Why do Insectivorous plants exist?

If you find insectivorous plants strange and fascinating then this blog is for you.

What are insectivorous plants?

Insectivorous plants are those plants that derive some nutrients by trapping and consuming animals, mainly insects.

Categories of being insectivorous

There are essential two things that a plant has to do to be considered insectivorous:-

  1. Ability to take nutrients from dead prey:- a plant should have the ability to trap the prey and absorb nutrients from it. Those prey is usually insects or small vertebrates like, salamanders. It is not enough for the plant just to have defenses that can kill an animal that’s trying to snack on it. It also has to get it’s animal’s nutrients.
  2. At least have one adaption:- the plant need to have one adaption that actively lures in, catches, or digests it’s prey.

Doing at least one of these things and absorbing the nutrients for it’s benefit make it a insectivorous plant.

Plant traps

Over millions of years and across hundreds of species, plants have developed five different types of traps, most of them are from different times. And traps can be passive, if prey just fall into them and can’t escape, or active, if plant actually moves to catch its prey.

  1. Pitcher plant:- pitfall traps are the standard and passive trap used by plants like pitcher plants. Prey lands on the plants slippery surface and slides down into a pool of digestive juices.
  2. Sundews:- these are flypaper traps in which the prey become stuck in a sticky substance that is produced by the plant leaves. These traps can be passive as well as active. Sundews have sticky moving tentacles that react to contract with prey.
  3. Venus fly trap:- these are snap traps which are active, using rapid modified leave
  4. Bladderworts: they have bladder-suction. This creates little negative pressure vacuum inside their traps, which, when triggered by prey, pop open and suck the victim inside before snapping close.
  5. Lobster-pot trap:- they passive traps that force prey to move towards the plant’s digestive organ by having little inward pointing hairs that keep prey from moving backward out of the trap.
Venus fly trap
Lobster-pot trap
Bladderworts
Sundew
Pitcher plant

All of these unrelated plants have not only developed the same kinds of traps but it looks like they have also developed that same molecular mechanism for digesting their prey.

Reason of existence

It goes back to idea of convergent evolution. All these different insectivorous plants are responding to similar environmental pressure:-

  1. Found in open sunny places that have moist but nutrients – poor – acidic soil. Many of them live in bogs and fens.
  2. In these kind of habitat where nitrogen and phosphorus is not present in the soil, the plant tend to developed two kinds of leaves one for normal photosynthesis and one that are modified onto their particular type of trap.
  3. This results them to invest more in modified leaves than normal photosynthesis leaves as they have to live in a place with enough sunlight as well as to trap preys

Insectivorous plants can stop paying carnivorous temporally once they’re put in nutrients rich soil and if they don’t get enough sunlight and water.

Insectivorous plants are pretty rare and they are only found in certain kinds of habitats, they are just less likely to fossilize than other kinds of plants that are more widespread.

The Call of the Wild

The Call of the Wild, novel by Jack London, published serially by The Saturday Evening Post in 1903 and then as a single-volume book by Macmillan & Co. the same year. It is often considered to be his masterpiece and is the most widely read of all his publications.

Summary

The story follows Buck—a mix of St. Bernard and Scotch collie—throughout his journey as a sled dog. Buck’s story begins at the house of Judge Miller in Santa Clara, California. Here, Buck is a beloved domesticated pet, living comfortably. However, after gold is discovered in the Yukon territory of Canada, Buck is stolen by one of Miller’s gardeners as the demand for sled dogs increases. The gardener sells Buck to dog traders and makes a profit, and Buck is soon shipped north, abused and beaten as he goes. Along with a sweet, unassuming dog named Curly, Buck is sold to two government couriers, François and Perrault, who put him to work as a sled dog. Buck is soon overwhelmed by his surroundings, particularly when he sees a group of huskies attack and kill Curly.

As Buck is forced to adapt to the wild, his primitive instincts begin to surface. It is during this time that he makes an enemy of the lead sled dog, Spitz. The two fight a number of times, and Buck consistently undermines him in the hopes of diminishing his authority. After a final, decisive battle, Buck kills Spitz and appoints himself as the new lead dog—something he convinces his owners to go along with through his sheer stubbornness. With Buck as lead dog, the team begins making trips in record time. The team, along with Buck, is eventually sold to a mail carrier who forces the dogs to carry arduously heavy loads. This work results in the death of one of the dogs.

The team is sold again, this time to American gold hunters named Hal, Charles, and Mercedes. The three are wildly inexperienced: they overload the sled, and they beat the dogs unnecessarily. Halfway through a long journey, they begin to run out of food, causing more than half of the dogs to die of starvation. Along their journey, and still with a long way to go, they happen upon the camp of a man named John Thornton.

Thornton warns them that the ice they are about to cross is thinning and that it is not safe to cross. The Americans disregard him and attempt to leave. The other dogs obey, but Buck refuses to move onto the ice. Hal beats him viciously until Thornton steps in and cuts Buck free. The Americans continue without Buck, only to fall through the thinning ice and perish alongside the remainder of their dogs.

Buck becomes devoted to Thornton, and he even saves Thornton from drowning. One day, Thornton brags that Buck can pull a thousand-pound load and bets more than a thousand dollars on him. After some struggle, Buck is able to do so, and his master uses the money to search for a hidden mine deep in the Canadian wilderness. Buck’s love for Thornton becomes challenged by his growing desire for the wild. He begins to disappear into the forest for longer intervals of time, but he always returns to Thornton. During these excursions, Buck hunts bears and moose and even befriends a wolf. One day Buck returns to find Thornton and his crew killed by Native Americans the novel calls Yeehats. Angry beyond comprehension, Buck attacks and kills several Yeehats and scatters the rest. Buck then ventures into the forest and becomes the leader of a wolf pack. He becomes known by the Yeehats as Ghost Dog; because of his swiftness, his shadow is all they can glimpse. Despite being fully wild now, Buck still returns to the place of Thornton’s death each year to mourn the loss of his best friend.

SOURCES

https://www.britannica.com/topic/The-Call-of-the-Wild

Lifestyle mistakes that are damaging our health

Living in a world where we are continuously striving to achieve materialistic things. Working late at night, eating junk food, binge-watching, and being lazy are only deteriorating your healthy lifestyle. You won’t notice this in the early stage but sooner or later symptoms will start showing up and then it will be too late.

As the saying goes “A healthy mind lives in a healthy body”. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg in Sweden have revealed that regular exercise boosts the brainpower of young adults. It improves blood flow to the brain that could help build new brain cells.

Here are some mistakes that one should be avoiding for living a healthy lifestyle –

  • Unhealthy Eating Habits

In this new era of fast food, people are ordering junk food like pizza and burgers. From a convenience point of view, it is okay although it isn’t a healthy option. Consuming high calories foods but lacking essential healthy nutrients causes severe digestive problems in the long run. It leads to unhealthy weight gain and an increased risk of many chronic diseases.

  • Drinking less water

For proper functioning of the body, you have to keep your body dehydrated. Drinking 3-4 liters a day will keep much illness away and gives you clear and healthy skin. 

  • Stressful life

Nowadays people feel overwhelmed because of the pressure that they face. There are many reasons for stressful life such as trying to do too much, not prioritizing your needs, and constantly being connected (social media). So to improve your lifestyle, unplug from being constantly connected, prioritize your needs and eat healthily and work out regularly.

  • Not making to-do list

Make your to-do list before going to bed. This will help you to manage your day without wasting your morning time figuring out what to do. Sometimes you take much time and you end up doing nothing. 

