying something that he/she enjoyed or found to be beautiful. Listen to stories about people being kind and helpful. Don’t spread or listen to the news that came to you through unauthentic resources.

COVID-19’s impact on education in India: It’s not all bad news

The current year presented some new challenges to each industry; it not just forced people to change business cycle, lifestyle but had a deep impact on daily activities which people do to live their life and are considered as basic necessities.Education, especially the task of going to a school is one such activity which used to be done on a regular basis in the pre-Covid era, and it is one activity which was an integral part of the daily routine of each parent who has school-going children.Now, as we are approaching the end (hopefully) of Covid-19, it is the right time to take a pause and reflect on what impact Covid left on the student’s achievements and what it may mean for educators

COVID-19 in India: Education disrupted and lessons learned

India, 320 million students have been affected by COVID-19 school closures, and though the government quickly recommended shifting to “online teaching,” this ignores India’s immense digital divide—with embedded gender and class divides. The 2017-18 National Sample Survey reported only 23.8 percent of Indian households had internet access. In rural households (66 percent of the population), only 14.9 percent had access, and in urban households only 42 percent had access. And males are the primary users: 16 percent of women had access to mobile internet, compared to 36 percent of men. Young people’s access is even less: A recent news report stated only 12.5 percent of students had access to smartphones. Furthermore, most teachers are ill-equipped for online teaching.

Using digital volunteers to teach in a limited environment

Once these basic needs were taken care of, teachers then used whatever digital means were available to teach their students. Teachers galvanized an army of digital volunteers in the communities tasked with sharing the information on their devices to students without access to technology. To reach those low-tech students, teachers used voice messages, text messages, and phone calls. For high-tech students (i.e. with smartphones), teachers sent longer videos and used WhatsApp groups for discussions. To reach girls, most of whom had no access to phones, teachers even called fathers to ask how they were doing and to enlist their support for their daughters’ education. So far, the majority of fathers have responded positively, demonstrating how this crisis might be a great opportunity to develop positive relationships with fathers that improve their daughters’ education and well-being.

Partition and Indo Pak War 1947-48

After World War -II, as the Indian Army returned to barracks and took stock of the new situations, the Indian polity and its people strived hard for independence. Various meetings were held between the British Government in India and political leaders, and plans were chalked out for not just independence but also for the division of the sub continent on communal lines into two distinct countries – India and Pakistan. This theory did not have many takers, especially amongst those people likely to be displaced. As a result, during 1946-47 communal riots and violence of unprecedented proportions swept throughout India.

The partition came into effect on 15 August 1947, when India gained independence. Pakistan declared independence a day earlier. At the time of independence the old Indian Army stood divided between Pakistan and India. The active strength of the Army along with countrywide movable and immovable assets was shared under a complicated scheme, supervised by a British presence in the form of a Supreme Headquarters.Instead of large scale celebrations, riots and mass killing between Hindus and Muslims in Punjab and Bengal intensified. It also led to acute suffering and misery of the displaced people, apart from colossal loss of precious human lives and destruction of property due to communal riots and retribution. The level of violence had reached civil war proportions and had to be contained rapidly. It was a grave price to pay for India’s independence, although the Armed Forces of both India and Pakistan provided yeoman service in arresting further bloodshed and ensuring smooth exchange of service personnel opting for either India or Pakistan.The Punjab Boundary Force came into being for this thankless task. It had elements of the Armies of both countries spread thinly on the ground, and was hard put to contain the increasing levels of violence. This was to be the last time that the old Indian Army deployed jointly as one body. After six weeks of continuous violence, peace gradually returned.While consolidating the loosely federated Princely States and Indian Provinces into one homogeneous entity, some initial difficulties were encountered. Except for three, most of the 566 odd Princely States merged with India in accordance to the laid down directives.The three troublesome states were Junagadh (now in Gujarat), Hyderabad (now in Andhra Pradesh) and Jammu and Kashmir. While Junagarh remained indecisive, Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir bought time to merge with India by signing a ‘Standstill Agreement’ valid for one year.To quell internal strife and facilitate smooth merger the Indian Army and police forces had to be employed in Junagadh and subsequently in Hyderabad, but much before Jammu and Kashmir could exercise its option, armed Pakistani frontier tribesmen along with Pakistan’s regular troops invaded the State in October 1947 with a view to annex it.Pakistani troops soon crossed over into Kashmir to precipitate an undeclared war with India. Before describing the war an understanding of the topography of the state may be necessary.

The provincial subdivision of Kashmir followed geographical features. The lofty Pir Panjal range, running roughly east to west with heights varying from 2500 to 4500 meters, divides the valley from Jammu region. Further towards the east, running from north to south, lies the Great Himalayan Range comprising heights above 5000 meters, which divides Ladakh from both the Valley and Jammu region.

North of the Valley and Ladakh lies Gilgit, Hunza and Baltistan, also known as the Northern Territories. Mainland India was linked to the Valley by a fair-weather road from Pathankot, across the 2,700 meter high Banihal Pass to Srinagar. A mountainous trade route also existed between Manali (in present-day Himachal) and Leh, the district headquarters of Ladakh. Other major routes into the Valley as well as to the northern areas run through what is now Pakistan.

The strategy employed by Pakistan to annex the state was ingenious. It was expected that before India reacted, possession of Jammu and Kashmir would constitute law. In this game plan Pakistan came within a whisker of success. With the Northern Territories overrun by 30 July 1947, by 26 October elements of the main columns were at Baramulla, 50 kilometers from Srinagar, raping and looting along the way.

This point lay beyond the Shyok valley and rested on the lower slopes of Saltoro range, an offshoot of Karakoram Range. It was added that the Line thereafter ran northwards towards the glaciers, of which there existed a surfeit. Here lay the seeds of a future conflict between India and Pakistan, the battleground being the highest glacier region in the world.This war along with its political fallout holds enormous importance for Indian Army and the nation as a whole. Despite the accession of the state, a part of Kashmir, known as Pakistan Occupied Kashmir, remains under the illegal control of Pakistan, and this has remained a contentious issue for India ever since, affecting subsequent Indo Pak relations. That apart, the Kashmir war gave the Indian Army its first experience of high altitude operations amidst snow, ice and extreme cold conditions.

MACHINE LEARNING

MACHINE LEARNING

       Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence (AI). In AI, the machines are designed to simulate human behavior. Whereas in machine learning, the machines are allowed to learn from the past data without programming explicitly. Any technology user in today’s world has benefitted from machine learning. It is a continuously growing field and hence provides several opportunities to the research industries. In machine learning, tasks are classified into broad categories. Two of the most adopted machine learning categories are supervised learning and unsupervised learning. In supervised learning, the machines train the algorithms based on the sample input and output labeled by the humans. It uses patterns to predict values on additional unlabeled data. In unsupervised learning, the machine trains the algorithm with no labeled data. It will find the structure within its input data. As a field, machine learning deals with data, so having a piece of knowledge in statistics will be useful in better understanding concepts.

WHY MACHINE LEARNING?

  • It develops systems that can automatically adapt and customize themselves according to the individuals.
  • It can be a key for unlocking the value of corporate and customer data which in turn helps the company to stay ahead of the competition.
  • For growing data and the different available data, the computational process is cheaper and faster and provides affordable storage.
  • By using algorithms to build models, organizations can make better decisions without human intervention.
  • Relationships and correlations can be hidden in a large amount of data. Machine learning will help find these relationships.
  • As technology keeps changing, it is difficult to continuously redesign the system by hand.
  • In some cases like medical diagnostics, the amount of data available about certain tasks might be too large for explicitly encoding by humans.

VARIOUS FIELDS THAT USES MACHINE LEARNING:

GOVERNMENT: By using machine learning systems, the prediction of potential future scenarios and adapting rapid changes becomes easy for government officials. Machine learning helps to improve cybersecurity and cyber intelligence. It also helps by reducing the failure rates of the project.

HEALTHCARE: The use of sensors to predict the pulse rate, heartbeats, sugar levels, sleeping patterns helps the doctors to assess their patient’s health in real-time. It provides real-time data from past surgeries and past medical records which will improve the accuracy of the surgical robot tools. Some of the benefits are avoidance of human errors and will be helpful during complex surgeries.

MARKETING AND SALES: The marketing sector has been revolutionized since the arrival of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning. It has increased customer satisfaction by 10%. E-commerce and social media sites use machine learning to analyze the things that you are interested in and help in suggesting similar products to you based on your past habits. It has greatly helped in increasing the sales of e-shopping sites.

TRANSPORTATION: Through deep learning, machine learning, has explored the complex interactions of highways, traffic roads, accident-prone areas, crashes, environmental changes, and so on. It helped in traffic control management by providing results from the past day. So, the company can able to get their raw materials without any delay and supply their finished goods to the market inefficient time. 

FINANCE: The insights produced by machine learnings helps the investors to give a clear picture of risk and the right time for investment and helps to identify the high-risk clients and signs of fraudulent areas. It helps in analyzing the stock market movement to give financial recommendations. Machine learning also helps to be aware of the risks in the finance department.

