Are you a Smartphone Zombie?

Few days back i saw a question on a site asking “I want to put my phone aside and study, but i’m not able to do it? Is there any I can get rid of it?”

Well we can say that we all faced this phase where we get too much addicted to Mobile phone and couldn’t keep it aside and focus on other works. A research recently released the details of a study which told us where in the world was the biggest Smartphone penetration:-

  1. South Korea
  2. Australia
  3. Israel
  4. U.S
  5. Spain
  6. U.K

But this doesn’t mean that people in this countries are using mobile phones all the time. Based on a 2016 study led by Statistica, it does look like people in those countries might fall into the category of smartphone zombies. The study also said that

  • Brazilian spend the most hours on average connected to a smartphone as 4 hr 48 mins per day.
  • Chinese spend the most hours on average 3 hours 3 mins
  • Followed by U.S 2 hours 37 mins
  • Italy 2 hours 34 mins
  • Spain 2 hours 11 mins
  • South Korea 2 hours 10 mins

One thing range true for all countries in the study, and that was the fact time spent on a smartphone for the average person was up quite a lot from 2012 to 2016.

It’s not totally people’s fault that we are addicted to the smartphones. We have this exciting thing in our pocket that flashes, beeps and invites us to use it. NPR in 2018 talked about this manipulative object we carry around with us, that is just so irresistible. The story mentions Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, and what we know as Pavlov’s dog. The psychologist one day realised that when his dog heard a bell or a buzzer, he knew it was feeding time, thereby associate with a sound to eating, which led to the dog drooling and looking excited.

Modern psychologist tells us this is what is happening to us when we hear a beep or a ding inside our pocket; we become excitable, like Pavlov’s dog. Our reward is coming, and we get a hit of dopamine and we want more. We check our phone on average every 15 mins and that make the tech use psychological tricks to keep us checking in.

All the time spent checking in may affect our sleep, our relationship, our work, or even all the creative things we might do to have a flourishing existence. Psychologist tend to agree we should be checking in less, and tech producers need to start thinking about creating less powerful digital drugs. But that isn’t easy because as most people now need those beeps and likes, and need to feel that they are not missing out on something.

Experts even states that putting your phone down, you may experience withdrawal symptoms, such as craving, restlessness, irritability or difficulty in concentrating. So from now on you might turn off notifications, have a plan for the day and stick to it, take off the apps you really don’t need as that might lead to a kind of app surfing. In general, not many people are against these technologies, but we should be focusing on what we might call device quality time, educating ourselves and being productive and creative.


Should plastic be banned?

Plastic bags are a significant source of plastic pollution. Plastic pollution significantly contributes to the deterioration of our environment.

There should be a plastic ban to decrease in plastic pollution. Plastic bags cause land, water and air pollution. Decomposing of plastic waste is also a significant challenge which leads to an increase in plastic pollution.

Using plastic has been banned in various countries because of the adverse effects. However, plastic products have been used in various parts of the world, thereby causing hazards to the environment.

Plastic bags are easily available in the market and are widely used. Plastic bags are usually available in grocery stores and are used to carry grocery items like rice, fruits, veggies, wheat flour and other grocery items. The plastic bags are available in various sizes; they are much more economical and easy to use.

However, bags harm the environment. The plastic items and bags that we use in our day-to-day life are hazardous for our environment. This is a major problem than it appears. Scientists say that plastic bags are a major cause of water pollution.

Plastic waste is also responsible for making agricultural land infertile and also many other problems. Many countries throughout the world, including India, have banned the use of plastic bags to ensure a greener environment.

History of Plastic Bags
The plastic products that we use today were originally acquainted with the world by Alexander Parkes at London’s Great International Exhibition in the year 1862.

Parkes’ used a natural subsidiary to f cellulose as the material, which was formed when warmed and was kept in shape after cooling it.

Coining the word “Plastic”
The word plastic was coined in the year 1909. The word was first used by Leo H. Baekeland to describe a type of material that constituted Bakelite,” a substance he made from coal tar, which was used to make many things like phone, camera and ashtrays.

Plastics were used as a critical segment in the production of all these things. Plastics turned out to be well known throughout the world only after World War 1 when oil becomes effortlessly accessible.

Plastic Bags – A Boon or A Curse?
‘Need to Encourage People for Plastic Ban’

Plastic bags are very lightweight and can be easily carried anywhere.

This may sound like a boon for people, but however, there is also another side if the use of plastic bags. Since it is lightweight in nature, it is easily carried away by wind and water.

This is the reason that it blows away anywhere like seas and oceans and pollutes it. They also destroy the beauty of landscapes. A material called polypropylene is used to make plastic bags. It makes them much durable to use.

Natural gas and petroleum are used to make polypropylene. Natural gas and petroleum are non-biodegradable in nature.

The production of various plastic products, including plastic bags releases greenhouse gases like methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, which is the major cause of global warming throughout the world.

People believe that recycling is an alternative to the misuse of plastic waste; however, it is a misconception. An average of only 5% of all the plastic waste can be recycled, and the remaining 95% find its way in soil, water and other landscapes.

According to the latest report, about 35 – 40 % of all the plastic waste is being recycled, and the location of the remaining 60 % is not even known. This makes the plastic producers produce even more number of plastics, and a minor change occurs in the number of recycled products.

Plastic bags considered to be one of the most convenient ways to carry loads of products. However, plastic ban is the solution as it is harmful to human health.

The plastic bag contains a few chemical and synthetic substances in them which can potentially disturb the typical working of the hormones of the human body.

Most of the plastic products that are discharged in the seas and oceans, like plastic bags contain contaminations like PCB’s (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PAHs (Polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons) which can affect the hormone structure.

When sea animals eat these substances, it travels through the food web and finally reaches to a human while consuming fish.

How can we minimize use of plastic?

Plastic ban has soared high in several countries.  The government of India has also made plastic ban in various states of the country. The use of plastic bags should be stopped throughout the country, and strict measures should be taken to implement this.

  • There must be a ban on the production of plastic bags also.
  • Retailers must be fined to sell plastic bags.
  • People who use and carry plastic bags should be fined.
  • Some amount must charge plastic bags of good quality which are easily available in the market; this will significantly reduce the use of plastic bags.
  • A good option should be available in the market, which can substitute plastic bags.

Plastic ban is a movement in the right direction. Most of the biggest economic countries of the world like China, USA and many European countries have banned the use of plastic bags.

There are many countries which have not implemented plastic bags, and they should do it soon. Some of the concerns arise on which people depend as a source of livelihood.

However, on the other side, the plastic ban is a sole need as these bags are destroying our environment. Innovators will eventually come up with an alternative for plastic ban everywhere. This will, in turn, create products and companies, and finally, people will get employment.

When it comes to production costs, plastic bags and cheaper and much easier to produce as compared to eco-friendly bags, however, the demerit is that the plastic bags undergo wear and tear easily. In fact, people discard them in the garbage bins as soon as they carry their products home.

Eco-friendly bags like that of cotton bags are much durable, and also it can be washed and reused again. Eco-friendly bags are cheaper for the long run because it doesn’t have government intervention to clear them from the street.

They are easily degradable and can be cleared from the face of the world. It is not wise to spend money on something that costs almost three times the amount to get rid of it.

10 Lines on Plastic Ban

  1. The world produces more than 6 billion metric tons of plastic waste annually.
  2. Plastic is dumped in lands and oceans, causing massive pollution and environmental problems.
  3. Plastic is a human-made material and hence cannot be degraded in nature.
  4. Scientists are working on a natural degradation of plastic through certain types of bacteria and enzymes.
  5. On average, a person consumes more than 100 kilograms of plastic each year.
  6. There are more than 12.7 million times of plastic in our oceans as of now.
  7. Irresponsible disposal of plastics will lead to disturbance in the natural ecosystems as well as our food chain.
  8. Banning plastic altogether is not possible because we are heavily dependent on plastic every day.
  9. From our Smartphone’s to computers to medical devices, plastic exist in every sphere of our lives.
  10. Plastic bags should be banned because the alternative for it exists like jute bag, gunny bag or paper bags.


There are many problems which are caused due to plastic waste, and it has often been overlooked and underestimated.

This is because people don’t think about the long term effect that plastic is causing to the environment. People look at the benefits that they are getting from it.

People do not consider plastic ban and keep using plastic bags owing to the convenience they offer and ignore the adverse effects that are caused to the environment.

APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Regarded as an ideal Indian and a source of inspiration for the future generations president Dr. A.PJ Abdul Kalam was born on October 15 1931 in an ordinary Tamil family of Rameshwaram in Tamil Nadu. His full name is Avul Pakir Jainulabdin Abdul Kalam His father Jainul aabedin and mother Aashiamma were a simple and religious-minded couple.

They held an honourable place in the society and were regarded as an ideal couple. They lived in a joint family Kalams father was a simple person. He never cared for luxuries and gave more importance to rational thoughts and human values. The senior-most priest of Rameshwaram temple, Pt. Lakshman Shastri was his dear friend.

They used to have long spiritual discussions and Kalam as a boy listened attentively to those discussionsAl though Kalam could not understand everything but his thinking has been largely influenced by it.

During his childhood, Abdul Kalam partook his meals with his mother sitting on the kitchen floor. His mother used to spread a banana leaf before him and serve him a simple meal of garnished rice-tasty sambhar, home made pickles and fresh coconut chutney.

Right from his childhood Dr. Kalam was honest, God fearing laborious and simple traits which he inherited from his parents. Dr. Kalams childhood was deeply influenced by his cousin Shamsuddic who was the sole distributor of newspapers in Rameshwaram During those days there was great demand for Di naming, a Tamil newspaper.

Though Kalam had not yet learnt to read yet he satisfied himself by looking at the pictures, when Shamsuddin used to bring the newspaper.

When 2 World War started in 1939 Kalam was only 8 years old. During those days there was a sudden increase in demand for tamarind seeds in the market. Although Kalam did not know the reason, he started collect ing tamarind seeds and selling them at grocery shops.

This way he earned one anna everyday During that time emergency was announced in India because of the Second World War. As a result, the trains did not stop at Rameshwaram station. In that situation bundles of newspapers were thrown from the moving train be tween Rameshwaram and Dhanushkodi station.

At that time Shamsuddin felt the need of an assistant who could assist him in picking up those bundles. Child Kalam was well prepared to help him and in this way he earned his first salary from his cousin Shamsuddin.

In his childhood, Kalam used to wear a skull cap, which is a symbol of being a Muslim. At that time Kalam was a student of class V in a primary school. Once a new teacher came to his class. Kalam was sitting in the front row with his friend Ramanand Shastri.

The new teacher did not like a Hindu boy sitting next to a Muslim boy So he ordered Kalam to sit at the last bench Child Kalam did not like this. Ramanand Shastri too was very much grieved by this behaviour of the teacher.

When Lakshman Shastri, Ramanand Shastri’s father came to know about it he called the teacher and reprimanded himYou should not sow the seeds of religious discrimination in the hearts of innocent children.”

The teacher apologised for his behaviour and eventually a great change came in his attitude Having completed the primary education, Kalam was admitted to Swartz High School in Ramanathapuram. He had to stay in the school hostel. While at Ramanathapuram he very often missed his parents, his home and especially the South Indian sweetmeat poli prepared by his mother.

In spite of his great love for home, Kalam was fully dedicated to his studies because his parents and teachers had high expectations from him He worked very hard to achieve his aim and nothing could deter him from his firm determination.

Once, during his school days, it so happened that the maths teacher Ramakrishna Aiyar was teaching in another class Unknowingly Kalam entered the class roomSeeing this the teacher immediately caught hold off him by his neck and hit him with a rod before the entire class.

Later, when Kalam secured the highest marks in mathematics, Ramakrishna Aiyar narrated the episode at the time of morning prayer before everyone. He announced, The boy whom I beat with a rod will become a great man one day Mark my words, this student is going to become the pride of his school and teachers.