  • Being lazy

Laziness is one of the biggest modern-day problems. Not only will it affect your physical health, but it will also have a great impact on your mental health. Laziness in itself has enough potential to weaken your cognitive abilities and discourage you from eating and drinking healthy.

  • Avoiding deep and meaningful conversations

Human experience is about connecting with other people. Connection is what provides value and meaning to our lives. For example, people with strong social ties were found to be healthier and have a lower risk of death. Additionally, it was found that as age increases, the people with stronger social ties tend to live longer. And it seems that friendships can even help you find cancer.

  • Spending all day indoors

Explore the world around you whether that means traveling to faraway lands or hiking. This will freshen your mind and provides a wide range of mental and physical benefits.

  • Binge-watching for long hours

It’s good to binge watch for entertainment but it also has its side effects. It may increase anxiety, depression, and loneliness. Binge-watching for long hours may lead to insomnia and will make you less physically active.   

Rise of Investors in India

Ok ,I know what you’ll say – a country of 1.38 billion people and less than 4 percent of the population have brokerage accounts a significant portion of that don’t actively invest but can it be that it is a starting of growth of investor population in India? Well recent data suggests says so.

India’s top stock brokers such as Zerodha and Upstox have seen a tremendous growth in demat account openings with total account numbers rising from 1.6 Million pre-lockdown to more than 6 Million and the numbers are on the rise as we speak.

Both discount brokers (private brokers) as well as full-fledged brokers have seen a rise in demat account openings with data showing that millennials are ahead of all with the highest share of accounts. This is an extremely reassuring news that more youngsters have given financial learning a priority and many are eager to secure financial freedom.

India’s technological boom ,rise in number of internet users and motivated mindset have all the credit for this. When we look at data for all the states the state with most brokerage accounts in Maharashtra – which is topping the chart for many years now with more than 1.49 crore accounts with Gujarat coming in second which has more than 85 lakh accounts and Uttar Pradesh coming in third with more than 52 lakh accounts followed by Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh with more than 42 lakh and 25 lakh accounts respectively. Again when we look at the bottom of the list we have Lakshadweep with a meagre 480 accounts followed by Mizoram with 5900 accounts and Andaman & Nicobar Islands with 9700 accounts.

The covid-19 pandemic was the tipping point for this with major rise in account opening seen after the lockdown and the trend has not settled since.

But there are shades of grey in this as well as a greater share of these accounts are dormant and don’t trade or invest. Many in the wish for gaining profits quickly end up losing money and get disheartened and don’t try again. This has also led to the rise of dormant accounts. This indicates that financial literacy has not kept up with the pace of incoming individuals in this field and has resulted in fear ,uncertainty ,doubt.

Which prompts us to ask another question – Will this lead to a downfall in the number of people who invest in stock market? Well ,the answer is NO. Financial literacy has started to pick up amongst youngsters. Daily we can see a large number of Instagram accounts ,YouTube channels and websites spreading knowledge about stock market – granted not all of them are legit but those who really are have a good follower base and are constantly expanding day-by-day.

This will lead to a rise in informed and learned trader/investor who has practical knowledge about the market and is not afraid to take decision but is also cautious while doing it.

All in all one can say that road ahead for stock market investors in India looks bullish.

THINK DIFFERENT (PART-2)

Hi all,
      In my last Content “THINK DIFFERENT” I wrote different ways to ask/say,
     1. Good morning. 
     2. How are you?.
     3. I am fine.
     4. What are you doing?.

And my today’s content is Contiunity of  my previous content. Today I am going to share different ways to say,
        1. Thank you.
        2. Sorry.
        3. Something is easy.
        4. Sometimes is difficult.

*Ways to say “THANKYOU”.
1. I owe you one.
2. I appreciate what you did.
3. Gracias
4. Thanks a bunch. 5. Thanks a million.

*Ways to say ” SORRY”.
1. I take full responsibility.
2. My apologies
3. My fault/My mistake.
4. Please don’t be mad at me.
5. I bed your pardon.
6. I owe you an apology.
7. I truly regret.
8. I won’t do it again.
9. I hope you can forgive me.

* Ways to say “SOMETHING IS EASY”.
1. It’s a snap.
2. It’s a piece of cake.
3. Anyone can do it.
4. It’s easy as pie/ easy as a,b,c.
5. It’s a doddle.
6. Easy peasy.
7. It’s a breeze.
8. It’s childsplay.
9. It’s a walk in the park.
10. I can do this in the dark.

*Ways to say “SOMETHING IS DIFFICULT”.
1. It’s a difficult task.
2. It’s not so easy.
3. It’s a bit tricky.
4. It’s very hard.
5. It’s a very tough task.
6. It is not so simple.
7. It’s quite hard going.

And now include the above ways in your conversation.
Anything can be remembered only if it is practiced, inorder to remember, try to use these ways in your day to day conversation.
Hope so, it is useful.

Have a memorable day.

Keep smiling❣️❣️❣️

5 Demanded Job Oriented Programming Languages In 2021

In this digital world, programming is a common thing in our daily life. We can see it everywhere, from the medical store to your grocery store. In this automated world, the interaction between machines and human beings is gradually increasing. Programming and coding help this interaction so smoothly. We can regularly use bar code scanners, word processors, websites, and apps every minute in our life.

Programming enhances our brain function. It helped our analytical brain to develop logic. It also improves our IQ. But it is a bit confusing to learn such programming languages as there are many programming languages discovered till now. It’s a general question among students, What programming languages they should learn and practice to get a job in 2021.

Below is the list of programming languages that are trendy now. It is popular due to its flexibility and frameworks. Let us discuss some languages.

1.Python

Python is in demand now for the crucial role of data in business. Its various tools, frameworks, a vast collection of libraries, and readability are the prime factors for beginners to learn easily, and within less time. Python is mainly used in web and mobile apps development, server-side development, machine learning app development, data science, artificial intelligence, and many more. User-friendly data structures, easy integrations with web apps and GUI-based desktop application makes it more famous in 2021.

It is an open-source language. It is best for developing 2D imaging and 3D animation packages. Many popular video games like Vegas Trike, Toontown are developed using Python. By learning this, you can earn up to $72,500 annually. Youtube, Instagram, and Quora are the platforms developed in Python.

2.Java Script

It is famous for its widely used frameworks like Node.Js, Angular Js, and Vue Js. It is a server-side scripting language.JavaScript is used for backend and frontend development like web development, mobile apps development, and developing video games. It is mostly used in creating a dynamic web page and add special effects to web pages. It helps for validation while developing websites.

It is a simple language embedded in languages like HTML, CSS, and Java. In India, an average JavaScript developer earns approximately Rs.338,078 annually. Facebook, Google use Javascript in their frontend also.

3.Java

Java is an ever-green and most secure programming language. It is developed by Oracle Corporation. It listed the second rank in the PYPL(PopularitY Of Programming Language) index in Aug 2021. It is a multi-platform and old object-oriented language. It supports all platforms like Mac, Windows, Android, and IOS. Its robust memory allocation, APIs, vast libraries, scalability make it the top-most programming language in the data world.

It is mainly used for Software, Finance and e-commerce, web development, android app development, and big data. Its frameworks are so popular like Struts, Spring and Hibernate, etc. Today almost 3 billion devices running on apps that are using Java. It is also the backbone of many popular sites like Amazon and Twitter. A senior Java developer earns up to Rs.839,714 per annum.

4.C#

It is an object-oriented language developed by Microsoft. It is a dynamic language integrated with the .Net framework. C Sharp is similar to C & C++.C# is mostly used in web development, mobile apps development, 2D and 3D gaming application development. etc.

