Did you ever Sleep walked? Here’s what I came to know that every 1 out of 3 kids aged between 4 to 8, sleep walk. And that’s a lot by the way.

Sleep walking formally known as Somnambulish is a strange phenomena where people get up and do things in their sleep, sometimes more than just walking and when they wake up they don’t have any recollection of what they were doing. Moreover, if they find way back to their bed they may not ever know that they were sleep walking.

Sleep walking is nothing about embarrassed about though or terrified for that matter, it’s relatively common. In a recent study Stanford found that 1 out of 3 people sleep walk at some point of their lives. It is specially common among children, between the age of 4 and 8. So what happened when we sleep walk.


A leading theory about why we sleep walk is:-

  • In normal sleep cycle, your brains motor system continues to issue physical commands to the body.
  • Whereas those who sleep walks are suppressed by sleep chemical called GABA.
  • GABA access act as a break in your brain, it brings your mind and body down to rest by neutralizing Glutamate a chemical that causes excitement.
  • In sleep walkers there’s a glitch in the process that suppresses your boby from moving around namely that you don’t produce GABA.

So that’s why you are moving around when you’re still asleep. There are few causes of GABA deficient in the body:-

  1. Genetic sleepwalking :- when sleepwalking runs in the family
  2. Underdeveloped system:- when the boby simply hasn’t matured enough to produce the proper amount. That’s why it is more common amongst kids.
  3. Depression:- Those who suffer from depression are three times as likely to sleep walk.


You would have probably heard about the myth that you shouldn’t wake a sleepwalker because they’re going through a psychotic rage that could even kill you. But these are myths, if you see anyone sleepwalking, you are asked to wake them up gently, especially if they are in the kitchen or holding a knife.

Recently there was a story about a lady who drove 190 miles in her sleep without hurting or killing herself or anyone. She should be definitely called lucky.

Child education

India is the second most populous country of the world where children constitute about 39% of the population of the country and, since children are the future of the country hence, their education is of primary importance for any every nation. Early childhood days are the major growth years of a child. These are the most critical years in a child’s life. During this time the brain is at its peak development stage and determine a child’s development over the course of their lives. At this time a child develops cognitive, physical, social, and emotional skills. Early childhood education is a basis to define a healthy and a fruitful life to children it also aims to develop basic life skills in children to lay a foundation of lifelong learning and success. It also helps a child to develop efficient motor skills. Team working skill is one of the most important assets of an individual’s holistic development and education teaches a child the value and importance of team work. The skill is useful throughout formal education, in personal relationships, and in the workforce. Hence, it is crucial to ensure that children develop skills early in their childhood. Early childhood education programmes ensure that children develop the curiosity to learn. Sharing with others is the core of any relationship and peaceful society. Early childhood education enables a child to learn how to share their things so they can develop strong friendships with other children. Humans are social beings. They need to develop healthy relationships in order to live a fruitful life. Early childhood education ensures children learn how to socialize with other children of their age, with people outside of their immediate family and develop the skills to successfully socialize with people later on in their lives. More children and adolescents today are enrolled in pre-primary, primary and secondary education than ever before because now the people are much more advanced and aware about the importance of education. Examinations and assignments are encouraged by them as tools to assess the capability of the students. Whether a child was knowledgeable or not depended on the marks he/she scored. There are various reasons behind the improper education to the girl child-like indifference in attitudes and practices against girl child including their health, and well-being, illiterate parents and guardians who have little or no awareness of the importance of education and most importantly financial constraints of various types etc. The importance of the role of women in the society cannot be overlooked but still instead of children going to the schools they are seen instead working as domestic servants or in the factories. There are various NGOs that work for the education of the children likeSave The Children CRY ie. child rights and you. It has undertaken a lot of initiatives to improve the condition of underprivileged children one of them being Mission Education’ to make sure that ‘education is every child’s right and that proper education reaches to more children in every new academic year, Barefoot College India trains local community people into teachers, specialized professionals in other fields and has initiated many educational efforts for children, Pratham comprises of civil servants, PhDs, social workers, educationists and many other educated personnel who are working for a common dream of developing the future of children of the country. With an aim to offer every child their fundamental right to education etc. Education makes us capable of interpreting things, among other things. It is not just about lessons in textbooks. It is about the lessons of life.

Childhood education

India is the second most populous country of the world where children constitute about 39% of the population of the country and, since children are the future of the country hence, their education is of primary importance for any every nation. Early childhood days are the major growth years of a child. These are the most critical years in a child’s life.

During this time the brain is at its peak development stage and determine a child’s development over the course of their lives. At this time a child develops cognitive, physical, social, and emotional skills. Early childhood education is a basis to define a healthy and a fruitful life to children it also aims to develop basic life skills in children to lay a foundation of lifelong learning and success. It also helps a child to develop efficient motor skills. Team working skill is one of the most important assets of an individual’s holistic development and education teaches a child the value and importance of team work. The skill is useful throughout formal education, in personal relationships, and in the workforce. Hence, it is crucial to ensure that children develop skills early in their childhood. Early childhood education programmes ensure that children develop the curiosity to learn. Sharing with others is the core of any relationship and peaceful society. Early childhood education enables a child to learn how to share their things so they can develop strong friendships with other children. Humans are social beings. They need to develop healthy relationships in order to live a fruitful life. Early childhood education ensures children learn how to socialize with other children of their age, with people outside of their immediate family and develop the skills to successfully socialize with people later on in their lives. More children and adolescents today are enrolled in pre-primary, primary and secondary education than ever before because now the people are much more advanced and aware about the importance of education. Examinations and assignments are encouraged by them as tools to assess the capability of the students. Whether a child was knowledgeable or not depended on the marks he/she scored. There are various reasons behind the improper education to the girl child-like indifference in attitudes and practices against girl child including their health, and well-being, illiterate parents and guardians who have little or no awareness of the importance of education and most importantly financial constraints of various types etc. The importance of the role of women in the society cannot be overlooked but still instead of children going to the schools they are seen instead working as domestic servants or in the factories. There are various NGOs that work for the education of the children likeSave The Children CRY ie. child rights and you. It has undertaken a lot of initiatives to improve the condition of underprivileged children one of them being Mission Education’ to make sure that ‘education is every child’s right and that proper education reaches to more children in every new academic year, Barefoot College India trains local community people into teachers, specialized professionals in other fields and has initiated many educational efforts for children, Pratham comprises of civil servants, PhDs, social workers, educationists and many other educated personnel who are working for a common dream of developing the future of children of the country. With an aim to offer every child their fundamental right to education etc. Education makes us capable of interpreting things, among other things. It is not just about lessons in textbooks. It is about the lessons of life.

Photo by Anastasiya Gepp on

Women empowerment

Women empowerment is a topic of dynamic discussion. It in a very simple terms can be defined to promoting women’s sense of self-worth, their ability to determine their own choices, and their right to influence social change for themselves and others. The female empowerment can be closely corelated to peace, stability. Female empowerment has various aspects in it just like promoting their education, giving them respect, equal pay and job opportunities in every field. Women in general have never failed to prove their worth when given an opportunity. In Western countries, female empowerment is often associated with specific phases of the women’s rights movement in history. This movement tends to be split into three waves, the first beginning in the 19″ and early 20 century where suffrage was a key feature. The second wave of the 1960s included the sexual revolution and the role of women in society. Third wave feminism is often seen as beginning in the 1990s. In the turning times we have seen the tables turns and women rights and empowerment has emerged at a global level and movements for women rights and have continued to break the violence and atrocities against women. Days like International Women’s Empowerment Day are also gaining momentum. But despite a great deal of progress, women and girls continue to face discrimination and violence in every part of the world. Empowering women is essential to the health and social development of families, communities and countries. When women are living safe, fulfilled and productive lives, they can reach their full potential contributing their skills to the workforce and can raise happier and healthier children. The empowerment and autonomy of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status is a highly important end in itself. In all parts of the world, women are facing threats to their lives, health and well-being as a result of being over burdened with work and of their lack of power and influence. In most regions of the world, women receive less formal education than men, and at the same time, women’s own knowledge, abilities and coping mechanisms often go unrecognized, Education is one of the most important means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to participate fully in the development process. More than 40 years ago, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights asserted that “everyone has the right to education In 1990, Governments meeting at the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, committed themselves to the goal of universal access to basic education. But despite notable efforts by countries around the globe that have appreciably expanded access to basic education, there are approximately 960 million illiterate adults in the world, of whom two thirds are women. More than one third of the world’s adults, most of them women, have no access to printed knowledge, to new skills or to technologies that would improve the quality of their lives and help them shape and adapt to social and economic change. There are 130 million children who are not enrolled in primary school and 70 per cent of them are girls. Countries should act to empower women and should take steps to eliminate inequalities between men and women as soon as possible by establishing mechanisms for women’s equal participation and equitable representation at all levels of the political process and public life in each community and society and enabling women to articulate their concerns and need, Promoting the fulfilment of women’s potential through education, skill development and employment, giving paramount importance to the elimination of poverty, illiteracy and ill health among women, Eliminating all practices that discriminate against women; assisting women to establish and realised