MANUFACTURING: Machine learning has helped to improve productivity in the industrial field. It helps in the expansion of product and service lines due to mass production in a short time. Improved quality control with insights helps to improve the product’s quality. Ability to meet the customer’s new needs. Prediction helps to find risks and reduces the cost of production.

   Thus in today’s world, machine learning is implemented in several fields to complete the work faster and cheaper. The machine should be able to do all the works that man can do and machine learning will help to achieve this goal.

PEACE❤

MEANING

Peace is a stress-free state of security and calmness that comes when there’s no fighting or war, everything coexisting in perfect harmony and freedom. … After a war, two countries may sign a peace treaty, agreeing to not fight anymore.

A PEACEFUL LIFE.

A peaceful life is a life that is lived with a balanced harmony inside you, and around you. It means that you feel content with whatever is going on in your life or around you, and nothing, no one can disturb this inner peace of yours.

Living a peaceful life is about being in harmony with yourself and the surrounding world. Peace begins from within, and once your mind is at ease, you will start to see the effects in everything that surrounds you. Being at peace doesn’t mean you have a perfect life. Instead, it is how you deal with everything around you. Controlling your fears, respecting others, and not letting the small things get to you are the stepping stones towards leading a happy, healthy life. Once you are on the journey, peace will find you soon enough!

In this modern era, we live such a fast-paced life that stopping to take a moment seems like a dream to many. Our day starts with a list of tasks, and we spend our time burning through the to-do list, only to start over the next day. This daily grind has detached us from the ground realities of life, and most people live their lives with no sense of what’s essential for them.

Life is more than just work and responsibilities, and trust me; it is possible to create a peaceful life if you set your priorities straight. When you actively make time for what’s important, you will feel a fog lifting from your head, and you will find that life is more than a to-do list! It may not be immediately apparent to you how to make these changes, but we got you covered. Let’s go over a few simple suggestions that you can practice every day to get a happy and peaceful life.

A peaceful life is something worth striving for if you:Feel infinitely calm and happy no matter what is happening around you.Like the idea of living without fear, anger, or fixation on material things.

Are tired or feeling exhausted by life problems.Feel like there’s more to life than just a never-ending chase of temporary “highs” (ways to satisfy our human nature).

7 ways to live a peaceful life.

1) Lower Your Expectations It is natural for anyone to feel frustrated and disappointed when something doesn’t turn out as expected. If you want to live a peaceful life, you have to lower your expectations and suppress the urge to control everything around you. When you stop anticipating every possibility and live life on a day-to-day basis, your life will dramatically become more peaceful. You will finally stop staying up every night worrying about a business deal or the new job and focus on what matters.

2) Don’t Lose Yourself From the day we are born, we are supposed to follow the footsteps laid for us by others and live the ‘ideal life.’ Go to school, get a job, find the love of your life, and strive for greatness till your last day. However, it is very easy to lose yourself in the process! You may become so focused on chasing the dream life that you forget your own passions.Instead, take a good look at your life and see whether you are on the path set for you by others? If you desire a peaceful life, start by living life on your terms. Chase your dreams, quit the job you hate, or get enrolled in college even if you think it’s too late. A decision that takes you closer to your goal will bring you more peace than you can imagine! woman taking pictures on the roof top

3) Practice Tolerance We are accustomed to a particular way of living, and most of us are less than tolerant of the changes happening around us. However, if you want to lead a peaceful life, you need to broaden your horizons and become susceptible to the ever-changing world. Accepting diversity is the first step towards this, and you will feel a considerable difference once you start respecting other peoples’ beliefs and opinions instead of fighting them.

4) Give Up On The Urge To Control Your Loved Ones All of us want to have control over our lives, but sometimes we extend this control to the people surrounding us, and that’s where the trouble begins. If you want to live a peaceful life, it is vital to stop controlling others and have harmony in your relationships. Imposing your will on someone and taking control over relationships not only creates conflicts, but it also seeps out all the happiness from your life. Try to accept the people who surround you, embrace their flaws instead of trying to change them, and be on your way to a happier life!

5) Practice Forgiveness If you are always dwelling on the past, reliving your wounds, and thinking of the people who hurt you, you will never find true peace. For a peaceful life that is free of mental burdens, it is important to practice forgiveness for others and yourself. Don’t think of the past and don’t beat yourself for the mistakes you made; instead, focus on the present day.peaceful life illustration with cocoa pink peonies and jewellry

6) To Live A Peaceful Life, You Must Prioritize! You may spend hours and hours of a work task, forsaking everything else, including your family and friends. This is a great way to lead a successful life, but are you really at peace? Stop for a minute and ask yourself, is this what you want to do with your life? Does your professional life take precedence over your happiness? If the answer to any of these is no, then I would be best to set your priorities straight. Make time for the people you love and the things you love to do, and a peaceful life won’t seem like a dream anymore.

7) Find The Peace Within If you want to live an endlessly peaceful life, you have to start by finding your inner peace. No amount of external tranquillity can calm down the chaos in your mind. Finding your inner peace is a journey, but with some effort, you will get there.Try to connect with your inner self by disconnecting yourself from the surroundings, even if for a few minutes. Find a quiet spot to sit, close your eyes, and take a deep breath. Let all the anxiety and worries out of your body with each breath, and fill your lungs with hope and peace. This simple exercise is excellent when feeling anxious or helpless, and it will instantly put things in perspective.woman meditating on the top of the roof A happy and peaceful life is not a utopia Of course, a peaceful life doesn’t mean that all your problems will vanish, but it will give you the strength to face these challenges. When faced with a difficulty, don’t let disharmony and conflict overtake you. Instead, deal with the problems without letting them affect your life.Decide to change your life, and make a conscious choice to work for that change. You can live a peaceful life and be happier than ever, but it will not happen by magic! You have to change your priorities, give attention to the essential things in life, and open your heart to peace.

Delta or Delta plus? which one is more threatening?

DELTA OR DELTA PLUS VARIANT? WHICH IS A BIGGER THREAT AND WHY?

India has been immersed by an awful spread of novel Covid, particularly during the subsequent wave. It was fuelled significantly by the Delta variation, found first in Quite a while and observed to be ordinarily more irresistible than the first strain, and added caseloads consistently to a disabled medical services framework. It is likewise now the most predominant variation causing a flood of cases across the globe. In India, where the case tally has spiralled down, there’s as yet a conceivable chance of a third wave coming up and a fresher, more unnerving change, Delta Plus was found in certain conditions of the nation and still thought to be a potential danger.

The Delta variation of the infection, known to be significantly irresistible, contagious and serious in its assault drove the second flood of the infection in many pieces of the country. Simultaneously, the Delta Plus variation, likewise sequenced during a portion of the cases recognized during the subsequent wave, is said to convey forward changes from two variations supposedly infects even the individuals who have completely immunized, and furthermore cause passing. Yet, which among the two would it be advisable for us to be the most careful of? Could one be more potentially irresistible than the other?

DELTA VERSUS DELTA PLUS VARIATION : HOW WOULD THEY THINK ABOUT?

Both the Delta and Delta Plus variations have been classified as Variants of Concern (VoC), and are spreading in numerous nations. The most significant dangers were found in our own, where immunization inclusion is as yet on the lower side.

While the Delta variation (B.1.617.2) keeps on being a prevailing and quickly rising variation unleashing destruction across the world, it is likewise answerable for the outrageous storm of cases and pulverizations looked during the second wave in India. Not exclusively were greatest cases observed to be genomically followed to this variation of the infection, it actually stays to be a disturbing variation adding cases, even after the decay of the second wave direction in India. In states actually recording stressing caseloads, the Delta variation has been considered mindful.

In the meantime, the Delta Plus variation, which as well, was sequenced in Maharashtra, India, is a disturbing infection variation. Containing transformations of two COVID variations the Beta variation (found in South Africa) and the Delta variation (found in India), the Delta Plus contains two striking changes L452R and P871R.

WHICH ONE COULD RISE QUICKER

While the Delta variation of Covid was intensely liable for driving a dangerous second wave, the ascent of cases was additionally very quick with the variation in view of its high contagiousness. In any case, the Delta Plus variation, which contains transformations from the Delta variation has been named significantly really concerning. In examination, the Delta in addition to variation is said to spread very nearly ‘60% quicker’ than the Delta variation.

In any case, while clinical perceptions have proposed a higher infection danger, the presence of the Delta Plus variation is as yet on the lower side and has simply been found to spread at a much slower rate than anticipated. Until this point in time, three states represent most analysed instances of the new variation Maharashtra, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh.

Presently, while the Delta variation is as yet a predominant COVID strain, and the infection particularly dynamic, specialists recommend that the Delta variation, with its serious striking side effects could stay to be a waiting danger we may confront.