It depends on the Visual Basic editor for the developing process. C# is open-source, updateable, fast, interoperable with other codes and simple language. It is used as backend language for many known websites like Dell, Bing and MarketWatch, and many more.C# Devlopers salary is around $65,000 per annum. It is the 4th popular language on the PYPL list.

5.PHP

80% of websites on the internet are built-in using PHP. It is introduced in 1990 by Rasmus Lerdorf. It is an open-source, server-side scripting language. It is used to develop desktop applications. It is relatively easier to learn as compared to other languages. It is a cross-platform language with 5th position in the PYPL list.

It is very popular among web devlopers.Php is a cost-effective and flexible language in today’s market. It offers various frameworks like Laravel, Codeigniter etc.Php is adaptable with database connectivity. It is mainly used for back-end development. One can earn up to $81,500 per annum as an intermediate Php developer.

If you are interested in coding or programming,  you must have pick one language from the above list and learn. Within some years, you will achieve your dream job as a developer in MNCs.

CAMOUFLAGED .

It is very common for us to overlook the little details and features the things that we use everyday have , and hence never actually understand how to fully utilise something . Be it clothes , furniture or any other device , here are some of the things that have hidden features you didn’t know of ,

METAL RIVETS – You must certainly think these rivets are just to up the fashion game , but you are completely wrong , because these metal rivets are a very crucial component of jeans . When jeans became a staple wear among framers , miners and other working class labours , these rivets were added to jeans to increase its longevity . Rivets are secured at the seem of jeans so as to protect it from ripping apart .

RIDGES ON COIN – You definitely must have wondered as to why are there ridges in some coins ? Well , in the 1800s in Colonial America , people would shave off of edges of coin that were made of silver and gold and would in turn sell those shavings to earn money . Hence these ridges were created to prevent counterfeiting as people would able to identify whether a coin had been shaven or not .

SAMPLE FABRICS THAT COME WITH CLOTHES – You must have definitely noticed a zip lock bag with a tiny piece of the fabric and a button when you buy new clothes , and must think the fabric is used for sewing shut a hole that might be in the clothes , but no thats not its actual purpose . The sample fabric is supposed to be used for testing on cleaning products to unsure you do not ruin your clothing by using the wrong products .

PLASTIC CUPS WITH LIDS – For having a go to coffee or any beverage of your choice you use these cups with lids to carry your beverage around . While the lid is on the cup to prevent the beverage from spilling obviously , it certainly has another purpose . The lids can also be used as coaster , to protect the surface of the table where you might place your cup.

DETACHABLE HEADRESTS – The headrest in our cars our detachable , so that we can adjust it according to our level of comfort , but it has a more important purpose than that . If ever , you find yourself in a situation where you are stuck in your car , you can completely detach the headrest and use its ends that are long metal bars to break the windows and escape . Ingenious !

WOMEN OF ELIZABETHAN AGE

Elizabethan age can be rightly said as the ‘period of patriarchy ‘which can be approximately marked between 1558 and 1603 where women were not allowed to choose their life partner nor they could deny the parents choice if they try to do so then they were tortured and beaten up badly it was clearly stated by professor(historian) trevelyan’s – ‘History of England’ which Virginia woolf was going through ,such denial of choice shows that women in that time were having no agency. Women were not allowed to learn grammar, logic ,English grammar and poetry; they were recommended or were made only for men. They were always reminded to focus their attention on household chores and on family.In the Elizabethan age, the role of women was very limited in society. Men were expected to be breadwinners and women to be housewives and do household chores. Women were considered as inferiors and were not given the right to education. They were also denied the right of expressing themselves through writing. Taking the example of Judith Shakespeare, she was as talented and imaginative as her brother but she was not allowed to learn and study more and she was married forcefully. When she wanted to become an actor, everybody made fun of her and discouraged her. Women could not own property of their own. This is one of the reasons Queen Elizabeth never married- she did not want to give up her power to a man.Gender was considered more important than skill.The sister of Shakespeare who was imagined by Virginia woolf was an example of such case , In the story she (Judith)desired to become an actor but everyone in the society made fun of her and discourage her but the theatre manager took advantage of this weakness he cheated her by trapping her in his false love and the innocent girl couldn’t found that,now it was too late to identify the trap and which resulted in her pregnancy, all she was going through now was mental, emotional and social trauma which made her to take a wrong step that is to end her life by committing suicide .This incident help us to understand how man of that time only took woman for granted more or less as a ‘toy’ , whatever could be said to them ,and done to them no one took care and society In such acts they just keep silence,Woman were deprived to pursue their interest there was many instances even in the 19th century that woman writers were forced to use male pen names to hide their identity because women were not supposed to popular and were supposed to be working by using mail pen names their work gets someone else identity.As in the initial part of the answer we talked about a play i.e.” MERCHANT OF VENICE “where• Portia was the women protagonist and a clear representation of Shakespeare’s heroine where she had her agency to choose her husband and she had devised a kind of lottery for the purpose to choose her husband. Which gave potential suitors from all over the world the chance to choose among the three caskets and whoever chooses the right one is set to marry PortiaWhereas Elizabethan women for decades were not allowed to choose their life partner nor they could deny the choice of partner if they tried to do so they were badly beaten.•Her(Portia) famous “Quality of Mercy” speech is proof of her compassionate nature. She is well known for her quality of mercy speech given in the trial room. This speech depicts mercy as a sublime quality which is twice blest: it blesseth him that gives, and him that takes. Mercy, she says, is an attribute to God Himself.Although Portia is a woman with a powerful intellect and extraordinary powers of reasoning Whereas Elizabethan women were not having speech rights , forbidden from acting on public stages ,restrained from giving their opinions,less personal freedom as well as they were restricted from studying logic,law ,science etc.There lies the various differences between actual 16th-century women and Shakespeare heroines.

1)Cleopatra: She was the all-powerful queen of Egypt, everyone under her was loyal. She is the best in diplomacy and strikes personal relationships as a powerful diplomatic tool. She also demonstrated that she can speak as eloquently, intelligently, and on equal par with some of the greatest male figures in history: Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, and Octavius Caesar.On the other hand, Elizabethan age women had almost no individual identity and the mere adventure they would have done is marrying to a household in a distant land. The real women were uneducated and hence were unrepresented

2)Juliet: Her romantic story with Romeo is a worthy resemblance of what any modern urban romantic story would be like. The difference is the timeline. Juliet seems far more of a distinct identity, who somehow decided for her future, decisions, or even her love partner.While Elizabethan women were betrothed to any man at a young age that too as decided by her parents.

3) Viola: She is a bold girl. She goes on to disguise herself as a young man to find work, and charms a young woman, Olivia, with her frank wit and honesty, but even in disguise, she demonstrates the capacity for female fellowship. She Demonstrates how Shakespeare values mutual dependence in relationships between men and women.And obviously, the real Elizabethan era women had no part in any such mutual dependence concept. Women were only subject to social expectations of the household and childbearing, along with the prevalent right of men to beat their women.

How to right a simple report

A description of a sequence of events or a situation;

Some interpretation of the significance of these events or situation, whether solely your own analysis or informed by the views of others, always carefully refer

An evaluation of the facts or the results of your research

Discussion of the likely outcomes of future courses of action

Your recommendations as to a course of action;

conclusions

SUN

THE SUN PROFILE

diameter: 1,390,000 km.
mass: 1.989e30 kg
temperature: 5800 K (surface) 15,600,000 K (core)

HISTORY OF THE SUN

The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System (Jupiter contains most of the rest).