their rights, including those that relate to reproductive and sexual health, Adopting appropriate measures to improve women’s ability to earn income beyond traditional occupations, achieve economic self reliance, and ensure women’s equal access to the labour market and social security systems, Eliminating violence against women. A more equalized world with less inequalities between men and women is desirable and would help any country to perform better in future if adopted these aspects.

India and South Asia

Southeast Asia is comprised of ten countries namely Burma, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. All these countries are members of Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Burma (Myanmar) shares a contiguous land and sea frontier with India while Thailand, Indonesia and other countries in the region share
common maritime frontiers. Needless to say, that they are India’s close neighbors, with whom its relations date back to time immemorial. The history of the ancient Southeast Asian Kingdoms, i.e. Funan, Champa, Cambodge, Pagan, Dwarabati, Srivijaya and Majapahit indicate India’s intimate cultural ties. The art, architecture, epic and language have had similarities and their origin and growth cannot be understood in proper perspective without understanding their Indian counterparts. Ashoka the Great, had sent his emissaries, Sona and Uttara to spread the gospel of Buddhism in the region of Burma, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. These nations declared Buddhism as their state religion. The impact of Hinduism still remains as part of their indigenous culture and religion. The ethnic Malays accepted Islam as their religion but the Muslims in Java have not yet disowned their Hindu traditions. Some of them still believe in animism and worship many spirits in different names. Bali remains a Hindu dominated society, and adherents of Buddhism
can be found in all parts of the Southeast Asia.

Malacca, Sunda and Lombok are the important sea-lanes linking East Asia with the rest of the world. Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand are industrially advanced. Singapore has an effective service sector in the field of finance, airlines, computers and shipping. Mainland Southeast Asia has diverse mountain ranges and rivers running from North to South, and most of them originate in Tibet. The main rivers are Mekong passing through Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Other rivers are Irrawadi, Chindawin and Salween in Burma, Menam Chao Phraya in Thailand,
Song Koi (Red River) and Song Bo (Black Rivers) in Vietnam. These rivers bring rich alluvial deposits regularly to make the land fertile. Most fertile areas created by these rivers are lower Burma, Central Thailand, Tongking and Mekong deltas. Thailand and Vietnam are the largest rice exporting countries in the world. This unit examines various aspects of socio-economic-political features of South-East Asian countries. India’s relations with ASEAN countries are analysed in this Unit. India attaches great importance towards pursuing good neighbourly relations with the countries in Southeast Asia. The policy of “Look East” is the strategy of the Indian diplomacy ever since 1991 and its major thrust has been to improve India’s existing ties with the ASEAN region, and promote trade, investment, tourism, science and technology relations. Indian policies are endeavored to resurrect close historical and cultural ties, which were marred during the colonial period. The Cold War paradigm in the past prevented India to attend various issues in its bilateral relations but the situation changed only after the end of the Cold War. Various initiatives have been taken to rejuvenate our economic, cultural and strategic connections. Total bilateral trade with ASEAN countries has shown increasing trends from 5.98 billion in 1998-99 to 7.98 billion in 2002-03.

ASEAN investments which were dismal during the Cold War period, started coming and confidence was displayed on both sides. Various packages for the promotion of tourism were mooted and now it is not limited only to visit Buddhist sites in Bodh Gaya. India is willing to attract investments from the ASEAN region and they have been advocating liberalisation and free trade. ASEAN is trying to reciprocate the Indian gestures. They recognise the importance of
India as a great market where they find the existence of middle class people in millions. Besides, they have common historical, religious and security interests. Both of them support the policy of democratisation, liberalisation and free trade. Both are opposed to the rise of fundamentalism and terrorism and both are supporting human rights to be universally respected.

Why a Daily Routine Is So Important

All of us are aware that kids need a routine to provide structure and discipline in their lives. When we were younger, most of us were told to go to bed at a certain time, wake up at a certain time, do our homework after school, eat dinner at a regular hour, shower, even play with our friends at a specific time. But what about adults? Many grownups do not have a set daily routine and ‘wing’ their day. They have no idea what they are going to do when they wake up each morning because they have not thought about creating a schedule to adhere to. As a result, many people feel like they are stressed, anxious, overwhelmed and falling short of their goals and true potential. The answer lies in carefully designing a routine that works best for each of us, one which helps us be productive, in control, and be the best person we can possibly be.

Create Daily Routine

1. Makes Us More Efficient
When we have a routine that we follow daily, it reduces the need to make decisions each day. It enables us to know exactly what tasks we need to do each day without having to contemplate, decide or think too much. When we are finished with one task, we know what comes next without much thought. Activities become standardized and we become more efficient as a result.

2. Reduces Our Need to Plan

When we carefully design a set routine to follow, it eliminates the need to plan our activities every morning and budget and allocate our precious time. It takes the guesswork out of our day and allows us to wake up and ‘do’ instead of wake up and ‘plan’.

3. Creates Structure in Our Lives
A daily routine provides structure and a logical sequence in our lives. It provides the framework within which we live our lives and conduct our daily activities. Soon we become familiar and comfortable with what we have to do each day. It allows us to experience a flow to our day.

4. Saves Time, Our Most Valuable Resource
Time is the most precious asset at our disposal because, once lost, it is non-retrievable. By following a routine, we free up time that would otherwise be spent on planning, decision-making and preparation. Our routine has predetermined our schedule, allowing us to use our time efficiently.

Follow the routine

5. Instills Good Habits
The secret to building good habits is repetition. When we design a personal routine that works for us, it facilitates developing good habits by encouraging us to repeat the same tasks over and over again. Just like brushing our teeth every morning, adhering to a routine allows us to foster habits that match our goals and aspirations.

6. Breaks Bad Habits
While our routine helps us develop good habits that are in line with exploiting our full potential, it also helps to eradicate bad habits that do not serve us well. We can slowly replace our bad habits with good ones through repetition.


Importance of Aptitude test in our life

The Aptitude Test can be used as a measure of the abilities of a person. These tests give the complete picture of a person’s mind. The aptitude test is of a great importance for the students studying in school or those people who want to change their profession. The test will give them a precise result of what is the actual abilities of a person. The importance of an aptitude test can be understood by the fact that they being widely used now for various purposes. Some of them are:

1. Placement Purpose:

If a job requires some specific skill or some particular trait in the person, it is evaluated by aptitude tests. For example, if you have applied for a data entry job, they will test your data checking skills or if you have applied for a job in the technical field they will test your mechanical reasoning or fault diagnosing ability. Mostly, the aptitude test is used in conjugation with a personal interview or a group discussion or both for job placement. It is difficult to cheat in an aptitude test, therefore, they are considered reliable by most of the interviewers. These tests give the interviewer an idea of the natural abilities, strength, and weaknesses of the interview.

2. Choosing a Career:

The result of the aptitude test tells us about the skills or abilities of a person. This result is of great help in choosing a career. A person will get to know what he is good at and he should choose a career accordingly. For example, a person takes an aptitude test and the result shows that the person’s verbal skills are excellent but the numerical skills are very poor. In this case, rather than choosing a career which requires him to enhance his numeric ability, it would be beneficial for him to choose a career which requires his verbal skills. Therefore, an aptitude test becomes guidance in choosing a career. One should definitely opt for an aptitude test before choosing a career. The right time for this test is after passing the 10th standard exam. It will guide you to choose the correct stream.