Since childhood, Kalam developed a deep liking for the mysteries of the sky, and the flight of birds across the seas. He enjoyed the sight Of cranes flying over the sea and long flights of birdsHe decided that one day he too would go for long flights in the sky. Later he was the first person in Rameshwaram to fly in a plane .

When Kalam completed his schooling, he was brimming with enthusiasm and confidence Without a second thought he entered Saint Joseph College, Tiruchirapalli, in 1950. During his college days he worked hard. He was a very disciplined student.

When he was a final year student in the college he developed a great liking for English LiteratureHe read all the available books on English literature by great writers such as Tolstoy, Scott. Also when he was a student of the final year he developed a deep in Clinton towards Physics. He felt great pleasure in reading about the highest knowledge of as tronomy, particularly our solar system To fulfil his dream Kalam decided to study Engineering after his B.Sc. fro Saint Joseph College. For this he needed at least one thousand rupees, but his father did not have that much money.

It was his elder sister Johra who came to his rescue. She mortgaged her gold bangles and necklace and got Kalam admitted to Madras Institute of Technology (MIT). At that time Kalam had a single ambition – to be a pilot.

Modesty is a good quality but Kalam had to face many difficulties at MIT because of it. Be cause of his humble nature, he was quite hesitant to ask questions or reply to them in front of everyone in the class. That is why his fellow students used to make fun of himKalam was depressed about it.

He lost his self-confidence During those days, he used to remember his father’s teachings and inspirational advicesHis father often said: “One who understands others, learns but a person is called wise when he understands himself. Learning without wisdom is nothing but crammed knowledge, it is of no use. Knowing oneself is much important.” This thought brought self-confidence in him and he was recharged with enthusiasm for achieving his aim.

During his studies in MIT, Kalam was inspired by three teachers – Prof Spander, Prof. K.A. B. Panadalaiin and Prof.

Nara Singha Rao to give his thoughts a concrete formKalam was able to construct his work field with the joint assistance of these teachers which laid the foundation of his life

After completing his third year from Madras Institute of Technology he joined as a technical instructor at the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. After becoming an aeronautical engineer from Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. he got two excel lent job opportunities and both of which were enough to fulfil his childhood dreams One was in the Indian Air Force and the other was in the Technical Development and Production Di rectorate Ministry of Defence. Kalam prepared well with full dedication and hard labour. He was very much assured of his selection in the Indian Air Force.

But he was deeply disappointed when he came to know that out of 25 candidates only 8 had been selected and he had stood ninth. It was a great setback. He was disappointed but he soon recovered from this. Another chance yet remained with himHere he achieved success and was appointed as Technical Assistant in the Technical Development and Production Directorate Ministry of DefenceGovt. of India.

In the 196Os Dr. Kalam joined the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Thumba (Kerala). There he played a key role in the development of the first indigenous satellite launcher. After that in 1982, he worked as Director of the Defence Research and the Development Organisation of India and was in charge of the Joint Controlled Launcher Development Programme.

After that he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments.

Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front. He paid attention to their ideasHe never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

While serving the country in various ways Dr. Kalam not only fulfilled the dreams of his parents and teachers but also his own. He put India in an equal position with advanced countries and thereby enhanced its honour and pride After retirement, Dr. Kalam taught at the Annamalai University in Tamil Nadu. He has been conferred with various prestigious awards.

In 1981 he was awarded the Padma Bhushan) in 1990, ‘Padma Vibhushan, and in 1997, he was honoured with the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award. Besides this, he was awarded the Dr. Virender Roy Space Award, National Nehru Award and Arya Bhatt Award. 28 universities throughout the country awarded him the title of Doctor of Science

Undoubtedly we can assume Dr. Kalam as a fortunate person after having received so many awards and honours but he did not get any thing out of luck but as a result of sheer hard Work and strong determination.

He had to face obstacles throughout his life at every step There was problem of economic scarcity lack of will he worked as a Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister and later as a Defence Advisor to the Prime Minister. He also played a major role in the 1998 nuclear experiments. Dr. Kalam was quite cooperative with his colleagues in the work front.

He paid attention to their ideas He never made an attempt to impose his ideas upon them. He tried to maintain discipline faith and mutual understanding in his teamHis behaviour was friendly with everyone. Because of these qualitiesKalam was a favourite among his col leagues. In spite of these, he has few friends in his private life. He has been totally dedicated to his work throughout his life and work has been his companion.

Whether it was the assignment as a scientist or as a teacher, whatever work he was given, he accomplished it sincerely During his tenure as a teacher in Annamalai UniversityDr. Kalam was nominated as the President of India. On 25th July 2002, he was elected the 12th President of India. He took oath as a president under Chief Justice B.N. Kripal.

As President, Dr. Kalam replied strictly to the criticism of those people who were protesting strongly against a scientist being appointed as President, who had the image of a ‘missile man Dr. Kalams heart is as soft as a child’s although he has firm determination and will power in achieving his aim. He forgets himself in the company of children and becomes a part of themHe regards children as a seed in which the future tree is hidden He is of the view that children are the future of India.

He has not only hopes from the young generation, but also has full faith in themHe has the dream of educating each and every child of India and it is his mes sage that we should nurture high dreams and at the same time create confidence in our heart to transform those dreams into reality because this thought only can take our country towards path of progress.

Dr. Kalam believes that by 2020, our country will be able to become a developed country To transform his ideas into a solid form Dr. Kalam has many plans These programmes can turn to a reality but it is not possible only by the inspiration of a few selected Indians, for that every Indian has to work together. He accepts that the role of the younger generation is of utmost importance in the development of a nation Therefore he considers the Indian youth as the most powerful resource and inspires them to work unitedly.

He opines that if you are a good man then you can perform every job in the best manner. For example, if we take the instance of Dr. Kalams personality then he is a capable scientist, an ideal teacher besides being a wonderful colleague and an excellent writer. He has not only a good knowledge of Indian classical music, but he is a perfect violin player tooHe also has interest in gardening.

He feels unlimited peace of mind and pleasure in the company of nature He has a very busywork schedule, but even then he has kept a few regular habits such as morning walk, prayer, yoga, head massage with coconut oil before bath and drinking a glass of milk be fore retiring at night.

He always says that keep every moment busy and meaningful, but at the same time always take out time to feel the fragrance of flowers or to watch the myriad colours of butterties Dr. Kalam has this message for the young generation As a young citizen of India, armed with technology knowledge and love for my nation, I realise, small aim is a crime I will work and sweat for a great vision the vision of transforming India into a developed nation powered by economic strength with value system I am one of the citizens of a billion only the vision will ignite the billion souls.

It has entered into me , the ignited souls compared to any resource, is the most powerful resource on the earth, above the earth and under the earth.

I will keep the lamp of knowledge burning to achieve the vision Developed India. While delivering a lecture at the Indian

Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83 His death was mourned across the nation with thousands including national level dignitaries attending the funeral ceremony hold in his hometown of Rameshwaram where he buried with full state honours.

Not Everybody Gets The Privilege Of Having A Happy Family

From laughing loud to crying in silence, we all have experienced the importance of family. The family is the one such place you experience genuine love, the place where you can never find partiality in trust and love. Family is always there to support you in all the right decisions you make and restrict you from the incorrect decisions you take. Family encourages you to connect with people physically, emotionally, and mentally. It identifies you as a capable individual of reaching his/her goals without any hesitations.

How lucky are those people who have a complete family, aren’t they? They have many people around them with whom they can spend time, share their feelings, and experience all the ups and downs in life. The absence of that one really important person breaks you into pieces. Never feel suffocated you are in a joint or a complete family. Think you have a lot of support that only a few people get in their life. Family is a bunch of teachers and students, teachers being who direct you throughout your life and students being from whom you learn not to make mistakes.

The most important lesson is family teaches us our values. They teach us how to respect elders, the importance of helping people in need. Basically, the family is filled with all the interesting topics and lessons we want. The importance of a balanced life can be learnt from family. The right way of maintaining a healthy relationship with family members is by spending time with them, playing games with them, going on outings.

A complete family completes your world. Privileged are those who are blessed with a complete family. Some people don’t acknowledge the importance of a complete family. They take family for granted. They feel parents control them. They don’t spend time with them. There are so many families in this world in which one or the other family member isn’t there. The reason for the separation can be anything, but the loss is irreplaceable. People with the loss really feel helpless in such situations when they desperately need them.

Imagine a family who just makes a home, not a house. A place where family members stay happy, has small fights or arguments, come tired from work to have a good relaxation with family members is HOME. A HOUSE is a place filled with lots of fights, no proper conversations and a lot of misunderstandings.


  • You keep your family as a first priority. 
  • Not allow a third person break your family.
  • You trust and love each other unconditionally.
  • Understand and support each other.

It is not very easy to break your family until you put all your efforts to save it. It is important to sit and engage in a calm and healthy conversation on where we went wrong, what are the areas for us to work on so that we don’t commit same mistakes again. In a relationship, understanding is extremely important. If one partner fails to understand, the other should be more understanding to handle the situation very well. A family with constant fights and a lot of misunderstandings will never last long. It’s very important to stay united to save relationships.

A family is blessing where people get to stay happy and share all the matters openly without any hesitations. Always feel lucky to be born in a family where parents are supportive, loving and are ready to do anything for your happiness.

How to use the Google Chrome offline?

A web browser like Google Chrome is one of the most crucial components for your mobile, PC’s, Laptops, Tablets, etc. People generally spend most of their time online surfing on the browser while searching, chatting, e-mailing, shopping, banking, reading the news, and watching videos online. It has actually become one of the daily needs of our life because people nowadays are so much indulged online that for every small piece of information they Google it online with the help of web browsers.

If you open any page on Google chrome with a normal speed working internet connection, then it eventually connects you to the latest version of that page. On the other hand, if you are offline or have no internet connection on your source then Chrome will display an error message on your screen with a message that it is unable to connect to the internet. 

Perks on Using Google

While other web browsers like Internet Explorer and Firefox serve an offline mode facility that actually auto-saves the copy of web pages and links that you browsed earlier when you had a working internet on your source and then you can open and read those websites that earlier accessed even if you are offline.

With its several perks, Google Chrome now comes with a facility to use it offline. Its recent version supports offline browsing but the option to easily locate the cached files of any web page or link is stored profoundly inside the settings.

Steps to start offline the Google Chrome

Steps to start offline browsing inside Google Chrome are.

  • Step 1: Open Google Chrome
  • Step 2: type chrome: //flags/
  • (Now you have the access to the experimental features page)
  • Step 3: search for the “Enable Offline Load Stale Button” option
  • Step 4: Click “Enable” against the option
  • Step 5: Restart the browser

Other Google Installers to use

There are some other efficient ways to start offline browsing on your Google Chrome by using Google chrome offline installers like:

  1.  Google Chrome Offline Installer 32-bit,
  2. Google Chrome Offline Installer 64-bit, and
  3. Google Chrome MSI Installers for Windows.

Google chrome offline installer helps the software when its inbuilt updater is unable to upgrade the browser to its latest version on Windows. An individual can download Google chrome offline installer from any online site. There are many sites that allow you to download these installers easily and free just by clicking on Google chrome offline installer free download.

Why to go for Google chrome offline installer 64 bit?

Google chrome offline installer 64 bit is one of the best options.  It comes in two versions:

  1. Single user account, and
  2. All user account.

This installer is one of the fastest and most stable installer than other installers and their versions because this installer has been made for windows on public demand. It supports almost all Windows OS including Windows 10, Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows 7. Google Chrome 64-bit cannot be installed on 32-bit Windows versions. 64 bit is considered to be the present and future of computing technology because of its magnificent features.