It is often said that the Sun is an “ordinary” star. That’s true in the sense that there are many others similar to it. But there are many more smaller stars than larger ones; the Sun is in the top 10% by mass. The median size of stars in our galaxy is probably less than half the mass of the Sun.

The Sun is personified in many mythologies: the Greeks called it Helios and the Romans called it Sol.

The Sun is, at present, about 70% hydrogen and 28% helium by mass everything else (“metals”) amounts to less than 2%. This changes slowly over time as the Sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core.

The outer layers of the Sun exhibit differential rotation: at the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days; near the poles it’s as much as 36 days. This odd behavior is due to the fact that the Sun is not a solid body like the Earth. Similar effects are seen in the gas planets. The differential rotation extends considerably down into the interior of the Sun but the core of the Sun rotates as a solid body.

Conditions at the Sun’s core (approximately the inner 25% of its radius) are extreme. The temperature is 15.6 million Kelvin and the pressure is 250 billion atmospheres. At the center of the core the Sun’s density is more than 150 times that of water.

The Sun’s power (about 386 billion billion mega Watts) is produced by nuclear fusion reactions. Each second about 700,000,000 tons of hydrogen are converted to about 695,000,000 tons of helium and 5,000,000 tons (=3.86e33 ergs) of energy in the form of gamma rays. As it travels out toward the surface, the energy is continuously absorbed and re-emitted at lower and lower temperatures so that by the time it reaches the surface, it is primarily visible light. For the last 20% of the way to the surface the energy is carried more by convection than by radiation.

The Sun’s output is not entirely constant. Nor is the amount of sunspot activity. There was a period of very low sunspot activity in the latter half of the 17th century called the Maunder Minimum. It coincides with an abnormally cold period in northern Europe sometimes known as the Little Ice Age. Since the formation of the solar system the Sun’s output has increased by about 40%.

The Sun is about 4.5 billion years old. Since its birth it has used up about half of the hydrogen in its core. It will continue to radiate “peacefully” for another 5 billion years or so (although its luminosity will approximately double in that time). But eventually it will run out of hydrogen fuel. It will then be forced into radical changes which, though commonplace by stellar standards, will result in the total destruction of the Earth (and probably the creation of a planetary nebula).

THE SUN’S SATELLITES

There are eight planets and a large number of smaller objects orbiting the Sun. (Exactly which bodies should be classified as planets and which as “smaller objects” has been the source of some controversy, but in the end it is really only a matter of definition. Pluto is no longer officially a planet but we’ll keep it here for history’s sake.)

INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT THE SUN

*The Sun is one of the millions of stars in the solar system. It is, however, larger than most (although not the biggest) and a very special star to us. Without the Sun there would be absolutely no life on Earth.
*The Sun is 870,000 miles (1.4 million kilometers) across. This is so big it is hard to imagine, but it would take more than one million Earths to fill the size of the Sun!
*The Sun is so big it takes up 99% of the matter in our solar system. The 1% left over is taken up by planets, asteroids, moons and other matter.

*The Sun is about 4.5 billion years old. It is thought to be halfway through its lifetime. Stars get bigger as they get older.
*As the Sun ages, it will get bigger. When this happens, it will consume some of the things close to it, and this includes Mercury, Venus and maybe even Earth and Mars. Luckily this is billions of years in the future.
*The Sun is the centre of the solar system.
*The Sun is 92.96 million miles (149.6 kilometers) away from Earth.
*The Sun is made of a ball of burning gases. These gases are 92.1% hydrogen and 7.8% helium.

*The Sun’s core is extremely hot! An unthinkable 13,600,000 degrees Celcius!
*The Sun has a very big magnetic field. It is the most powerful magnetic field in the whole solar system. This field is regenerating itself, but scientists are unsure how.

WHY RBI WANTS US TO REMEMBER CREDIT CARD/ DEBIT CARD DETAILS?

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is stubborn about its amended rules on the information stockpiling strategy. The RBI has dismissed the proposition made by installment door organizations as to the new guideline that may kick in from January of 2022. The modified guidelines forestall installment aggregators and vendors like Amazon, Flipkart and Netflix from putting away the data of a client’s card on their workers or information bases. The bank goes about as a significant contact between the client and the aggregators. The new change additionally implies that clients with charge cards or Mastercards should punch in their 16-digit card number each time they continue to make an exchange. This will dial back the accommodation, all things considered, yet the point of this change was to get the card data and ensure that installment administrators are not putting away the information on the framework.

Why you Should Memorize those 16 digits on your Credit/Debit Card?

The progressions happen from January 2022 as is normal, then, at that point clients should enter their 16-digit card number, alongside the expiry date and the CVC for every single exchange. This will apply whether you are doing it on a shipper site or online business stage. This will be particularly unwieldy to the clients who have more than one card or have different running memberships, yet toward the day’s end, the fact is wellbeing and information security. That being said, it would work well for you to retain those 16 numbers to streamline the interaction however much as could reasonably be expected.

Try not to Expect Any Rewards Anytime Soon:

The aggregate of the internet business installment model deals with information that is put away; these organizations utilize this information to showcase new things to client socioeconomics dependent on the data they have. This prohibition of information stockpiling will make it harder for them to focus on their clients with explicit arrangements or offers. Tokenisation is one potential arrangement that these players may execute however that would mean concealing the card subtleties with codes.

Going to UPI:

With greater security protracting the course of checkout or exchange, UPI may turn into the more preferred technique for installment. Lately UPI installment strategies have gotten extremely mainstream for their fast and simple installment frameworks. Clients with charge cards may think that it is a lot simpler to utilize UPI for paying on dealer stages.

What Changed?

As the new standards have not come into full impact yet, dealer destinations and instalment doors permit cardholders to store their information on their data sets with just a slim layer of safety to check. Typically, this is finished with the CVV (card check esteem) and a one-time secret phrase (OTP). The RBI dismissed this and the interest for an annulment in the new rules. The peak bank needed to acquire the new rules in July itself however needed to delay it by a half year because of banks not being prepared for it yet. The RBI has done an amazing job to guarantee undeniable degrees of client security as the new principle will keep instalment aggregators from putting away client card subtleties on their foundation that are gotten to by shippers.

When the new rules become effective, even approved card administrators cannot get to information for smooth preparing of chargebacks, complaints, and settling issues. Despite the fact that the speedy and simple cycle is to some degree upset, it guarantees the security of the information, which is at last the best norm of tasks.

BOOKS FOR CHILDREN PART 1

Hey, y’all! Do you read books? If so, do you recommend books to your niece and nephew? Here are few books for 11 children.

I started to read pretty late in life. I do regret not getting into the world of books early but better late than never right!? The books for kids and children are adventurous, colourful, exciting and thrilling.

WHY SHOULD CHILDREN READ?

  • Books are our best friends.
  • To improve their imagination.
  • Enhance communication skills.
  • Learn new words and phrases.
  • A better understanding of the world.
  • Language development.
  • Cognitive skills.
CHARLIE AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY BY ROALD DAHL

PRODUCT DETAILS:

  • Published – 1979.
  • Genres – Children’s fiction, humour, fantasy.
  • Pages – 176 pages.
  • Age – 10+
  • BUY NOW!

Roald Dahl is a fabulous author whose books are fun to read. The writing style is easy, understandable and simple. Who doesn’t like chocolate!? The book gives us a joyous experience. The children would fall in love with Willy Wonka’s Factory. The characters are vivid and we kids can imagine the story completely.