3. Academic Improvement:

If a student takes an aptitude test, it will directly or indirectly tell him his strong and weak subject. The student can, therefore, work on his weak subjects and improve them.

How to Prepare for an Aptitude Test?

If you are appearing for an aptitude test which is competitive or for placement purpose, here are some tips which could be helpful to you.

1. Learn Basics: 

There is no particular syllabus for aptitude test. Anything could be asked of you in the test. So, it becomes necessary that all your basic subjects, especially mathematics, is clear to you. You should know all the basics you learned in the school.

2. Everything is Important: 

In a competitive exam, even a single mark become very important. So, you should not leave any topic while preparing. Even if you find a topic difficult, do not leave it. Read that topic again and again or take help from your teachers. You do not know what will come in the exam, so you should prepare all the topics very well.

3. Practice:

As it is said, practice makes a man perfect. You should go for mock aptitude tests. There are many books available for aptitude. The internet is flooded with aptitude tests which are free of cost. Go for them. The more you will practice, your speed will increase. You will also come across many different types of questions, which might increase your knowledge. It is also possible that you may get the same question you practised in the test.

4. Know your Weak Points:

You should know in which topics you lag behind. You should prepare those topics first because you do not need much time to prepare those topics which you are good at.

5. Do not Waste Time:

Time is very precious. If you get stuck on a question and you do not find any way out, leave it for that particular time and come back to it later.

6. Be Careful while Attempting:

Most of the tests have negative marking. So just do not attempt the question if you are not sure about the answer. Do not assume your answer to be right.  A zero is always better than a minus one.

7. Avoid Gaps:

Avoid gaps in your practising routine as it can decrease your speed. Large gaps can make you forgetful. If you have a busy schedule on a particular day, try to take out at least 30 minutes for practising questions. Do not waste any day without practising.

8. Have a Fresh Mind:

Aptitude needs a lot of concentration which can be devoted only to a fresh and peaceful mind. If you had a fight with someone or you are feeling low or you have diverted mind, do not practice aptitude. If you will practice aptitude at this instance, you will get all your questions wrong because you will not be able to devote full concentration.

9. Take Care of Yourself:

Body and mind are interlinked. For a healthy mind, the body should also be healthy and vice versa. Sleep well and eat well. Take at least 6 hours of sleep.


It is very important to include aptitude tests in education. As most of the multinational companies take the aptitude test of the person trying for the job, the tips and tricks for solving the aptitude tests must be taught to the students from the very beginning. If the students practice aptitude tests from the very beginning they will be able to solve them in proper time correctly. This would be beneficial for them when they go for recruitment. The schools should test the aptitude of the students at regular intervals so that the faculty can know the weak areas of their students. Moreover, it will tell the faculty if there is any fault in the curriculum or teaching methodology.

Is Mobile Phone Boon or Bane?

by Yogiraj Sadaphal.

Day and night, rational and dangerous, wealthy and poor, health and illness—everything in life has a dual character. Everything in the universe is either a boon (good) or a bane (bad), or, to put it another way, a blessing or a curse. It’s the same with cell phones.

The use of mobile phones is rapidly increasing. Individuals with cellphones have access to a wealth of information at their fingertips. Without the omnipresent mobile phones, today’s world would be unimaginable. Everyone now has a smartphone, from children as young as nine to the elderly as old as ninety.

What Do You Mean by “Mobile Phone”?

A cellular phone or cellphone is an electronic telecommunications device. Mobile phones use radio waves or satellite signals to connect to a wireless communications network. Voice communications, Short Message Service (SMS), Multimedia Message Service (MMS), and Internet services such as Web surfing and e-mail are all available on mobile phones.


1. Life at ease: 

Due to mobile phones, life has been so much easier and more comfortable. For example, today’s mobile phones come with a variety of functions and programs, such as android, java games, and internet connectivity, allowing you to effortlessly converse and surf anything while sitting at home.

2. Ocean of Information:

The Internet has evolved into the largest and most comprehensive source of information available today. Anything and everything may be quickly accessed with the use of search engines such as Google, UC Web browser, Yahoo, and others. The most important benefit is that they assist students of many disciplines in studying and learning.

3. Connectivity:

Both mobile phones and the internet have become important sources of connectivity in today’s world. People chat on social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp. Telegram and Instagram messenger have also become popular among today’s youth.

4. Enhanced Life Standard:

People have grown much more advanced and revolutionized as a result of such technology, consequently raising their living conditions. When a person holds an Apple phone in his hand, he has a completely different impact on society than when he holds a regular phone.

As a Bane:

1. Limitation of thoughts:

People have put strict limitations on their mental process and rely largely on the artificial source of information because every item of knowledge is already available on the internet. Many young and vibrant people have observed a decline in their innovative thinking and intellectual level.

2. Creation of an Artificial World within a real one:

With their smart phones and apps, people have constructed an imaginary universe in which they remain reserved, distant, and separated in their own confined zone. They rarely connect with the actual world since they don’t have the time.

3. Time:

People are growing addicted to these luxuries to the point where they no longer have time to spend with their families and discuss issues. As a result, personal relationships are suffering. It also wastes a lot of time because addiction is dangerous.

4. Wastage of Money:

One of the major annoyances is that people waste a lot of money on more expensive mobile phones and devices unnecessarily in order to maintain their social position. Even if a cell phone costing Rs. 5000 would suffice, they choose for considerably more expensive models in order to attract attention in society.

As a result, we can easily see how mobile phones and the internet have impacted us, our lives, and our society to a far greater extent, with both positive and negative consequences. It’s not that we don’t need them; in fact, we all know that “too much of anything is fatal and leads to negative effects.” So, in light of this, we must undoubtedly use these, but only in such a way that they do not prove to be harmful to us.

Five Mesmerizing Waterfalls in the World

Check out the five mesmerizing waterfalls in the world here!

1.Angel Waterfalls – Venezuela

Angel fall is the waterfall located in the Canaima National Park, the biggest national park in Venezuela, it is the third biggest in the world and is known for its breathtaking beauty.

The waterfall drops over the edge of the Auyantepui mountain in the Canaima National Park. It is the world’s highest uninterrupted waterfall, with a height of 979 meters (3,212 ft) and a plunge of 807 meters (2,648 ft).

The Angel Falls
The Angel waterfalls

2.Victoria Waterfalls – Zambia

While known as the world’s largest waterfall Victoria Falls is neither the highest (Angel Falls) nor the widest (Khone Falls). However, it is the largest curtain of falling water on the planet, one and a half times wider than Niagra Falls and twice as high. The falls are 1708 wide and 108 meters high. Every minute, over 5 million cubic water pour over the falls.

The Victoria falls
The Victoria waterfalls

3.Niagara Waterfalls – United States of America

Niagara Falls is a geological wonder and one of the most famous waterfalls in the world, straddling the border between the United States and Canada. Niagara is made up of three separate waterfalls: Horseshoe Falls (or Canadian Falls), American Falls, and Bridal Veil Falls. The second-largest waterfall in the world after Victoria Falls in Africa. 

The Niagara falls
The Niagara waterfalls

4.Kunchikal Waterfalls – Karnataka 

Located on the Shimoga -Udupi border in Karnataka, Kunchikal Falls is formed by the River Varahi. The waterfall from a height of 455 meters in a cascading form on these rocky boulders giving an impressive sight. The Kunchikal waterfall is India’s highest waterfall.

The Kunchikal falls
The Kunchikal waterfalls

5.Tugela Waterfalls – South Africa

Tugela Falls is the second-highest waterfall in the world and is at an astounding height of 3110 feet. At the right time of year, the falls are easily visible, especially after heavy rain. There is an undeveloped campsite and mountain hut immediately above the falls. There are two trails to Tugela Falls.

The Kunchikal falls
The Tugela waterfalls

Dashrath Manjhi-An Impossible Journey

Every person in this world, when not succeed in their goals, always blames God. But in this god-giving world, there is an exception also. Dasharath Manjhi is one of these, who is the best illustration of dedication, determination, focus, and never-give-up attitude, who inspired all generations. His work towards his villagers is the greatest lesson we have ever learned from anyone.