The proof accessible on contagiousness and spread have likewise agreed through examinations and genomic discoveries. According to specialists, Delta Plus, in spite of its extreme provisions and capacity to quickly spread, isn’t really rising quicker at the present time.

MANIFESTATION OF BOTH THE VARIANTS

The Delta variation of the infection is viewed as outrageous because of the seriousness of manifestations it causes, in contrast with the first strain. High lung contribution, respiratory challenges and gastrointestinal protests (even with gentle or moderate cases) were what separated it from past variations of concerns.

The Delta in addition to variation, in the interim, which is said to convey highlights from both the Delta variation and the Beta variation could be significantly more extreme in nature. A few examinations have recommended that the variation could without much of a stretch outperform resistant protections, and tie unequivocally to lung cell receptors. More examinations are in progress to decide an expounded rundown of potential signs and side effects.

While the majority of the indications are supposed to be like the Delta variation, underneath recorded could be the potential signs which draw a few concerns and consideration:

– Early-stage lung association

– Shortness of breath and breathing troubles

– Longer enduring fever and steady hack

– Gastrointestinal manifestations

– Skin rashes and sensitivities

– Dryness and watery eyes

– Appetite misfortune and queasiness

WHAT POSES GREATER THREAT FOR VACCINATED INDIVIDUALS?

With any variation, what studies have shown is that the greatest danger involves unvaccinated people. The Delta variation, with its serious side effects and high virus rate was seen to hugely affect the ones who were/are unvaccinated. The ones who gotten an advancement case, just proceeded to foster milder side effects and had a quicker recuperation course of events. The chances of hospitalization and mortality with immunization are definitely decreased.

Nonetheless, with the Delta Plus variation, not exclusively could the infection be conceivably compromising for the unvaccinated, however it has been seen to progressively influence the ones who have been completely inoculated too in various habits some asymptomatic, some experiencing gentle or moderate contaminations, and seldom implied the danger of hospitalizations. Until this point in time, more than 3 passing have been recorded in the nation, ascribed to the Delta Plus variation. Each of the 3 cases were connected to serious comorbidities also. Government reports additionally have given alerts that the fresher variation, while sidestepping the insusceptible guards, could likewise lessen a reaction to the monoclonal counter acting agent treatment.

It is additionally obscure concerning how powerful current immunizations are against the fresher variation, since it’s still leisurely spreading and a couple of cases have been distinguished up until this point. Notwithstanding, specialists and virologists keep on issuing preventative counsel, proposing that regardless of a low predominance, the Delta in addition to variation could dodge neutralizer assurance and along these lines, add to stresses.

history of national anthem

Jana Gana Mana is the national anthem of India. It was originally composed as Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata in Bengali by polymath Rabindranath Tagore.The first stanza of the song Bharoto Bhagyo Bidhata was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India as the National Anthem on 24 January 1950. A formal rendition of the national anthem takes approximately 52 seconds. A shortened version consisting of the first and last lines (and taking about 20 seconds to play) is also staged occasionally. It was first publicly sung on 27 December 1911 at the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress.

The poem was first publicly recited on the second day of the annual session of the Indian National Congress in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on 27 December 1911. Then, it was followed in January 1912 at the annual event of the Adi Brahmo Samaj, however, it was largely unknown except to the readers of the Adi Brahmo Samaj journal, Tattwabodhini Patrika. The poem was published in January 1912, under the title Bharat Bhagya Bidhata in the Tatwabodhini Patrika, which was the official publication of the Brahmo Samaj with Tagore then the Editor. In 1912, the song was performed by Sarala Devi Chaudhurani, Tagore’s niece, along with the group of school students, in front of prominent Congress members like Bishan Narayan Dhar, Indian National Congress President, and Ambika Charan Majumdar . Outside of Calcutta, the song was first sung by the bard himself at a session in Besant Theosophical College in Madanapalle, Andhra Pradesh on 28 February 1919 when Tagore visited the college and sung the song. The song enthralled the college students while Margaret Cousins, then vice-principal of the college (also an expert in European music and wife of Irish poet James Cousins), both requested Tagore to create an English translation of the song and set down the musical notation to the national anthem, which is followed only when the song is sung in the original slow rendition style. Tagore translated the work into English while at the college on 28 February 1919, titled The Morning Song of India – via Wikisource. The college adopted Tagore’s translation of the song as their prayer song which is sung till today.

How – and Why – ‘Jana Gana Mana’ Became India’s National Anthem

In Berlin, during the autumn of 1941, just a few months after his dramatic escape, Subhas Chandra Bose had recruited a team of enthusiastic Indians to launch a fresh fight against the British Empire.It included young men like Abid Hasan, N.G. Swamy and M.R. Vyas, along with veterans like A.C.N. Nambiar, Girija Mookerjee, and N.G. Ganpuley.Detailed discussions and analysis were carried out. Years later, Ganpuley recalled how Bose was ‘very vigilant and was a master of details,’ and Hasan added, ‘He used to throw ideas around and provoked thinking and discussion’.Soon, supported by diplomatic recognition from the German foreign ministry, the Free India Center was established. And, at the inaugural session of the Center on November 2, 1941 the ‘Azad Hind’ team formally decided that Tagore’s ‘Jana Gana Mana’ will be the national anthem and ‘Jai Hind’ will be the national greeting.The historic significance of these decisions is evident to all of us today. In his memoirs, Ganpuley wrote, ‘It was cogently and very enthusiastically argued at that meeting in Berlin that ‘Jana Gana Mana’ which defined India as the union of all provinces, languages and religions was most suited for being a national anthem’.Hasan remembered that he had opposed the ‘Bande Mataram’ because, ‘How many ordinary people can understand?….A man like myself with no familiarity with music and with a husky voice, should also be able to sing it.’ Bose himself was certainly interested in the ‘Jana Gana Mana’ . Capt. Lakshmi Swaminathan would recall him saying, ‘This is a truly representative national song’. Also, Bose would have recalled how he and other members of the Congress Working Committee had sought the advice of Rabindranath Tagore to resolve the ‘Bande Mataram controversy’ in 1937.And so, he summoned B.L. Mukherjee, who worked at the Institute for Fashion Textile Researches in Berlin and was also a regular vocalist at the Berlin Official Radio, and Ambik Mazumdar, who was a doctorate in Music from the Quinsbeck University to prepare the notation and other musical details.Several months later, on September 11, 1942, Bose inaugurated the German-Indian Society at Hamburg. It was a grand occasion and the existing video shows several German officials and foreign diplomats (including Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem) were present.

It was here that Netaji officially introduced the 55-second song that was destined to become India’s national anthem. ‘The function concluded with the playing of the Indian and German national anthems, the Band was the Chamber Orchestra of Radio Hamburg.’

Ganpuley, a lifelong activist, managed to preserve what was perhaps the only surviving tape-record of the orchestra that evening. In the late 1970s, after a thorough research, Chitra Narain of the All India Radio received access to it.

But that was not all for the anthem.

Among the other resolutions passed at Free India Center was that Hindustani – the mingling of Hindi and Urdu that was the lingua franca of the masses of north India – would be the national language. While clearly supporting ‘cultural autonomy for the different linguistic areas’, Bose – certainly influenced by Kemal Ataturk’s reforms in Turkey – also wanted a common language and script. He had spoken about it even at his presidential address at the 1938-Haripura session.

But the ‘Jana Gana Mana’ is in literary Bengali. So, next year, when Netaji travelled to South East Asia, Hasan (who had been his co-passenger in the U-boat) and Mumtaz Hussain of the Azad Hind Radio were instructed to prepare a simple Hindustani translation of the anthem.

The result was the ‘Sabh Sukh Chain ki Barkha‘. Formally known as the Quami Tarana, it was set to music by Captain Ram Singh Thakur.

As Hasan summed it up, ‘We had our different private faiths and we had our different languages, but in our purpose and in our political belief we were a well-knit, determined and indivisible whole.’

SUPERSTITIONS

Whether you live in a big country or a small town , you must have come across certain beliefs or ideas which people abide by , without actually having any reason behind such beliefs . Do you consider yourself superstitious ?

BLACK CATS – This majestic black furred animal is unfortunately associated with bad luck and death. You must have come across people saying that it is bad luck if a black cat crosses your path . This superstition has its roots going back to the medieval times , when animals with dark fur were believed to signal death . It is considered a bad omen if a black cat is spotted during a funeral procession . But in Egypt Black cats are symbols of good luck , and in Ancient Egypt black cats were really respected as they resembled the Egyptian goddess Bastet. In some parts of the world black cats are considered be lucky and in other parts they are considered to be a bad omen .

TRIMMING NAILS AT NIGHT – In India , Turkey and South Korea , trimming nails at night is believed to bring bad luck, and could invite evil spirits at home . Before the the invention of light bulbs , in ancient times it would be dangerous to trim nails at night as because of the absence of a light source , also the fact that sharp tools were used to trim nails which might cause injuries . This is where this superstition allegedly,comes from. In Japan , there is a superstition that states that trimming nails at night could lead to premature death .