Almost all software development organizations have stopped the development of 32-bit software versions because it has less demand since the arrival of 64-bit. 64-bit system is accessible in almost all the computers but if your computer is very old then maybe it doesn’t work in it.

Benefits of Chrome over Other Web Browsers

Also, there are many other offline installers and you can download Chrome offline installer easily from any website. Google Chrome has proven itself as the best web browser by competing with the most popular browsers like Microsoft’s Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox which were considered to be the big giants in the web browser world. There are actually many people who still rely on these old web browsers instead of Google Chrome.


On the other hand, Opera has not always been a competitor but IE and Firefox were not easy targets to defeat but somehow Google made it possible. There are many remarkable features of Google chrome like its speed and power. Also after including the feature of Google chrome offline installer free download, Chrome deserves the top position amongst all the modern web browsers.

The users of the 32-bit version can download this new 64-bit version of Chrome just by signing up to their Google account and by doing so their data will sync and all data of 32-bit will move to 64-bit of Chrome browser, including everything like bookmarks, extensions, saved passwords, etc. This process also depends upon the items selected to sync.

Google Chrome is one of the best efficient alternative browsers to any other browser. Although there are many other browsers, like Firefox, it is still recommended and prioritized because of its customization, free-source, and unrestricted enhancement ability. Moreover, Google Chrome Store has a huge collection of extensions, apps, and customizable themes to be the best. If your priority is loading speed then Google Chrome is absolutely the best option available for you.

It supports almost all types of multimedia including images, music, and videos. One of its best features is its minimal user interface which includes an address bar and some other control which are useful and also they are placed wisely in the most appropriate location. Its design actually ensures the best space to experience your browsing.  64-bit version makes better use of system memory (RAM) and also heightens the browsing speed and performance. The best features of Google Chrome Offline Installers are its lightening and blazing speed for loading web pages from websites.

Important Features of Chrome

Some other features all are like its fastest browsing ability for all types of websites, Minimal UI, User-friendly interface, Configurable settings, Ultimate secure browser, Automatic and frequent updates, Incognito Mode as an alternative to Private Browsing Mode in Firefox, Ultimate fast speed, Installs in seconds, Independent tabbed browsing, Comparatively more stable, Ultimate security, Privacy protection, Built-in anti-phishing, Anti-malware features, Instant installation, etc.

 If a person is a Windows user or an IT manager or a business entity then the most suitable installer is Chrome MSI which is a Windows Installer.

One can always find a suitable offline installer for their source because Google has almost made all sorts of installers and their versions for the betterment of people.


Top 10 Hiking Gears to Buy

Take your time to peruse various possible ways to get to the top may be through hiking! Some are easier but some can be a severe headache on pleasant weekends!

Are you a Hiking Enthusiast? If yes then, then it’s very good and if NO, then one question from my side “Freedom, how can there be a better way to celebrate it than to feel the fresh air, exercise and enjoy the mesmerizing views.”

Among all you here if anyone is not well acquainted with the term “Hiking” then for them, I can explain the meaning of the term – “Hiking is nothing but a long, strenuous walk usually on the trails in the countryside. This is one the most common leisure activity chosen for weekends.”

But there is one more thing that you must keep in mind and that is – What are the essentials that we must add to our backpack before starting our Hiking trip?

The main motive of going on a hike is to get away from our normal day to day life and spend some time with nature and here Hiking gears and gadgets hold a sophisticated balance.

And most importantly bustling with your gadgets will be one of the last things that you will be doing. Further, there is an inverse relationship between hike enjoyment and the weight of one’s backpack, as you could be flat on your back if you are willing to carry all your gears.

But there are some essential hiking gadgets that you must keep with you before going on a hiking trip which can surely add enjoyment to your Hike. Most importantly the wisest decision is to have the gears at the bottom of the pack and covering up less space than you thought. We have provided you with a list of 10 Hiking gears below, that we should add to our pack before we start for our Hike.

GPS and Satellite Communicator

The GPS and satellite communicator that perfectly fits in the palm but acts as the most useful life-saving tool, you could have in case of emergency. This device helps you by providing emergency assistance at one click by contacting any global emergency response coordinator or GOEs, even if you are not getting your cellphone’s signal. The rescuers will be informed of your exact location due to its internal GPS and built-in messaging will help you to communicate with them till they reach you.

This device also helps to provide peace of mind to families by sending them periodical updates of your exact location. The functions like SOS, location broadcasting makes it a must-have device.

Hiking Dry Sack

Hiking on a summer day with the scorching sun above your head, sounds horrible right? A summer shower may provide you with some relief, but your gadgets won’t appreciate the water. A lightweight waterproof compression sack is the best gear to protect them from rainstorms. Even if there are no signs of rainfall, it is also used by Hikers to organize and add more space to your packs. This is the true protector for your items like wallets, cellphones, car keys etc. A lot of companies are making hiking dry sacks but, SeaToSummit is having the largest range of collections and having the best reputation in the market.

Hiking Headlamp

Even if you are planning for a day Hike, it is always believed that carrying a light is profitable in case you fail to reach your destination before the sunsets. I am quite sure if you have used a hands-free headlamp, it is more likely known that you will never go back using a flashlight. You should always choose a hiking headlamp having super bright light and has adjustable beam settings, allowing you to adjust the brightness according to your need.

Nowadays headlamps are fitted to preserve night vision, preventing members of a group from blinding each other and a strobe function to attract attention in case of emergency making it a must pick during Hiking. Looking for the best headlamp in the market now? Actik Core might be your first choice.

Portable Water Filter

You might be thinking that carrying a water filter seems like overkill, but this tiny effective gadget might prove you wrong. At only 50-60 gm weight, you can quickly and effectively filter water without using the harsh bad-tasting chemical treatment. Suppose your water bottle is empty or has developed a leak and you need clean water, all you must do is fill up any pouch from a water source, screw the filter in, squeeze and drink with the provided straw.

Hiking Medical Kit

Let’s be honest, there is no replacement for a proper medical kit. Something as simple as a sprained ankle or any simple wound can mess up your hiking trip, then there is no point because you shouldn’t be prepared. Try to carry a medical kit having a waterproof bag, elastic bands for strains, duct tape, and a few basic medications. One kit is probably sufficient for your hiking trip, and it is advised for everyone to carry a medical kit positively before starting your journey.

Wool Clothing and Rain Hat

“Cotton kills” is frequently told by seasoned backcountry hikers, but they have a perfect reason for this. When cotton gets wet, it has zero insulation, conducts heat 25 times faster than air, wool on the other hand acts as a water repellant, preventing waterlogging. Even if the water is coming through them, they have air pockets that provide insulation. Also, if we talk about rain hats, once you have used them, you are more likely never to want to use your jacket hoodie or an umbrella. 

You should always choose a rain hat that doesn’t restrict your line of sight, your ears should not be boxed in, and the rain hats must have great brims which help to prevent the face from getting soaked. The Gore-Tex Seattle Sombrero by Outdoor Research is probably the best rain hat in the market that comes in a variety of colors and sizes.

Hiking Poles

These poles provide Indisputable advantages that result in less painful, safer, and even faster hiking. They can easily establish a consistent walking rhythm, provide balance and stability, decrease stress on feet, legs, knees, or lower back and help in maintaining proper posture. Moreover, they are used to test loose rocks, puddle depth, or help in icy terrain. These poles show a long-term benefit by extending one’s Hiking lifetime. Your Hiking poles should be light, strong, foldable, height adjustable, durable and must provide good ergonomics. 


Monocular have a distinct advantage over binoculars because they are half of their size and weight. Moreover, they are mainly known for their instant use, by being able to fit in your pocket. Also, monocular are substantially faster and easier to focus on than a pair of binoculars, allowing you a better and quick view to see any bird in the sky or to identify any animal. You should always choose a monocular that provides a bright sharp image, prevents fogging, and is built with a waterproof case. If you are more interested in insects than birds, there are a few monocular that come with a special attachment to convert them into a microscope.

Hiking Boots

Shoes are always considered as an essential item that protects and comforts the human foot. So, as per your requirement, you should always select your footwear. For Hiking, we need . In this case, Hiking Boots are no doubt very important. They are specially made for different types of terrains and provide a grip on uneven surfaces. They are generally lightweight with a special padding on the heel and the ankle. So, hiking boots are the accessory you can Hike without.


What can be more relaxing than gently swinging in the breeze, taking naps, and soaking in pleasant views in a hammock? Well, you don’t have to be a magician to pull out a hammock from your bag! Weighing around 600gms and compressible up to 4*5 inches, they are super lightweight hammocks. They take less than a minute to set the hammock and pack down. A few of them also come with a built-in compression sack, proving to be a great addition to your pack. Thinking of a five-minute snack break or an hour nap under a shade? Hammocks are mostly chosen for this purpose because of their comfortable design and easy access.

Why are hiking gears important? Any guesses? Yes, that was a very right guess.

Hiking gears are basically hiking equipment that is taken for outdoor walking trips. We need to know about how remote a place is or what are the potential hazards that can take place in the areas or localities which we are visiting where we are travelling.

This can be understood with an example – a short walk across farmland or a small trek in the Himalayas can decide the amount and weight of goods that might be carried along with us.


Hi all,
Today I am going to share different ways to say or ask
– Good morning.
– How are you?
– I am fine.
– What are you doing?

* Ways to say “GOOD MORNING”
1. Good day to you.
2. Have a great day.
3. Wishing you the best for
the day.
4. Good morning,Wake up
and be awesome.
5. Lovely morning.

*Ways to ask “HOW ARE YOU?”
1. How are you doing
2. How’s everything
3. How have you been
4. How are things going
5. How do you do
6. How is life sailing
7. How are things coming
8. Long time no see
9. What’s good in the Hood
10.what is new with you.

* Ways to say “I AM FINE”
1. I’m good.
2. I’m great.
3. Doing really well.
4. Couldn’t be better.
5. Never better.
6. I feel great/wonderful/
7. Over the moon.

*Ways to ask ‘WHAT ARE YOU DOING?’
1. Are you busy(right now)?
2. What’s going on?
3. What are you up to
(right now)?
4. What are you up to lately?.

Hope so, my today’s topic is useful to you. Now, try to use these ways, instead of using regular ways.

Have a lovely day.

Keep smiling ❣️


The Kite Runner is the first novel by Afghan-American author Khaled Hosseini. Published in 2003 by Riverhead Books, it tells the story of Amir, a young boy from the Wazir Akbar Khan district of Kabul. The story is set against a backdrop of tumultuous events, from the fall of Afghanistan’s monarchy through the Soviet invasion, the exodus of refugees to Pakistan and the United States, and the rise of the Taliban regime.


Amir recalls an event that happened twenty-six years before, when he was still a boy in Afghanistan, and says that that made him who he is. Before the event, he lives in a nice home in Kabul, Afghanistan, with Baba, his father. They have two servants, Ali and his son, Hassan, who are Hazaras, an ethnic minority. Baba’s close friend, Rahim Khan, is also around often. When Afghanistan’s king is overthrown, things begin to change. One day, Amir and Hassan are playing when they run into three boys, Assef, Wali, and Kamal. Assef threatens to beat up Amir for hanging around with a Hazara, but Hassan uses his slingshot to stop Assef.

The story skips to winter, when the kite-fighting tournament occurs. Boys cover their kite strings in glass and battle to see who can sever the string of the opposing kite. When a kite loses, boys chase and retrieve it, called kite running. When Amir wins the tournament, Hassan sets off to run the losing kite. Amir looks for him and finds Hassan trapped at the end of an alley, pinned with his pants down. Wali and Kamal hold him, and Assef rapes him. Amir runs away, and when Hassan appears with the kite, Amir pretends he doesn’t know what happened. Afterward, Amir and Hassan drift apart. Amir, who is racked by guilt, decides either he or Hassan must leave. He stuffs money and a watch under Hassan’s pillow and tells Baba that Hassan stole it. When Baba confronts them, Hassan admits to it, though he didn’t do it. Shortly after, Ali and Hassan move away.