THE GOPI DIARIES BY SUDHA MURTY

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2019 & 2021.
  • Genres – Children’s Fiction.
  • Pages – 104 & 136.
  • Age – 6+
  • BUY NOW!

Sudha Murthy is one of the best authors for children. Her stories are simple yet unique and absorbing. This book has a remarkable character Gopi – a dog, the story is said from his perspective. We can see the world through his eyes which is amusing. Children will learn kindness, compassion for animals through this. They also understand the dog’s needs. The illustrations are super cute.

THE 1000 YEAR OLD BOY BY ROSS WELFORD

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2018.
  • Genre – Fiction, Adventure.
  • Pages – 400.
  • Age – 12+
  • BUY NOW!

The cover is pretty isn’t it? An adventurous story about a boy who is fated to live forever. Alfie Monk can tell us what it is like to live forever. This is a child-friendly novel that would make the child think. The children can imagine and be spellbound by this beauty. You will never guess what’s coming in this one.

THE LITTLE PRINCE BY ANTOINE DE SAINT – EXUPERY

PRODUCT DETAILS

  • Published – 2016.
  • Genre –
  • Pages – 144.
  • Age – 6+
  • BUY NOW!

“All grown ups were once children…

But only few of them remember it.”

– Antoine De Saint-Exupery.

The Little Prince is not just for children but also adults. The story deals with friendship, loss, loneliness, and childhood. The illustrations are charming and one can’t put this book down. It teaches philosophy in simple words. We can learn a few things from this beautiful book. Every child should read it.

THE WIZARD OF OZ BY L. FRANK BAUM
  • Published – Hardcover(2019) Original(1900)
  • Genre – Fantasy, fiction.
  • Pages – 208.
  • Age – 9+
  • BUY NOW!

The edition is stunning! The story is pure fantasy and Dorothy stays with us every after the adventure ends. She feels like she is lost but she embraces the situation to take a thrilling journey. The magical land of Oz is mesmerizing.

Do you know that “The Wizard of Oz” was banned from libraries? It was, as it provides no values. I think books are not always meant to teach us something. Books are different so are we. It can be a reason to smile, live, dance, and it can also teach us values.

Thank you!

Importance of Technology during Pandemic

Technology has played an important role in responding to the novel coronavirus and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic. Microsoft perspective and illustrate how technology has helped transform the public health landscape with new and refined capabilities – the efficacy and impact of which will be determined by history. Technologies like chatbot and virtualized patient care offer a mechanism to triage and distribute care at scale. Artificial intelligence and high-performance computing have accelerated research into understanding the virus and developing targeted therapeutics to treat infection and prevent transmission. New mobile contact tracing protocols that preserve patient privacy and civil liberties were developed in response to public concerns, creating new opportunities for privacy-sensitive technologies that aid efforts to prevent and control outbreaks. While much progress is still needed, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted technology’s importance to public health security and pandemic preparedness. Future multi-stakeholder collaborations, including those with technology organizations, are needed to facilitate progress in overcoming the current pandemic, setting the stage for improved pandemic preparedness in the future. As lessons are assessed from the current pandemic, public officials should consider technology’s role and continue to seek opportunities to supplement and improve on traditional approaches.

A tech-enabled education system will be a pandemic-proof solution, that can also be something that can continue after the pandemic. It’ll only allow the schools and colleges to widen their outreach and reach thousands of students, by simply adapting to a digital curriculum. One might wonder how online and offline curriculums will ever be able to match each other, but that is where one should realize that they are not too different, to begin with! Similar to that of a physical classroom, a student follows a time-table for their virtual classrooms, teachers switch lessons, students get breaks, they take assessments designed for an online mode, and to top it all off, all this happens while being at the comfort of their rooms/homes.

Try to understand your parents

pls Don’t force your parents to buy this or that because in this pandemic situation they already facing lots of financial problems . Help them by doing small paid internship or else work from home jobs . Make your parents proud help them whatever you can do but please don’t ask any finance from them at this situation because they may face lots of stress & health issues . UNDERSTAND THEM .

Stress

“You must learn to let go. Release the stress. You were never in control anyway.”

-Steve maraboli
7 Steps To Managing Stress

Introduction

Stress can be best defined as the body’s coping response to emotional burdens and demands. Surprisingly, stress is very essential in several conditions. For example, according to Health Guide, When working properly, stress helps you stay focused, energetic, and alert. In emergency situations, stress can save your life—giving you extra strength to defend yourself, for example, or spurring you to slam on the brakes to avoid a car accident.

See the source image

The real issue, however, that needs to be dealt with is chronic stress. Chronic stress disrupts nearly every system in your body. It can suppress your immune system, upset your digestive and reproductive systems, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, and speed up the aging process. It can even rewire the brain, leaving you more vulnerable to anxiety, depression, and other mental health problems.

See the source image

Health problems caused by stress include:

  1. Depression and anxiety
  2. Pain of any kind
  3. Sleep problems
  4. Autoimmune diseases
  5. Digestive problems
  6. Skin conditions, such as eczema
  7. Heart disease
See the source image

Citation(S): https://www.helpguide.org/articles/stress/stress-symptoms-signs-and-causes.htm

Common Symptoms

According to Mayo clinic, some of the common symptoms of stress that can affect your body, mind, emotions, behaviour etc are:

Physical Symptoms

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  • Headache
  • Muscle tension or pain
  • Chest pain
  • Fatigue
  • Change in sex drive
  • Upset stomach
  • Sleep problems

Emotional Symptoms

See the source image
  • Sadness or depression
  • Irritability or anger
  • Lack of motivation or focus
  • Anxiety
  • Restlessness
  • Feeling overwhelmed

Behavioural Symptoms

See the source image
  • Overeating or undereating
  • Angry outbursts
  • Drug or alcohol misuse
  • Social withdrawal
  • Exercising less often

Citation(s):https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in-depth/stress-symptoms/art-20050987#:~:text=Common%20effects%20of%20stress%20%20%20%20On,%20Tobacco%20use%20%203%20more%20rows%20

Major Causes of stress:

The causes or situations that trigger stress are known as stressors. Several situations in life can induce lasting stress that is detrimental to the overall wellbeing of a individual. These are the several major stressors in adults and children.

Work Pressure or Job Loss:

Work pressure may account for an enormous amount of stress in a large number of individuals. It might just be one of the leading causes of stress among the adult population. In today’s day and age, excessive competition and a never ending demand for services has rendered people incapable of doing anything except work. Added to all these are the poor working conditions and over- exceeding expectations that curate up an insane amount of stress.

See the source image

Job loss is an exceedingly conducive factor to the ever surmounting stress load. In today’s capital world, losing a job is like losing a limb and an obvious cause for distress.

Death of Close People:

Passing away of a loved one can be an exceptionally huge factor for stress.

Image result for Mourning Cartoon

As already stated that stress is a kind of coping mechanism that evokes a sort of fight or flight reaction when required, loss of a person close to you may be an incentive enough for the body to evoke stress which can last for a long period of time.

Relationship Challenges:

Alternating curves on the relationship graph add to stress exponentially. No human is perfect and therefore no relation that he forges is. Relationships are full of ups and downs, which added with other social stressors can affect an individual badly.

See the source image

Among other things compatibility might be one of the added causes of stress, no human can be 100% compatible with another, everyone needs their own space, even people in committed relationships.

Money Worries:

In a capital world like ours, money is the Ambrosia.

People hanker after money like anything. There is such a cut-throat competition to be at the helm of money matters that it has rendered us all anxious. Money worries is one of the biggest causes of stress nowadays.