SITTING AT THE CORNER OF THE TABLE – In Russian , Hungarian , Polish and Romanian cultures , it is widely believed that sitting in the corner of the table is bad luck , and the person sitting in the corner might never get married .

BROKEN MIRRORS – It is believed that if a mirror is broken , it brings seven years of bad luck. The Romans manufactured mirrors from polished metal surfaces and believed that the Gods monitored and observed souls of the people through mirrors . Thus , it was considered disrespectful to break mirrors , and people started believing that the Gods might unleash bad luck on them .

The Role of Social Media in Raising Health Awareness

More and more people are dependent on social media for healthcare news and resources in this new era. Today, the idea of following doctors on Facebook is typical. Social media and healthcare go hand-in-hand. When Social media matters across all the industries, then why should healthcare be avoided right? 

Since more people are engaged on social media, the medical field has now understood the importance of social media in healthcare and has started incorporating such practices. Healthcare organizations have seriously started examining the role of social media in the patient-physician relationship. Leaders in public health have begun realizing that a comprehensive healthcare brand can be built with the help of social media marketing. 

Social Media Engagement in Healthcare | Digital Marketing for Hospitals

Raises Awareness

Social media has always been a key to increase public awareness about emerging, new, and annual health issues. It facilitates raising awareness in a way that is as simple as reminding followers about the basic sense of health practices. 

When the world around is changing fast, social media is the key that ensures that the public is aware of the latest medical guidelines, issues, and advisories. One of the ways of sharing information is to share them directly through your social posts. Another way is to use social media to direct followers to credible sources of the latest news. 

Combat Misleading Information

Social media, due to its very nature, helps spread information quickly to distinct groups of people. That’s great when the information shared is helpful, clear, and fact-based. But unfortunately, there is also a lot of misinformation on social platforms. At times, this misinformation comes in the form of false statements and they are easily ridiculed. 

You can cite published research from a credible health resource like the CDC or WHO. But sometimes, the creators of misinformation may use a reputable institution to give credibility to their statements. Then, the institution needs to clarify that they are not the source.

Social media offers institutions a platform to generate statements to stop the masses from believing false facts. So, make your healthcare brand a platform where you share useful information with your followers and stay away from spreading misinformation. More detailed research can help you identify the true facts. 

The more the research, the better!

Answer Common Questions

Health organizations and authorities working in the healthcare sector are valuable for all kinds of health concerns. Social media tools offer a creative way for healthcare professionals to address common issues. 

For example, the government of India has developed a Facebook Messenger Chatbot. It allows answering questions, directing citizens to the right source, and countering misinformation. 

Everything is shrouded in the media’s shadow. If we claim that the media is counting the feathers of the flying sparrow, we are not exaggerating. The role of media has created a stir and sensation in the world , rich or poor, fair or dark, wise or unwise, are enjoying lucretian pleasures and are in the air. Media could play a leading role in creating awareness on the various health issue and this role can’t be disputed. Hillary Clinton Secretary of State of the US has recently commented on AIDS and while speaking that the disease is incurable, she said efforts are to be made. Many efforts are made on health-related issues and role of media have to be included also. There are many health-related problems confronting our country and these include both communicable and chronic diseases. Health department at the center and state play a leading role in the eradication of diseases, including international agencies and governments of other countries. Media has been promoting health-related causes in a big way in helping government departments spreading awareness on various issues relating health and family welfare programs. The MOHFW has various schemes and these are promoted in many private and government-owned media outlets.

The Magician of hockey

Major Dhyan Chand

Dhyan Chand was born in Allahabad on 29 August 1905 in a Rajput family.He was the elder brother of another hockey player Roop Singh, and the son of Sharadha Singh and Sameshwar Singh.Dhyan Chand’s father was enlisted in the British Indian Army, and he played hockey for the army. Dhyan Chand had two brothers – Mool Singh and Roop Singh. Because of his father’s numerous army transfers, the family had to move to different cities and as such Chand had to terminate his education after only six years of schooling. The family finally settled in Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Chand graduated from Victoria College, Gwalior in 1932. Being in the military, his father got a small piece of land for a house.

Young Chand had no serious inclination towards sports though he loved wrestling. He stated that he did not remember whether he played any hockey worth mentioning before he joined the Army, though he said that he occasionally indulged in casual games in Jhansi with his friends.

career start

Major Dhyan Chand (29 August 1905 – 3 December 1979) was an Indian field hockey player widely regarded as one of the greatest in the history of the sport.He was known for his extraordinary goal-scoring feats, in addition to earning three Olympic gold medals, in 1928, 1932 and 1936, during an era where India dominated field hockey. His influence extended beyond these victories, as India won the field hockey event in seven out of eight Olympics from 1928 to 1964 .

On 29 August 1922 – his 17th birthday – Chand enlisted in the 1st Brahmans of the British Indian Army as a sepoy (private).A reorganisation of the army that year resulted in the 1st Brahmans becoming the 1/1st Punjab Regiment. Between 1922 and 1926, Chand exclusively played army hockey tournaments and regimental games. Chand was ultimately selected for the Indian Army team which was to tour New Zealand.

The team won 18 matches, drew 2 and lost only 1, receiving praise from all spectators. Following this, in the two Test matches against the New Zealand squad, the team won the first and narrowly lost the second. Returning to India, Chand was promoted to Lance Naik in 1927.

After successfully lobbying for reintroducing field hockey in the Olympics, the newly formed Indian Hockey Federation (IHF) made preparations to send its best possible team for the 1928 Amsterdam Olympics. In 1925, an Inter-Provincial Tournament was held to select the team members. Five teams participated in the inaugural nationals – United Provinces (UP), Punjab, Bengal, Rajputana and Central Provinces. Chand got permission from the Army to play for the United Provinces team.

In its first game in the tournament, Dhyan Chand as the centre-forward, and Marthins, their inside-right, performed very well together. Chand attracted much attention by his clever stick-work. His penetrating runs and judicious passes seemed to assure for him a position in the team that is to take part in the Olympic Games. Early in the game, it became evident that Chand was at his best. In combination with Marthins he took the ball away to the right and Marthins did well to give him a good pass. Quick as lightning, Dhyan Chand shot a goal. The ball struck one of the defenders’ stick and went into the net, giving goalkeeper Collie no chance. A goal within 3 minutes of the start was more than what the most optimistic of the UP supporters could expect. At the interval, UP led by three goals to nil.

On their part, Rajputana put every ounce of their efforts to score. The UP goal had more than one narrow escape, but were the winners of a fine exhibition match (3–1).

Buoyed by the success of the Tournament, it was decided that it would be held every two years. After two more trial matches between various hopefuls, the Olympic team (including Chand as center-forward) was announced and assembled in Bombay. Center-half Broome Eric Pinniger was selected as the captain. The IHF was initially low on funds since the provinces of Bombay, Madras and Burma had turned a deaf ear to their financial appeal, but they managed to scrape enough money. The Olympic team then played a match against the Bombay XI, and amazingly lost 3–2, even though Singh scored both his team’s goals. With a quiet send-off, the team left for England on 10 March, to play 11 matches against local sides as well in the London Folkestone Festival in 1927, winning all. It was also said that Great Britain did not send a team in 1928 to the Amsterdam Olympics after their national team was defeated by the Indian team at Folkestone. This is best cited in Kapur’s book Romance of Hockey where a despatch of H. Sutherland Stark, London representative of “Sports”, a magazine of Lahore, tells the story better than any other comment : “For reasons it is difficult to understand the English Hockey Association have taken up a very stiff attitude towards Indian Hockey in recent years and have repeatedly been twitted about it by even their own supporters. The Editor of a leading sports newspaper described them to me as an intensely conservative body, but there seems to be something more than conservative behind their unwillingness apparently ever to meet India in a full international encounter”.Finally, on 24 April, the team arrived in Amsterdam to embark on a tour of the Low Countries. In all the pre-Olympic matches against local Dutch, German and Belgian teams, the Indian team won by large margins.

In the 1928 Amsterdam Summer Olympics, the Indian team was put in the division A table, with Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Switzerland . On 17 May the Indian national hockey team made its Olympic debut against Austria, winning 6–0, with Chand scoring 3 goals. The next day India defeated Belgium 9–0; however Chand only scored once. On 20 May, Denmark lost to India 5–0, with Chand netting 3. Two days later, he scored 4 goals when India defeated Switzerland 6–0.

The final match took place on 26 May, with India facing the home team of the Netherlands. The Indian team’s better players Feroze Khan, Ali Shaukat and Kher Singh were on the sick list and Chand himself was ill. However, even with a skeletal side, India managed to defeat the hosts 3–0 (with Singh scoring 2), and the Indian team won its country’s first Olympic gold medal. Chand was the top scorer of the tournament, with 14 goals in 5 matches. A newspaper report about India’s triumph said,

This is not a game of hockey, but magic. Dhyan Chand is in fact the magician of hockey.