No money, no power, but this man has the inner strength to cut a mighty mountain. This impossible work made this little man to The Mountain Man of India. His 22 years of dedication, day and night work turn a big rock to a path of their villagers. No machinery was used by Dashrath to break that big hill. It just only a hammer and chisel, through which he made this impossible to possible.No one can think about that unbelievable work can be done by a small farmer who just did it by his strong intention and love towards his wife, who met with an accident and was not reached the hospital on time due to this mighty hill.

The Love Birds

In 1956, Dashrath Manjhi was married to a village girl named Falguni Devi. At that time, child marriage was legal. After that, he went to Dhanbad to work in coal mines. In this seven years of gap, when he returned to his village and saw Falguni Devi, he fell in love with her again as a grown-up man. Unfortunately, Falgunis father denied giving her to Dashrath as he had no job to feed his family and Falguni.

But Dashrath and Falguni are made for each other. Dashrath took his childhood wife forcefully from his father-in-law and gave assurance that he will never be made her girl cry. Both love birds have two children in their homes.

An Accident

When Falguni was pregnant for the second time, Dashrath was very happy. One day Falguni was taking lunch for Dashrath crossing the gigantic ridge, suddenly her foot got slipped. She was heavily injured. After knowing about this incident, Dashrath ran towards her wife and took her to the hospital. But the hospital was 70km far from his village no vehicle was available to bring her wife to the nearest hospital as soon as possible. Finally, all possible efforts by Dashrath were worthless. Falguni was no more, but she safely gave birth to a baby girl.

No Mercy

After his beloved wife’s death, Dashrath took his hammer and started cut down that bulky mountain. He tries to construct a path through which villagers can reach their destination in a short time with less effort. Every person found fault with work. Many journalists took Dashraths interview about his work. Many of them criticize Dashrath for his unimaginable work, but this man was never frightened for anything, never demotivated at all.

Years passed, once their villagers suffered from low rainfall, and evacuated the village. Even Dashrath’s father convinced him to go with them to town and find a job so that he can feed their children. But Dashrath denied leaving his village and his work. For some days, he lived there with no food and no water at all. Just feed his stomach with leaves and dirty water. He was continuing his work against all odds. He had no mercy for that mammoth rock. Every day cut down that hill as he had taken revenge for his wife’s death.

Dashrath Struggling Story

Once PM Indira Gandhi came to Dashraths village Gahlaur, Bihar. Dashrath was also there to listen to the PM’s speech over the emergency in India. In that function, Dashrath got a chance to click a picture with Indira Gandhi. While watching this, the village Mukhia, planned to introduced Dashrath and explained his cutting mountain work to Indira Gandhi, so that she granted some government funds to help Dashrath. Everything was good after that, but Mukhia cheated Dashrath by taking all the government funds and blamed Dashrat for supplied the cutting stones illegally to outsiders.

Dashrath got up and decided to complain against Mukhia to the PM. With no money in his pocket and a train ticket, he was thrown out of the moving train. Nothing stopped him from his destination. He walked from Bihar to Delhi to complained about this fraud. But he failed again to meet the PM.

Strong Mindset

Hopeless Dashrath back to his work again. But he was gradually old and did not give that much effort to his work. Instead of his physical situation, he never stopped his work. Some villagers joined Dasrath to construct the path. At last, the villagers felt that Dashrath turn this big rock into a walkable road for villagers.

Dashraths 22years of hard work from 1960 to 1982 shortened the 70km road to only 1km road. He made a 360foot long and 25feet deep path with a hammer. For this achievement, he is worldly known as The Mountain Man.

Bhagawan ke bharose mat baithiye..kya pata bhagawan humare bharose baitha ho.

He passed away on Aug 17, 2007. In his life, he shows many things which we can apply to our life. Although he has no higher education, no money, no power, no political hand, no help from others achieved his goal. We should learn from him, that never depends on luck, never mind any criticism from others, just do your work with dedication till the end.


Hi All,
        Today My topic is about ‘DREAMS’.
What is a dream?
-The occurrence of images, sensation ideas during our sleep.
– Sometimes we used to tell our wish and aim which we want to fulfill also a dream.

But today i am going to share some interesting information about dreams(which occurs during our sleep).
  *Generally dreams last only for 5-10 minutes.
   *Dreams occur mainly in the REM(Rapid-eye Movement) stage of sleep -when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake.

Lucid dreams:-
   Lucid dreaming is the conscious perception of one’s state while dreaming. In this state the dreamer may often have some degree of control over their own actions within the dream or even the characters and the environment of the dream.

A Nightmare:-
    A nightmare is a bad dream.
It happens because of stress,conflict, fear, trauma, emotional problems etc.
But for a nightmare you no need to worry as it is not a real one.

Many experts say dreams exist to:
*Help solve problems in our lives
*Incorporate memories
*Process emotions.

The following are some  examples of a dreams and it’s interpretation by freud.

1.Dreaming about someone dying is Interpreted as.
      End of something and the beginning of something new.

2.When you dream that you miss your train Or plane is interpreted as.
      You have missed or may miss some significant chances to achieve your goals or objectives.

3. When you dream of being  naked in a crowd is interpreted as.
      Desiring to be noticed.

4. When  you dream, that you’re falling is interpreted as.
   Desiring to return to a state such as childhood where one is satisfied and protected.

5. When you dream, that you’re flying is interpreted as,
     Desiring to be admired.

But many of us may not remember our dreams when we woke up.
If you wish to remember your dream, do follow these ways;
1. Maintain a dream journal every morning after you wake up.
2. Schedule your sleep for a consistent sleep cycle.
3. Make it a habit to actively try to recall your dreams.
4. Try to get good sleep at night. 5. Try to wake up consistently each morning.

The dream concept is a vast. What i shared today, is only a small portion about it.

Hope so it was useful.

Have a cool day

Keep smiling ❣️❣️❣️


Having a personality that is unique and reflects your inner self is really important as it helps you stand out in a crowd. Here are ways in which you can develop a strong personality .

SELF ESTEEM – Having low self esteem can have adverse affects on your personality and life in general . Believing in yourself and having high self esteem makes you a confident individual. Tolerating something that hurts you or doing letting others disrespect you can lower your self esteem . But once you start building you esteem by travelling alone , being intolerant towards unacceptable behaviour , you surely can gain high self esteem .

TAKING ACCOUNTABILITY – Taking accountability for your own actions in stead of blaming others or blaming the situation can really help you build your self esteem . Blaming others for your problems is a sign of weakness and low self esteem . Acknowledging your mistakes , in stead of ignoring it can help you grow and develop as a person and develop a strong personality .

DISCIPLINE – Self discipline is one of the key factors to having a strong personality . Being disciplined is difficult but once you have trained your self to be disciplined it can do wonders to your life . People with strong personalities know how to not give into temptations .

POSITIVITY – Life is always uncertain and can be difficult to deal with sometimes , and it is easy for people to give up and make space for pessimism and hopelessness , but people with a strong personality always hope for the best and know how to be optimistic . Being optimistic has a great deal of benefits and should be practiced .

Things you need to know about blockchain

Blockchain is a system of documenting data that will be difficult to hack or change. It is tough to deceive the system. Each block in the chain contains several transactions and every time a new transaction occurs on the blockchain a record of the transaction is added to the participant’s ledger. In simple words, blockchain is not invulnerable the hacker would need more than half of the control in the allocated file.


According to Wikipedia, blockchain is a cryptocurrency blockchain explorer service. Bitcoin is supported by the same. It was found in 2011 by Benjamin Reeves, Nicolas Cary, and Peter Smith.

Blockchain was found as which could be used to trace bitcoin transactions. The function of the site is to allow bitcoin users to see the public cryptocurrency transactions. By 2014, blockchain was popular and the users grew.

In 2018, blockchain started to sell services to institutional cryptocurrencies. Whereas in 2020, the company is said to have more than 30 million users. The next year it grew to a family of 60 plus million wallet users.


Blockchain as said records information. It provides an outlet to hold and oversee crypto investments. The platform also submits financial service standards.

The company offers a hosted cryptocurrency wallet that is to store digital for online access. It allows users to buy and sell cryptocurrencies.

A special feature is, the company has a non-custodial wallet. The company has no access to the wallet’s data, the user is the sole owner of the information. This draws attention as it maintains privacy. The user has a private key to get hold of the data which is known solely by the user.