The story jumps to March 1981. Baba and Amir are in the back of a truck as they escape from Kabul, which was invaded by the Soviets and has become a war-zone. After a hellish journey, they make it to Pakistan. Two years later, Baba and Amir live in Fremont, California. While Baba works at a gas station, Amir finishes high school and goes to college. Baba and Amir sell things at a flea market on Sundays, and Baba sees an old friend, General Taheri. Amir notices General Taheri’s daughter, Soraya. When Amir finally speaks to her, General Taheri catches him and tells him there is a proper way to do things. Not long after, Baba is diagnosed with lung cancer. Amir asks Baba if he will get General Taheri’s consent for Amir to marry Soraya. General Taheri accepts the proposal. They hold the wedding quickly because of Baba’s health, and Baba dies a month later. Amir and Soraya try unsuccessfully to have a baby while Amir works on his writing career.

Amir gets a call from Rahim Khan. Rahim Khan is sick and wants Amir to see him in Pakistan. Amir meets him a week later, and Rahim Khan tells Amir about the devastation in Kabul. He says things only got worse after the Soviets were forced out. Now the Taliban rule by violence. He has a favor to ask of Amir, but first he needs to tell him about Hassan. When Baba and Amir left Afghanistan, Rahim Khan watched their house. Out of loneliness and because he was getting older, he decided to find Hassan. He convinced Hassan and Hassan’s wife, Farzana, to come back to Kabul with him. Farzana and Hassan eventually had a little boy, Sohrab. A few years later Rahim Khan went to Pakistan for medical treatment, but he received a call from a neighbor in Kabul. The Taliban went to Baba’s house and shot Hassan and Farzana and sent Sohrab to an orphanage.

Rahim Khan wants Amir to go to Kabul and bring Sohrab back to Pakistan, where a couple lives that will take care of him. He tells Amir that Baba was Hassan’s father, and Amir agrees to do it. In Afghanistan, Amir finds the orphanage where Sohrab is supposed to be, but he is not there. The orphanage director says a Taliban official took Sohrab a month earlier. If Amir wants to find the official, he will be at the soccer stadium during the game the next day. Amir goes to the game, and at half-time, the Taliban put a man and a woman in holes in the ground and the official Amir is looking for stones them to death. Through one of the Taliban guards, Amir sets up a meeting with the official.

When they meet, Amir tells the official he is looking for a boy, Sohrab, and the official tells the guards to bring the boy in. Sohrab is wearing a blue silk outfit and mascara, making him appear more feminine and suggesting that the men sexually abuse him. The official says something Amir recognizes, and suddenly Amir realizes the official is Assef. Assef says he wants to settle some unfinished business. He beats Amir with brass knuckles, breaking Amir’s ribs and splitting his lip. Sohrab threatens Assef with his slingshot, and when Assef lunges at him, Sohrab shoots him in the eye, allowing Amir and Sohrab to escape. As Amir recovers in the hospital, he finds out there never was a couple that could care for Sohrab. Amir asks Sohrab to live with him in the U.S., and Sohrab accepts.

The adoption officials tell Amir that adopting Sohrab will be impossible since he can’t prove Sohrab’s parents are dead, and Amir tells Sohrab he may have to go back to an orphanage. Amir and Soraya figure out a way to get Sohrab to the U.S., but before they can tell Sohrab, Sohrab tries to kill himself. He lives, but he stops speaking entirely. Even after they bring Sohrab to California, Sohrab remains withdrawn. One day, they go to a park with other Afghans. People are flying kites. Amir buys one and gets Sohrab to fly it with him. They spot another kite and battle it. Using one of Hassan’s favorite tricks, they win. Sohrab smiles, and as the losing kite flies loose, Amir sets off to run it for Sohrab.


Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw


Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw is an Indian billionaire entrepreneur. She is the executive chairperson and founder of Biocon Limited and Biocon Biologics Limited, a biotechnology company based in Bangalore, India and the former chairperson of Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore.

A pioneer of the biotechnology industry in India and the head
of the country’s leading biotechnology enterprise, Biocon, Ms.
Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw is a highly respected businesswoman.
Ms. Mazumdar-Shaw, a first generation entrepreneur, has made
her country proud with a globally recognized biopharmaceutical
enterprise that is committed to innovation and affordability in
delivering world-class therapeutics to patients globally.


A successful technocrat of global standing, Ms Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw heads India’s leading
biopharmaceutical enterprise, Biocon. She is highly respected in the corporate world and has been
named among TIME magazine’s ‘100 Most Influential People in the World.’ She has also featured
in Fierce Biotech’s list of ‘World’s 25 Most Influential People in Biopharma’ and is recognized
among Forbes ‘100 Most Powerful Women’ globally. U.S.-based Chemical Heritage Foundation
recently conferred Ms Mazumdar-Shaw with the ‘2014 Othmer Gold Medal’ and Germany-based
Kiel Institute for the World Economy awarded her its coveted ‘2014 Global Economy Prize’ for
Business. Her most cherished awards are the national awards, PADMA SHRI (1989) and PADMA
BHUSHAN (2005), presented to her by the President of India for her pioneering efforts in
Under her stewardship, Biocon has evolved from its inception in 1978 as an industrial enzymes
company to a fully integrated innovation-led Biopharmaceutical enterprise committed to reduce
therapy costs of chronic diseases like autoimmune, diabetes and cancer. As an emerging global
biopharmaceutical enterprise, serving customers in over 85 countries through innovative products
and research services, it is enabling access to affordable healthcare for patients, partners and
healthcare systems across the globe. It has successfully developed and taken a range of novel
biologics, biosimilars, differentiated small molecules and affordable recombinant human insulin
and analogs from ‘Lab to Market’. It has a rich pipeline of biosimilars and novel biologics at
various stages of development, including a high potential oral insulin..
Ms Mazumdar-Shaw’s commitment to affordable healthcare extends beyond business. She is
passionately focused on innovation-led healthcare solutions for sustainable and affordable health-
care for the marginalized communities. Her philanthropic initiatives include an innovative micro-
health insurance program based on delivering cashless healthcare through primary healthcare
clinics in rural areas of Karnataka, an education initiative based on math education for school
children in government schools as well as making quality cancer care affordable to a larger patient
population. She has established the 1,400-bed Mazumdar-Shaw Cancer Center (MSCC) in
Bangalore in partnership with renowned heart surgeon Dr Devi Shetty to deliver affordable world-
class cancer care services to patients irrespective of socio-economic status.
More recently she has also established the Mazumdar Shaw Center for Translational Research
(MSCTR), a non-profit research institute dedicated to developing scientific breakthroughs
resulting in more effective treatments for a wide range of human diseases and conditions. Ms
Mazumdar-Shaw is also focusing on ensuring access to affordable healthcare for the marginalized
communities through telemedicine initiatives like eLaaj, preventive screenings for oral and
cervical cancer etc.

About Biocon

Biocon Limited is an Indian biopharmaceutical  company that is based in Bangalore, India  founded by Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw. The company manufactures generic  active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that are sold in over 120 countries across the globe, including the developed markets of the United States and Europe. It also manufactures novel biologics, as well as, biosimilar insulins  and antibodies, which are sold in India as branded formulations. Biocon’s biosimilar products are also sold in both bulk and formulation forms in several emerging markets. In contract research services, Syngene International Limited (Syngene), a publicly listed subsidiary of Biocon.

Know More About BRICS and BRICS 2021

by Yogiraj Sadaphal

“BRICS must provide a united and clear voice in shaping a peaceful, balanced and stable world. We must harness each other’s strengths, in knowledge, skills and resources”.

– Narendra Modi

BRICS is an acronym for the grouping of the world’s leading emerging economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.


The word “BRIC” is thought to have been invented in 2001 by Jim O’Neill, then chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, in his book Building Better Global Economic BRICs. But, it was actually coined by Roopa Purushothaman who was a Research Assistant in the original report. South Africa was invited to join BRIC in December 2010, after which the group adopted the acronym BRICS.

First BRIC Summit.

The BRIC grouping’s first formal summit, also held in Yekaterinburg, began on June 16, 2009, with Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dmitry Medvedev, Manmohan Singh, and Hu Jintao, the leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, all in attendance. The summit focused on boosting the global economy and reforming financial institutions, as well as discussing how the four countries could work together more effectively in the future. There was also greater discussion about how developing countries, such as the BRIC members that make up 3/4 of the group, may become more involved in global issues.


1. For more sustainable, equitable, and mutually beneficial development, the BRICS aspire to strengthen, enhance, and intensify collaboration within the grouping and among individual nations.

2. BRICS takes each member’s growth, development, and poverty goals into account to ensure that partnerships are established on each country’s economic strengths while avoiding competition whenever possible.

3. BRICS is establishing itself as a new and promising political-diplomatic body with a wide range of goals that extend far beyond the basic goal of overhauling global financial institutions.

Areas of Cooperation-

1. Political and Security Cooperation-

BRICS offers opportunities for policy advice and best practice exchanges on domestic and regional issues, as well as advancing the restructuring of the global political architecture to make it more balanced, based on the pillar of multilateralism.

2. Economic Cooperation-

There are rapidly growing trade and investment flows between BRICS countries as well as economic cooperation activities across a range of sectors. Economic and trade cooperation, innovation cooperation, customs cooperation, strategic cooperation between the BRICS Business Council, contingent reserve agreement, and the New Development Bank all have agreements in place. These agreements help to achieve the common goals of strengthening economic cooperation and promoting integrated trade and investment markets.

3. People-to-People exchange-

The need to strengthen People-to-People interactions and create closer collaboration in the areas of culture, sport, education, cinema, and youth has been recognized by BRICS members. In the spirit of openness, inclusion, variety, and mutual learning, people-to-people exchanges aim to form new connections, develop relations, and increase mutual understanding between BRICS peoples.

BRICS Submit 2021.

The 13th BRICS Summit is going to be held under India’s Chairship in 2021. It will be the third time that India will be hosting the BRICS Summit after 2012 and 2016.

The theme for India’s Chairship is ‘BRICS @ 15: Intra-BRICS Cooperation for Continuity, Consolidation and Consensus’. The theme reflects our approach to strengthen the founding principles of BRICS cooperation based on continuity, consolidation and consensus.

The discussion in the BRICS Summit 2021 is around three pillars:

1. Political and Security:

The discussion is centered on global and regional security. The following are the priority sectors:

Counter-Terrorism Cooperation & Reform in the Multilateral System.

2. Economic and Financial:

The emphasis is on intra-BRICS cooperation in areas including trade, agriculture, infrastructure, small and medium businesses, energy, and finance and banking. The priority under this pillar are:

•BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy 2020-25 – Implementation of this strategy was discussed.

•BRICS Agriculture Research Platform – The platform’s operations was discussed.

•Cooperation on Disaster Resilience

•Innovation Cooperation

•Digital Health and Traditional Medicine

3. Cultural and People to People:

Cultural and personal exchanges have always been beneficial to intra-group bonding, and the BRICS 13th Summit was focused on this topic.

How to Overcome the fear of public Speaking

Fear of public speaking is a common form of anxiety. It can range from slight nervousness to paralyzing fear and panic. Many people with this fear avoid public speaking situations altogether, or they suffer through them with shaking hands and a quavering voice. But with preparation and persistence, you can overcome your fear.

1. Start Small

If you’re new to the world of public speaking, start small. Find a few friends and family to practice on. Begin by speaking to smaller groups and build up from there. The size of the audience makes no difference. If you know your topic, your pre-speaking fear will quickly evaporate.

2. Prepare Thoroughly

Nothing helps ease the fear of public speaking more than knowing your material. The ability to connect with your audience comes from having the confidence you won’t get lost during your delivery. Rehearse several times before the big talk. Time your presentation and always have back up material in case time is left over.