On returning to India, the team was received by thousands of people at the Bombay harbour, compared to the three people who had seen them off.

Posted in Waziristan in the North-West Frontier Province (now in Pakistan) with his new 2/14 Punjab Regiment, Chand, by now a naik (corporal) was cut off from the IHF, which was by now controlled by civilians.

 The Inter-Provincial Tournament was being held to select the new Olympic team; the IHF wrote to the Army Sports Control Board to grant Singh leaves to participate in the nationals. His platoon refused. Chand received news that he had been selected by the IHF for the Olympic team without any formalities. The rest of his teammates however, had to prove their skills in the Inter-Provincial Tournament, which was won by Punjab. As such, seven players from Punjab were selected for the Olympic team. Apart from Chand, Broome Eric Pinnigar, Leslie Hammond and Richard Allen were the other 1928 Olympians retained in the team. Chand’s brother Roop Singh was also included in the squad as a left-in. Lal Shah Bokhari was selected as captain.

The Olympic team then played practice matches in India before heading for Colombo. In two matches in Ceylon, the Olympic team beat the All Ceylon XI 20–0 and 10–0. Wrote one newspaper on the first match,

“Perfection is perilous, for it tempts the gods. For once, this was proved wrong for even the god of weather paid tribute to the genius of the Indian players. Rain clouds, which had threatened to ruin the game, vanished into the blue, and thousands of spectators spent a happy hour marveling at the incomparable artistry of the Indian team.”

The India team set sail for San Francisco on 30 May, and arrived on 6 July. They reached Los Angeles three weeks before the opening ceremony of the Olympics, which took place on 30 July. On 4 August 1932, India played its first match against Japan and won 11–1. Chand, Roop Singh, Gurmit Singh each scored thrice, and Dickie Carr once. In the final on 11 August, India played against hosts USA. India won 24–1, a world record at that time (until it was broken in 2003), and once again clinched the gold medal. Chand scored 8 times, Roop Singh 10, Gurmit Singh 5 and Pinniger once. In fact, Chand along with his brother Roop, scored 25 out of the 35 goals scored by India . This led to them being dubbed the ‘hockey twins’.

One Los Angeles newspaper wrote, “The All-India field hockey team which G. D. Sondhi brought to Los Angeles to defend their 1928 Olympic title, was like a typhoon out of the east. They trampled under their feet and all but shoved out of the Olympic stadium the eleven players representing the United States.”

The team then embarked on a tour of the United States. They played a match on 20 August against a United States XI, almost the same team that they had faced in Los Angeles. Even after loaning its second keeper Arthur Hind, for a half, the team won 24–1.

After setting sail from New York, the team arrived in England. The then embarked on a hectic tour, playing nine matches in various countries in a fortnight, commencing on 2 September. They played four internationals-against the Netherlands, Germany, Czechoslovakia and Hungary. The team then reached Sri Lanka and India, playing a number of matches to pay for their expenses. At the end of the tour, India had played 37 matches, winning 34, drawing 2, with one abandoned. Chand scored 133 of the 338 Indian goals.

In India he is often referred to as Hockey ka Jaadugar which translates to “Magician of the game of Hockey”.

Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

People are the supreme power in the democratic country. Accordingly the People of India solemnly resolved that India is a democratic country. As we know that the India is a largest democracy in the world. The term Democracy mentioned in the Preamble of the constitution of India in the broader sense embracing not only political democracy but also social, economic and inclusive democracy.The Indian constitution provides for the representative parliamentary democracy under which the Executive is responsible for legislature for all its policies and actions.

An Act to provide for the conduct of elections of the Houses of Parliament and to the House or Houses of the Legislature of each State, the qualifications and disqualifications for membership of those Houses, the corrupt practices and other offences at or in connection with such elections and the decision of doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with such elections.

The Representation of Peoples Act 1951 is an act enacted by the Indian provincial parliament before first general elections. The People’s Representation act provides for the actual conduct of elections in India. The act also deals with details like qualification and disqualification of members of both houses of Parliament (Loksabha and Rajyasabha) and the state legislatures (State Legislative Assembly and State Leg.

Salient features

Conducting of elections in the country.

Administrative machinery for conducting elections.

(Fixing time for poll)

Election offences.

Election disputes.

By-elections.

Registration of political parties.

Elector: It is a person whose name is on the electoral list.

Voter: who is eligible for voting but may not be on the electoral list.

The Representation of Peoples Act 1951: Section 8 deals with Disqualification of representatives on conviction for certain offences. This section states that:

A person convicted of an offence punishable under certain acts of Indian Penal Code, Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967, Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002 etc. shall be disqualified, where the convicted person is sentenced to — (i) only fine, for a period of six years from the date of such conviction; (ii) imprisonment, from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.

A person convicted for the contravention of—(a) any law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering; or (b) any law relating to the adulteration of food or drugs; or (c) any provisions of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.

A person convicted of any offence and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years [other than any offence referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)] shall be disqualified from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.

Notwithstanding anything 8[in sub-section (1), sub-section (2) or sub-section (3)] a disqualification under either subsection shall not, in the case of a person who on the date of the conviction is a member of Parliament or the Legislature of a State, take effect until three months have elapsed from that date or, if within that period an appeal or application for revision is brought in respect of the conviction or the sentence, until that appeal or application is disposed of by the court.

Amendments

Even if a person is prohibited from voting due to being in police custody or in jail, as long as his name is entered on the electoral roll he shall not cease to be an elector. This implies that he can file nomination for an election.

The definition of “disqualified” in the Act has been amended. Currently, the definition of disqualified means disqualified for either being chosen as or being a Member of Parliament or a State Legislature. The amendment adds a ground to the definition that the disqualification has to be due to conviction for certain specified offences and can be on no other ground. Conviction for one of these offences would result in the person’s name being removed from the electoral roll and he would cease to be an elector.

On July 10, 2013, the Supreme Court ruled that a person, who is in jail or in police custody, cannot contest elections to legislative bodies. The RPA, 1951 states that any contestant to an election to legislative bodies has to be an “elector”, i.e., his name should be on the electoral roll and he is not subject to any of the disqualifications mentioned in Section 16 of the Representation of People Act, 1950. Among other things, that section disqualifies anyone from being on the electoral roll if he is disqualified from voting under the provisions of any law relating to corrupt practices and other offences in relation to elections. RPA, 1951 talks that anyone in prison or on the lawful custody of the police (other than preventive detention) is not entitled to vote.

The parliament (prevention of disqualification) amendment act, 2013 come into force on the 19th day of February, 2004. It has mentioned about the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes constituted under clause (1) of article 338 of the Constitution; the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes constituted under clause (1) of article 338A of the Constitution

house women vs working women difference between ?

The most basic difference between both is that a housewife is dependent on her family members generally for taking her to places,shopping,movies and many more. Apparently if we see the case of a working women, she is independent at first,can perform all her jobs, earn, can take care of her family and be with the time.

Her Own Decision

Firstly we need to understand that it’s completely the decision of your partner, whether she want to work after marriage or not. You can’t force her to be housewife or to be a working women.

Now coming back to our topic, what are the major difference in roles and lives of housewife and working women are listed below:

Time for Family

OK, the first thing that we will compare is how much time both spend with their family. If we talk about housewife, she will spend a lot of time with her family. She will be available for them anytime her family needs her. But if we talk about a working women, she won’t be there at that time. First she would have to ask her boss for holiday or leave. Only then she can be with her family. In emergencies, housewife can easily manager her time with her family.

But a working women can’t. A housewife can attend all the family functions very easily, but a working women can’t.If her family is planning for a holiday, a housewife can easily go with them and enjoy the holidays. She will not be having any kind of work stress in her mind. But it will be very difficult for working women to get holidays. Thus it will be difficult for her to spend holidays with her family. Even if she will get holidays, she will have work stress in her mind. So she will not enjoy those holidays as expected.

Self-Dependence

A housewife is always dependent on her husband for any type of financial capability. Whenever she wants to buy something or have to do some financial transactions, she have to ask her husband for money. Whereas a working women have her own savings and money. So she can make any type of financial decisions on her own. She don’t need any kind of permission from his husband.

Emotionally Strong

Working women are always emotionally strong as compared to housewife. As housewife spends a lot of time with her family, so she get more emotional. Whereas working women have to deal with so many type of clients. And as per business rules, there is no emotion in business. That is why she is emotionally strong as compare to housewife.

Emotionally StrongWorking women are always emotionally strong as compared to housewife. As housewife spends a lot of time with her family, so she get more emotional. Whereas working women have to deal with so many type of clients. And as per business rules, there is no emotion in business. That is why she is emotionally strong as compare to housewife.

Supporting RoleHousewife

are truly supporting their husbands. Because a man works hard with full focus on work if he is sure that his wife will handle the house. Whereas a husband having working wife is always full of tension that after going home, he would have to do household routine work with his wife.