There is an explorer which allows the public to see the transactions. If one has the hash code with the address of the wallet, they can see received, sent and the fee information. The tool is used to analyse the activity.


Yes, it is considered to be reliable and trustworthy as, if one goes offline the others in the network get access to the ledger.


Blockchain grows to 300GB. The programming language is said to be C. There is no need for a middle man in the process that is one of the specialities. It has faster transactions.


  • Cryptocurrency.
  • Data structure.
  • Web development.
  • Blockchain Architecture.
  • Java
  • C++
  • Python


  • Blockchains can be either public or private.
  • Bitcoin transactions are measured in bytes.
  • 0.5% of the world population uses blockchain. That said it comes around 18,850,000.
  • Ethereum, Ripple, Quorum and R3 Corda are other blockchain platforms.
  • IBM is the largest blockchain company.
  • As for the development, it is still in the place internet was a few years ago.
  • Blockchain isn’t always Anonymous.

The disadvantage is once the record is made it cannot be altered. As there are no third parties the risk is minimal. To understand blockchain there are few videos on youtube, do Check it out!

Thank you!

To Read Fantasy List

Fantasy is hardly as escape from reality. It’s a way of understanding it.

-Lloyd Alexander
See the source image

According to the dictionary, fantasy refers to the faculty or activity of imagining things, especially things that are impossible or improbable. It is often inspired by ancient mythology, real life myths and folklore, often passed down orally.

Fantasy is one of the core genera of today’s literary canyon and has more than just a few admirers.

Curated below is a list of fantasy fictions (in no particular order) to help to sift through the diverse literary spectrum.

1. The Bridge Kingdom

See the source image

A slow burn fantasy romance with the “enemies-to-lovers” trope, this book tells the tale of a marriage by convenience.

Lara, a fierce princess, trained to be a spy vows to bring down the kingdom of bridge for her people. As she settles in her new home with her new husband, Aren, Lara begins to question everything in her being and the evil that lurks.

With the intense attraction towards Aren, Lara must choose between being a saviour or the impending doom for her people.

An engaging read with a simmering romance.

“Alive isn’t living.”

 Danielle L. Jensen, The Bridge Kingdom

2. Six of Crows

See the source image

American author Leigh Bardugo’s Six of Crows is a fantasy novel that revolves round a band of six thieves.

 Kaz Brekker, a criminal prodigy is offered a chance at a deadly heist that could make him rich beyond his wildest imaginations. Together with a convict, a sharpshooter, a runaway, a spy , a Heart render & a thief, an unusual lot, they set out for the single biggest heist between the world and utter chaos.

“She wouldn’t wish love on anyone. It was the guest you welcomed and then couldn’t be rid of.”

Leigh Bardugo, Six of Crows


3. A Court of Thorns and Roses

See the source image

This story revolves around mortal Feyre Archeron after she is brought into the faerie lands of Prythian for murdering a faerie. Over the course of proceedings, as she lives with the person who abducted her into Prythian, Tamlin, who is also a High Fae, she gets to know things about the Fae kingdom she had never known before.

“I threw myself into that fire, threw myself into it, into him, and let myself burn.”

Sarah J. Maas, A Court of Thorns and Roses

4. The Grace Of Kings

Grace of Kings is an epic fantasy revolving around an outlaw  Kumigaru, who, along with Maya Zyndu, a blue blood, plans to overthrow an oppressive king. The story is richly crafted with an engaging plot and knife sharp twists and turns that are bound to make your hackles rise.

“There’s never going to be an end to suffering if ‘he deserves it’ is all the justification people need for inflicting pain.”

 Ken Liu, The Grace of Kings

5.  Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell

Image result for  Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell by Susanna Clarke

Susannah Clarke’s novel paints lucid alternate history of Napoleonic England combing it with Gothic literary fiction. The novel explores the existence of magic in England sand Centres on the relationship between two men: Gilbert Norrell and Jonathan Strange with bouts of witty humour, traipsing into the territory marked beyond cognitive excuses or reason.

“There is nothing in the world so easy to explain as failure – it is, after all, what everybody does all the time.”

Susanna Clarke, Jonathan Strange & Mr Norrell

Common types of Indian houses

There are many types of houses built in India, but check out these commonly built houses in India.


These are small crude shelters. Huts are mostly made of natural plus locally obtainable materials like coconut tree leaves as it makes a cool ceiling. It’s swift plus cheap in the building. Huts are commonly used by poor people, construction workers, on the terrace in some houses. 

A Hut


The bungalow is yet another and popular Indian house design. The advantage is the space in and around the home that gives you enough room for a garden. These commonly come in with three to four rooms, at least two parking lots, and a garden area.

A Bungalow
A Bungalow


One of the most common kinds of houses in the apartment, at least in India. The current apartment complexes approach all amenities plus facilities. The lower floors are calling basement suites plus top floors are call penthouses. The little ones are called studio apartments. An apartment at least has two to three rooms, a separate parking lot, a lift, and a common terrace and common spaces.

An Apartment
An Apartment


Earlier, this type of house was meant for upper-class state homes. Currently, separate modern townhouses are moreover called villas. Amenities like your driveway, backyard/lawn, garden plus pool are accessible with these homes and are a source of comfort. This big house in India usually has a pool. Nowadays villas are also coming within a community with large facilities

A Villa
A Villa

5.Small Indian House/Individual house

The typical nuclear Indian family consists of 4 members, and this kind of house is the most common one for them. The house is complete with a small open area in the front and a big gate protecting it. These types of the house mostly have two-three rooms, a small garden area, a small parking lot and a small backyard.

An individual house
An individual house

Health and fitness

Health is an important aspect in anyone’s life. Fitness is a proof for a healthy person. By achieving a healthy body, we can achieve a healthy mind. Small habit changes in our day-day life will change our life completely in a healthier way. Food is the first thing to take into considering when we talk about health. There are lots of aspects to having a healthy life. I will share with you the small steps that you need to take to start your healthy journey.

Proper diet

The first thing that comes to our mind when we think about being healthy is being on a proper diet. It is not just about what we eat, it is also about when we eat. Healthy food aside, having your food at the right time every day will cut off lots of health issues. Many of us skip breakfast and eat straight at lunch time. You haven’t had anything for the past 12 hours so your stomach is literally empty with stomach acid in it. There are many risk factors when high stomach acid is secreted. The main function of this acid is to digest the food that you intake so better give it some food in the morning otherwise it will cause some serious health issues.

Keep specific timings for your breakfast, lunch and dinner. If you take food at proper timings, it will solve many health issues. Breakfasts should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. Lunch should be taken around 12 to 2 PM. Dinner should be taken around 7 to 9 AM. So make sure you stick to the timings and have a healthy diet!

Next comes the healthy food. Make sure you take vegetables thrice a week and fish twice a week (if you are a non vegetarian) and one cheat day to eat your favorite junk food. Intake of all kinds of food is important. Junk food and outside food from time to time would be fine but making it as a part of your diet would cause major health issues.

Sleep schedule

Another important factor that ruins your health is lack of sleep. I know most of us have issues with falling asleep at night time and that becomes a routine. The first step to do is to not make it a routine and not normalizing the sleep schedule. If you can only sleep at 1 then consider it a serious issue and work towards changing it.

Ways to stabilize your sleep schedule

  • Push in all your work within 11 PM and make yourself completely free at night. If you are a work from home dude then plan it accordingly, you require 6 to 8 hours of sleep, that’s all matters.
  • Avoid using mobile phone or laptop after 11 PM. Make sure you have at least 30 mins gap without screen time before sleeping.


Fitness is achieved by exercising your body regularly. It can be anything that you do. A simple 1 hour walk in the morning will keep you active throughout the day. There are many forms of exercises that you can do. You can workout everyday with simple moves. The ultimate goal is to exercise your muscles and not make them lazy. Some forms of exercise are,

  • home workouts
  • Going to gym
  • Morning/evening walk
  • Cycling
  • Dance workout
  • yoga

Meditation helps you exercise your mind. It calms and clears your mind. If you start doing it you will definitely see the results in your day to day life.


These are some factors that affects our health and if we bring more concentration into all of this, we can be healthy mentally and physically. Make time to focus on your mind and body.