3. Don’t Just Memorize the Words

Mastering the art of public speaking comes not from memorizing word for word your entire speech. The real pros know their material by remembering key points and prompts on subtopics and examples to cover.

4. Avoid Common Bullets

The majority of business presentations and speeches are boring monologues filled with endless PowerPoint slides and bullet points. Trash the PowerPoint presentation and make your material the focal point of the talk. If you do use PowerPoint, take the approach of using visuals that quickly convey your message.

5. Reduce Stress

The most fearful moment of any presentation is the one minute before your stage entrance. Use the tactic of elite athletes by visualizing a positive outcome and using deep belly breathing to reduce stress and build confidence.

6. Find a Friend to Focus On

Prior to your public speaking on stage introduce yourself to a few members of the audience in the front row. During your talk look these people in the eye to ease your nerves and connect with your audience.

7. Engage the Audience

Creating a monologue presentation puts the entire task of informing and entertaining the audience on you. Make your talk a two-way interaction with questions and participation to reduce boredom and speak with ease. Having the group involved also gives you time to reorganize your thoughts if things are going off track.

Make public speaking part of your marketing plan and boost your business success. Your fear will evaporate over time and you will wonder why you didn’t start sooner.


If you can’t overcome your fear with practice alone, consider seeking professional help. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a skills-based approach that can be a successful treatment for reducing fear of public speaking.



Apart from the very intriguing stories from Greek Mythology , Greece has also been the pioneer of many inventions and discoveries . The Greeks have been crowned with the title of being the fathers of science , zoology , medicine and many more . Here are few of their discoveries and findings :

ALARM CLOCKS – Alarm clock was invented by the Greek engineer , mathematician and Physicist Ctesibius , who lived in Alexandria . But it is also believed that the Greek philosopher Plato had made his version of alarm clock way before Ctesibius did . Plato was very displeased with his students for being late to his classes due to over sleeping , so he came up with a solution – yes , an alarm clock . Though , alarm clocks have definitely evolved and now its in our smart phones ,but this genius invention roots back to the Greeks .

ODOMETER – Odometer is an instrument that measures the distance travelled by a wheeled vehicle. It is believed that Archimedes was the inventor of the odometer , while some people also believe that Heron of Alexandria invented it . The odometer helped The Greeks and Roman revolutionise the building of roads accurately .

GEOMETRY – There were many Greek mathematicians and geometers that contributed to the development of Geometry .Thales of Miletus is regarded as the father of geometry , proposed a number of rules that were based on true reasoning .

OLYMPICS – The first modern olympics that was held in 1896 , was actually inspired by ancient olympic held in Greece . The first olympic games was held in approximately in 776 BC in Olympia. This was held every four years in Olympia during a religious fest to honour Zeus .

Are Parisians the Favourites:

Not since Real Madrid’s famous ‘Galácticos’ squad of the 2000s has a single club boasted so much individual talent.Paris Saint-Germain’s dramatic capture of Lionel Messi — which will undoubtedly go down as one of the most shocking in football history — capped off what had already been an incredible summer of talent accumulation.But can this squad deliver Qatar Sports Investments (QSI), who bought PSG in 2011, the Champions League — the trophy the owners crave the most, but has so far eluded them?

The deadly trio of le parc des prince fans
The deadly trio of le parc des prince fans

While all these were talked ,on the otherhand the main reason for Departure of Messi from the Catalan club was of his wages which causes Barca to break the “Financial fairplay”,whereas similar kind of problem also apply for the Parisians,its truly not fair by signing all the individual talents in a Free transfer. As a Football fan everyone knows that PSG aren’t building such a expensive not to win the Ligue 1 trolled as ‘Farmers league’.The motto is to win their first UCL in history.

Kylians Mbappe to madrid?
Kylians Mbappe to madrid?

But money isn’t everything in football, its about fairplay and respect.When it comes to respect we all know what Mbappe said after Lille winning Ligue that “Thay didn’t win the league PSG have lost it,well we all know that PSG owner is spending money like water to win an ordinary league,after all this a truly dedicated and talented team were able to win the League in which PSG are more dominant is an achievement to be appreciated,which Mbappe couldn’t understand.But now Mbappe feels that he doesn’t want to be shadowed by Messi..which Neymar couldn’t be able to achieve.So he revealed his wish to move to losblancos…Such kind of drama is surrounding the Parisians,they are considered as Hot favourites to win the UCL.

If MNM exists, there's a chance?
If MNM exists, there’s a chance?

Messi was presented at the news conference at PSG’s Parc des Princes and his name was chanted amid a round of applause as he took his seat alongside club president Nasser al-Khelaifi.He spoke about his desire to win the Champions League for a fifth time, the end to his career, and his excitement at playing alongside teammates Kylian Mbappe and Neymar.But all these media hikes on PSG will come to an end when history’s one of  the greatest goalscorer joind the Parisians.

Tips that helps you to loss weight

Weight Loss Tips: Reaching a healthy weight is considered a balancing act. Maintaining weight is not easy an easy task. It is important to balance energy intake and energy output. That is why it is advised to have fewer fats so that less energy is supplied as fats having the highest caloric value. But the fact of the matter is the maintenance of body weight is not that simple.

Here are few weight loss tips enlisted below:

Eat Regular Meal:

Eating at regular times during the day helps burn calories at a faster rate. It also reduces the temptation to snack on foods high in fat and sugar.

Do not skip breakfast:

Skipping breakfast will not help you lose weight. You could miss out on essential nutrients and you may end up snacking more throughout the day because you feel hungry.

Eat plenty of fruit and vegetables:

Fruit and veg are low in calories and fat, and high in fibre – 3 essential ingredients for successful weight loss. They also contain plenty of vitamins and minerals.

Plan your meals ahead:

Try to plan your breakfast, lunch, dinner and snacks for the week, making sure you stick to your calorie allowance. You may find it helpful to make a weekly shopping list.

Stay active

Being active is key to losing weight and keeping it off. As well as providing lots of health benefits, exercise can help burn off the excess calories you cannot lose through diet alone.

Drink plenty of water

People sometimes confuse thirst with hunger. You can end up consuming extra calories when a glass of water is really what you need.

Consume food high in fiber:

Foods containing lots of fiber can help keep you feeling full, which is perfect for losing weight. Fiber is only found in food from plants, such as fruits and veggies, oats, whole grain bread, brown rice and pasta, and beans.

Sleep well: sleep at least 8 hours a day. Better sleep habits can help. This includes both your daily routine and the way you set up your bedroom.

Meditation. It has been around for over 5,000 years for a reason. Meditation works well for many people and has many benefits. It can lower stress and anxiety, as well as improve sleep, energy levels, and mood. To meditate, will need to:

  • Find a quiet place.
  • Get comfortable (sitting or lying down).
  • Focus your attention on a word, phrase, object, or even your breath.
  • Let your thoughts come and go and do not judge them.

Dietary Recommendations to Maintain A healthy diet:

  • Include whole plant-based rainbow diet: all types of vegetables, fruits, whole pulses, legumes, and whole grains (cereals) such as whole rice, quinoa, buckwheat, millets, millet flours, oats, gluten-free flours (as per the case).
  • Inclusion of herbal teas: Infuse hot water with herbs like tulsi, ginger, turmeric, cinnamon stick, clove, cardamom, fennel, mint etc.
  •  Incorporating healthy nuts: include such as almonds, cashews, walnuts etc. seeds like flaxseeds, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, coconut dried or fresh.
  • Prefer homemade fresh foods.
  • Simple cooked non-vegetarian food where applicable.
  • Low fat intake (it is to avoid deep-fried and oily foods).
  • Dinner should be taken before 8 p.m. and breakfast, not before 9 a.m. giving 13 hours of intermittent fasting.

Diet Elimination:

  • Milk and dairy products.
  • Caffeine and alcohol.
  • Processed and packed food (including packaged namkeens, biscuits or breads).
  • Cereals containing gluten.
  • Refined sugar and refined sugar products.

Recommended Supplements:

  • Vitamin D, vitamin B6 and vitamin E.
  • Magnesium and zinc
  • Omega 3 fatty acids: fish oils
  • Probiotics

World’s Photography Day

19th August of every year is celebrated as World Photography Day. This day is to celebrate creativity and acknowledge the effort that a photographer puts to capture amazing shots that seems so unreal. Today’s generation is taking interest in photography and making it a professional career. Photography is a way of conveying a message that is unseen which is still out there unheard by the world. With advancements in camera technology, it has become one of the primary modes of communication. The saying “a picture is worth a thousand words” remains true even now.

History of World Photography Day

The origins of World Photography Day can be traced back to 1837. In France, Joseph Nicephore Niepce and Louis Daguerre invented the daguerreotype, the first-ever photographic process. In 1861, the first durable color photograph was captured. From then on, the medium of photography kept evolving.

The first digital photograph was created in 1957, two decades before the digital camera was invented. The French Academy of Sciences officially announced the invention of the daguerreotype in 1839 to the public. On 19 August 1839, the French government is believed to have purchased the patent for the device and made it freely available to the world. Later on, the day began to be marked as World Photography Day.

Photography is an art, to become better you need to practice it and know what other artists are doing.

Here are some of the famous photographers –

  • Jimmy Nelson

Jimmy Nelson is a famous photographer from the UK and he has been taking amazing photography since 1987. Since 2010 he has been working on a series ‘Before they Pass Away’ which has made him travel extensively to places like Vietnam, Tibet, Africa, and so on. He visits tribal people and takes photos of them in their natural habitat, which is amazing since the emotions are beautifully captured in his photos.

Tribal by famous photographer Jimmy Nelson

  • Rehahn

Rehahn is a french photographer currently settled in Vietnam. He is quite popular for his photographs of India, Vietnam, and Cuba. He published his first book – Vietnam, Mosaic of Contrasts in 2014 which has more than 150 photographs of Vietnam that focus specifically on the large diverse culture. 

Hidden smile by famous photographer Rehahn

  • Lee Jeffries

Lee Jeffries is from Manchester, UK and he enjoys traveling around the world to capture black and white portraits of homeless people. His passion for homeless portrait photography started when he participated in a marathon in London. He happened to come across a young woman huddled in a sleeping bag and his conception of homeless people changed drastically. 

Homeless by famous photographer Lee Jeffries

  • Joe McNally

Joe McNally is award-winning photography with international recognition. His work is quite popular in more than 70 countries. He is among the rare breed of photographer who has bridged the world between photojournalism and advertising, amassing an impressive commercial and advertising client list including FedEx, Sony, ESPN, Adidas, etc. His photos have been featured in top magazines like National Geographic, Life, and so on.

Music woman by famous photographer Joe McNally

  • Erik Almas

 Erik Almas is a photographer from Norway, currently living in San Fransisco. He was given a camera as present at the age of 12 and since then his exploration with photography has taken him many places. He pursued his education in photography at the Academy of Art University for 4 years.

Walk by famous photographer by Erik Almas

If I were the Prime Minister of India

A country blessed with enormous species, spices, and reserves, popularly known as Incredible India is the only place holding the largest democracy. The opportunity to be the Prime Minister of such a vast country is nothing less than a blessing. I would have put in every effort to take the nation to the top.

Although it is gifted, no country is without flaws. The position which it holds today is due to all the accomplishments it acquired after conquering the obstacles posed by the foreign invaders.

The biggest problem nationwide is poverty. I would have taken the first step to eradicate it with the help of education. Promising infrastructure and equipment at government schools would have been capitalized for the needy. Without any discrimination, the students of government and private schools would have been taught by world-class teachers in a friendly environment. Therefore, following the saying, “education is the key to success” would have been applied for the bright future of Indians.