Pursue Own Interest

A housewife can pursue her interest like painting, stitching etc. but it’s very difficult for a working women to do so. As it will be really difficult for her to get time to do such things.

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Usha Mehta

Women of Revolutionary Movement in British India: Usha Mehta

Usha Mehta(1920-2000) was a Gandhian and freedom fighter of India.

At the age of 8 years she became an active member of the Indian freedom struggle with her first protest being against the Simon Commission in 1928.

She became even more actively involved when her family shifted to Mumbai in 1932 by distributing clandestine bulletins, publications and carrying messages to jailed leaders.

She was known for broadcasting the Congress Radio (an underground radio station), which functioned for a few months during the Quit India Movement of 1942.

  • The radio broadcasts recorded messages from Gandhi and other prominent leaders of the freedom movement. The messages were played across India by the Congress Radio.
  • The Congress Radio played an important role in the freedom struggle by spreading uncensored news and other information banned by the colonial authorities.

The British eventually found it and all the organizers including Usha were arrested. Usha was held in solitary confinement and offered incentives to betray the movement but she chose to remain silent. For this she was sentenced to four years imprisonment at Yerwada Jail in Pune. She was released in 1946.

Post Independence

Upon India’s independence, Usha Mehta actively spread Gandhian thought and philosophy.

She was conferred the Padma Vibhushan in 1998, second-highest civilian award of India.

Benefits of Love Marriage

Through marriage you enter into a committed relationship with your ‘life partner’, meaning he or she promises to share a life-long bond with you. Hence depending on whether you have made the right or wrong choice, your marriage can make or mar your life. Marriages happen in two ways. In arranged marriages, the family searches for a suitable spouse for the bride or groom. In love marriages, the boy or girl chooses his or her own life partner by entering into a mutual love relationship. While people talk both for and against both these kinds of marriages, here we discuss the benefits of love marriages.

What is love marriage?

Love is not a recent concept in the history of human civilization. Humans are falling in love with their desired partner from unknown times. In fact, love marriage is the natural form of marriage wherein the spontaneous liking for the other person results in a marital union. Comparatively speaking, arranged marriage is a concept that should have developed later with the maturing of human civilizations.

Love marriage lets you choose your own partner

You do not fall in love with all the people you meet. Because someone has impressed you in some ways, you start liking them. This liking turns into love relationship that will eventually mature into marriage if everything goes well. Hence in love marriage you get to marry the person who you like.

Love marriage results in finding a compatible partner

Not all the people who go for arranged marriage are blessed with compatible partners

. We find many people lament that they have made a wrong choice. Hence love marriage is the royal road to choose the best partner who will walk with you for the rest of your life and exhibit a high degree of compatibility and understanding in your married life.

Love marriage paves way to social equality

Love marriage breaks the conventions underlying marriages. It brings together individuals from two different communities, castes or social groups. Hence love marriages give way to realizing social equality.

Love marriage gives rise to new class of people

When two individuals of unrelated communities come together in love marriage, they both give rise to a new class of people when they get their offspring. Experts in biology say this is the best way to procreate since the rare and unusual combinations promoted by love facilitate some excellent genetic codes. Majority of children born out of love marriages are found to be intellectually gifted, immunologically strong and emotionally matured.

Love promotes happy and successful marriages

In love, the common feeling that brings two hearts in the marital union is “I am for you and you are for me”. This mutual love results in a strong relationship. People marrying through love feel they have landed on happy and successful life. Love marriage is often not an easy journey. In many cases, the couple faces trials and tribulations on the way to its union. Hence they are motivated to demonstrate a strong commitment that will put them in a lifelong bond.

Defeat Anxiety – Simple but Powerful Tips!

What is anxiety

It’s normal to feel anxious about moving to a new place, starting a new job, or taking a test. This type of anxiety is unpleasant, but it may motivate you to work harder and to do a better job. Ordinary anxiety is a feeling that comes and goes, but does not interfere with your everyday life.

Anxiety is a feeling of nervousness, unease, or worry that typically occurs in the absence of an imminent threat. It differs from fear, which is the body’s natural response to immediate danger.

Anxiety is part of the body’s natural reaction to stress, so it can be helpful at times, making you more alert and ready for action.

Anxiety disorders and normal feelings of anxiousness are two different things. Many of us get anxious when faced with particular situations we find stressful, but if those feelings don’t subside, the anxiety could be more chronic. When feelings of fear or nervousness become excessive, difficult to control, or interfere with daily life, an anxiety disorder may be present. Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders.

Why Is Anxiety So Common Today? - Banyan Mental Health

Signs and Symptoms

Your heart beats fast, and your breathing speeds up. Your chest may feel tight, and you might start to sweat. If you’ve ever felt it, you know that anxiety is just as much a physical state as a mental state. That’s because there’s a very strong biological chain reaction that occurs when we encounter a stressful event or begin to worry about potential stressors or dangers in the future. Other physical symptoms include headaches and insomnia. Psychological symptoms may include feeling restless or tense, having a feeling of dread, or experiencing ruminative or obsessive thoughts. 

Some of the most common symptoms of anxiety disorders include:

  • Feelings of apprehension
  • Anticipating the worst
  • Irritability
  • Tremors or twitches
  • Frequent urination or diarrhea
  • Nausea or upset stomach

Duration of Anxiety

It is possible to get rid of anxiety with therapy or medication, or through a combination of therapy and medication. It may also take changing your mind a bit about the power your mind has over you.

According to Health Care Experts, “You might start to consider your emotions as changing experiences that are always fluctuating. When we feel distressed, it can seem like the distress is going to go on and on forever until we emotionally combust. But instead, emotions act more like a wave, at times increasing and becoming more intense. But inevitably they’ll reach a plateau, subsiding and finally passing.”

5 Ways to Ease Anxiety and Feel Calmer

Take some deep breaths

When anxious, our breath becomes rapid and shallow. Deep belly breathing helps decrease anxiety by stimulating the body’s relaxation response, lowering our heart rate and blood pressure. It’s a powerful technique that works because you can’t breathe deeply and be anxious at the same time. There are many variations to try, including this simple exercise: Inhale deeply for a count of 4, hold your breath for a count of 4, exhale for a count of 4. Repeat several times.

Go for a walk

Exercise is one of the best anxiety remedies, immediately and long term. Going for a walk creates a diversion from your worries and releases muscle tension. Grab your headphones or earbuds on your way out; studies show that listening to music brings its own calming effects.

Long term, regular exercise triggers the release of feel-good neurochemicals in the brain, building up resilience against stormy emotions. It boosts your confidence and your mood, and you don’t need to run a marathon to feel the benefits. Washing your car, hiking, gardening, a pick-up game — anything that gets you moving counts. Thirty minutes, 3 to 5 days a week can help to significantly improve anxiety symptoms, but even 10 minutes can make a difference.

Try a mini-meditation from Headspace

No matter what’s causing your anxiety, take a pause and try this 3-minute meditation to anchor your mind and body in the present.

Sitting down, take a few deep breaths, in through the nose, and out through the mouth, feeling the breath move through the body, the rising sensation as you breathe in, the falling sensation as you breathe out. Do this a few times, then allow the breath to return to its natural rhythm.

Begin to focus your attention on the physical sensations, either of the weight of the body on the seat beneath you, or the feet on the floor. That’s your anchor, something that doesn’t change, no matter how many thoughts come and go. The moment you realize you’re caught up in thought, come back to that sensation, that feeling of being grounded. It’s as though you’re stepping out of all the business of the mind, and just being present in the body.

Sip some herbal, chamomile, or green tea

If you’re feeling jittery, pour a cup of chamomile or green tea. Known as a sleep aid, chamomile contains a compound called Matricaria recutita, which binds to the same brain receptors as drugs like Valium. Chamomile’s sedative effects may also come from the flavonoid apigenin. In one study at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center in Philadelphia, patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) who took chamomile supplements (1.2 % apigenin) for 8 weeks showed a significant decrease in anxiety symptoms compared with patients taking placebo. (Despite improved quality control, herbal supplements aren’t regulated by the FDA the way medications are, so before taking any supplement, check with your doctor.)

Green tea, long used in Chinese medicine to treat depression, contains the amino acid L-theanine, which relieves stress, and reduces blood pressure and muscle tension. Nuts, whole grains, and broccoli are also rich in L-theanine.

Distract yourself

If you’re feeling anxious, try a distraction technique — anything that redirects your attention away from distressing thoughts or emotions. Run your fingers around the edge of your phone, put your hands under running cold water, color, or draw on a piece of paper. Distractions work because your brain can’t be in two places at once, and shifting your attention to any activity will interrupt a string of racing thoughts.

Sardar Bhagat Singh – THE LEGEND

89 years ago, one of India’s greatest revolutionary freedom fighters, Bhagat Singh, was given the death penalty by the British colonisers. And though he died young, only 23 years of age, his actions inspired the youth of the nation to fight for the nation’s freedom. His execution spurred many to take up the revolutionary path, playing an important role in India’s freedom struggle.