Other major causes of stress include:

  • Social pressure such as bullying
Image result for bullying cartoon
  • Parental divorce
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  • studying for exams, choosing a career etc.
Image result for studying for exams, choosing a career stress cartoon

Simple Stress Management:

Although chronic stress requires proper medical intervention, some self care, meditation and heedfulness works wonders. Here are some things that can help reduce stress.

See the source image
thedoctorweighsin.com
  • Spending time in nature
  • Saying your prayers and connecting with spirituality
  • Practicing yoga
  • Spending time with friends and family
  • Writing in a diary
  • Doing your exercises
  • Practicing art
  • Reading books
  • Sleeping well
  • Eating well
  • Prioritizing tasks
  • Picking up a new hobby
  • Taking up therapy if needed
  • Thinking positive

“Convince yourself everyday that you are worthy of a good life. Let go of stress, breathe. Stay positive, all is well.”

 Germany Kent

Hard work VS Smart work.

Hard work can be simply defined as putting in strenuous hours for doing a certain task or tasks. Smart work refers to find effective and efficient ways to complete one or multiple tasks while also managing time and quality both.

The difference between hard work and smart work:

It is based on how I approach my task. Hard work would mean spending long hours to complete my work without any shortcuts. It definitely ensures results but the process is long and stressful. Smart work would be aiming for the same results but with planning and prioritisation of tasks. In College/Law School, the trend of examination questions was repetitive. The questions asked in the last few years would be asked again. I realised this after my first semester. Since then, for the examinations.

Story:

One day two woodcutters have argued, which of them will cut more wood during a day.In the morning two men took up their positions. First they worked at one speed. But in an hour one of them has heard, that the other one stopped cutting trees. Realizing that this was his chance, the first woodcutter started to cut trees with double efforts.Ten minutes passed, and he heard that the second woodcutter started to work again. They were working almost synchronously, when the first woodcutter heard that his opponent has stopped again. The first woodcutter continued working, feeling the smell of victory.This lasted all day long. Each hour one of the woodcutters stopped for ten minutes and the other one continued to work. When time expired, the first woodcutter, who worked without any stopping, was absolutely sure that he won the prize.He was very surprised to know that was mistaken.— How did that happen? — He asked his partner. — Each hour I heard that you have stopped the work for ten minutes. How could you cut more trees than I? It’s impossible!— It is very simple, in fact, — answered the second woodcutter. — Each hour I stopped the work for ten minutes. And when you were cutting the trees, I sharpened the axe.

don’t believe in luck or in hard work without the so called “work smart”. …“You ain’t get nothing for staying low, lazy. …“Hard work pays off and pays the bills. …“Nothing in this world is handed to you. …“Successful people are not gifted; they just work hard, then succeed on purpose.

A guide to internships

Introduction

Internship is an opportunity for you to get real time experience in a field that you are interested in. It is a program that helps you improve in a particular field. Internships are short-term jobs. Internships are mostly done before securing a permanent job or done by college students to add it as an experience in their resume. Internships can be paid and unpaid. Either way you will work for a particular organization and get experience.

Requirements for an internship

This is just the basic requirements for any internship you get. The particular organization will have particular requirements for the internship anyway. These are the things that you need to have before you apply for an internship

  • A well built resume. As internship is actually a job that you are going to do, the organization need to know your education details and other interests. So you need to have your resume ready.
  • Experience. Don’t forget to add your experience details in your resume if you have any, because that acts as one of the factors to hire candidates. Some organizations do not expect any previous experience from you. And some will require work samples related to your work. If you can do your work samples and keep them ready, there are chances to be hired since they can see if you are capable of doing the job or not.
  • Why should we hire you. This is one important question that requires a neat and precise thoughtful answer. Be prepared for that. Make sure you show your interest towards the work you would be doing as well as towards the organization. Mention your experience in it if you have any.
  • Research. Research about the organization you are applying for and get to know them. This is not very much necessary but you need to know this in order to know about the company and develop interest. The company most of the time is not going to ask questions about them but it would be good if you mention some of it during interview.
  • Assessment. Some organizations do not ask for work samples instead they give you assessment to get to know your knowledge in the field. Do the assessment with full dedication and be punctual and submit it before deadline.

Find the internship

Next step is to look for internships. I will list down some internship websites I know.

  • LinkedIn
  • Internshala
  • Glassdoor
  • Internships.com
  • Internmatch.com
  • LetsIntern
  • InternWorld
  • HelloIntern

Dedication

Once you get an internship offer, do it with full dedication even if it is unpaid. Make contacts with the employees to increase your professional circle. Some organizations provide letter of recommendation. It will help you in future to get a permanent job.

Conclusion

If you are a college student and have interest in some field with little knowledge in it, go ahead and find an internship to develop it! It will definitely help you to get a job after internship by developing yourself. When you are free and has nothing to do, you can simply join for a 1 month internship to get exposure.

10 TIPS TO LEAD A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

Life on the earth is precious. But life with health is more precious. Life without health is like food without salt. A healthy lifestyle concerns the health and well-being of an individual. In ancient days, health is defined as the absence of disease. But, health is a complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being of an individual nor merely an absence of disease. We have to be responsible for maintaining our health. A healthy lifestyle helps you to live longer with a better and happy life. If you are healthy, you can finish the assigned task at a faster speed. To be healthy, first, identify the unhealthy habits and find new ways to replace them. Change one thing at a time. Because the small changes over a long period will be very helpful. When you live healthily, both your mind and body remain fresh and active, and also helps to prevent you from chronic diseases and long-term diseases. Feeling good about yourself and taking care of your health helps to increase your self-esteem and self-image. Some of the tips that you can follow to lead a healthy lifestyle are listed below:

  1. Maintain a regular exercise routine: Do simple exercises in the home. Walking is also a good exercise. Use steps instead of escalators in case you do not hurry. Doing household chores is also an exercise. Keep your body parts active. Avoid sitting in the same place for a long time. Practice yoga to keep both your body and mind relaxed.
  2. Sleep properly: Go to bed early at night and wake up early in the morning. Avoid usage of mobile phones at least one hour before you go to bed. One should sleep at least eight hours per day to lead a healthy lifestyle. Sleep helps in the healing and repair of your heart and blood vessels. Without enough sleep, the brain cannot be function well. Good periods of sleep also help in improving concentration.
  3. Drink water: On average, an adult’s body is composed of at least 50% of water. Drink 8 glasses of water per day. Water helps to regulate the body temperature. It also helps to carry nutrients and oxygen to cells. Drink 100% fresh fruit juices.
  4. Eat healthy foods: Consume foods that are rich in vitamins and nutrients. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Maintaining a balanced diet helps you to maintain the health of your body. Eat foods that contain proteins, minerals, and nutrients. It is best to eat at least 3 meals per day to keep you healthy.
  5. Avoid eating junk foods: Eating junk foods cause several diseases to human. Eating a lot of junk foods will result in obesity. Also, reduce the consumption of fast foods. Recent studies revealed that eating junk foods continuously also affects brain health. So try to avoid eating junk foods.
  6. Avoid smoking, drinking alcohol, and drugs: We all know that smoking causes cancer, and liquor consumption is injurious to health. Smoking not only causes cancer to the one who smokes, but it also affects the health of the persons around him. Drug- addiction causes several problems to the individual.
  7. Avoid stress, anxiety, and depression: Stress hormones affect your heart and brain. Avoid doing stressful works. Do the job that you are interested in. Don’t get angry over small things. Be calm and patient.
  8. Cleanliness: Always keep your surroundings clean. Don’t throw the garbage on the roads. Put them in the garbage can. A dirty environment will cause several health problems. We must maintain the cleanliness of our bodies, homes, surroundings to have good health.
  9. Be kind to everyone: Interact with your families and friends. Share your happiness and sadness with them. Be friendly to everyone. Smile often. It helps to keeps you healthy. There is also a proverb that says “Laughter is the best medicine”.
  10. Listen to Music: Listening to music makes you happier. It also improves your visual and verbal skills. Music boosts your immune system and helps you to free yourself from depression. It helps to reduce blood pressure, pulse rate, and heart rate.