The next step would be taken for the graduates to aid them with suitable jobs based upon the skills rather than merits. Officials would be appointed to keep a check upon the data and ensure everyone is getting equal rights. The money earned through jobs would be in turn used in the economy as consumption of resources. And considering that the basic necessities like shelter, food, and clothes would be fulfilled at minimal costs and good quality. Hence, the cycle of economy will be balanced properly.

The nation depends upon assets, and ensuring the safety and health of the working class is essential. High taxes will be levied from the wealthy and accustomed to building techno-savvy devices for hospitals and the defense army. In all, it will lead to proportional distribution of resources.

Governing the region is not a one-time investment but a moving process that should be revised with time. All the hands would be joined, within the five years in which I will be employed.

Regular skin care tips

1. Wash your face with normal water

2.Take 1 spoon of gram flour, 1 spoon of nalugu mavu , add a pinch of turmeric

3 .mix it well .. apply it on your face , neck , hand ..after 15 mins wash it with chill water

Industrial complex

The industrial complex is a socioeconomic concept wherein businesses become entwined in social or political systems or institutions, creating or bolstering a profit economy from these systems. … The industrial complex may profit financially from maintaining socially detrimental or inefficient systems.


Inventory refers to all the items, goods, merchandise, and materials held by a business for selling in the market to earn a profit. Example: If a newspaper vendor uses a vehicle to deliver newspapers to the customers, only the newspaper will be considered inventory. The vehicle will be treated as an asset

Cultural heritage

Cultural Heritage is an expression of the ways of living developed by a community and passed on from generation to generation, including customs, practices, places, objects, artistic expressions and values.

Cultural values

Cultural values are the core principles and ideals upon which an entire community exists. This is made up of several parts: customs, which are traditions and rituals; values, which are beliefs; and culture, which is all of a group’s guiding values

Business ethics

Business ethics is the study of appropriate business policies and practices regarding potentially controversial subjects including corporate governance, insider trading, bribery, discrimination, corporate social responsibility, and fiduciary responsibilities

E-waste and its negative effect on environment

Electronic waste generally known as e-waste, is any electronic product that has reached the end of its usable life cycle. Many consumer doesn’t know that the Electronic product actually contain toxic substances therefore they must be handled with care when no longer wanted or needed. One should donate its electronic product which is outdated for him to the person who might still find this electronic product usable.

E-waste is harmful for global environment, animals and humans. When improper disposal of e-waste in regular landfills or in places where it is dumped illegally, both heavy metals and flame retardants can seep directly from the e-waste into the soil, causing contamination of underlying groundwater or contamination of crops that may be planted nearby or in the area in the future.

Heavy metals from e-waste, such as mercury, lithium, lead and barium, then leak through the earth even further to reach groundwater. When these heavy metals reach groundwater, they eventually make their way into ponds, streams, rivers and lakes. Through these pathways, acidification and toxification are created in the water, which is unsafe for animals, plants and communities even if they are miles away from a recycling site. Clean drinking water becomes problematic to find.

Electronic waste contains toxic components that are dangerous to human health, such as mercury, lead, barium and lithium. The negative health effects of these toxins on humans include brain, heart, liver, kidney and skeletal system damage. To avoid these toxic effects of e-waste, it is crucial to properly e-cycle, so that items can be recycled, refurbished, resold, or reused. The growing stream of e-waste will only worsen if not educated on the correct measures of disposal.


Values are basic and fundamental beliefs that guide or motivate attitudes or actions. They help us to determine what is important to us.

Organizational climate

Organizational climate is a concept that has academic meaning in the fields of Organizational Behavior and I/O Psychology as well as practical meaning in the business world There is continued scholarly debate about the exact definition of organizational climate for the purposes of scientific study.

Organizational change

Organizational change refers to the actions in which a company or business alters a major component of its organization, such as its culture, the underlying technologies or infrastructure it uses to operate, or its internal processes

Organizational development

Organization development is the study and implementation of practices, systems, and techniques that affect organizational change. The goal of which is to modify an organization’s performance and/or culture. The organizational changes are typically initiated by the group’s stakeholders



   A SWOT analysis is a strategic technique used to determine and define your Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. This technique can be applied to either an organization or a person. Performing personal swot analysis will help know more about yourself. The ultimate aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objectives. It helps to build on what you do well, to address what you are lacking, to minimize risks, and to take the greatest possible advantage of chances for success. The internal factors are strengths or weaknesses and the external factors are opportunities and threats. SWOT plays as a strategic planning tool in an organization.

S-Strengths: Strengths are the qualities that separate you from others. It helps for the success of an organization or a person and will be assisting in achieving the organization’s mission. For example, some companies may be good at marketing strategies some may be good at their quality control. So, it may be anything that gives benefits to an organization.

W-Weaknesses; Weaknesses are the factors that may prevent successful results within a project. This is the area that we have to improve to remain competitive. Find out what makes your competitors better and what weaknesses you have and improve in that areas.

O-Opportunities: Opportunities are the chances to improve ourselves better. We have to grab the opportunities and make use of them to attain a higher level. Be ready to take opportunities and make full use of them to become stronger.

T-Threats: Threats are the external factors that have the potential to harm an organization. If we can predict the threats, then we can make sure to reduce them or avoid them. We also have to be aware of whether our weaknesses can be converted into our threats.

  I like to explain swot analysis by giving an example. Let’s see the personal swot analysis of Sridhar Vembu, who is the founder and CEO of the Zoho corporations. According to Forbes, he is the 59th richest Indian in the world. Zoho Corporation is an Indian multinational company that produces several web-based tools. Let’s analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for Sridhar Vembu.


  • He has good communicational skills. 
  • He has good leadership skills with a good visionary.
  • He has a motherland spirit.
  • He is an artistic and confident person. He also has innovative ideas which made him a more successful person.
  • He has not only stopped with his creative ideas. He is a person who has converted his ideas into reality.


  • He has a less commercial vision.
  • He focussed more on upskilling rather than innovation.
  • The rapid growth of his company may distract from upgrading core services and make everything too complex.


  • There is a vital need for made-in-India products.
  • The government provides support for companies that concentrate on all facets of society.


  • There are diverse product portfolios.
  • Less interest in advertising and marketing may result in customer loss.
  • As his achievements rise, the responsibility also increases. He has to be responsible in case of any disasters in his projects.
  • Competitors with better research-intensive strategies.

Thus know your strengths and opportunities to shine and be aware of your weakness and threats and find a better solution to them.

Anger management.

Think before you speak.

In the heat of the moment, it’s easy to say something you’ll later regret. Take a few moments to collect your thoughts before saying anything — and allow others involved in the situation to do the same.

Be calm.

Once you’re calm, express your anger As soon as you’re thinking clearly, express your frustration in an assertive but non confrontational way. State your concerns and needs clearly and directly, without hurting others.

Exercise physically.

Get some exercises physical activity can help reduce stress that can cause you to become angry. If you feel your anger escalating, go for a brisk walk or run, or spend some time doing other enjoyable physical activities.


Take a timeout Timeouts aren’t just for kids. Give yourself short breaks during times of the day that tend to be stressful. A few moments of quiet time might help you feel better prepared to handle what’s ahead without getting irritated or angry.


Identify possible solutions Instead of focusing on what made you mad, work on resolving the issue at hand. Does your child’s messy room drive you crazy? Close the door. Is your partner late for dinner every night? Schedule meals later in the evening or agree to eat on your own a few times a week. Remind yourself that anger won’t fix anything and might only make it worse Stick with ‘I’ statements To avoid criticizing or placing blame which might only increase tension use “I” statements to describe the problem. Be respectful and specific. For example, say, “I’m upset that you left the table without offering to help with the dishes” instead of “You never do any housework.


Don’t hold a grudge Forgiveness is a powerful tool. If you allow anger and other negative feelings to crowd out positive feelings, you might find yourself swallowed up by your own bitterness or sense of injustice. But if you can forgive someone who angered you, you might both learn from the situation and strengthen your relationship.


Use humor to release tension Lightening up can help diffuse tension. Use humor to help you face what’s making you angry and, possibly, any unrealistic expectations you have for how things should go. Avoid sarcasm, though it can hurt feelings and make things worse.


Practice relaxation skills When your temper flares, put relaxation skills to work. Practice deep-breathing exercises, imagine a relaxing scene, or repeat a calming word or phrase, such as “Take it easy.” You might also listen to music, write in a journal or do a few yoga poses whatever it takes to encourage relaxation.

Seek help.

Know when to seek help Learning to control anger is a challenge for everyone at times. Seek help for anger issues if your anger seems out of control, causes you to do things you regret or hurts those around you

Classic treasure (Part- 2)

See the source image

“Classic literature is still something that hangs in the air like a song.”

-Gilbert K Chesterton

Some of the must-read classics.

1. The Great Gatsby

Image result for The Great Gatsby

F. Scott Fitzgerald’s his novel is set in Long Island, near New York City. This book, from the narrator  Nick Carraway’s perspective tells the story of his dealings with an enigmatic billionaire Jay Gatsby and his fetish for his former lover Daisy Buchanan. A classic worth your time!

“I wasn’t actually in love, but I felt a sort of tender curiosity.”

 F. Scott FitzgeraldThe Great Gatsby

2. The Catcher in The Rye

Image result for The Catcher in the Rye

J.D Salinger’s The Catcher in The Rye revolves around a 16 year old disillusioned and confused adolescent named Holden Caulfield, following his expulsion from prep school. The book touches upon critical subjects of morality, religion, lies and deceit, isolation, youth, sexual identity etc.

“I am always saying “Glad to’ve met you” to somebody I’m not at all glad I met. If you want to stay alive, you have to say that stuff, though.”

J.D. Salinger, The Catcher in the Rye

3.Gone With the Wind

Image result for gone with the wind book

American writer Margaret Mitchell’s book is set in Clayton County and Atlanta, Georgia, during the American Civil War and Reconstruction Era. It primarily revolves around Scarlett O’Hara, the spoiled daughter of a well-to-do plantation owner, who is faced with sudden penury and must do everything to come out of it. It encompasses a sweeping romance and a fictionalised account of the civil war based on facts. The book captures how human persevere and endeavour to survive in the worst of situations.

“Burdens are for shoulders strong enough to carry them.”

Margaret Mitchell, Gone with the Wind

4. Anna Karenina

Image result for Anna Karenina book

Russian author Leo Tolstoy’s ‘Anna Karenina’, is regarded as one of the greatest novels of all time. The book follows an engaging affair between Anna Karenina and Count Vronsky and subsequently an introspective self discovery and religious epiphany by a character Konstantin Levin. The novel spins the themes such as marriage, fidelity, life, creation, society, class etc. One of the absolute must read for literature lovers.

 “All happy families are alike; each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Leo Tolstoy, Anna Karenina

5. Fahrenheit 451

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Ray Bradbury’s 1953 dystopian novel gives a peek into the future of America, where books are illegalized and any books found are burnt by people specified for the task called ‘firemen’. The book tells the tale of a fireman Guy Montag. Destroying literature and knowledge starts to weigh heavily upon Montag’s conscious, who ends up quitting his job and working towards safeguarding literature. The title of the book is selected based on the ignition temperature of paper at which it readily catches fire.

“There must be something in books, something we can’t imagine, to make a woman stay in a burning house; there must be something there. You don’t stay for nothing.”

Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451

6.Lord of the Flies

Image result for Lord of the Flies book

 Nobel Prize-winning British author William Golding’s book pivots round a group of boys marooned on a strange uninhabited island and their hapless attempts at governing themselves. The explores various themes like primitivity, civilisation, rules and order, wisdom and knowledge, youth , power, religion, identity etc.

“We did everything adults would do. What went wrong?”

William Golding, Lord of the Flies

7. The Diary of a Young Girl

See the source image

Otherwise known as ‘Anne Frank’s diary’, ‘The Diary of a young girl’, is a series of writings in Dutch by Anne Frank while in hiding with her family for two years because of the Nazi occupation of The Netherlands. The diary contains a thorough first hand account of Anne Frank’s life before and after the Nazi occupation. Anne has divulged details of private life, the love and longing for her family and her life in hiding.