Bhagat Singh was born on 28 September 1907. He was also known as Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh. He is one of the youngest freedom fighters who was hanged at a young age. In this article, we are presenting some unknown facts about Bhagat Singh and his revolutionary life which not only inspires but also influences others. Bhagat Singh is considered one of the most powerful revolutionaries of Indian Independence movement. He inspired thousands to take up the cause of the freedom movement.  He was a brave freedom fighter. His feelings of patriotism were not only restricted against British rule but also towards the division of India on communal lines. He was genius, mature, and always attracted to socialism. 

He was attracted to anarchist and Marxist ideologies which further bring revolutionary ideas to his mind. He was a bright student, a reader, and always actively participated in extra-curricular activities.

He was born on 28 September, 1907 in Punjab, India (now Pakistan), to a Sikh family. He was involved with several revolutionary organizations and set an example of patriotism in the country.

He quit school at thirteen to devote his life to Indian Independence and died at a very young age of 23. Popularly he is known as Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh. He was found guilty of killing a British police officer and hanged on March 23, 1931. Here, we are presenting some inspiring and unknown facts about Bhagat Singh.

Here’s what you should know about him!

Bhagat Singh left home for Kanpur when his parents tried to get him married, saying that if he married in slave India, “my bride shall only be death” and joined Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

He along with Sukhdev planned to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai and plotted to kill the Superintendent of Police James Scott in Lahore. However, in a case of mistaken identity, John Saunders, the Assistant Superintendent of Police was shot.

Although a Sikh by birth, he shaved his beard and cut his hair to avoid being recognised and arrested for the killing. He managed to escape from Lahore to Calcutta.

national college lahore, bhagat singh 4th from right

A year later, he and Batukeshwar Dutt threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall in Delhi, and shouted “Inquilab Zindabad!” He did not resist his arrest at this point.

During interrogation, the British came to know about his involvement in the death of John Saunders a year earlier.

At the time of his trial, he didn’t offer any defence, rather used the occasion to propagate the idea of India’s freedom.

Bhagat Singh was so much disturbed by the Jallianwala Bagh massacre that he bunked the school to visit the site of the bloodbath. In college, he was a great actor and played several roles in plays like ‘Rana Pratap’ and ‘Bharat-Durdasha’.

hagat Singh in his childhood always spoke about guns. He wanted to grow guns in the fields using which he can fight with the British. When he was 8 years old, instead of talking about toys or games he always speaks about driving out British from India.

Bhagat Singh had told the British that “instead of hanging they should shoot him” but the British did not consider it. He mentioned this in his last letter. Bhagat Singh wrote in this letter, “Since I was arrested during the war. Therefore, I cannot be punished for hanging. Let me be thrown into the mouth of a cannon. “This shows his braveness and the feeling for the nation.

Bhagat Singh coined a powerful slogan ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ which became the slogan of India’s armed struggle.

He was hanged an hour ahead of the official time on March 23, 1931. It is said that Bhagat Singh was smiling when he was hanged. In fact, this was done with a fearlessness to “lowered British imperialism”. 

When his mother had come to visit him in jail, Bhagat Singh was laughing loudly. Seeing this, the jail officials were shocked to see how this person is who is laughing openly despite being so close to death.

His legacy will continue to live in the hearts of many.

“They may kill me, but they cannot kill my ideas. They can crush my body, but they will not be able to crush my spirit” 

Shaheed Bhagat SIngh

article 370

On 5th August 2019, President of India in the exercise of the powers conferred by Clause (1) of Article 370 of the Constitution had issued the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019. Through this, Government of India has made modifications in Article 370 itself (not revoked it).With this, the Government of India has dramatically altered the relationship between the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Indian Union.BackgroundOn October 17, 1949, Article 370 was added to the Indian constitution, as a ‘temporary provision’, which exempted Jammu & Kashmir, permitting it to draft its own Constitution and restricting the Indian Parliament’s legislative powers in the state.It was introduced into the draft constitution by N Gopalaswami Ayyangar as Article 306 A.Under Article 370: The Constituent Assembly of Jammu & Kashmir was empowered to recommend which articles of the Indian Constitution should apply to the state,The J&K Constituent Assembly was dissolved after it drafted the state’s constitution. Clause 3 of the article 370 gives the President of India the power to amend its provisions and scope.Article 35A stems from Article 370 and was introduced through a Presidential Order in 1954, on the recommendation of the J&K Constituent Assembly.Article 35A empowers the Jammu & Kashmir legislature to define the permanent residents of the state, and their special rights and privileges.It appears in Appendix I of the Constitution.Key ChangesThe Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 2019 has replaced Presidential Order of 1954.Subsequently, the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Bill, 2019, passed by Parliament divides the state of Jammu and Kashmir into two new Union Territories (UTs): Jammu & Kashmir, and Ladakh.This is the first time that a state has been converted into a UT.Of the six Lok Sabha seats currently with the state of Jammu and Kashmir, five will remain with the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir, while one will be allotted to Ladakh.The UT of Jammu and Kashmir will have an Assembly, like in Delhi and Puducherry.Instead of 29, India will now have 28 states. Kashmir will no longer have a Governor, rather a Lieutenant Governor like in Delhi or Puducherry.Status of J&K Union TerritoryJ&K Assembly will have a five-year term, not six, as was the earlier case.Section 32 of the J&K 2019 Bill proposes that the Assembly can make laws on any subjects in the State and Concurrent lists except on state subjects relating to “public order” and “police”.This is similar to Article 239 A of the Constitution that is applicable to Union Territories of Puducherry and Delhi.However, by insertion of Article 239AA and by virtue of the 69th Constitutional Amendment, the Delhi Assembly cannot legislate on matters in entry 18 of the State List, i.e. land.In the case of J&K, the Assembly can make laws on land.The special status provided to J&K under Article 370 will be abolished.Jammu & Kashmir will no longer have the separate constitution, flag or anthem.The citizens of Jammu and Kashmir will not have dual citizenship.As the new union territory of Jammu and Kashmir will be subject to the Indian Constitution, its citizens will now have the Fundamental Rights enshrined in the Indian constitution.Article 360, which can be used to declare a Financial Emergency, will now also be applicable.All laws passed by Parliament will be applicable in Jammu and Kashmir, including the Right to Information Act and the Right to Education Act.The Indian Penal Code will replace the Ranbir Penal Code of Jammu and Kashmir.Article 35A, which originates from the provisions of Article 370 stands null and void.Since Presidential Order has extended all provisions of the Constitution to Jammu and Kashmir, including the chapter on Fundamental Rights, the discriminatory provisions under Article 35A will now be unconstitutional.The Need for ChangesArticle 370 was added in the Indian constitution to provide autonomy to J&K.However, it failed to address the well-being of Kashmiris who have now endured two generations of insurgency and violence.It contributed to the gap between Kashmir and the rest of the nation.International eventsThe situation emerging in the western neighbourhood and the possible re-ascendance of the Taliban in Afghanistan call for greater attention and care.More so, the emerging geopolitical dynamics in Afghanistan and the resultant United States-Pakistan rapprochement could have potentially led to more heat on the Kashmir situation in the months ahead.ChallengesConstitutional challengesPresidential order that sought to abrogate of Jammu and Kashmir’s special status, according to Article 370 (3) the President would require the recommendation of the constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir to make such a change.However, the 2019 Presidential order adds a sub-clause to Article 367, replacing the terms:“Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir” to mean “legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir”.“Government of Jammu and Kashmir” to mean “Governor of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the aid and advice of the council of ministers”.The government sought to dilute the autonomy under Article 370 without bringing a Constitutional Amendment that would require a two-thirds majority in the Parliament.This provision is currently under challenge in the Supreme Court on the ground that it added article 35A in the Indian Constitution only through a Presidential Order.Conversion of Jammu and Kashmir into a Union Territory is in violation of Article 3, as the Bill was not referred to the President by the State Assembly.In the reorganisation of the state, the Presidential order also requires the concurrence of the government of the state. However, since Jammu & Kashmir is currently under Governor’s rule, the Governor’s concurrence is deemed to be the government’s concurrence.Federalism issue:The Instrument of Accession was like a treaty between two sovereign countries that had decided to work together.The maxim of pacta sunt servanda in international law, which governs contracts or treaties between states, asks that promises must be honoured.In Santosh Kumar v. State of J&K & ors (2017), the SC said that due to historical reasons, Jammu and Kashmir had a special status.In SBI v Zaffar Ullah Nehru (2016), the SC held that Article 370 cannot be repealed without the concurrence of the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir.Possible ConsequencesRise in Militancy: Article 370 was seen by Kashmiris as a marker of their separate identity and autonomy.There is a possibility of widespread protests and violence as a reaction to the dilution of Article 370.Terror elements in Pakistan would find Kashmir to be the most fertile ground for breeding terrorism.The unrest can affect the democratic progress that has been made so far.Out-maneuvering Pakistan: Pakistan used 370 to wage a proxy war, internationalise Kashmir, supporting terrorism, all that is gone now.Way ForwardA 10-year strategy for education, employment and employability should be deployed for uplifting Kashmir.The Gandhian path of non-violence and peace should be adopted to solve the legitimacy crisis in Kashmir.The government can mitigate the challenges emanating out of Action on article 370 by launching a comprehensive outreach programme to all Kashmiris.In this context, Atal Bihari Vajpayee’s version of Kashmiriyat, Insaniyat, Jamhooriyat (inclusivity culture of Kashmir, humanitarianism and democracy) for Kashmir solution, should become a cornerstone of the forces of reconciliation in the State.