IT IS HEALTH THAT IS REAL WEALTH AND NOT PIECES OF GOLD AND SILVER”

-Mahatma Gandhi

India and its neighborhood relations

‘Neighbourhood First’ means improving the state of being connected or interconnected and lessening the gravity of identification with one’s own nation and support for its interests, particularly to the marginalization or detriment of the interests of other nations.

The outlook on ‘Neighbourhood First’ points out:

1) India’s inclination to give political and diplomatic precedence to its immediate neighbors and the Indian Ocean island states, including Central Asia.

2) Providing neighbors with support, as needed, in the form of resources, equipment, and training. For example Development Partnership Administration (DPA) can launch programs like the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation Programme (ITEC), the Special Commonwealth Assistance for Africa Programme (SCAAP), and the Technical Cooperation Scheme (TCS) of the Colombo Plan schemes.

3) Seeking greater connectivity and integration for bettering the free flow of merchandises, services, human resources, energy means, capital, and information.

4) Promoting a model of India-led regionalism with which its neighbors are comfortable involving humanitarian cooperation, for example, i) counter-piracy mission off the coast of Somalia, ii) humanitarian assistance and disaster relief in cyclone-hit Mozambique and Madagascar (Operation Vanilla).

5) Active role in helping to create a regional security regime and in pushing stability outwards using impressive military and soft-power capabilities, for example, Doklam standoff.

6) Bridging diplomacy and development.

7) Acting East as China rises whether through its optic fiber connecting Nepal across the Himalayas which broke India’s internet monopoly there; 99-year lease of Sri Lanka’s Hambantota port where Sri Lanka faces a record foreign debt repayment of nearly USD 6 billion in 2019; or its shareholding in the Dhaka Stock Exchange by outbidding India.

8) Realizing success in multi-ethnic and religious engagement.

Now from generics to some specifics:

Afghanistan

As Afghanistan moves closer to multi transitions (NATO drawdown, Presidential elections, economic transition) and enters the phase of transformation decade, India’s focus on Afghanistan is becoming sharper in view of the stakes India has in Afghanistan from the perspectives of Its own security and strategic interests. India can ill-afford the return of Taliban. The emergence of a regime in Afghanistan which is a proxy of Pakistan and dominated by Islamic fundamentalists would not be in the interests of India. A stable and peaceful and prosperous Afghanistan is of no use to India if its territories are allowed to be used for the purposes which are inimical to the national interests of India.

Indian policy makers will have to pick up the right option as the security situation evolves; in the event there is no deterioration in the current security situation, India could continue with its policy of commitment to contribute substantially towards reconstruction of Afghanistan and capacity building including training of Afghan Security Forces. [India has invested over $2bn in Afghanistan as development assistance; under its strategic partnership agreement, India is providing training to Afghan Security forces]. It could also adhere to its commitments as Lead Country in Istanbul CBMs. In case Afghanistan returns to chaotic and bloody civil war posing physical threat to Indian personnel’s presence in Afghanistan, India may find it difficult to continue to operate in Afghanistan. At the same time, India’s military intervention in Afghanistan is more or less ruled out.

Sri Lanka:

India’s policy approach towards Sri Lanka is reflected In its response to a Question tabled in the Parliament (Lok Sabha Q. N. 1542 dated 14th August, 2013 ); the Government stated “India has long advocated the creation of an environment in Sri Lanka in which all communities, particularly the Sri Lankan Tamils, are masters of their own destiny within the framework of a united Sri Lanka. Our objective continues to remain the achievement of a future for the Tamil community in Sri Lanka that is marked by equality, dignity, justice and self-respect. In this context, India has been engaged with the Government of Sri Lanka at the highest levels on its stated commitment to implement the 13th amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution and to go beyond, so as to achieve meaningful devolution of powers.”

India has adopted a multi- pronged approach since the liquidation of the LTTE; this policy has several components: i) India misses no opportunity to impress upon the Sri Lankan Government to abide by its commitments towards Sri Lankan Tamils particularly meaningful devolution of powers and the implementation of the 13th Amendment and beyond in a time bound manner; ii) India reassure as often as possible the Sri Lankan Tamils that it will make every effort to ensure the 13th amendment is not diluted and the future for the community is marked by equality, justice and self-respect; (In June last year “Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was explicit in conveying to the visiting Tamil National Alliance (TNA) delegation from Sri Lanka that he was “dismayed by reports suggesting that the Government of Sri Lanka planned to dilute certain key provisions of the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lankan Constitution ahead of elections to the Northern Provincial Council” [Ministry of External Affairs official statement, New Delhi, June 18, 2013] ; iii) India continues to invest into the reconstruction of Northern Sri Lanka; iv) As far the Tamil leadership in India, the Central Government in New Delhi listen to their demands, accommodates them to the extent feasible but ultimately exercises the prerogative of the Centre in the formulation of foreign policy taking broader national interests into account rather than being pushed by narrow regional priorities; v) India is monitoring carefully the Chinese overtures in Sri Lanka and check the latter’s drift towards China.

China:

The two countries have a long history of civilisational links. Soon after its own independence and the Maoist revolution in China, India went an extra mile to reach out to the communist regime. India was quick in recognising China, and supported its entry into the United Nations; recognized Tibet as an autonomous region of China The 1962 border conflict therefore came as a political shock to India. While Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s landmark visit in 1988 began a phase of improvement in bilateral relations, it is the cumulative outcomes of seven key High Level visits in last 10years which have been transformational for India-China ties. [These were that of Prime Minister Vajpayee [2003], of Premier Wen Jiabao [2005 & 2010], of President Hu Jintao [2006], of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh [2008 and 2013] and of Premier Li Keqiang [2013]. It is noteworthy that more than 60% of the agreements between India and China have been signed during the last decade. As of today, both sides have established 36 dialogue mechanisms covering diverse sectors. Bilateral trade has registered enormous growth reaching $70bn in 2011 (and may touch $100bn by 2015). The year 2014 has been designated as the Year of Friendly Exchanges between India and China. The two sides have established a Strategic and Cooperative Partnership for Peace and Prosperity(2005) The leaders of India and China have also been meeting on the sidelines of regional, plurilateral and multilateral gatherings and conferences.

This is not to suggest that there are no irritants in relations between the two countries; there is always the other side of the coin: the border dispute between India and China remains unresolved; China’s plans to build dams on Brahamaputra or seek access to Indian ocean through Pakistan and Myanmar, “string of pearls” etc are matters of concern. In addition, the rapid economic rise of China and its military strength have given it the audacity to occasionally flex political and military muscles.