A bank is a financial institution that accepts money from the public and lending to people by loans with demand. Banking is a system that provides a safe place to save our money and supplies liquidity to the economy by providing loans to help businesses and also for the public to buy consumer products like homes, cars, lands, etc. Bank acts as a mid-way between savers and users of money. There are different types of banks. They are central banks, commercial banks, development banks, Cooperative banks, rural banks, etc. We can say that banking has gone through a metamorphosis. Nowadays there are a lot of ways to deposit and withdraw our money. With the advancement in technology, digital banking has reached its heights. Nowadays we use credit cards, debit cards, UPI transactions, Automated teller machines (ATM) for transactions of money.


  • It collects money from the public through accounts.
  • It lends the money to entrepreneurs through loans with demanding interest. It also issues loans to the public.
  • The interest rate paid by the bank to the customers is less than the interest rate that the bank charges to the lenders. The difference between them is the gross margin.
  • Banks’ s don’t work in isolation
  • In India, all banks are regulated by the central bank i.e, The Reserve Bank of India (RBI). 


  • DEBIT CARDS: Debit card is the prepaid or pay now card that is linked to the card holder’s account. Debit cards quickly debit or subtract the money from one’s savings account. We can pay our expenses through debit cards. Once you use the debit card, the amount will be transferred to the merchant’s account. A debit card holds the card holder’s name, expiry date of the card, card number, card verification value (CVV). And the customer will be given a unique PIN (personal identification number) to access the card.
  • CREDIT CARD: Credit card is postpaid or pays later card that draws money from the bank. The bank gives the grace period to pay the money he used. If the amount is not paid by the customer within the stipulated time, then the customer is charged with interest.
  • AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE (ATM): ATMs are used by banks for efficiently dealing the customers. Instead of going to the bank and filling the form to withdraw money, one can easily get their cash by using ATM. Insert the card and PIN then enter the amount you wish to withdraw. You can also transfer cash from your account to another account, view your account information using the ATM.
  • ELECTRONIC FUNDS TRANSFER (ETF): This system helps to transfer the money in a faster way from one account to another. The sender and receiver of funds in this system may be in different cities and may have an account in different banks.
  • TELEBANKING: Telebanking refers to banking on phone services. In this system, the user can access his/her account details in a telephone call by giving his/her PIN to the bank.
  • MOBILE BANKING: A new revolution in e-banking is the emergence of mobile banking. In today’s world, most of us are using mobile phones. So, it becomes easier to transfer funds through mobile. Nowadays, we can pay the electric bills, gas bills, shopping bills, etc by sitting in the home with the help of a mobile phone.


  • GROSS NPA RATIO: NPA stands for Non-performing assets. The net NPA to loans ratio is to check the overall quality of the bank’s loan book. The higher the NPA, the higher is the risk to invest in this bank.
  • NET NPA TO TOTAL ASSET: Net NPA is calculated by subtracting the provisions made from the gross NPA. The higher the net NPA, the worst the bank is.
  • CASA RATIO: It stands for Current Account and Savings Account. Higher the CASA ratio, the better the bank is.
  • NET INTEREST MARGIN: For banks, both the raw materials and finished product is money. So, the higher the net margin, the better the bank is.
  • CAPITAL ADEQUACY RATIOS: It’s the bank’s capital ratio. The capital is lent to various parties at different risk proportions. The higher the capital adequacy ratio, the better the bank is.


The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout the body via the circulatory system, supplying oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.

“The tissues of the body need a constant supply of nutrition in order to be active,” said Dr. Lawrence Phillips, a cardiologist at NYU Langone Medical Center in New York. “If [the heart] is not able to supply blood to the organs and tissues, they’ll die.”


In humans, the heart is roughly the size of a large fist and weighs between about 10 to 12 ounces (280 to 340 grams) in men and 8 to 10 ounces (230 to 280 grams) in women, according to Henry Gray’s “Anatomy of the Human Body.”

The physiology of the heart basically comes down to “structure, electricity and plumbing,” Phillips told Live Science.

The human heart has four chambers: two upper chambers (the atria) and two lower ones (the ventricles), according to the National Institutes of Health. The right atrium and right ventricle together make up the “right heart,” and the left atrium and left ventricle make up the “left heart.” A wall of muscle called the septum separates the two sides of the heart.

A double-walled sac called the pericardium encases the heart, which serves to protect the heart and anchor it inside the chest. Between the outer layer, the parietal pericardium, and the inner layer, the serous pericardium, runs pericardial fluid, which lubricates the heart during contractions and movements of the lungs and diaphragm.

The heart’s outer wall consists of three layers. The outermost wall layer, or epicardium, is the inner wall of the pericardium. The middle layer, or myocardium, contains the muscle that contracts. The inner layer, or endocardium, is the lining that contacts the blood.

The sinoatrial node produces the electrical pulses that drive heart contractions.


The heart circulates blood through two pathways: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit.In the pulmonary circuit, deoxygenated blood leaves the right ventricle of the heart via the pulmonary artery and travels to the lungs, then returns as oxygenated blood to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein.

In the systemic circuit, oxygenated blood leaves the body via the left ventricle to the aorta, and from there enters the arteries and capillaries where it supplies the body’s tissues with oxygen. Deoxygenated blood returns via veins to the venae cavae, re-entering the heart’s right atrium.

Of course, the heart is also a muscle, so it needs a fresh supply of oxygen and nutrients, too, Phillips said.

“After the blood leaves the heart through the aortic valve, two sets of arteries bring oxygenated blood to feed the heart muscle,” he said. The left main coronary artery, on one side of the aorta, branches into the left anterior descending artery and the left circumflex artery. The right coronary artery branches out on the right side of the aorta.

Blockage of any of these arteries can cause a heart attack, or damage to the muscle of the heart, Phillips said. A heart attack is distinct from cardiac arrest, which is a sudden loss of heart function that usually occurs as a result of electrical disturbances of the heart rhythm. A heart attack can lead to cardiac arrest, but the latter can also be caused by other problems, he said.

“Each cell has the ability to be the ‘band leader’ and [to] have everyone follow,” Phillips said. In people with an irregular heartbeat, or atrial fibrillation, every cell tries to be the band leader, he said, which causes them to beat out of sync with one another.

A healthy heart contraction happens in five stages. In the first stage (early diastole), the heart is relaxed. Then the atrium contracts (atrial systole) to push blood into the ventricle. Next, the ventricles start contracting without changing volume. Then the ventricles continue contracting while empty. Finally, the ventricles stop contracting and relax. Then the cycle repeats.

Valves prevent backflow, keeping the blood flowing in one direction through the heart.



*A human heart is roughly the size of a large fist.
*The heart weighs between about 10 to 12 ounces (280 to 340 grams) in men and 8 to 10 ounces (230 to 280 grams) in women.
*The heart beats about 100,000 times per day (about 3 billion beats in a lifetime).
An adult heart beats about 60 to 80 times per minute.
*Newborns’ hearts beat faster than adult hearts, about 70 to 190 beats per minute.
*The heart pumps about 6 quarts (5.7 liters) of blood throughout the body.
*The heart is located in the center of the chest, usually pointing slightly left.


Global warming refers to climate change that causes an increase in the average of Earth’s temperature. Natural events and human influences are believed to be top contributions towards the increase in average temperatures. Global warming is a rise in the surface and atmospheric temperature of the earth that has changed various life forms on the earth.

The climate has been continuously changing for centuries. One natural cause of global warming is greenhouse gases. Greenhouse gases are carbon monoxide and sulphur dioxide. It traps the solar rays and prevents them from escaping the surface of the earth. This causes an increase in the temperature of the earth.

The impact that global warming is causing on earth is extremely serious. There are many hazardous effects that will happen in the future if global warming continues. It includes melting of polar ice caps, leading to an increase in sea level drowning coastlines and slowly submerging continents.

Recent studies by National Snow and Ice Datacenter “if the ice melted today the seas would rise about 230 feet”. Another effect is climate change leading to the extinction of various species. More hurricanes, cyclonic storms, heat waves, drought, and extreme rainfalls will occur causing disaster to humankind.

Global Warming has already caused many problems for human and we need to prevent disasters of the future. Our generation needs to take care of the earth with immediate effect to safeguard future generations or they will suffer the consequences of global warming.