DEEP LEARNING- PART 2

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is deep-learning-logo-picture-id871793108

The previous article gave a brief introduction to deep learning. This article deals with the networks used in deep learning. This network is known as a neural network. As the name suggests the network is made up of neurons

The networks used in artificial intelligence are a combination of blocks arranged in layers. These blocks are called an artificial neurons. They mimic the properties of a natural neuron. One of the neurons is the sigmoid neuron.

This is in general the formula for the sigmoid function. Every neural network consists of weights and biases.

Weights- The scalar quantities which get multiplied to the input

Biases- the threshold quantity above which a neuron fires

NotationMeaning
XInput
YOutput
WWeight
BBias

Working of a neuron

This is the simple representation of a neuron. This is similar to the biological neuron. In this neuron, the inputs are given along with some priority known as weights. The higher the value of the weights, the more prioritized is that input. This is the reason for our brain to choose one activity over the other. Activity is done only if the neuron fires. A similar situation is seen here. The particular activity is forwarded to the next layer only if this particular neuron fires. That is the output must be produced from the neuron.

Condition for the neuron to fire

The neuron will produce an output only if the inputs follow the condition.

As mentioned before, the bias is the threshold value and the neuron will fire only when the value crosses this bias. Thus the weighted sum for all the inputs must be greater than the bias in order to produce an output.

Classification of networks

Every neural network consists of three layers majorly: –

  1. Input layer
    1. Hidden layer
    1. Output layer

Input layer

The input layer consists of inputs in the form of vectors. Images are converted into 1-D vectors. Input can be of any form like audio, text, video, image, etc. which get converted into vectors.

Hidden layer

This is the layer in which all the computations occur. This is generally not visible to the user hence termed as a hidden layer. This layer may be single or multiple based on the complexity of the task to be performed. Each layer processes a part of the task and it is sent to the next layer. Vectors get multiplied with the weight matrix of correct dimensions and this vector gets passed onto the next layer.

Output layer

The output layer gets information from the last layer of the hidden layer. This is the last stage in the network. This stage depends upon the task given by the user. The output will be a 1-D vector. In the case of classification, the vector will have a value high for a particular class. In the case of regression, the output vector will have numbers representing the answer to those questions posed by the user.

The next article is about the feed-forward neural network.

HAPPY LEARNING!!

DEEP LEARNING SERIES- PART 1

Have you ever wondered how the brain works? One way of understanding it is by cutting open the brain and analyzing the structures present inside it. This however can be done by researchers and doctors. Another method is by using electricity to stimulate several regions of the brain. But what if I say that it is possible to analyze and mimic the brain in our computers? Sounds quite interesting right! This particular technology is known as deep learning.

Deep learning is the technique of producing networks that process unstructured data and gives output. With the help of deep learning, it is possible to produce and use brain-like networks for various tasks in our systems. It is like using the brain without taking it out.  Deep learning is advanced than machine learning and imitates the brain better than machine learning and also the networks built using deep learning consists of parts known as neurons which is similar to biological neurons. Artificial intelligence has attracted researchers in every domain for the past two decades especially in the medical field; AI is used to detect several diseases in healthcare.

Sl.noNameDescriptionExamples
1DataType of data provided to inputBinary(0,1) Real
2TaskThe operation required to do on the inputClassification(binary or multi) Regression(prediction)
3ModelThe mathematical relation between input and output. This varies based on the task and complexityMP neuron(Y=x+b) Perceptron(Y=wx+b) Sigmoid or logistic(Y=1/1+exp(wx+b)) *w and b are parameters corresponding to the model
4Loss functionKind of a compiler that finds errors between the output and input (how much the o/p leads or lags the i/p).Square error= square of the difference between the predicted and actual output.  
5AlgorithmA kind of learning procedure that tries to reduce the error computed beforeGradient descent
NAG
AdaGrad
Adam
RMSProp
6EvaluationFinding how good the model has performedAccuracy
Mean accuracy

Every model in this deep learning can be easily understood through these six domains. Or in other words, these six domains play an important role in the construction of any model. As we require cement, sand, pebbles, and bricks to construct a house we require these six domains to construct a network.

 Now it will be more understandable to tell about the general procedure for networks.

  1. Take in the data (inputs and their corresponding outputs) from the user.
  2. Perform the task as mentioned by the user.
  3. Apply the specific relation to the input to compute the predicted output as declared by the user in the form of model by assigning values to parameters in the model.
  4.  Find the loss the model has made through computing the difference between the predicted and actual output.
  5. Use a suitable learning algorithm so as to minimize the loss by finding the optimum value for parameters in the network
  6. Run the model and evaluate its performance in order to find its efficiency and enhance it if found less.

By following these steps correctly, one can develop their own machine. In order to learn better on this, pursuing AI either through courses or opting as a major is highly recommended. The reason is that understanding those concepts requires various divisions in mathematics like statistics, probability, calculus, vectors and matrices apart from programming. 

       

HAPPY READING!!

A DECISION THAT CHANGED MY LIFE!

August 1st, 2019, I knew my world had changed, for one thing, I loved biology with all my heart, and the other was I was standing at the admission center of Sahyadri Engineering college. I was put into a whole different world from what I had previously planned up for myself. Till that day of my life, the only thing I knew was that I wanted to be a Doctor.

Maybe because all my life, I was around my cousins who were doctors too. But when I genuinely asked for their opinion, they asked me one thing, Studying MBBS and being a doctor is no joke, there will be times where you will be frustrated because there will be too much to study, you won’t be able to get proper sleep or even time for yourself, Do you still want to be a doctor? Well it was at that time something clicked in me, so even before I knew it, I had suddenly backed out. I wanted to do something different, at the same time I also wanted a bit of freedom, where I had time to concentrate on myself too. So now one thing was sure that, there was no turning back, no matter how hard it gets I will have to stick up with my choice of stream.

In A New Place And New Environment

It was a bit hard to open up with strangers, but the Induction program gave me a chance to speak with people, where I came to know some were in similar condition as mine. Then I met one of a senior, and she turned out to be my biggest blessing there. She introduced me to her friends. One of the many things we had in common was dancing, so she introduced me to a dance group from our college. I met some amazing dancers there. All the rehearsals kept me busy and didn’t give me a chance to think twice as to why I chose engineering. Without even knowing I had already blended in and made some friends. And formed our small group of friends of five people. Those who still are close to my heart.

An Unforgettable Experience

In the following month of October, we saw a notice was put up on the notice board of each class. It was a chance for us to go, participate, and attend events that were being held at different colleges in a different place, while with full attendance in each subject. Our class people were soon divided into two teams. One to go to BITS Pilani, Hyderabad, and the other one to Thapur University, Punjab. I was in the first team, of Hyderabad. We were a total of twenty-two people along with two mentors to guide us. Our team was named ‘The Hawx’. We had around two weeks to prepare all our bots. We stayed at college late nights, for work. It was a new experience too. Along with work we bonded and enjoyed while having dinner together in college.

I also caught a glimpse of what a team and teamwork actually were. Because in this field you can do things alone, but when in a team, be it the idea or the end product it comes a lot better than what you usually do alone. You learn to be understanding of each other and respect their opinions too. And also learn that some misunderstandings or problems can be solved by simply sitting and discussing, what and where things went wrong, then brainstorming ideas, and come up with an even better solution. And even then if things seemed very unsatisfying, we knew there was always someone to guide us, like our mentors who have already gone through with all the process and also know how to make the best of the worst situation that we may face during the competition.

Taking The Initiative

As all these events were going on, simultaneously every first-year student had an additional more practical subject called SIP – Social Innovative Program. Where we were divided into teams of five, every class was given a topic to work on, as for our class we were given the topic of ‘Horticulture’. We were asked to form a problem statement by asking them, what all problems they faced, as well as come up with a project as its solution. We interviewed farmers, shopkeepers, chemists, lecturers, This program taught me to be alert and also increased my level of curiosity. As it was teamwork, it also improved my team-building skills and initiation-taking skills. As the interview was to be done in a formal manner, it also helped me improve my soft skills, and my teammates also helped me boost my confidence.

Overall the whole year, I discovered my new sides that I didn’t even know existed. I had a great year filled with both sweet and some bitter memories. Even though I don’t know what the future holds for me, this time I will be looking forward to it!