Pakistan:

Pakistan is and for foreseeable future will remain a permanent fixture on the agenda of India’s policy makers. The State Relations between India and Pakistan have remained less than normal ever since the partition of India and creation of Pakistan in 1947. Sporadic efforts made by the civilian authorities on the two sides of the divide to provide semblance of normalcy to bilateral relations have often been thwarted by the ISI and Army in Pakistan. History almost repeated itself in the recent past. Pakistani President Nawaz Sharrif made several conciliatory statements during and after his election in May 2013. He was reportedly advised by his Army Chief to go slow and exercise utmost caution while striving to improve relations with India; this was even before Nawaz Sharif was officially sworn in. As the prospects of a possible bilateral meeting between Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in New York on the side-lines of the UNGA 2013 Session were looking bright and back-channel contacts had began, the ceasefire violations along the LOC accelerated, culminating in to the killing of five Indian soldiers(6th August 2013). India’s response was firm and strong. In a Statement, the Defence Minister of India A.K. Antony said that “It is now clear that the specialist troops of Pakistan Army were involved in this attack when a group from the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (PoK) side crossed the LC and killed our brave jawans (soldiers) . We all know that nothing happens from Pakistan side of the Line of Control without support, assistance, facilitation and often, direct involvement of the Pakistan Army.”A chain of allegations and counter-allegations followed. In a resolution it adopted on 13th August, the National Assembly of Pakistan accused India of ‘unprovoked aggression by Indian military forces across the LoC”, promptly rejected and deplored by the Indian Parliament through identical resolutions in the two Houses of Parliament (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha) reflecting the unity of approach to this issue by the ruling coalition as well as Opposition. Besides refuting the allegation and asserting that “it was the Pakistan Army that was involved in the unprovoked attack on an Indian Army patrol”, it also added “our restraint should not be taken for granted nor should the capacity of our armed forces to ensure the territorial integrity of our nation.” To top it up the Prime Minister Manmohan Singh in his address to the nation on the 67th Independence Day singled out Pakistan by name and said “for relations with Pakistan to improve, it is essential that they prevent the use of their territory and territory under their control for any anti-India activity”.

In my assessment the future of India-Pak dialogue would depend on i) whether or not Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is able to minimise Army’s influence and control over foreign and security policies ; ii) tangible deliveries from Pakistan on issues of India’s serious concerns particularly arising out of Pak-inspired/sponsored cross-border terrorism against India.

DEEP LEARNING SERIES- PART 8

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The previous article was about the padding, stride, and parameters of CNN. This article is about the pooling and the procedure to build an image classifier.

Pooling

This is another aspect of CNN. There are different types of pooling like min pooling, max pooling, avg pooling, etc. the process is the same as before i.e. the kernel vector slides over the input vector and does computations on the dot product. If a 3*3 kernel is considered then it is applied over a 3*3 region inside the vector, it finds the dot product in the case of convolution. The same in pooling finds a particular value and substitutes that value in the output vector. The kernel value decides the type of pooling. The following table shows the operation done by the pooling.

Type of poolingThe value seen in the output layer
Max poolingMaximum of all considered cells
Min poolingMinimum of all considered cells
Avg poolingAverage of all considered cells



The considered cells are bounded within the kernel dimensions.

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The pictorial representation of average pooling is shown above. The number of parameters in pooling is zero.

Convolution and pooling are the basis for feature extraction. The vector obtained from this step is fed into an FFN which then does the required task on the image.

Features of CNN

  1. Sparse connectivity
  2. Weight sharing.



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    Feature extraction-CNN              classifier-FNN

In general, CNN is first then FFN is later. But the order or number or types of convolution and pooling can vary based on the complexity and choice of the user.

Already there are a lot of models like VGGNet, AlexNet, GoogleNet, and ResNet. These models are made standard and their architecture has been already defined by researchers. We have to reshape our images in accordance with the dimensions of the model.

General procedure to build an image classifier using CNN

  1. Obtain the data in the form of image datasets.
  2. Set the output classes for the model to perform the classification on.
  3. Transform or in specific reshape the dimension of the images compatible to the model. The image size maybe 20*20 but the model accepts only 200*200 images; then we must reshape them to that size.
  4. Split the given data into training data and evaluation data. This is done by creating new datasets for both training and validation. More images are required for training.
  5. Define the model used for this task.
  6. Roughly sketch the architecture of the network.
  7. Determine the number of convolutions, pooling etc. and their order
  8. Determine the dimensions for the first layer, padding, stride, number of filters and dimensions of filter.
  9. Apply the formula and find the output dimensions for the next layer.
  10. Repeat 5d till the last layer in CNN.
  11. Determine the number of layers and number of neurons per layer and parameters in FNN.
  12. Sketch the architecture with the parameters and dimension.
  13. Incorporate these details into the machine.
  14. Or import a predefined model.  In that case the classes in the last layer in the FNN must be replaced with ‘1’ for binary classification or with the number of classes. This is known as transfer learning.
  15. Train the model using the training dataset and calculate the loss function for periodic steps in the training.
  16. Check if the machine has performed correctly by comparing the true output with model prediction and hence compute the training accuracy.
  17. Test the machine with the evaluation data and verify the performance on that data and compute the validation accuracy.
  18.   If both the accuracies are satisfactory then the machine is complete.

HAPPY LEARNING!!



DEEP LEARNING SERIES- PART 7

The previous article was about the process of convolution and its implementation. This article is about the padding, stride and the parameters involved in a CNN.

We have seen that there is a reduction of dimension in the output vector. A technique known as padding is done to preserve the original dimensions in the output vector. The only change in this process is that we add a boundary of ‘0s’ over the input vector and then do the convolution process.

Procedure to implement padding

  1. To get n*n output use a (n+2*n+2) input
  2. To get 7*7 output use 9*9 input
  3. In that 9*9 input fill the first row, first column, last row and last column with zero.
  4. Now do the convolution operation on it using a filter.
  5. Observe that the output has the same dimensions as of the input.

Zero is used since it is insignificant so as to keep the output dimension without affecting the results

Here all the elements in the input vector have been transferred to the output. Hence using padding we can preserve the originality of the input. Padding is denoted using P. If P=1 then one layer of zeroes is added and so on.

It is not necessary that the filter or kernel must be applied to all the cells. The pattern of applying the kernel onto the input vector is determined using the stride. It determines the shift or gaps in the cells where the filter has to be applied.-

S=1 means no gap is created. The filter is applied to all the cells.

S=2 means gap of 1. The filter is applied to alternative cells. This halves the dimensions on the output vector.

This diagram shows the movement of filter on a vector with stride of 1 and 2. With a stride of 2; alternative columns are accessed and hence the number of computations per row decreases by 2. Hence the output dimensions reduce while use stride.

The padding and stride are some features used in CNN.

Parameters in a convolution layer

The following are the terms needed for calculating the parameter for a convolution layer.

Input layer

Width Wi – width of input image

Height Hi – height of input image

Depth Di – 3 since they follow RGB

We saw that 7*7 inputs without padding and stride along with 3*3 kernels gave a 5*5 output. It can be verified using this calculation.

The role of padding can also be verified using this calculation.

The f is known as filter size. It can be a 1*1, 3*3 and so on. It is a 1-D value so the first value is taken. There is another term K which refers to the number of kernels used. This value is fixed by user.

These values are similar to those of w and b. The machine learns the ideal value for these parameters for high efficiency. The significance of partial connection or CNN can be easily understood through the parameters.

Consider the same example of (30*30*3) vector. The parameter for CNN by using 10 kernels will be 2.7 million. This is a large number. But if the same is done using FNN then the parameters will be at least 100 million. This is almost 50 times that of before. This is significantly larger than CNN. The reason for this large number is due to the full connectivity. 

                                                 

Parameter= 30*30*3*3*10= 2.7M

HAPPY READING!!