“Where there’s hope, there’s life. It fills us with fresh courage and makes us strong again.”

Anne Frank, The Diary of a Young Girl


The previous article dealt with the networks and the backpropagation algorithm. This article is about the mathematical implementation of the algorithm in FFN followed by an important concept called hyper-parameter tuning.

In this FFN we apply the backpropagation to find the partial derivative of the loss function with respect to w1 so as to update w1.

Hence using backpropagation the algorithm determines the update required in the parameters so as to match the predicted output with the true output. The algorithm which performs this is known as Vanilla Gradient Descent.

The way of reading the input is determined using the strategy.

StochasticOne by one
BatchSplitting entire input into batches
Mini-batchSplitting batch into batches

The sigmoid here is one of the types of the activation function. It is defined as the function pertaining to the transformation of input to output in a particular neuron. Differentiating the activation function gives the respective terms in the gradients.

There are two common phenomena seen in training networks. They are

  1. Under fitting
  2. Over fitting

If the model is too simple to learn the data then the model can underfit the data. In that case, complex models and algorithms must be used.

If the model is too complex to learn the data then the model can overfit the data. This can be visualized by seeing the differences in the training and testing loss function curves. The method adopted to change this is known as regularisation. Overfit and underfit can be visualized by plotting the graph of testing and training accuracies over the iterations. Perfect fit represents the overlapping of both curves.

Regularisation is the procedure to prevent the overfitting of data. Indirectly, it helps in increasing the accuracy of the model. It is either done by

  1. Adding noises to input to affect and reduce the output.
  2. To find the optimum iterations by early stopping
  3. By normalising the data (applying normal distribution to input)
  4. By forming subsets of a network and training them using dropout.

So far we have seen a lot of examples for a lot of procedures. There will be confusion arising at this point on what combination of items to use in the network for maximum optimization. There is a process known as hyper-parameter tuning. With the help of this, we can find the combination of items for maximum efficiency. The following items can be selected using this method.

  1. Network architecture
  2. Number of layers
  3. Number of neurons in each layer
  4. Learning algorithm
  5. Vanilla Gradient Descent
  6. Momentum based GD
  7. Nesterov accelerated gradient
  8. AdaGrad
  9. RMSProp
  10. Adam
  11. Initialisation
  12. Zero
  13. He
  14. Xavier
  15. Activation functions
  16. Sigmoid
  17. Tanh
  18. Relu
  19. Leaky relu
  20. Softmax
  21. Strategy
  22. Batch
  23. Mini-batch
  24. Stochastic
  25. Regularisation
  26. L2 norm
  27. Early stopping
  28. Addition of noise
  29. Normalisation
  30. Drop-out

 All these six categories are essential in building a network and improving its accuracy. Hyperparameter tuning can be done in two ways

  1. Based on the knowledge of task
  2. Random combination

The first method involves determining the items based on the knowledge of the task to be performed. For example, if classification is considered then

  • Activation function- softmax in o/p and sigmoid for rest
  • Initialisation- zero or Xavier
  • Strategy- stochastic
  • Algorithm- vanilla GD

The second method involves the random combination of these items and finding the best combination for which the loss function is minimum and accuracy is high.

Hyperparameter tuning would already be done by researchers who finally report the correct combination of items for maximum accuracy.



Global warming is a dangerous effect on our environment that we are facing these days. Rapid industrialization, increase in the population growth and pollution are causing a rise in global warming. Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the earth’s surface during the last century. One of the reasons why global warming is dangerous is because it disturbs the overall ecology of the planet. This results in floods, famine, cyclones and other issues. There are many causes and results of this warming and is a danger for the existence of life on earth.

The sign of global warming is already visible with many natural phenomena happening around globally, affecting each living species.

The most evident causes of global warming are industrialization, urbanization, deforestation, sophisticated human activities. These human activities have led to an increase in the emission of the greenhouse, including CO₂, nitrous oxide, methane, and others.


Global warming is certainly an alarming situation, which is causing a significant impact on life existence. Extreme global warming is resulting in natural calamities, which is quite evident happening around. One of the reasons behind global warming is the extreme release of greenhouse gases stuck on the earth surface, resulting in the temperature increase.

Similarly, volcanoes are also leading global warming because they spew too much CO₂ in the air. One of the significant causes behind global warming is the increase in the population. This increase in the population also results in air pollution. Automobiles release a lot of CO₂, which remains stuck in the earth.

This increase in the population is also leading to deforestation, which further results in global warming. More and more trees are being cut, increasing the concentration of CO₂.

The greenhouse is the natural process where the sunlight passes through the area, thus warming the earth’s surface. The earth surface releases energy in the form of heat in the atmosphere maintaining the balance with the incoming energy. Global warming depletes the ozone layer leading to the doom’s day.

There is a clear indication that the increase in global warming will lead to the complete extinction of life from the earth surface.


Although we are almost late in slowing down the global warming rate, it is crucial to find the right solution. From individuals to governments, everyone has to work upon a solution for global warming. Controlling pollution, population and use of natural resources are some of the factors to consider. Switching over to the electric and hybrid car is the best way to bring down the carbon dioxide.

As a citizen, it is best to switch over to the hybrid car and to use public transport. This will reduce pollution and congestion. Another significant contribution you can do is minimise the use of plastic. Plastic is the primary cause of global warming taking years to recycle.

Deforestation is another thing to consider that will help in controlling global warming. Planting of more trees should be encouraged to make the environment go green.

Industrialization should be under certain norms. The building of industries should be banned in green zones affecting plants and species. Hefty penalties should be levied on such sectors contributing towards global warming.


The effect of global warming is widely seen in this decade. Glacier retreat and arctic shrinkage are the two common phenomena seen. Glaciers are melting in a fast way. These are pure examples of climate change.

Rise in sea level is another significant effect of global warming. This sea-level rise is leading to floods in low-lying areas. Extreme weather conditions are witnessed in many countries. Unseasonal rainfall, extreme heat and cold, wildfires and others are common every year. The number of these cases is increasing. This will indeed imbalance the ecosystem bringing the result of the extinction of species.

Similarly, marine life is also widely getting affected due to the increase in global warming. This is resulting in the death of marine species and other issues. Moreover, the changes are expected in coral reefs, which are going to face the end in coming years.

These effects will take a steep rise in coming years, bringing the expansion of species to a halt. Moreover, humans too will witness the negative impact of global warming in the end.


The previous article gave some introduction to the networks used in deep learning. This article provides more information on the different types of neural networks.

In a feed-forward neural network (FFN) all the neurons in one layer are connected to the next layer. The advantage is that all the information processed from the previous neurons is fed to the next layer hence getting clarity in the process. But the number of weights and biases significantly increases when there is a large number of input. This method is best used for text data.

In a convolutional neural network (CNN), some of the neurons are only connected to the next layer i.e. connection is partial. Batch-wise information is fed into the next layer. The advantage is that the number of parameters significantly reduces when compared to FFN. This method is best used for image data since there will be thousands of inputs.

In recurrent neural networks, the output of one neuron is fed back as an input to the neuron in the previous layer. A feed-forward and a feedback connection are established between the neurons. The advantage is that the neuron in the previous layer can perform efficiently and can update based on the output from the next neuron. This concept is similar to reinforcement learning in the brain. The brain learns an action based on punishment or reward given as feedback to the neuron corresponding to that action.

Once the final output is computed by the network, it is then compared with the original value, and their difference is taken in different forms like the difference of squares, etc. this term is known as loss function.

It will be better to explain the role of the learning algorithms here. The learning algorithm is the one that tries to find the relation between the input and output. In the case of neural networks, the output is indirectly related to input since there are some hidden layers in between them. This learning algorithm works in such a way so as to find the optimum w and b values for the loss function is minimum or ideally zero.

The algorithm in neural networks do this using a method called backpropagation. In this method, the algorithm starts tracing from the output. It then computes the values for the parameters corresponding to the neuron in that layer. It then goes back to the previous layer does the computations for the parameters of the neurons in that layer. This procedure is done till it encounters the inputs. In this way, we can find the optimum values for the parameters.

The computations made by the algorithm are based on the type of the algorithm. Most of the algorithms find the derivative of a parameter in one layer with respect to the loss function using backpropagation. This derivative is then subtracted from the original value.

Where lr is the learning rate; provided by the user. The lesser the learning rate, the better will be the results but more the time is taken. The starting value for w and b is determined using the initialization.

ZeroW and b are set to zero
Xavierw and b indirectly proportional to root n
He w and b indirectly proportional to root n/2

 Where n; refers to the number of neurons in a layer. These depend on the activation function used.

The derivative of the loss function determines the updating of the parameters.

Value of derivativeConsequence
0No change

The derivative of the loss function with respect to the weight or bias in a particular layer can be determined using the chain rule used in calculus.


Blogging: my experience

I never really thought about writing blogs before but I did, with this post I’ll be completing 30 blogs. Lie is unexpected isn’t it, you do what you have never thought of before. Writing blogs was all just a part of my internship that I HAD TO DO, but it became a wonderful experience. When I started posting the major problem I faced was What should I post about? I don’t know the first thing about it. I am not a technology geek who can talk about various new gadgets that came out in the market, nor do I like cars, nor am I much of a reader to write book reviews or a movie enthusiast for that matter. I am a simple, LAZY student who likes to do craft (yes my hobby is to make best out of waste kind of things), watching anime (It also helps practice my listening skills and get accustomed to listening Japanese; I am a Japanese language student) and listen to music (ARMYYYY!!; if you are new to this, ARMY is BTS’s fandom); these are the only three things that I do, of course beside studying and all (I DO STUDY OKAY(ノಠ益ಠ)ノ彡┻━┻).

As I mentioned above I don’t really have the kind of hobbies I can write 30 posts about so I thought, Why not write about the thing that I love; I love Japan (so much that I am learning the language and want to go study there). Yes studying there is my ultimate dream, and to achieve my destination I am doing this internship right now, blogging which I never really thought about doing ever (sometimes you need to do those things that you never thought you will ever do just for the sake of making your dreams a reality).

Photo by Suzy Hazelwood on

But even if I never thought of blogging, I still enjoyed it sooo much; it was such a different experience, I did have some difficulty in deciding the topics, had to study a lot but, at the end it was worth it, I was able to share with you my knowledge about what I have learnt about Japan. Although my posts were a bit (okay a lot educational) and not really fun, but as a language student I am very well aware of the difficulties we face while learning about such topics, simply because enough material is not available online and our teachers ask us to write about these topics in 2500-3000 words ┬─┬ノ( º _ ºノ). So all those students or Japanese enthusiasts out there I hope my posts will help you a teensy bit. I am not a professional blogger but thank you if you liked my intense educational posts (づ ̄ ³ ̄)づ.


Statutory, Regulatory and Various Quasi-judicial Bodies

Statutory bodies

Statutory bodies are established by acts of Parliament or State Legislatures concerned.Statutory bodies are non-constitutional bodies which make rules and regulations and take the decision on behalf of the government.As these bodies are established by the act, it derives its powers, functions, duties from the respective act.Statutory bodies are established to perform specific tasks. These are sector specific and lessen the burden on the government.Government may grant certain level of independence in its functioning, appointment of members. Though government may grant the independence and autonomy to these bodies, government needs to ensure financial prudence in its functioning.These bodies are subject to varying degrees of ministerial control which are identified in the statutory body’s enabling legislation. Ministers are accountable to Parliament for the operation of all government agencies within their ministry and are necessary to table their annual reports in Parliament.The meaning of a ‘statutory body’ may change depending upon the legislation. For example, a local council is not a statutory body for the purposes of the Financial Accountability Act, but it is for the purposes of the Statutory Bodies Financial Arrangements Act.All statutory bodies are established and operate under the provisions of their own enabling legislation, which sets out the purpose and specific powers of the agency.