Search Engine Factors

Every website needs to be optimized to get a good search engine rank. Google uses some algorithms to rank a website in search engines.

Some google ranking factors are –

  • Backlinks
  • Freshness
  • Topical authority
  • Search intent
  • Content depth
  • Page speed
  • Mobile-friendliness
  • User experience

  • Quality Backlinks

These are the links on a website that links back to your website if your topic is related to the one referred on the website or they have linked your website.

Relevance and Authority are the two most important factors that play a major role in ranking your website.

Relevance – Search engines decide the relevancy by the keywords and links used.

Authority – Backlinks that are obtained from high authority domains offer more equity than ones that are not.

  • Freshness

It is a query-dependent ranking factor, meaning it’s important for some queries than others. Fresh content is content that has been recently updated or updated regularly such as a news update. It is updated whenever there is something new around the world and when searched you will get the high-ranking pages that are just updated a few minutes ago.

But some queries don’t require to be updated such as “how to tie a tie”. Here freshness doesn’t matter because the process of tying a tie never changes.

  • Search Intent

Search Intent represents the objective the searcher is trying to accomplish. For example, if a user searches “Best places to visit in Uttarakhand,” google will pop the articles and blogs about the places to visit in Uttarakhand.

The 3C’s of Search Intent

  1. Content-Type – You will see tourism articles, blogs on places to visit
  2. Content Format
  3. Content Angle – Updated articles and tourist accommodations will show up

  • Topical Authority

It is a measure that ranks a website whose content is better and related to the topic of the site. Write original, high-quality content based on keyword research and build topically relevant links to your article.

The concept E-A-T comes from Google’s Search Quality Rater guidelines which stand for Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness. Google uses E-A-T to evaluate the overall quality of a webpage.

  • Content Depth

Writing in-depth SEO content will improve the user’s engagement with the content. If a user searches for something online then you have to solve his problem by providing him everything that he needs to know. Well written detailed content improves the sites ranking because search engine treats it as complete information about a topic in a single page.

  • Page Speed

Page Speed is the amount of time it takes for a webpage to load. This plays an important role in determining ranking your site high on Google searches. The less time it takes to load your webpage, the higher the user engagement as they won’t be waiting for a long time for your content to load. They will eventually switch to another website whose content loads fast.

  • Using the HTTPS Protocol

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a secure internet communication protocol that protects the integrity and confidentiality of data between the user’s computer and the site. Switching to HTTPS will make your website more secure and avoid damages from the third party.

  • User Experience

When it comes to User Experience it’s all about- 

  • Quality of content you are putting on your website
  • Responsive design and a good user interface are the key factors 


There are many other ranking factors when it comes to ranking your website such as domain name, algorithm rules, CTR, etc. It’s all about the quality of content you are putting out there that searchers are looking for, providing a great user experience so that searchers want to engage with your website. 


Hi! Hope you all are doing good. I’m a kindle parent for more than a month. So I thought why not share about kindle. I simply love the device so much and I can’t stay away from it as much as I even named my device.

Kindle is a small, light e-reader and has been developed by Amazon. We can store books, charge it and carry it with us as it is lightweight. There is a kindle app that can also be used.

Advantages of Kindle

  • Convenient e-reader.
  • Thousands of e-books.
  • Cheaper and affordable books.
  • Dictionary in one click.
  • It has a paper-like screen which gives us a paperback feel.
  • E-ink is being used in this device.
  • It is not bad for the eyes.
  • With kindle unlimited, you get lots of free books.
  • It does not emit light.
  • Long battery life.
  • Glare-free.

Disadvantages of kindle

  • It is not a physical book.
  • Lack of book smell.
  • Lack of colourful illustration.
  • Hard to share with friends.
  • Eye strain if used continuously and at night.
  • The battery can die out. You have to carry the charger for journeys.

You can join kindle unlimited to get access to free books. In India, you have to pay 1 Month = Rs.199, 6 months = Rs. 999 and 12 Months = Rs. 1,799.



  • Device: Kindle 10th Generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 168g.
  • Model No.: J9G29R.
  • Country of Origin: India.

I have this device and trust me I love it! If one can’t afford paperbacks, ebooks are an incredible option. The device is super cute and light. You won’t get distracted as you can’t assess social media on the device. This device does not support audiobooks.




  • Device: kindle paperwhite 10th Generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 182g.
  • Country of Origin: China.

Paper White has 8GB and 32GB storage. The price varies as per the storage. Important thing is, it is waterproof hence, you can read it in a bathtub, beach, and pool area. It doesn’t support audiobooks.




  • Device: Kindle oasis 10th generation.
  • Manufacturer: Amazon.
  • Weight: 186g

Kindle Oasis has a page-turner button. The screen is flat edge to edge. It has an elegant look. The screen rotation feature is helpful. The cost may vary as per the storage.


In kindle, we have the features to change fonts and font size. There are few basic features like layout changes and themes.

There are pretty covers for the device on Amazon. The experience is not like a paperback yet it gives us a pleasant experience. Images are black and white but that doesn’t make my experience any less than beautiful.

When we are out in direct sunlight, a glare-free screen enables us to read. As much as I love paperback, reading in kindle doesn’t make you less of a reader. I feel that money should not be a barrier to reading. When you can afford ebooks, do make use of it. It might not be the same but I think paperback and kindle can co-exist.

Happy reading!


Social empowerment :

Social empowerment is a broad area of practice drawing upon social work and community development principles.

Social empowerment is understood as the process of developing a sense of autonomy and self-confidence, and acting individually and collectively to change social relationships and the institutions and discourses that exclude poor people and keep them in poverty.

Communalism :

Communalism is defined as a mechanism to energize people for or against by raising an appeal on communal lines. It is revealed in literature that Communalism is related with religious fundamentalism and intransigence. Studies have demonstrated that the communalisation was first began in nineteenth century. The British historian (James) categorized ancient period as Hindu period and medieval period as Muslim period and this ordering was further used by both the British and Indian historians. Social literature documented that in medieval period, Muslim people were underprivileged, they were also oppressed as then people of Hindu community and the ruling class included both the Muslims and Hindus. Abdul Ahmed explained that “Communalism is a social phenomenon characterized by the religion of two communities, often leading to acrimony, tension and even rioting between them”. Communalism is also described by few other eminent theorists. According to Prabha Dixit, “Communalism is a political doctrine which makes use of religious and cultural differences to achieve political ends”. It is a dominant force in Indian scenario. Many factors such as casteism, communalism and religious fundamentalism pose challenge in India that are the major threats to Secular state. They deteriorate the working and strength of democratic secular Federal state and influence against the fundamental beliefs of national life and provide means to new individuality. ‘Casteism’ and ‘Communalism’ are destroying the Indian cultural diversity.

Factors responsible for the growth of communalism in India:

— The stagnant economy of India during the British rule was an important factor for the growth of communalism in India.

–It was an expression of the interests and aspirations of the middle classes in a social set up in which opportunities for them were inadequate.

–The vested interests deliberately encouraged communalism because of its capacity to distort and divert popular struggle, to prevent the masses from understanding the real issues.

–The British rule which produced the divide and rule policy, separate electorate on the basis of religion strengthened the basis of communalism in India.

–British also favoured one community against the other in services and promotions.

–The territorial settlement of different religious groups and many contradictory variations in their mode of life, social standards and belief systems may cause communal tensions.

Regionalism :

In current global trade system, regionalism is spreading at great pace. The huge spread of regionalism is encouraged by the explosion of regional institutions that give rise to substantial academic interest in both their sources and consequences. In bulk of academic literature, Regions are described as groups of countries situated in the same geographic space but it is not clear where one region ends and the next begins. Regionalism has widely spread in Indian politics since the independence of India. It has the major basis of various regional political parties. In Indian scenario, regionalism has increased in close identification with the regions. After independence, it is a great force of conflicts as well as collaboration, which depends on the manner of accommodation. Regionalism is elaborated as situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with idiosyncratic identities exist within the same state borders, often concentrated within a particular region and share strong feelings of shared individuality.Regionalism is basically an intense feeling of a particular region or an area in preference to the nation or any other region. It often involves ethnic groups whose major objective is to get freedom from a national state and the development of their own political influence. In Indian perspective, regionalism denotes to proclamation of different ethnic, linguistic or economic interests by various groups within the nation. The second meaning of the term is regionalism at national level refers to a process in which sub-state actors become increasingly powerful, power devolves from central level to regional governments. These are the regions within country, distinguished in culture, language and other socio-cultural factors.