Examples: National Human Rights Commission, National Green tribunal, Medical Council of India, University Grants Commission etc.

List of important statutory bodies

National Commission for Minorities

National Commission for Backward Classes

National Green Tribunal

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

National Law Commission

National Human Rights Commission

National Commission for Women

Armed Forces Tribunal

Regulatory bodies

The notion of the regulatory agency was initiated in the USA and it has been basically an American establishment. The first agency was Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), established by Congress in 1887 to control the railroads.A regulatory body also called a regulatory agency is a public authority or a government agency which is accountable for exercising autonomous authority over some area of human activity in a regulatory or supervisory capacity.Regulatory agencies are generally a part of the executive branch of the government or they have statutory authority to execute their functions with oversight from the legislative branch.Their activities are generally scrutinized by the legislature. Regulatory authorities are usually established to implement standards and safety, or to oversee use of public goods and regulate business.Regulatory body, independent governmental body established by legislative act in order to set standards in a specific field of activity, or operations, in the private sector of the economy and then to enforce those standards.Regulatory agencies function outside direct executive supervision. Because the regulations that they adopt have the force of law, part of these agencies’ function is essentially legislative; but because they may also conduct hearings and pass judgments concerning adherence to their regulations, they also exercise a judicial function – often carried out before a quasi-judicial official called an administrative law judge, who is not part of the court system.Regulatory agencies became popular means of promoting fair trade and consumer protectionas problems of commerce and trade became more complex Several risks are involved in the absence of a regulatory system. The main risks of not regulating are:Excessive tariff. In adequate service level and quality Non-compliance of contractual obligations to users, government or other parties Low efficiency in production and in the provision of goods and services. In adequate level of investment in the sector Frequent discontent between the parties involved .

List of important regulatory bodies

Advertising Standards Council of India

Directorate General of Civil Aviation

Forward Markets Commission

Inland Waterways Authority of India

Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority

Competition Commission of India

Biodiversity authority of India

press council of India

Reserve Bank of India

Securities and Exchange Board of India

Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

Medical Council of India

Pension fund regulatory and development authority

The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)

Quasi-military bodies

A Quasi-Judicial Body is an entity such as an arbitrator or a tribunal, generally of a Public Administrative Agency, which has powers and procedures resembling that of a Court of Law or Judge, and which is obliged to objectively determine facts and draw conclusions from them so as to provide the basis of an official action.A Quasi-Judicial Body has also been defined as “an organ of Government other than a Court or Legislature, which affects the rights of private parties either through adjudication or rulemaking”.It is not necessary that a Quasi-Judicial Body has to be a Court of Law, such as National Green Tribunal.For example, the Election Commission of India is also a Quasi-Judicial Body but does not have its core functions as a Court of Law. Finance Commission is also a quasi-judicial body but do not perform functions of court of law.Awards and judgements of quasi-judicial bodies often depend on a predetermined set of rules or punishment depending on the nature and gravity of the offence committed. Such punishment may be legally enforceable under the law of a country, it can be challenged in a court of law which is the final vital authority.

List of important Quasi judicial bodies

National Human Rights Commission

State Information Commission

State Human Rights Commission

Central Information Commission

Competition Commission of India

Appellate Tribunal for Electricity

State Electricity Regulatory Commission

National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission

District Consumer Disputes Redressal Forum

Banking Ombudsman

Insurance OmbudsmanIncome tax Ombudsman

Electricity Ombudsman

Railway Claims Tribunal

Income Tax Appellate Tribunal

Intellectual Property Appellate Tribunal


In kanji, ‘Furo’ means ‘bath’ and ‘Shiki means ‘unfolding (a cloth)’. Furoshiki is a cloth wrapper which is used to wrap goods to make them easier to carry around. It is also very popular to wrap gifts with this cloth wrapper.

It art of furoshiki started in the Nara period (710-794), people knew it by the name ‘Hirazutsumi’ which means ‘folded wrappers’. In the Nara period, people thought of giving gifts wrapped up in ‘tsutsumi’ (cloth wrapper) and this was commonly called as ‘Hokeifuhaku’. It properly emerged as ‘Furoshiki’ in 756.

People started to use it to carry toiletries and clothes while going to public baths. It became very popular to wrap wedding gifts in furoshiki.

Furoshiki, or the cloth wrapper, comes in various designs and motifs. some of the most popular motifs are crane, fan, pine tree, and waves. Wrapping gifts in these furoshiki with these motifs is considered to be very auspicious and is said to bring blessings and good luck to the newly married couple.

The cloth material that is generally used for furoshiki are cotton, nylon, rayon or silk.

There are a few different techniques of wrapping furoshiki for different objects. ‘Hirazutsumi’ is the technique for wrapping flat objects without any knot; ‘Bintsutsumi’ is to carry bottles; ‘Entoutsutsumi’ is for long shaped objects; ‘Hikakutsutsumi’ for rectangular objects; ‘Yotautautaumi’ is for flat objects just like hiratzutsumi but this technique requires 2-4 knots; ‘Katakake fukuro’ is the technique for carrying objects on shoulders.

WHY SHOULD WE ADOPT THE ART OF FUROSHIKI IN OUR CULTURE? The answer is very simple. It is an eco-friendly method and helps in reduction in usage of plastic as the furoshiki cloth can be used again and again.

Bu unfortunately, this trend that should have bee increasing for the sake of our planet is in reality declining in recent times and opposite is taking effect, plastic usage is on the rise. PLastic bags being more convenient are making people shift from using furoshiki to using plastic.

Photo by Koto Kyoto on

India and its relationship with neighboring countries.

A good neighbor – a found treasure.

Chinese Proverb

India has faced many ups and downs with the relationship with its neighboring countries. Sometimes, those neighboring countries turn out to be a treasure and sometimes, few relations are quite rocky.

China –  From ancient to contemporary times, India and China have always had some history together. In the past, the silk road i.e., the route which went from China to Turkey while passing through Kashmir, served as a trade route. During the British India era, the first cut of own grown tea was sent from India to China. However, the peaceful times between India and China were short lived. Since 1962, the Sino-Indian relation consisted mainly of border disputes. The first war fought between the two countries was in 1962 followed by the Chola Incident in 1967 and finally the military standoff between both in Sumdorong Chu Valley in Tawang. Since then, numerous border disputes have cropped up, but since 2017 till date, India and China are clashing over and at Doklam. The ties between both the countries are strained due to the increasing affection of China towards Pakistan, dispute over eastern Ladak and China’s alleged claim over South China Sea.  Despite the border disputes and the never-ending tension between the two countries, they still conduct joint military exercise called Exercise Hand in Hand. There were total of 8 editions of Exercise Hand in Hand wherein the last edition was held in 2019 in India. The Joint Economic Group and Business Council helped in institutionalizing the economic relations between India and China. However, at a certain point of time, both the countries had cut off themselves with the other country. Following the severance of ties with India, China developed its cost-effective manufacturing skills and simultaneously, India developed its own cost-effective designing skills. One might even say that the strain on their ties might affect India, as China is one of the major exporters for resources for the country.

Pakistan – These two countries share a relationship so old as at once both of them were a part of British India. In the history, the post-independence migration was one of the largest human migrations ever seen. The relation between India and Pakistan have been complex and sour since post-independence.  Post- independence, India and Pakistan did form diplomatic relations and over the time, even started trade routes however, whatsoever relation both the country shared, it was overshadowed by the territorial claims, wars, cross border conflict between the armed forces and the multiple terrorist attacks. India fought wars with Pakistan, yet the issue of Kashmir was never solved. Despite of numerous talks, few agreements and conventions, Kashmir has always be the epicentre of various conflicts. From 2004 to 2008, four rounds between India and Pakistan were held in the Composite Dialogue but that was also halted with the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attack. India has lost many lives due to these terrorist attacks. At a point of time India and Pakistan had bilateral trade and commerce but after the 2019 Pulwama Attack, India increased the custom duties on exports from Pakistan which lead to Pakistan halting the trade with India. The relationship has worsened over the years with the involvement of China in constructing various projects under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor.

Nepal – Nepal and India share a very special relation as said during the Indo-Nepal Treaty of peace and friendship in 1950. Both the countries via the treaty stated that if in future due to any friction or misunderstanding with any of the neighbouring states, then they should be informed in order to prevent causing any breach in the relations between both of the said governments. The border shared by India and Nepal are open for both the respective citizens and are allowed to freely enter each other’s territory without the need of obtaining any passport or visa. Nepalese are allowed to work in certain government institutions such as the Indian army, but Indian citizens are not allowed to own land nor work in any government institutions in Nepal. The leaders of both the countries have frequently visited the land of the other which lead to the promotion of goodwill, trust and understanding of India and Nepal.  However, the friendly relation between the  two has seen some disharmony post 2015. There has some ethnic groups who are not fond of India as they think that India interferes with the political sovereignty of Nepal. India is wary of Nepal due to its new found diplomatic relations with China.

Bhutan – Bhutan also known as the Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan shares a very special relationship with India. Bhutan is a protected state and India helps them out in times of need. India has a significant influence over the foreign policy and the defence of Bhutan. India also helps Bhutan by providing them foreign aid. India is Bhutan was one of the few who whole heartedly recognised India’s Independence, which lead to both countries sharing close relations. Both of the countries provide each other with lots of positive resources and establishment. Bhutan sharing border with four states in India along with the Himalayas, acts as a barrier between India and China. Bhutanese market is a flourishing market for Indian commodities and vice versa. Bhutan not only acts as a buffer from China but also is a source of hydropower for India.. India is one of the leading development partner for Bhutan and provided financial aid to them. The Indian Bhutan Trade Transit Agreement 1972 allows duty free transit of Bhutanese products which are to be exported to third party countries. India helps Bhutan by exporting machinery, mechanical appliances, mineral products and electrical equipment’s amongst the others,

Sri Lanka – India and Sri Lanka having been sharing their relationship from more than 2000 years. They have intellectual, cultural, linguistic and religious relations between them. Both the countries recently have grown closer in terms of their relationship as their trade and investment together has grown. India and Sri Lanka share a high-level political relationship due to regular visits. Sri Lanka is a huge trading partner amongst the SAARC counties while India is a huge partner on global standing. Regularly there are cultural exchange programmes between India and Sri Lanka due to the Cultural Cooperation agreement signed between the two.  India and Sri Lanka on the defence footing share a healthy relationship as they conduct joint naval and military exercises. However, the relationship can be affected due to the China becoming close to Sri Lanka as the latter handed over an important port to the former.

Bangladesh –  Recently India and Bhutan celebrated 50 years of their diplomatic relations in 2021. India shares the longest international border with Bangladesh. The relationship with Bangladesh has been a fruitful relationship for both the countries. With the pandemic going on, due to the healthy relationship between India and Bangladesh, India assured to make vaccines available to the latter. Bangladesh released a stamp in Honor of Mahatma Gandhi, showing their respect towards India and India did the same to commemorate Mujib Borsho stamps. India has agreed to give access to duty free exports of Bangladeshi products under the SAFTA. India and Bangladesh support the climate change convention, migrants’ rights protection and sustainable development.

Myanmar – The relationship shared between India and Myanmar is a relationship which has stood the test of time. India not only shares land border with Myanmar but also shares maritime border along Bay of Bengal. Both the countries share a cordial relationship which was put on paper via the Treaty of Friendship in 1951. Time and again the bilateral relationship has been strengthened via number of agreements. India helps Myanmar through infrastructural and non-infrastructural upgradation in the country such as renovating the 160 km long road, upgradation of hospitals, development of railway transportation system and many more. In return, Myanmar acts as a bridge between ASEAN and India. Both the countries share a healthy friendship which was seen during Cyclone Nargis, when India provided aid to the Burmese population.

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