Causes for regional disparity :

Low rate of economic growth

Land reforms are not done properly and the feudal mentality still persists

Lower level of infrastructural facilities in backward states

Low level of social expenditure by states on education, health and sanitation

Political and administration failures which further given birth to sub-regional movements for separate states.

Secularism :

Secularism is contrasting phenomenon of communalism. It was adopted by Indian Constitution, which signifies respect for all religions and broad-mindedness of all faiths, no State religion and support or favour to any religion by the State. Secularism is a form of government process that enhance democracy and commitment to financial development.Secular India has undergone several tremors in many decades. Many professionals relate these convulsions to the nature of Indian civilization, to which they attribute centrality to religion in both personal and public matters. The Indian concept of secularism is based on respect for all religions by the state and separation of religion from public institutional practices. The obsession with the European experience supervises the historicity of the Indian phenomenon.

The process of secularisation is not alike in all societies. With technical progression, human culture has undergone the process of secularisation. In India, secularism is huge political and constitutional struggle and disagreement. The perception was promoted by Mahatma Gandhi and it has been the central model of secularism after Independence of India. Indian secularism is based on a more functional approach to the belief of equal respect and acceptance of all religions, which has allowed for the defence of religious minority rights principally through temporary special measures, which is similar to the positive action in the United States. But, the Hindu Right has progressively been trying to cast itself as main successors of India’s secular practise, that is, as promoters of new secularism.

Nature of Secularism:

–The separation of religion and state is the foundation of secularism.

–Secularism seeks to ensure and protect freedom of religious belief and practice for all citizens.

–Secularists want freedoms of thought and conscience to apply equally to all – believers and non-believers alike. They do not wish to curtail religious freedoms.

–Secularism ensures that the right of individuals to freedom of religion is always balanced by the right to be free from religion .

–In a secular democracy all citizens are equal before the law and parliament. No religious or political affiliation gives advantages or disadvantages and religious believers are citizens with the same rights and obligations as anyone else.

–Secularism champions universial human rights above religious demands. It upholds equality laws that protect women, LGBT people and minorities from religious discrimination.


The previous article was about the procedure to develop a deep learning network and introduction to CNN. This article concentrates on the process of convolution which is the process of taking in two images and doing a transformation to produce an output image. This process is common in mathematics and signals analysis also. The CNN’s are mainly used to work with images.

In the CNN partial connection is observed. Hence all the neurons are not connected to those in the next layer. So the number of parameters reduces leading to lesser computations.

Sample connection is seen in CNN.

Convolution in mathematics refers to the process of combining two different functions. With respect to CNN, convolution occurs between the image and the filter or kernel. Convolution itself is one of the processes done on the image.

Here also the operation is mathematical. It is a kind of operation on two vectors. The input image gets converted into a vector-based on color and dimension. The kernel or filter is a predefined vector with fixed values to perform various functions onto the image.

Process of convolution

The kernel or filter is chosen in order of 1*1, 3*3, 5*5, 7*7, and so on. The given filter vector slides over the image and performs dot product over the image vector and produces an output vector with the result of each 3*3 dot product over the 7*7 vector.

A 3*3 kernel slides over the 7*7 input vector to produce a 5*5 output image vector. The reason for the reduction in the dimension is that the kernel has to do dot product operation on the input vector-only with the same dimension. I.e. the kernel slides for every three rows in the seven rows. The kernel must perfectly fit into the input vector. All the cells in the kernel must superimpose onto the vector. No cells must be left open. There are only 5 ways to keep a 3-row filter in a 7-row vector.    

This pictorial representation can help to understand even better. These colors might seem confusing, but follow these steps to analyze them.

  1. View at the first row.
  2. Analyse and number the different colours used in that row
  3. Each colour represents a 3*3 kernel.
  4. In the first row the different colours are red, orange, light green, dark green and blue.
  5. They count up to five.
  6. Hence there are five ways to keep a 3 row filter over a 7 row vector.
  7. Repeat this analysis for all rows
  8. 35 different colours will be used. The math is that in each row there will be 5 combinations. For 7 rows there will be 35 combinations.
  9. The colour does not go beyond the 7 rows signifying that kernel cannot go beyond the dimension of input vector.

These are the 35 different ways to keep a 3*3 filter over a 7*7 image vector. From this diagram, we can analyse each row has five different colours. All the nine cells in the kernel must fit inside the vector. This is the reason for the reduction in the dimension of output vector.

Procedure to implement convolution

  1. Take the input image with given dimensions.
  2. Flatten it into 1-D vector. This is the input vector whose values represent the colour of a pixel in the image.
  3. Decide the dimension, quantity and values for filter. The value in a filter is based on the function needed like blurring, fadening, sharpening etc. the quantity and dimension is determined by the user.
  4. Take the filter and keep it over the input vector from the first cell. Assume a 3*3 filter kept over a 7*7 vector.
  5. Perform the following computations on them.

5a. take the values in the first cell of the filter and the vector.

5b. multiply them.

5c. take the values in the second cell of the filter and the vector.

5d. multiply them.

5e. repeat the procedure till the last cell.

5f. take the sum for all the nine values.

  • Place this value in the output vector.
  • Using the formula mentioned later, find the dimensions of the output vector.



The previous article was on algorithm and hyper-parameter tuning. This article is about the general steps for building a deep learning model and also the steps to improve its accuracy along with the second type of network known as CNN.

General procedure to build an AI machine

  1. Obtain the data in the form of excel sheets, csv (comma separated variables) or image datasets.
  2. Perform some pre-processing onto the data like normalisation, binarisation etc. (apply principles of statistics)
  3. Split the given data into training data and testing data. Give more preference to training data since more training can give better accuracy. Standard train test split ratio is 75:25.
  4. Define the class for the model. Class includes the initialisation, network architecture, regularisation, activation functions, loss function, learning algorithm and prediction.
  5. Plot the loss function and interpret the results.
  6. Compute the accuracy for both training and testing data and check onto the steps to improve it.

Steps to improve the accuracy

  1. Increase the training and testing data. More data can increase the accuracy since the machine learns better.
  2. Reduce the learning rate. High learning rate often affects the loss plot and accuracy.
  3. Increase the number of iterations (epochs). Training for more epochs can increase the accuracy
  4. Hyper parameter tuning. One of the efficient methods to improve the accuracy.
  5. Pre-processing of data. It becomes hard for the machine to work on data with different ranges. Hence it is recommended to standardise the data within a range of 0 to 1 for easy working.

These are some of the processes used to construct a network. Only basics have been provided on the concepts and it is recommended to learn more about these concepts. 

Implementation of FFN in detecting OSTEOARTHRITIS (OA)

Advancements in the detection of OA have occurred through AI. Technology has developed where machines are created to detect OA using the X-ray images from the patient. Since the input given is in the form of images, optimum performance can be obtained using CNN’s. Since the output is binary, the task is binary classification. A combination of CNN and FFN is used. CNN handles feature extraction i.e. converting the image into a form that is accepted by the FFN without changing the values. FFN is used to classify the image into two classes.

CNN-convolutional neural network

The convolutional neural network mainly works on image data. It is used for feature extraction from the image. This is a partially connected neural network. Image can be interpreted by us but not by machines. Hence they interpret images as a vector whose values represent the color intensity of the image. Every color can be expressed as a vector of 3-D known as RGB- Red Green Blue. The size of the vector is equal to the dimensions of the image.


This type of input is fed into the CNN. There are several processing done to the image before classifying it. The combination of CNN and FNN serves a purpose for image classification.

Problems are seen in using FFN for image

  • We have seen earlier that the gradients are chain rule of gradient at different layers. For image data, large number of layers in order of thousands may require. It can result in millions of parameters. It is very tedious to find the gradient for the millions of these parameters.
  • Using FFN for image data can often overfit the data. This may be due to the large layers and large number of parameters.

The CNN can overcome the problems seen in FFN.